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  • 1.
    Chang, Shuangshuang
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Bi, Ran
    School Of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Sun, Jinghao
    School Of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Liu, Weichen
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Yu, Qi
    School Of Computer Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Deng, Qingxu
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Towards minimum WCRT bound for DAG tasks under prioritized list scheduling algorithms2022In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 3874-3885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many modern real-time parallel applications can be modeled as a directed acyclic graph (DAG) task. Recent studies show that the worst-case response time (WCRT) bound of a DAG task can be significantly reduced when the execution order of the vertices is determined by the priority assigned to each vertex of the DAG. How to obtain the optimal vertex priority assignment, and how far from the best-known WCRT bound of a DAG task to the minimum WCRT bound are still open problems. In this paper, we aim to construct the optimal vertex priority assignment and derive the minimum WCRT bound for the DAG task. We encode the priority assignment problem into an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation. To solve the ILP model efficiently, we do not involve all variables or constraints. Instead, we solve the ILP model iteratively, i.e., we initially solve the ILP model with only a few primary variables and constraints, and then at each iteration, we increment the ILP model with the variables and constraints which are more likely to derive the optimal priority assignment. Experimental work shows that our method is capable of solving the ILP model optimally without involving too many variables or constraints, e.g., for instances with 50 vertices, we find the optimal priority assignment by involving 12.67% variables on average and within several minutes on average.

  • 2.
    Feng, Zhiwei
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Yu, Haichuan
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Deng, Qingxu
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China.
    Niu, Linwei
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Howard University, Washington, USA.
    Online re-routing and re-scheduling of time-triggered flows for fault tolerance in time-sensitive networking2022In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 4253-4264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is an industry-standard networking protocol that is widely deployed in safety-critical industrial and automotive networks thanks to its advantages of deterministic transmission and bounded end-to-end delay for Time-Triggered (TT) flows. In this paper, we focus on TT flows, and address the issue of fault tolerance against permanent and transient faults with both spatial and temporal redundancy. We present an efficient heuristic algorithm for online incremental re-routing and re-scheduling of disrupted flows due to permanent faults, assuming the paths and schedules of existing flows stay fixed and cannot be modified. It is complementary to and can be combined with offline routing and scheduling algorithms for achieving fault tolerance based on Frame Replication and Elimination for Reliability (FRER) (IEEE 802.1CB). Performance evaluation shows that our approach can better recover the system's Degree of Redundancy (DoR) and has a higher acceptance rate than related work.

  • 3.
    Feng, Zhiwei
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China.
    Wu, Chaoquan
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China.
    Deng, Qingxu
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China.
    Lin, Yuhan
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China.
    Gao, Shichang
    School of Computer Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    On the scheduling of fault-tolerant time-sensitive networking with IEEE 802.1CB2024In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) has become the most popular technique in modern safety-critical Automotive and Industrial Automation Networks by providing deterministic transmission policies. However, the data of TSN messages may be affected by transient faults. IEEE 802.1CB, a reliability standard in TSN, protects against such faults by providing disjoint redundant routes for each stream. However, the unique assumption may present a new challenge, i.e., an inadequate number of redundant routes that may negatively impact stream scheduling. This paper presents an offline fault-tolerant TSN scheduling approach that considers such impacts for real-time streams (such as Time-Trigger (TT) and Audio Video Bridging (AVB) streams). Specifically, we intend to calculate the minimum upper bound number of disjoint routes required for each stream to meet the reliability requirements, subsequently enhancing the network’s schedulability. We also propose a service degradation function for AVB streams when the network is under heavy load caused by redundant transmissions of TT streams. This function will maintain schedulability and reliability for AVB streams. Experiments with small-and large-scale synthetic networks show the efficiency.

