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  • 1.
    Olstrup, Henrik
    et al.
    Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Tartu, Estonia.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Orru, Hans
    Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Ravila 19, Tartu, Estonia.
    Daily Mortality in Different Age Groups Associated with Exposure to Particles, Nitrogen Dioxide and Ozone in Two Northern European Capitals: Stockholm and Tallinn2022In: Environments, E-ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the association between air pollution and mortality is well established, less is known about the effects in different age groups. This study analyzes the short-term associations between mortality in different age groups (0–14 years of age, 15–64 years of age, and 65+ years of age) and a number of air pollutants in two relatively clean northern European capitals: Stockholm and Tallinn. The concentrations in PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 10 µm), PM2.5–10 (coarse particles), PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 2.5 µm), BC (black carbon), PNC4 (particle number count of particles larger than or equal to 4 nm), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), and O3 (ozone) were measured during the period of 2000–2016 in Stockholm and 2001–2018 in Tallinn (except for BC and PNC4 which were only measured in Stockholm). The excess risks in daily mortality associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the measured air pollutants were calculated in both single- and multi-pollutant models for lag01 and lag02 (average concentration during the same and the previous day, and the same and the previous two days, respectively) using a quasi-Poisson regression model with a logistic link function. In general, the calculated excess risks per IQR increase were highest in the age group 0–14 years of age in both Stockholm and Tallinn. However, in Stockholm, a statistically significant effect was shown for PM2.5–10, and in Tallinn for O3. In the oldest age group (65+), statistically significant effects were shown for both PM2.5–10, PM10, and O3 in Stockholm, and for O3 in Tallinn.

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  • 2.
    Orru, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hagenbjörk-Gustavsson, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Olstrup, Henrik
    Indoor and outdoor nanoparticle concentrations in an urban background area in northern Sweden: The NanoOffice study2021In: Environments, E-ISSN 2076-3298, Vol. 8, no 8, article id 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention due to their very small size, high penetration capacity, and high toxicity. In urban environments, combustion-formed nanoparticles (CFNPs) dominate in particle number concentrations (PNCs), and exposure to those particles constitutes a risk to human health. Even though fine particles (<2.5 µm) are regularly monitored, information on NP concentrations, both indoors and outdoors, is still limited. In the NanoOffice study, concentrations of nanoparticles (10–300 nm) were measured both indoors and outdoors with a 5-min time resolution at twelve office buildings in Umeå. Measurements were taken during a one-week period in the heating season and a one-week period in the non-heating season. The measuring equipment SMPS 3938 was used for indoor measurements, and DISCmini was used for outdoor measurements. The NP concentrations were highest in offices close to a bus terminal and lowest in offices near a park. In addition, a temporal effect appeared, usually with higher concentrations of nanoparticles found during daytime in the urban background area, whereas considerably lower nanoparticle concentrations were often present during nighttime. Infiltration of nanoparticles from the outdoor air into the indoor air was also common. However, the indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O ratios) of NPs showed large variations between buildings, seasons, and time periods, with I/O ratios in the range of 0.06 to 0.59. The reasons for high indoor infiltration rates could be NP emissions from adjacent outdoor sources. We could also see particle growth since the indoor NPs were, on average, almost twice as large as the NPs measured outdoors. Despite relatively low concentrations of NPs in the urban background air during nighttime, they could rise to very high daytime concentrations due to local sources, and those particles also infiltrated the indoor air.

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