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  • 1.
    Bjørke, Ann Christin Helgesen
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Buffart, Laurien M.
    Department of Physiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, WA, Joondalup, Australia.
    Raastad, Truls
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nordin, Karin
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring Moderators of the Effect of High vs. Low-to-Moderate Intensity Exercise on Cardiorespiratory Fitness During Breast Cancer Treatment - Analyses of a Subsample From the Phys-Can RCT2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 902124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The results from the physical training and cancer randomized controlled trial (Phys-Can RCT) indicate that high intensity (HI) strength and endurance training during (neo-)adjuvant cancer treatment is more beneficial for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, measured as peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak]) than low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) exercise. Adherence to the exercise intervention and demographic or clinical characteristics of patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant treatment may moderate the exercise intervention effect on VO2peak. In this study, the objective was to investigate whether baseline values of VO2peak, body mass index (BMI), time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), physical fatigue, age, chemotherapy treatment, and the adherence to the endurance training moderated the effect of HI vs. LMI exercise on VO2peak.

    Materials and Methods: We used data collected from a subsample from the Phys-Can RCT; women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and had a valid baseline and post-intervention VO2peak test were included (n = 255). The exercise interventions from the RCT included strength and endurance training at either LMI, which was continuous endurance training at 40–50% of heart rate reserve (HRR), or at HI, which was interval training at 80–90% of HRR, with similar exercise volume in the two groups. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate moderating effects using a significance level of p < 0.10. Statistically significant interactions were examined further using the Johnson–Neyman (J-N) technique and regions of significance (for continuous variables) or box plots with adjusted means of post-intervention VO2peak (for binary variables).

    Results: Age, as a continuous variable, and adherence, dichotomized into < or > 58% based on median, moderated the effect of HI vs. LMI on CRF (B = −0.08, 95% CI [−0.16, 0.01], pinteraction = 0.06, and B = 1.63, 95% CI [−0.12, 3.38], pinteraction = 0.07, respectively). The J-N technique and regions of significance indicated that the intervention effect (HI vs. LMI) was positive and statistically significant in participants aged 61 years or older. Baseline measurement of CRF, MVPA, BMI, physical fatigue, and chemotherapy treatment did not significantly moderate the intervention effect on CRF.

    Conclusion: Women with breast cancer who are older and who have higher adherence to the exercise regimen may have larger effects of HI exercise during (neo-)adjuvant cancer treatment on CRF.

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  • 2.
    Bubna, Kabir
    et al.
    The International Federation of Esports Coaches (IFoEC), London, United Kingdom.
    Trotter, Michael G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Polman, Remco
    Institute of Health and Wellbeing, Federation University Australia, Berwick, VIC, Australia.
    Poulus, Dylan R.
    Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Research Theme, Faculty of Health, Southern Cross University, QLD, Gold Coast, Australia.
    Terminology matters: defining the esports athlete2023In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 5, article id 1232028Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Melin, Anna Katarina
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wasserfurth, Paulina
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Logue, Danielle
    Sport Ireland Institute, National Sports Campus, Dublin, Ireland.
    Garthe, Ina
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sport, Oslo, Norway.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Gräfnings, Maria
    Department of Medical Science, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck
    Centre for Telepsychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Madigan, Sharon
    Sport Ireland Institute, National Sports Campus, Dublin, Ireland.
    Torstveit, Monica Klungland
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Risk of low energy availability, disordered eating, exercise addiction, and food intolerances in female endurance athletes2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 869594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a complex syndrome describing health and performance consequences of low energy availability (LEA) and is common among female endurance athletes. Various underlying causes of LEA have been reported, including disordered eating behavior (DE), but studies investigating the association with exercise addiction and food intolerances are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between DE, exercise addiction and food intolerances in athletes at risk of LEA compared to those with low risk. Female endurance athletes, 18–35 years, training ≥5 times/week were recruited in Norway, Sweden, Ireland, and Germany. Participants completed an online-survey comprising the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and questions regarding food intolerances. Of the 202 participants who met the inclusion criteria and completed the online survey, 65% were at risk of LEA, 23% were at risk of exercise addiction, and 21% had DE. Athletes at risk of LEA had higher EDE-Q and EAI scores compared to athletes with low risk. EAI score remained higher in athletes with risk of LEA after excluding athletes with DE. Athletes at risk of LEA did not report more food intolerances (17 vs. 10%, P = 0.198), but were more frequently reported by athletes with DE (28 vs. 11%, P = 0.004). In conclusion, these athletes had a high risk of LEA, exercise addiction, and DE. Exercise addiction should be considered as an additional risk factor in the prevention, early detection, and targeted treatment of RED-S among female endurance athletes.

