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  • 1.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Managing place and distance: Restructuring sales and work relations to meet urbanisation-related challenges in Swedish forestry2020Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 118, artikel-id 102267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon interviews with representatives of all the major forestry organisations in Sweden, this paper explores how, in their sales and services, they work to overcome the growing distance between forest owners and forests. The results indicate that increasing distance to forest owners in terms of sales and services work is largely dealt with by reorganisation of the sales process. Through trust-building activities such as modifying office structure and local work processes, and use of new technologies such as personalised forest websites/apps, previously local trust-building processes are being deliberately digitized and implemented through new technology and, in some cases, offices in cities. However, the results also suggest that these processes potentially affect the way in which forest as a resource and a place is constructed and interacted with. For example, it can be treated as an object of desire that is produced and marketed; as a place of knowledge and expertise that produces specific social and sales relations; and as a place of production to legitimize modern industrial forestry. Through this, forest management is constructed as an economic or technical issue that can be managed at a distance from the property.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Department of Forest Economics, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    The role of Swedish forests in climate change mitigation – A frame analysis of conflicting interests2022Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 144, artikel-id 102842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are assumed to play a significant role in relation to climate change mitigation. However, previous studies show that actor groups' perspectives vary regarding how to best utilize forests. This paper focuses on exploring frames in recent Swedish forest- and climate politics and to what extent they may form the basis for conflict resolution or contribute to perpetuate conflicts among actors. The analysis of recent forest- and climate policies, and actor groups' positioning on the issues, builds upon the pathways to sustainability approach in combination with frame analysis. The results showed that ideas based on “Ecological Modernisation” dominated within the forest-climate nexus, but also a clear presence of alternative frames promoting “Sustainable Development”. As a result, conflicting frames were identified within the policies on how to reach policy targets - stressing both the importance of consensus and neutral dialogue with actors, while concurrently prioritizing an economic perspective.

  • 3.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    The Swedish forestry model: more of everything?2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 44-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    "The Swedish forestry model" refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 4.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, s. 10-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 5.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Andersson, Elias
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Same-same but different: Gendering forest ownership in Sweden2020Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 115, artikel-id 102162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, gender has been identified in research as a salient dimension embedded in the social relations of forests. While research related to the Global South is abundant on this topic, the scholarly output from the Global North is sparser. Based on the theoretical understanding of gendering as ongoing contested spatial and constitutive differencing practices, this study, through a qualitative approach, aims to examine and analyse the constitution of private forest ownership in the boreal and production-oriented setting of Sweden. A thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 25 female and 26 male forest owners was conducted. Many of the interviewees did not express a gendered experience of their forest ownership, and a diversity in practices of gendering was demonstrated. Also, the analysis highlighted how the gendering of activities, experiences, expectations, and forest values was constructed by emphasising differences through a complementary or dichotomy-related understanding of gender, and by associating specific bodies (women/men) with specific spaces (forest/household), tasks (manual forest labour/domestic labour), characteristics (strong/caring), and perspectives (economic/ecological). This construction contributes to a reproduction of the power of specific production-oriented masculinities and values, e.g. by marking distance or difference to femininities. In the gendering of forest ownership, doing ‘difference’ was highlighted both as a means of ‘othering’ and as a positive and innovative way of resisting and negotiating, as well as a way of reasserting and constituting the current gendered forest ownership and the production-oriented context of forestry in Sweden.

  • 6.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    The Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 26, s. 131-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the Swedish forest sector's approach to a formalized forest policy within the EU; utilizing a revisited neo-functional framework focusing on cultivated spillover and non-governmental forest stakeholders' preferences and strategies. The study is based on in-depth interviews with central non-governmental representatives divided into four categories: forest owners, forest industry, environmental representatives and other representatives. The paper shows that, in spite of lacking interest and engagement in this issue on the Swedish government's side, the Swedish forest owners and the forest industry have made a U-turn and now welcome some form of formalized forest policy in the EU, as it would benefit their interests. They also believe they can influence the content of the integration process. This confirms the theoretical premise that organized interests, in this case non-governmental forestry stakeholders in Sweden, can act as pressure groups for further coordination and integration. National and transnational elites and their work in transnational networks and associations seem particularly important in this context.