  • 4.
    Jiang, Zhe
    et al.
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Dai, Xiaotian
    University of York, United Kingdom.
    Wei, Ran
    University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Gray, Ian
    University of York, United Kingdom.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Zhao, Qingling
    Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China.
    Zhao, Shuai
    Sun Yat-sen University, China.
    NPRC-I/O: a NoC-based real-time I/O system with reduced contention and enhanced predictability2023In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All systems rely on inputs and outputs (I/Os) to perceive and interact with their surroundings. In safety-critical systems, it is important to guarantee both the performance and time-predictability of I/O operations. However, with the continued growth of architectural complexity in modern safety-critical systems, satisfying such real-time requirements has become increasingly challenging due to complex I/O transaction paths and extensive hardware contention. In this paper, we present a new NoC-based Predictable I/O system framework (NPRC-I/O) which reduces this contention and ensures the performance and timepredictability of I/O operations. Specifically, NPRC-I/O contains a programmable I/O command controller (NPRC-CC) and a runtime reconfigurable NoC (RNoC), which provides the capability to adjust I/O transaction paths at run-time. Using this flexibility, we construct an end-to-end transmission latency analysis and an optimisation engine that produces configurations for NPRCI/ O and the I/O traffic in a given system. The constructed analysis and optimisation engine guarantee the timing of all hard realtime traffic while reducing the deadline misses of soft real-time traffic and overall transmission latency.

  • 5.
    Zhang, Yi-Wen
    et al.
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Chen, Rong-Kun
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy-Aware Partitioned Scheduling of Imprecise Mixed-Criticality Systems2023In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider partitioned scheduling of an Imprecise Mixed-Criticality (IMC) taskset on a uniform multiprocessor platform, with Earliest Deadline First-Virtual Deadline (EDF-VD) as the uniprocessor task scheduling algorithm, and address the optimization problem of finding a feasible task-to-processor assignment and low-criticality (LO) mode processor speed with the objective of minimizing the system’s average energy consumption in LO mode. We propose a task-to-processor assignment algorithm Criticality-Unaware Worst-Fit Decreasing (CU-WFD) algorithm, which allocates tasks with the Worst-Fit Decreasing (WFD) heuristic method based on utilization values at their respective criticality levels. We determine the energy-efficient speed for each processor based on EDF-VD scheduling, and present our algorithm Energy-Efficient Partitioned Scheduling for Imprecise Mixed-Criticality (EEPSIMC) with the CU-WFD heuristic algorithm to minimize system energy consumption. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm has good performance in terms both schedulability ratio and normalized energy consumption compared to seven comparison baselines.

  • 6.
    Zhang, Yi-Wen
    et al.
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Ma, Jin-Peng
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Zheng, Hui
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Criticality-aware EDF scheduling for constrained-deadline imprecise mixed-criticality systems2024In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 480-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EDF-VD first focuses on the classic mixed-criticality task model in which all low criticality (LO) tasks are abandoned in the high criticality mode, which is an effective dynamic priority scheduling algorithm for mixed-criticality systems. However, it has low schedulability for the imprecise mixed-criticality (IMC) task model with constrained-deadlines, in which LO tasks are provided graceful degradation services instead of being abandoned. In this paper, we study how to improve schedulability for the IMC tasks model. First, we propose a novel criticality-aware EDF scheduling algorithm (CA-EDF) that tries to delay the LO task execution to improve schedulability. Second, we derive sufficient conditions of schedulability for CA-EDF based on the Demand Bound Function. Finally, we evaluate CA-EDF through extensive simulation. The experimental results indicate that CA-EDF can improve the schedulability ratio by about 13.10% compared to the existing algorithms.

  • 7.
    Zhang, Yi-Wen
    et al.
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Zheng, Hui
    College of Computer Science and Technology, Huaqiao University, China.
    Gu, Zonghua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    EDF-based energy-efficient semi-clairvoyant scheduling with graceful degradation2024In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 468-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent works introduce a semi-clairvoyant model, in which the system mode transition is revealed on the arrival of high criticality jobs. To solve the problem of inconsistency between the correctness criterion for mixed-criticality systems (MCS) with a semi-clairvoyant and the actual situation, we study the problem of schedulability and energy in MCS with the semi-clairvoyant model in this paper. First, we propose a new correctness criterion for MCS with semi-clairvoyant and graceful degradation and develop the schedulability test based on Demand Bound Function methods denoted as SCS-GD. Second, we propose an energy-efficient semi-clairvoyant scheduling algorithm based on SCS-GD denoted as EE-SCS-GD. Finally, we conduct an experimental evaluation of SCS-GD and EE-SCS-GD by synthetically generated task sets. The experimental results show that SCS-GD can improve the schedulability ratio by 5.98% compared to existing algorithms while EE-SCS-GD can save 56.17% energy compared to SCS-GD.

1 - 7 of 7
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  • apa
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  • en-US
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  • nn-NO
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