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  • 1.
    Cael, Brendan B.
    et al.
    National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Seekell, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    A theory for the relationship between lake surface area and maximum depth2022In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 527-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximum depth is crucial for many lake processes and biota, but attempts to explain its variation have achieved little predictive power. In this paper, we describe the probability distribution of maximum depths based on recent developments in the theory of fractal Brownian motions. The theoretical distribution is right-tailed and adequately captures variations in maximum depth in a dataset of 8164 lakes (maximum depths 0.1–135 m) from the northeastern United States. Maximum depth increases with surface area, but with substantial random variation—the 95% prediction interval spans more than an order of magnitude for lakes with any specific surface area. Our results explain the observed variability in lake maximum depths, capture the link between topographic characteristics and lake bathymetry, and provide a means to upscale maximum depth-dependent processes, which we illustrate by upscaling the diffusive flux of methane from northern lakes to the atmosphere.

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  • 2.
    Callisto Puts, Isolde
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Myrstener, Maria
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contrasting impacts of warming and browning on periphyton2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 628-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested interactive effects of warming (+2°C) and browning on periphyton accrual and pigment composition when grown on a synthetic substrate (plastic strips) in the euphotic zone of 16 experimental ponds. We found that increased colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM) and associated nutrients alone, or in combination with warming, resulted in a substantially enhanced biomass accrual of periphyton, and a comparatively smaller increase in phytoplankton. This illustrates that periphyton is capable of using nutrients associated with cDOM, and by this may affect nutrient availability for phytoplankton. However, warming weakened the positive impact of browning on periphyton accrual, possibly by thermal compensation inferred from altered pigment composition, and/or changes in community composition. Our results illustrate multiple impacts of climate change on algal growth, which could have implications for productivity and consumer resource use, especially in shallow areas in northern lakes.

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  • 3.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Baulch, Helen M.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Hampton, Stephanie E.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A synthesis of carbon dioxide and methane dynamics during the ice-covered period of northern lakes2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ice‐covered period on lakes in the northern hemisphere has often been neglected or assumed to have less importance relative to the open water season. However, recent studies challenge this convention, suggesting that the winter period is more dynamic than previously thought. In this review, we synthesize the current understanding of under‐ice carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dynamics, highlighting the annual importance of CO2 and CH4 emissions from lakes at ice‐melt. We compiled data from 25 studies that showed that the ice‐melt period represents 17% and 27% of the annual CO2 and CH4 emissions, respectively. We also found evidence that the magnitude and type of emission (i.e., CO2 and CH4) varies with characteristics of lakes including geographic location, lake morphometry, and physicochemical conditions. The scarcity of winter and spring carbon data from northern lakes represents a major gap in our understanding of annual budgets in these lakes and calls for future research during this key period.

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  • 4.
    Fork, Megan L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dissolved organic matter regulates nutrient limitation and growth of benthic algae in northern lakes through interacting effects on nutrient and light availability2020In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 417-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration across northern lakes can alter rates of primary production by increasing nutrient availability and decreasing light availability. These dual effects of DOM generate a unimodal relationship in pelagic primary production and primary producer biomass among lakes over a gradient of DOM concentration. However, the responses of benthic algae to variation in DOM loading are less clear because of their potential to access sediment nutrients. We tested algal production and nutrient limitation along a DOM gradient in northern Sweden. Without added nutrients, benthic algal production showed a unimodal relationship with DOM, similar to reported pelagic responses. Nutrient addition revealed widespread nitrogen limitation, with decreasing severity in lakes with higher DOM. Because the majority of northern Swedish lakes currently fall below the inflection point in this unimodal relationship, moderate increases in DOM have the potential to increase benthic primary production, particularly for epilithic algae.

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  • 5.
    Gudasz, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Limnology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruppenthal, Marc
    Kalbitz, Karsten
    Cerli, Chiara
    Fielder, Sabine
    Oelmann, Yvonne
    Andersson, August
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contributions of terrestrial organic carbon to northern lake sediments2017In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 218-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments of northern lakes sequester large amounts of organic carbon (OC), but direct evidence of the relative importance of their sources is lacking. We used stable isotope ratios of nonexchangeable hydrogen (δ2Hn) in topsoil, algae, and surface sediments in order to measure the relative contribution of terrestrial OC in surface sediments of 14 mountainous arctic and lowland boreal lakes in Sweden. The terrestrial contribution to the sediment OC pool was on average 66% (range 46–80) and similar between arctic and boreal lakes. Proxies for the supply of terrestrial and algal OC explained trends in the relative contribution of terrestrial OC across lakes. However, the data suggest divergent predominant sources for terrestrial OC of sediments in Swedish lakes, with dissolved matter dominating in lowland boreal lakes and particulate OC in mountainous arctic lakes.