  • 7.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kvastegård, Emma
    SLU.
    Forest social values in a Swedish rural context: The private forest owners' perspective2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 65, s. 17-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability paradigm of the European Landscape Convention calls for increased involvement of all affected parties in combination with active leadership to promote social values. As a result, the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA) has requested further development of methods for broad consultation and active participation in order to strengthen the social values of forests. This paper aims to identify in particular the private forest owners' perceived need for collaboration and dialog regarding the social values of forests. The study's primary empirical data was derived from interviews with 40 private forest owners. A framework developed by Emerson et al. (2012) was applied to facilitate analysis of the forest owners' perceptions of procedural and institutional arrangements, existing leadership, the current level of knowledge and access to different types of resources. The paper identifies a need for the SFA to become more proactive and assume more of a leading role. The level of knowledge regarding social values was found to be quite low among the majority of the private forest owners. They wanted more information; they asked for increased support and advice, and they wanted to see improved coordination rather than collaboration on social values.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zabel, Astrid
    Ekvall, Hans
    Planning on a wider scale: Swedish forest owners' preferences for landscape policy attributes2019Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 104, s. 170-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A tax-fund system has been proposed to advance Swedish forest conservation. We present a choice experiment with Swedish private forest owners on preferences for attributes of a tax-fund system. Focusing on three aspects: (i) freedom to choose set-asides, (ii) equity issues, and (iii) frequency of nature inventories, we find two groups of forest owners. The first is opposed to interventions that could curtail liberty and oppose frequent nature inventories, while a smaller group would derive positive utility from jointly deciding on the location of set-asides with society. Both groups have a preference for changing the current tax-base to soil productivity or timber volume. The tax-base chosen together with the modalities of re-distributing the funds will determine the program's efficiency. The paper concludes that a tax-fund system could indeed be a way forward but would need to be designed in a participatory manner to reconcile forest owners, forest industry representatives, and conservationists.

  • 9.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Gong, Peichen
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sidibe, Amadou
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Reaching conflicting environmental goals: Participation to forest conservation in National Kabore Tambi Park in Southern Burkina Faso2009Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 468-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this study is to investigate how different household characteristics, households' perceptions about the security of land use rights, and the households' proximity to forests affect the individual household's willingness to engage in activities that are meant to promote sustainable forest management in Burkina Faso. To achieve this objective we use a multinomial choice model of engagement (or non-engagement) in forest management activities based on household data from 4 villages surrounding the National Kabore Tambi Park in Burkina Faso. The results show that the participation by household members in forest conservation activities is mainly determined by the three variables that are related to policy: membership in community based forest management associations, security of land use rights, and training. The current training programs focus only on forest conservation practices. To be more efficient it should focus on increasing people's knowledge about the benefits due to conservation and the threats resulting from the lack of forest management. Furthermore the results indicate that improving land use right security would increase farmer's willingness to participate in forest management activities such as community work and forest surveillance. Thus particular attention should be paid to the prevailing system of land rights and its incentives, or disincentives, for promoting sustainable management of the forest resource.

  • 10.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Sidibe, Amadou
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gong, Peichen
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Participation to forest conservation in National Kabore Tambi Park in Southern Burkina Faso2009Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 468-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective with this study is to investigate how different household characteristics, households' perceptions about the security of land use rights, and the households' proximity to forests affect the individual household's willingness to engage in activities that are meant to promote sustainable forest management in Burkina Faso. To achieve this objective we use a multinomial choice model of engagement (or non-engagement) in forest management activities based on household data from 4 villages surrounding the National Kabore Tambi Park in Burkina Faso. The results show that the participation by household members in forest conservation activities is mainly determined by the three variables that are related to policy: membership in community based forest management associations, security of land use rights, and training. The current training programs focus only on forest conservation practices. To be more efficient it should focus on increasing people's knowledge about the benefits due to conservation and the threats resulting from the lack of forest management. Furthermore the results indicate that improving land use right security would increase farmer's willingness to participate in forest management activities such as community work and forest surveillance. Thus particular attention should be paid to the prevailing system of land rights and its incentives, or disincentives, for promoting sustainable management of the forest resource.

