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  • 1.
    Balidemaj, Festina
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Flanagan, Erin
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Ebba
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Rittner, Ralf
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Källén, Karin
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Prenatal Exposure to Locally Emitted Air Pollutants Is Associated with Birth Weight: An Administrative Cohort Study from Southern Sweden2022In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution has been shown to be associated with reduced birth weight, there is substantial heterogeneity across studies, and few epidemiological studies have utilized source-specific exposure data. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the associations between local, source-specific exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during pregnancy and birth weight. An administrative cohort comprising 40,245 singleton births from 2000 to 2009 in Scania, Sweden, was combined with data on relevant covariates. Investigated sources of PM2.5 included all local sources together as well as tailpipe exhaust, vehicle wear-and-tear, and small-scale residential heating separately. The relationships between these exposures, rep-resented as interquartile range (IQR) increases, and birth weight (continuous) and low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) were analyzed in crude and adjusted models. Each local PM2.5 source investigated was associated with reduced birth weight; average decreases varied by source (12–34 g). Only small-scale residential heating was clearly associated with LBW (adjusted odds ratio: 1.14 (95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.26) per IQR increase). These results add to existing evidence that prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution disrupts fetal growth and suggest that PM2.5 from both vehicles and small-scale residential heating may reduce birth weight.

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  • 2.
    Muindi, Kanyiva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth
    Egondi, Thaddaeus
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Household Air Pollution: Sources and Exposure Levels to Fine Particulate Matter in Nairobi Slums2016In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 4, no 3, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With 2.8 billion biomass users globally, household air pollution remains a public health threat in many low- and middle-income countries. However, little evidence on pollution levels and health effects exists in low-income settings, especially slums. This study assesses the levels and sources of household air pollution in the urban slums of Nairobi. This cross-sectional study was embedded in a prospective cohort of pregnant women living in two slum areasKorogocho and Viwandaniin Nairobi. Data on fuel and stove types and ventilation use come from 1058 households, while air quality data based on the particulate matters (PM2.5) level were collected in a sub-sample of 72 households using the DustTrak II Model 8532 monitor. We measured PM2.5 levels mainly during daytime and using sources of indoor air pollutions. The majority of the households used kerosene (69.7%) as a cooking fuel. In households where air quality was monitored, the mean PM2.5 levels were high and varied widely, especially during the evenings (124.6 mu g/m(3) SD: 372.7 in Korogocho and 82.2 mu g/m(3) SD: 249.9 in Viwandani), and in households using charcoal (126.5 mu g/m(3) SD: 434.7 in Korogocho and 75.7 mu g/m(3) SD: 323.0 in Viwandani). Overall, the mean PM2.5 levels measured within homes at both sites (Korogocho = 108.9 mu g/m(3) SD: 371.2; Viwandani = 59.3 mu g/m(3) SD: 234.1) were high. Residents of the two slums are exposed to high levels of PM2.5 in their homes. We recommend interventions, especially those focusing on clean cookstoves and lighting fuels to mitigate indoor levels of fine particles.

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  • 3.
    Olstrup, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Flanagan, Erin
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Persson, Jan-Olov
    Department of Mathematics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rittner, Ralf
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Krage Carlsen, Hanne
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Center of Registers, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xu, Yiyi
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rylander, Lars
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Susanna
    Environment Department, City of Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environment Department, City of Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Oudin Åström, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Sciences at Malmö, CRC, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    The long-term mortality effects associated with exposure to particles and nox in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort2023In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the long-term mortality effects associated with exposure to PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 10 µm), PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than or equal to 2.5 µm), BC (black carbon), and NOx (nitrogen oxides) were analyzed in a cohort in southern Sweden during the period from 1991 to 2016. Participants (those residing in Malmö, Sweden, born between 1923 and 1950) were randomly recruited from 1991 to 1996. At enrollment, 30,438 participants underwent a health screening, which consisted of questionnaires about lifestyle and diet, a clinical examination, and blood sampling. Mortality data were retrieved from the Swedish National Cause of Death Register. The modeled concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx at the cohort participants’ home addresses were used to assess air pollution exposure. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the associations between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx and the time until death among the participants during the period from 1991 to 2016. The hazard ratios (HRs) associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each air pollutant were calculated based on the exposure lag windows of the same year (lag0), 1–5 years (lag1–5), and 6–10 years (lag6–10). Three models were used with varying adjustments for possible confounders including both single-pollutant estimates and two-pollutant estimates. With adjustments for all covariates, the HRs for PM10, PM2.5, BC, and NOx in the single-pollutant models at lag1–5 were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.11), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.95–1.08), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.11), and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.07–1.16) per IQR increase, respectively. The HRs, in most cases, decreased with the inclusion of a larger number of covariates in the models. The most robust associations were shown for NOx, with statistically significant positive HRs in all the models. An overall conclusion is that road traffic-related pollutants had a significant association with mortality in the cohort.