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  • 6.
    Hedberg, Per
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lau, Danny C. P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Albert, Séréna
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Winder, Monika
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Variation in fatty acid content among benthic invertebrates in a seasonally driven system2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 751-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At temperate latitudes where seasonal changing environmental conditions strongly affect the magnitude, duration and species composition of pelagic primary production, macrobenthic organisms living below the photic zone rely on the sedimentation of organic matter as their primary energy source. The succession from nutritious spring blooms to summer cyanobacteria is assumed to reduce food quality for benthic primary consumers and their fatty acid (FA) profiles. In contrast, we find low seasonal variability in FA content of five benthic macroinvertebrates spanning two trophic levels in the Baltic Sea, a system with high seasonal variation in phytoplankton species composition. However, levels of the major FA groups vary greatly between benthic species. The results suggest that benthic macroinvertebrates have evolved FA metabolism adapted to degraded sedimenting material. Moreover, our study shows that species composition of benthic macrofauna rather than seasonal changing conditions affect availability of essential nutrients to higher trophic levels.

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  • 7.
    Isles, Peter D. F.
    et al.
    Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, VT, Montpelier, United States.
    Creed, Irena F.
    Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, ON, Toronto, Canada.
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Department of Biosciences and Center for Biogeochemistry of the Anthropocene, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Paterson, Michael
    IISD-Experimental Lakes Area, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Pomati, Francesco
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Sciences and Technology (Eawag), Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Rusak, James A.
    Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, ON, Dorset, Canada.
    Vuorenmaa, Jussi
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Widespread synchrony in phosphorus concentrations in northern lakes linked to winter temperature and summer precipitation2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 639-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, unexplained declines in lake total phosphorus (TP) concentrations have been observed at northern latitudes (> 42°N latitude) where most of the world's lakes are found. We compiled data from 389 lakes in Fennoscandia and eastern North America to investigate the effects of climate on lake TP concentrations. Synchrony in year-to-year variability is an indicator of climatic influences on lake TP, because other major influences on nutrients (e.g., land use change) are not likely to affect all lakes in the same year. We identified significant synchrony in lake TP both within and among different geographic regions. Using a bootstrapped random forest analysis, we identified winter temperature as the most important factor controlling annual TP, followed by summer precipitation. In Fennoscandia, TP was negatively correlated with the winter East Atlantic Pattern, which is associated with regionally warmer winters. Our results suggest that, in the absence of other overriding factors, lake TP and productivity may decline with continued winter warming in northern lakes.

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  • 8.
    Karlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Verheijen, Hendricus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vachon, Dominic
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ice-melt period dominates annual carbon dioxide evasion from clear-water Arctic lakes2024In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) evasion from Arctic lakes are highly uncertain because few studies integrate seasonal variability, specifically evasion during spring ice-melt. We quantified annual CO2 evasion for 14 clear-water Arctic lakes in Northern Sweden through mass balance (ice-melt period) and high-frequency loggers (open-water period). On average, 80% (SD: ± 18) of annual CO2 evasion occurred within 10 d following ice-melt. The contribution of the ice-melt period to annual CO2 evasion was high compared to earlier studies of Arctic lakes (47% ± 32%). Across all lakes, the proportion of ice-melt : annual CO2 evasion was negatively related to the dissolved organic carbon concentration and positively related to the mean depth of the lakes. The results emphasize the need for measurements of CO2 exchange at ice-melt to accurately quantify CO2 evasion from Arctic lakes.