  • 11.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Buizer, Marleen
    Land Use Planning Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Promises and dilemmas in forest fire management decision-making: exploring conditions for community engagement in Australia and Sweden2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 80, s. 133-140Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prescribed burning, to prevent larger fires or to encourage ecological restoration, is a highly contested practice, raising both complex practical questions relating to safety and techniques, and deep philosophical questions about the relationship between people and nature. Previous research either analyses conflict in forest fire management, or argues for social learning but does not discuss how this might happen. We explore what community engagement in fire management might contribute, and how policy conditions enable or constrain deliberative practices in fire management in two very different countries, Sweden and Australia. In Sweden, burning is gradually emerging on foresters' and nature conservationists' agendas, whereas in Australia, prescribed burning has been practiced and debated on a relatively broad scale for some time. Both countries rely much on technical expertise, while merging this with local knowledge in transformative processes in which conflicts and difference have a place could enhance the quality of the debates.

  • 12.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Preface to forest conflicts: a growing research field2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, s. 3-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Preface ro Forest conflicts
  • 13.
    Ekvall, Hans
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Ash recycling: a method to improve forest production or to restore acidified surface waters?2014Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 45, s. 42-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This cost-benefit analysis compared different strategies for ash recycling in southern Swedish forests, with a special emphasis on the potential to use ash recycling as a measure to ameliorate acidification of soils and surface waters caused by acid deposition. Benefit transfer was used to estimate use values for sport fishing and non-use values in terms of existence values. The results show that the optimal share of acidified forest land that should be treated with ash depends on how optimistic one is about the effect of using ash to restore lakes and streams from acidification. More optimistic assumptions imply that the ash to larger extent should be used to ameliorate acidification. Using the most realistic assumption, given the experiences of forest liming, shows that acidified forest land should not be treated with ash with the aim of restoring lakes and streams from acidification. From a socioeconomic point of view, ash simply does more good as fertilizer on forested organic soils.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Is voluntarism an effective and legitimate way of governing climate adaptation?: A study of private forest owners in Sweden2022Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 140, artikel-id 102751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest disturbances are expected to increase as a result of climate change. Thus, it is important to increase the resistance of forests by means of climate adaptation. To examine how effective a voluntary governance approach may be to encourage climate adaptation, this study investigates change in the level of adaptation among private forest owners in Sweden based on survey data from 2014 (n = 1482) and 2018 (n = 1251). In addition, the legitimacy of governance from the owners' perspective is examined by analyzing acceptance of different governance modes in 2018. Results reveal that climate adaptation increased over time and this change can be traced to the strengthening of biodiversity values among the owners. Furthermore, the owners displayed high acceptance of voluntarism and were opposed to detailed regulations. Owners with higher levels of climate adaptation displayed higher acceptance of voluntarism than owners with lower levels and this result remain when structural factors (e.g., size of forest) and management orientations (e.g., certification) are controlled for. Yet, also those with lower adaptation levels preferred voluntarism to detailed regulations. The study indicates that climate adaptation has the potential to increase in a context where adaptation is voluntary, and this approach is legitimate to the forest owners. Nevertheless, whether the increase in adaptation is rapid enough and issues of external legitimacy are important to consider.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 15. Ficko, Andrej
    et al.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Ní Dhubháin, A
    Karppinen, Heimo
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    European private forest owner typologies: a review of methods and use2019Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 99, s. 21-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing diversity of non-industrial private forest owners (PFOs) in Europe has been recognized by policy makers and the forestry sector at large. Typologies of these owners have been developed to provide an understanding of the diversity of owners' attitudes, values, beliefs, management objectives and behaviour. We analyzed PFO typologies from 28 European countries published from 1985 to 2015 in peer-reviewed journals and grey literature with respect to 1) research approaches and methods used; 2) typology objectives and problems addressed; 3) policy and management recommendations given. Using an on-line questionnaire we asked the first authors of the most relevant publications to retrospectively assess 4) the use of their typologies in education, science and forest policy. Most of the 66 publications reviewed share the common objective of providing a better understanding of forest ownership. Typologies were also developed to address roundwood mobilization, delivery of public goods, forest management approaches, involvement in PFO associations and entrepreneurship. The most common methodological approach was quantitative where owners were grouped by k-means clustering into 2 to 6 types and labelled with various names. Most frequently used labels were Multiobjective owners, Recreationists, Investors, Farmers, Indifferent owners, Conservationists, Multifunctional owners and Self-employed owners. Policy implications remain vague. The typologies had mostly been used in teaching and occasionally by politicians, civil servants or stake-holders. Only a half of the typologies had a follow-up study or was updated over time by the authors. After decades of classifying PFOs, it seems necessary to explore the link between typologies and forest owners' overt behaviour.