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  • 4.
    Rahman, Mizanur
    et al.
    Unit of Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Upadhyay, Swapna
    Unit of Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ganguly, Koustav
    Unit of Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Introna, Micol
    Unit of Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ji, Jie
    Unit of Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Muala, Ala
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Palmberg, Lena
    Unit of Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparable response following exposure to biodiesel and diesel exhaust particles in advanced multicellular human lung models2023In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiesel is considered to be a sustainable alternative for fossil fuels such as petroleum-based diesel. However, we still lack knowledge about the impact of biodiesel emissions on humans, as airways and lungs are the primary target organs of inhaled toxicants. This study investigated the effect of exhaust particles from well-characterized rapeseed methyl ester (RME) biodiesel exhaust particles (BDEP) and petro-diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) and macrophages (MQ). The advanced multicellular physiologically relevant bronchial mucosa models were developed using human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) cultured at air–liquid interface (ALI) in the presence or absence of THP-1 cell-derived macrophages (MQ). The experimental set-up used for BDEP and DEP exposures (18 µg/cm2 and 36 µg/cm2) as well as the corresponding control exposures were PBEC-ALI, MQ-ALI, and PBEC co-cultured with MQ (PBEC-ALI/MQ). Following exposure to both BDEP and DEP, reactive oxygen species as well as the stress protein heat shock protein 60 were upregulated in PBEC-ALI and MQ-ALI. Expression of both pro-inflammatory (M1: CD86) and repair (M2: CD206) macrophage polarization markers was increased in MQ-ALI after both BDEP and DEP exposures. Phagocytosis activity of MQ and the phagocytosis receptors CD35 and CD64 were downregulated, whereas CD36 was upregulated in MQ-ALI. Increased transcript and secreted protein levels of CXCL8, as well as IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected following both BDEP and DEP exposure at both doses in PBEC-ALI. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathway, COX-2-mediated histone phosphorylation and DNA damage were all increased in PBEC-ALI following exposure to both doses of BDEP and DEP. Valdecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the level of prostaglandin E2, histone phosphorylation, and DNA damage in PBEC-ALI following exposure to both concentrations of BDEP and DEP. Using physiologically relevant multicellular human lung mucosa models with human primary bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages, we found BDEP and DEP to induce comparable levels of oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and impairment of phagocytosis. The use of a renewable carbon-neutral biodiesel fuel does not appear to be more favorable than conventional petroleum-based alternative, as regards of its potential for adverse health effects.

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  • 5.
    Sapounidou, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leemans, Michelle
    UMR 7221, Phyma, CNRS–Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.
    Fini, Jean-Baptiste
    UMR 7221, Phyma, CNRS–Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.
    Demeneix, Barbara
    UMR 7221, Phyma, CNRS–Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.
    Rüegg, Joëlle
    Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, New York, United States.
    Gennings, Chris
    Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, New York, United States.
    From cohort to cohort: a similar mixture approach (SMACH) to evaluate exposures to a mixture leading to thyroid-mediated neurodevelopmental effects using NHANES data2023In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prenatal exposure to a mixture (MIX N) of eight endocrine-disrupting chemicals has been associated with language delay in children in a Swedish pregnancy cohort. A novel approach was proposed linking this epidemiological association with experimental evidence, where the effect of MIX N on thyroid hormone signaling was assessed using the Xenopus eleuthero-embryonic thyroid assay (XETA OECD TG248). From this experimental data, a point of departure (PoD) was derived based on OECD guidance. Our aim in the current study was to use updated toxicokinetic models to compare exposures of women of reproductive age in the US population to MIX N using a Similar Mixture Approach (SMACH). Based on our findings, 66% of women of reproductive age in the US (roughly 38 million women) had exposures sufficiently similar to MIX N. For this subset, a Similar Mixture Risk Index (SMRIHI) was calculated comparing their exposures to the PoD. Women with SMRIHI > 1 represent 1.1 million women of reproductive age. Older women, Mexican American and other/multi race women were less likely to have high SMRIHI values compared to Non-Hispanic White women. These findings indicate that a reference mixture of chemicals identified in a Swedish cohort—and tested in an experimental model for establishment of (PoDs)—is also of health relevance in a US population.

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  • 6.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Olstrup, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Short-Term Associations between PM10 and Respiratory Health Effects in Visby, Sweden2022In: Toxics, E-ISSN 2305-6304, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The old Swedish city Visby, located on the island Gotland, has, for several years, reported higher PM10 concentrations than any other city in Sweden. In Visby, local limestone is used, both in road paving and as sand used for anti-slip measures, resulting in a clear annual pattern of PM10 with the highest concentrations during winter/spring when studded tires are allowed. This study analyzes the short-term associations between PM10 and daily number of patients with acute respiratory problems (ICD-10 diagnoses: J00-J99) seeking care at the hospital or primary healthcare units in Visby during the period of 2013-2019. The daily mean of PM10 was on average 45 µg m-3 during winter/spring and 18 µg m-3 during summer/autumn. Four outcome categories were analyzed using quasi-Poisson regression models, stratifying for period and adjusting for calendar variables and weather. An increase in respiratory visits was associated with increasing concentrations in PM10 during the summer/autumn period, most prominent among children, where asthma visits increased by 5% (95% CI: 2-9%) per 10 µg m-3 increase in PM10. For the winter/spring period, no significant effects were observed, except for the diagnose group 'upper airways' in adults, where respiratory visits increased by 1% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9%) per 10 µg m-3 increase. According to the results, limestone in particles seem to be relatively harmless at the exposure concentrations observed in Visby, and this is in line with the results from a few experimental and occupational studies.

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