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  • 4.
    Hall, Eric E.
    et al.
    Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, NC, Elon, United States.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Durand-Bush, Natalie
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, ON, Ottawa, Canada.
    Salim, Jade
    Department of Sport and Exercise Science, St Mary's University, Twickenham, United Kingdom.
    Editorial: Innovative approaches to foster healthy cultures and mental health in sport2023In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 5, article id 1209370Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Hanstock, Helen G.
    et al.
    Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre, Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Sports Tech Research Centre, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Exercise in sub-zero temperatures and airway health: implications for athletes with special focus on heat-and-moisture-exchanging breathing devices2020In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 2, article id 34Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is highly prevalent among winter endurance athletes. This "occupational disease" of cross-country skiers, among others, was acknowledged during the 1990s, with the pathogenesis attributed to repeated and prolonged exposure to cold, dry air combined with high rates of ventilation during exercise. Nevertheless, more than 25 years later, the prevalence of asthma among Scandinavian cross-country skiers is unchanged, and prevention remains a primary concern for sports physicians. Heat-and-moisture-exchanging breathing devices (HMEs) prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with pre-existing disease and may have potential as a preventative intervention for healthy athletes undertaking training and competition in winter endurance sports. Herein we firstly provide an overview of the influence of temperature and humidity on airway health and the implications for athletes training and competing in sub-zero temperatures. We thereafter describe the properties and effects of HMEs, identify gaps in current understanding, and suggest avenues for future research.

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  • 6.
    Rogers, Ethan J.
    et al.
    Faculty of Health, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, QLD, Brisbane, Australia.
    Trotter, Michael Geoffrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johnson, Daniel
    Faculty of Science, School of Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, QLD, Brisbane, Australia.
    Desbrow, Ben
    School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Griffith University, QLD, Gold Coast, Australia; Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, QLD, Gold Coast, Australia.
    King, Neil
    Faculty of Health, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, QLD, Brisbane, Australia.
    KovaaK's aim trainer as a reliable metrics platform for assessing shooting proficiency in esports players: a pilot study2024In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 6, article id 1309991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports research lacks game-based metrics platforms appropriate for adequately capturing esports performance. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the reliability of the KovaaK's first-person shooter (FPS) aim trainer as a metrics platform for assessing shooting proficiency in esports players. Ten FPS esports players completed two identical experimental trials (T) separated by three to five days. Each trial included four rounds (R) of testing, evaluating four shooting tasks: Micro Flicking, Macro Flicking, Strafe Tracking, and Wall Peeking. Reliability of performance outcomes (e.g., accuracy, headshot accuracy, hits per second, and total shots hit) were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI), and significant differences were identified using repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA). Results indicated excellent, or good to excellent reliability for all outcome variables with the ICC estimates ranging between 0.947–0.995, with lower and upper bound 95% CIs ranging between 0.876–0.988, and 0.984–0.999, respectively. Significant improvements were seen between experimental trials in the Macro Flicking task for accuracy (p =.005) and hits per second (p =.009) only. Significant interactions between trial and round were identified in the Micro Flicking task for accuracy (p =.006), with post hoc analysis showing accuracy was significantly higher in T1R1 compared to T2R1 (87.74 ± 3.13 vs. 85.99 ± 3.05, respectively, p =.02), and in T2R4 compared to T2R2 (87.99 ± 2.89 vs. 84.70 ± 4.25, respectively, p =.049). Significant interactions were also identified in the Strafe Tracking task for headshot accuracy (p =.002), with post hoc analysis showing headshot accuracy was significantly higher in T1R2 compared to T2R2 (78.48 ± 8.15 vs. 76.79 ± 12.16, respectively, p =.003), and in T1R2 compared to T1R1 (78.48 ± 8.15 vs. 73.68 ± 17.94, respectively, p =.023). In summary, this study demonstrates that KovaaK's provides a reliable metrics platform for assessing shooting proficiency in esports, however, some variability in performance was observed.