  • 16.
    Haeler, Elena
    et al.
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, Vienna, Austria.
    Bolte, Andreas
    Thünen-Institute of Forest Ecosystems (TI), Alfred-Möller-Straße 1, Eberswalde, Germany.
    Buchacher, Rafael
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, Vienna, Austria.
    Hänninen, Harri
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Latokartanonkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jandl, Robert
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, Vienna, Austria.
    Juutinen, Artti
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Latokartanonkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kuhlmey, Katharina
    Thünen-Institute of Forest Ecosystems (TI), Alfred-Möller-Straße 1, Eberswalde, Germany.
    Kurttila, Mikko
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Latokartanonkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mäkipää, Raisa
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Latokartanonkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rosenkranz, Lydia
    Thünen-Institute of Forest Ecosystems (TI), Alfred-Möller-Straße 1, Eberswalde, Germany.
    Triplat, Matevž
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vilhar, Urša
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Schueler, Silvio
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Seckendorff-Gudent-Weg 8, Vienna, Austria.
    Forest subsidy distribution in five European countries2023Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 146, artikel-id 102882Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest subsidies are widely used to achieve policy objectives aimed at maintaining and supporting the provision of the various ecosystem services provided by forests. In the European Union, an important instrument is the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) within the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), but countries also have national subsidy systems. In both cases, individual countries determine which objectives they want to achieve with the subsidy schemes and which measures are supported. In this comparative study, we investigate which forest-related measures are subsidized across Europe and which forest owners, representing a very heterogeneous group, are involved in the activities of the subsidy systems. We collected data on subsidies paid out for forest-related measures from Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia and Sweden from the EAFRD funding period 2014–2020 for a comparison of the funded activities. Further, we analysed how subsidies were distributed among private forest owners with forest holdings of different sizes by performing G-tests to compare the observed with the expected subsidies received by forest owners in the different size categories. The results show that through the flexibility given by the CAP for countries to adjust their subsidy programmes to the specific national needs, EAFRD funds and equivalent national subsidies are indeed used for a wide range of activities instead of only a few following one common European goal. Reflecting the different needs and various forest functions, the subsidized activities range from the more ecology-oriented "investment to increase resistance and the ecological value of forests" to the more management-oriented "purchase of new machinery and new equipment for forestry operations". In all five countries, small-scale forest owners with holdings smaller than 200 ha are the largest owner group and manage a large share of the forest area in private hands (from 47% in Austria to 97% in Slovenia). However, especially owners of the smallest holdings (< 20 ha) rarely use the funding scheme of the EAFRD framework and thus receive a disproportionately low share of subsidies. There might be several reasons for this. Small-scale forest owners are generally less involved regarding policy issues (including subsidy schemes) than owners of larger forest holdings and may not be aware of all funding opportunities. In addition, the considerable effort to apply, including project preparation, administration and documentation may be perceived as a barrier. It became clear that the current subsidy systems of the countries focus on different forest policy objectives. Our study further revealed that the documentation of subsidy distribution is partly unclear and inconsistent across countries hampering European comparisons. However, understanding current subsidy distribution is urgently needed for increasing the effectiveness of subsidy systems to achieve European policy goals of vital multifunctional forests.