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  • 9. Knoll, Lesley B.
    et al.
    Sharma, Sapna
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Flaim, Giovanna
    Hori, Yukari
    Magnuson, John, I
    Straile, Dietmar
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Consequences of lake and river ice loss on cultural ecosystem services2019In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People extensively use lakes and rivers covered by seasonal ice. Although ice cover duration has been declining over the past 150 years for Northern Hemisphere freshwaters, we know relatively little about how ice loss directly affects humans. Here, we synthesize the cultural ecosystem services (i.e., services that provide intangible or nonmaterial benefits) and associated benefits supported by inland ice. We also provide, for the first time, empirical examples that give quantitative evidence for a winter warming effect on a wide range of ice-related cultural ecosystem services and benefits. We show that in recent decades, warmer air temperatures delayed the opening date of winter ice roads and led to cancellations of spiritual ceremonies, outdoor ice skating races, and ice fishing tournaments. Additionally, our synthesis effort suggests unexploited data sets that allow for the use of integrative approaches to evaluate the interplay between inland ice loss and society.

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  • 10.
    Lupon, Anna
    et al.
    Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Spain.
    Gómez-Gener, Lluís
    Centre for Research on Ecology and Forestry Applications (CREAF), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.
    Fork, Megan L.
    Department of Biology, West Chester University, PA, West Chester, United States.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Martí, Eugènia
    Integrative Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Advanced Studies of Blanes (CEAB-CSIC), Blanes, Spain.
    Lidberg, William
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Groundwater-stream connections shape the spatial pattern and rates of aquatic metabolism2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A longstanding challenge in stream ecology is to understand how landscape configuration organizes spatial patterns of ecosystem function via lateral groundwater connections. We combined laboratory bioassays and field additions of a metabolic tracer (resazurin) to test how groundwater-stream confluences, or “discrete riparian inflow points” (DRIPs), regulate heterotrophic microbial activity along a boreal stream. We hypothesized that DRIPs shape spatial patterns and rates of aquatic heterotrophic microbial activity by supplying labile dissolved organic matter (DOM) to streams. Laboratory bioassays showed that the potential influence of DRIPs on heterotrophic activity varied spatially and temporally, and was related to their DOM content and composition. At the reach scale, DRIP-stream confluences elevated the spatial heterogeneity and whole-reach rates of heterotrophic activity, especially during periods of high land–water hydrological connectivity. Collectively, our results show how the arrangement of lateral groundwater connections influence heterotrophic activity in streams with implications for watershed biogeochemical cycles.

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  • 11.
    Rocher-Ros, Gerard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lidberg, William
    SLU.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Landscape process domains drive patterns of CO2 evasion from river networks2019In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streams are important emitters of CO2 but extreme spatial variability in their physical properties can make upscaling very uncertain. Here, we determined critical drivers of stream CO2 evasion at scales from 30 to 400 m across a 52.5 km2 catchment in northern Sweden. We found that turbulent reaches never have elevated CO2 concentrations, while less turbulent locations can potentially support a broad range of CO2 concentrations, consistent with global observations. The predictability of stream pCO2 is greatly improved when we include a proxy for soil‐stream connectivity. Catchment topography shapes network patterns of evasion by creating hydrologically linked “domains” characterized by high water‐atmosphere exchange and/or strong soil‐stream connection. This template generates spatial variability in the drivers of CO2 evasion that can strongly bias regional and global estimates. To overcome this complexity, we provide the foundations of a mechanistic framework of CO2 evasion by considering how landscape process domains regulate transfer and supply.

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  • 12. Rusak, J. A.
    et al.
    Tanentzap, A. J.
    Klug, J. L.
    Rose, K. C.
    Hendricks, S. P.
    Jennings, E.
    Laas, A.
    Pierson, D.
    Ryder, E.
    Smyth, R. L.
    White, D. S.
    Winslow, L. A.
    Adrian, R.
    Arvola, L.
    de Eyto, E.
    Feuchtmayr, H.
    Honti, M.
    Istvánovics, V.
    Jones, I. D.
    McBride, C. G.
    Schmidt, S. R.
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Staehr, P. A.
    Zhu, G.
    Wind and trophic status explain within and among‐lake variability of algal biomass2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 409-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton biomass and production regulates key aspects of freshwater ecosystems yet its variability and subsequent predictability is poorly understood. We estimated within‐lake variation in biomass using high‐frequency chlorophyll fluorescence data from 18 globally distributed lakes. We tested how variation in fluorescence at monthly, daily, and hourly scales was related to high‐frequency variability of wind, water temperature, and radiation within lakes as well as productivity and physical attributes among lakes. Within lakes, monthly variation dominated, but combined daily and hourly variation were equivalent to that expressed monthly. Among lakes, biomass variability increased with trophic status while, within‐lake biomass variation increased with increasing variability in wind speed. Our results highlight the benefits of high‐frequency chlorophyll monitoring and suggest that predicted changes associated with climate, as well as ongoing cultural eutrophication, are likely to substantially increase the temporal variability of algal biomass and thus the predictability of the services it provides.