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  • 7.
    Slawinska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Poland.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Recall of affective responses to exercise: examining the influence of intensity and time2020In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 2, article id 573525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective responses to exercise are noted to be dynamic and frequently vacillate between positive and negative valence during physical activity. Recalled affect following exercise can influence anticipated affective responses to exercise and guide future behaviours. Research examining affective memory processes indicates that the recall of an experience can substantially differ from the actual experience and change over time. Grounded in the dual mode model (Ekkekakis, 2003) this study examined individuals’ recall of exercise related affect over a period of two weeks. Forty-two adults (26 women, 16 men; Mage = 29.64, SD = 5.69) completed two 20-min treadmill exercise trials in a randomized control cross over design; the trials were set either at a low or high exercise intensity based upon individuals’ ventilatory threshold. Data analyses indicate that the affective responses to the low intensity condition were evaluated more positively than the high intensity condition. Recalled affect fluctuated over a two-week time period following both the low intensity and the high intensity exercise trials. A significant reduction at the 24-hour recall measurement point was observed in both exercise intensity conditions. Implications for future research and health promotion interventions aiming to optimise affective responses to exercise are presented.

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  • 8.
    Svensson, Felicia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Textile electromyography electrodes reveal differences in lower limb muscle activation during loaded squats when comparing fixed and free barbell movement paths2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 1021323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Traditional recordings of muscle activation often involve time-consuming application of surface electrodes affixed to the skin in laboratory environments. The development of textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes now allows fast and unobtrusive assessment of muscle activation in ecologically valid environments. In this study, textile EMG shorts were used to assess whether performing squats with the barbell resting freely on the shoulders or using a Smith machine for a fixed barbell movement path is preferable for maximizing lower limb muscle activation.

    Methods: Sixteen athletes performed free and fixed barbell squats in a gym with external loads equivalent to their body mass. Quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteus maximus activation was measured bilaterally with textile EMG electrodes embedded in shorts.

    Results: Mean quadriceps activation was greater for the free compared with the fixed movement path for the right (mean difference [MD] 14μV, p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.28) and left leg (MD 15μV, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.39) over the entire squat and specifically during the first half of the eccentric phase for the left leg (MD 7μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.56), second half of the eccentric phase for both legs (right leg MD 21μV, p = 0.05, d = 0.54; left leg MD 23μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.52) and the first half of the concentric phase for both legs (right leg MD 24μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.56; left leg MD 15μV, p = 0.01, d = 0.72). Greater hamstrings activation for the free path was seen for the second half of the eccentric phase (left leg MD 4μV, p = 0.03, d = 0.58) and first half of the concentric phase (right leg MD 5μV, p = 0.02, d = 0.72). No significant differences were found for gluteus maximus.

    Discussion: Textile EMG electrodes embedded in shorts revealed that to maximize thigh muscle activity during loaded squats, a free barbell movement path is preferable to a fixed barbell movement path.

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  • 9.
    Svensson, Joar
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Leis, Oliver
    Sport Psychology, Faculty of Sport Science, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Trotter, Michael Geoffrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parental support in esports through the lens of the theory of planned behaviour2024In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 6, article id 1366122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports have grown substantially in the last decade and may be an effective way of engaging and exposing the youth, who is not actively participating in traditional sports, to the benefits of sports related performance environments. However, due to negative stereotypes about gamers and concerns about esports, parents might be hesitant to support their children's esports participation and may instead actively discourage it. The purpose of this perspective article was to discuss the determinants of parental support based on the theory of planned behaviour. Parents attitudes seem to be mostly negative and their perceived behavioral control is likely low due to a lack of knowledge about esports. The subjective norms are mixed and seem to be growing progressively more positive. Based on the theory of planned behaviour, parents seem unlikely to support their children's esport participation, however, more research is needed. Recommendations on how to increase the likelihood of parental support are discussed.

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