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  • 17.
    Holmgren, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Swedish forest commons: A matter of governance?2010Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 423-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 100 years ago, when Crown land in the interior of northern Sweden was privatized, part of the forest land was set aside as forest commons. Today, there are 33 such forest commons jointly managed and owned in common mainly by private forest owners. The forest commons may be looked upon as a means by which the state controls the production of and returns from the forests belonging to small and less affluent forest owners. Further, an attempt has been made to use the forests as a tool to move the self-interests of these small forest owners closer to providing public goods. Forest commons thus hold a contested status, as private lands under public control and as a partly de-regulated form of ownership. This paper examines the extent to which forest commons are currently managed directly by the government, comparing this with the general trend in forest policy towards governance and less prescriptive measures, which often take account of market and participative goals. Building upon Appelstrand (2007), this paper describes the major policy instruments relevant for forest commons from 1861 to 2005. We conclude that direct government management remains dominant, with the major legislation pertaining to forest commons dating back to the 1950s. While governance may seem to be inherent in the forest commons concept, the development of governance has not been fully realised given the relatively strict government-steered framework.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen. School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Participation and deliberation in Swedish forest governance: The process of initiating a National Forest Program2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 70, s. 137-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades intergovernmental organizations have supported the initiation of National Forest Programs (NFPs): forums for joint deliberation by the state, private companies and NGOs that are intended to resolve conflicts over forestry and enhance sustainability. However, NFPs do not always reconcile conflicting perspectives or produce legitimate strategies for sustainable forestry. Thus, further analysis of NFPs organization and processes is required, including exploration of effective means to address such challenges in early stages. These are key concerns of this paper, focusing on the first process to establish a Swedish NFP. Possibilities for an NFP to constitute a new arena for deliberation and consensus-building, producing forest policy statements and action plans considered legitimate by various stakeholders, are discussed. A number of key challenges are identified through a theoretical framework based on notions regarding the input and output legitimacy of collaborative governance. Analysis of official documentation, records of public hearings and stakeholder comments from the establishment phase in 2013-2015 suggests that the process will continually face a number of challenges, including balancing production and conservation values in the new bio-economy and securing equal stakeholder participation. The paper concludes with some remarks on the future of the NFP process. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Can voluntary standards regulate forestry?: Assessing the environmental impacts of forest certification in Sweden2011Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 191-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the issue of to what extent forest certification schemes contribute to the enhancement of environmental protection in Swedish forestry. Our assessment is built on the analysis of three different data sets, namely: 1) the Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), 2) the Swedish Database for Forest Owner Analysis, presenting data on small-scale forestry practices and certification, and 3) a follow-up mail survey addressed to private small-scale forest owners with certified forest properties. Our NFI analysis indicated some minor improvements in forest conditions, corresponding with the interim target for enhanced biological diversity (dead wood, broad-leaved trees and old forests). The improvements were less evident on large-scale forest properties (certified in accordance with the Forest Stewardship Council scheme) than on small-scale private forest properties (mainly certified in accordance with the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes). This contradicts a common assumption that a much higher degree of certification with stricter environmental standards will give more evident positive impacts on environmental conditions. However, results from the follow-up survey showed that more harvesting activity had taken place on certified small-scale forest properties than on non-certified properties. This could mean more negative effects on biodiversity. We conclude by stressing the importance of improving quantitative methods for determining a cause-and-effect relationship between certification and nature protection; previous research tends to report rather far-reaching conclusions based on limited data sets.