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  • 13.
    Seekell, David A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lapierre, Jean‐François
    Cheruvelil, Kendra S.
    A geography of lake carbon cycling2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon cycling in lakes is highly variable among lakes within regions, and across regions and continents, but the underlying causes of this variation among lakes and regions are not well understood. In this essay, we propose two main mechanisms that operate at the regional scale and contribute to broad‐scale interlake variation in carbon cycling. This essay sets the foundation for a geographic understanding of lake carbon cycling, which facilitates developing testable hypotheses to improve estimates of the role of inland waters in global elemental cycles.

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  • 14.
    Vachon, Dominic
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Aquatic Physics, Department F.‐A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences (DEFSE), Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Langenegger, Timon
    Donis, Daphne
    Beaubien, Stan E.
    McGinnis, Daniel F.
    Methane emission offsets carbon dioxide uptake in a small productive lake2020In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we investigate the importance of net CH4 production and emissions in the carbon (C) budget of a small productive lake by monitoring CH4, CO2, and O2 for two consecutive years. During the study period, the lake was mostly a net emitter of both CH4 and CO2, while showing positive net ecosystem production. The analyses suggest that during the whole study period, 32% +/- 26% of C produced by net ecosystem production was ultimately converted to CH4 and emitted to the atmosphere. When converted to global warming potential, CH4 emission (in CO2 equivalents) was about 3-10 times higher than CO2 removal from in-lake net ecosystem production over 100-yr and 20-yr time frames, respectively. Although more work in similar systems is needed to generalize these findings, our results provide evidence of the important greenhouse gas imbalance in human-impacted aquatic systems.

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  • 15.
    Vachon, Dominic
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sadro, Steven
    Bogard, Matthew J.
    Lapierre, Jean‐François
    Baulch, Helen M.
    Rusak, James A.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laas, Alo
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Paired O2–CO2 measurements provide emergent insights into aquatic ecosystem function2020In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 287-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic stoichiometry predicts that dissolved oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in aquatic ecosystems should covary inversely; however, field observations often diverge from theoretical expectations. Here, we propose a suite of metrics describing this O2 and CO2 decoupling and introduce a conceptual framework for interpreting these metrics within aquatic ecosystems. Within this framework, we interpret cross‐system patterns of high‐frequency O2 and CO2 measurements in 11 northern lakes and extract emergent insights into the metabolic behavior and the simultaneous roles of chemical and physical forcing in shaping ecosystem processes. This approach leverages the power of high‐frequency paired O2–CO2 measurements, and yields a novel, integrative aquatic system typology which can also be applicable more broadly to streams and rivers, wetlands and marine systems.

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  • 16. Wallin, Marcus B.
    et al.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Audet, Joachim
    Bastviken, David
    Bishop, Kevin
    Kokic, Jovana
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Lundin, Erik J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Carbon dioxide and methane emissions of Swedish low-order streams: a national estimate and lessons learnt from more than a decade of observations2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-order streams are suggested to dominate the atmospheric CO2 source of all inland waters. Yet, many large-scale stream estimates suffer from methods not designed for gas emission determination and rarely include other greenhouse gases such as CH4. Here, we present a compilation of directly measured CO2 and CH4 concentration data from Swedish low-order streams (> 1600 observations across > 500 streams) covering large climatological and land-use gradients. These data were combined with an empirically derived gas transfer model and the characteristics of a ca. 400,000 km stream network covering the entire country. The total stream CO2 and CH4 emission corresponded to 2.7 Tg C yr(-1) (95% confidence interval: 2.0-3.7) of which the CH4 accounted for 0.7% (0.02 Tg C yr(-1)). The study highlights the importance of low-order streams, as well as the critical need to better represent variability in emissions and stream areal extent to constrain future stream C emission estimates.

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