  • 20.
    Juutinen, Artti
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Oulu, Finland.
    Haeler, Elena
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Vienna, Austria.
    Jandl, Robert
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Vienna, Austria.
    Kuhlmey, Katharina
    Thünen-Institute of Forest Ecosystems (TI), Eberswalde, Germany.
    Kurttila, Mikko
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Mäkipää, Raisa
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pohjanmies, Tähti
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rosenkranz, Lydia
    Thünen-Institute of Forest Ecosystems (TI), Eberswalde, Germany.
    Skudnik, Mitja
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Triplat, Matevž
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Oulu, Finland.
    Vilhar, Urša
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Schueler, Silvio
    Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape (BFW), Vienna, Austria.
    Common preferences of European small-scale forest owners towards contract-based management2022Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 144, artikel-id 102839Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The societal demands on forest management are becoming increasingly diverse, which will be reflected in decisions made by forest owners. We examined the willingness of private forest owners in Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia, and Sweden to participate in a contract-based payment scheme in which they were asked to apply a specific management strategy to promote either timber production or environmental goals. The preferences for the contract-based management and associated consequences in terms of profitability, biodiversity, carbon stock, and climate change-induced damages were addressed within a choice experiment. A majority of respondents across all countries agreed to participate in a payment scheme to promote environmental goals, while schemes purely targeted to increase wood production were found less attractive. Forest owners liked improvements in profitability and environmental attributes and disliked deterioration of these attributes. Differences among countries were found in the level of expected contract payments, and commonalities were found with respect to preferences towards environmental goals, including biodiversity and carbon stocks. Hence, new policies to target European forest subsidy to promote the provision of environmental goals would likely be acceptable.

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  • 21.
    Juutinen, Artti
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 413, Finland.
    Kurttila, Mikko
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Yliopistokatu 6, Joensuu, Finland.
    Pohjanmies, Tähti
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Latokartanonkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 413, Finland.
    Kuhlmey, Katharina
    Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, Alfred-Möller-Straße 1, Eberswalde, Germany.
    Skudnik, Mitja
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Triplat, Matevž
    Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Forestry and Renewable Forest Resources, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Mäkipää, Raisa
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Latokartanonkaari 9, Helsinki, Finland.
    Forest owners' preferences for contract-based management to enhance environmental values versus timber production2021Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 132, artikel-id 102587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are sources of multiple ecosystem services (ESs) essential for human wellbeing. Forest owners are critical actors to decide which benefits they produce from their forests. To support the uptake of alternative forest management strategies in a way that is beneficial from the perspective of society as whole, new incentive schemes could be implemented in the future. We applied the choice experiment method to investigate Finnish forest owners' potential participation in an incentive scheme in which they were asked to practice a ‘Timber Oriented’ or a ‘Nature Oriented’ management strategy according to the terms of a hypothetical contract. We found that the majority forest owners are willing to participate in the considered contract-based payment scheme, especially those supporting biodiversity and non-market ESs. Non-profitability attributes including biodiversity, carbon stock, and probability of climate change induced damage were highly valued. Forest owners prefer the management contract with the Nature Oriented strategy. Forest owners' preferences for the contract-based management and associated effects are heterogenous.

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  • 22.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Laszlo Ambjörnsson, Emmeline
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Davis, Emily Jane
    Agenda-setting and framing of policy solutions for forest pests in Canada and Sweden: Avoiding beetle outbreaks?2016Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 65, s. 59-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extreme events such as pest outbreaks is one of the issues that may become more pronounced with climate change, placing potentially unprecedented requirements on policy systems to manage and develop responses to these, including potential changes in legislation. This study reviews the way in agenda-setting and framing of policy solutions was developed for the issue of bark beetle pest outbreaks following major outbreaks in Sweden and Canada. The study concludes that the larger events in Canada have resulted in a longer policy window, with a higher focus on developing responses on multiple levels, while the issue in Sweden has led to more specialized response, with the policy window closing after instrumental revisions of legislation. While such responses may be appropriate at the present, they place into consideration development of responses to potentially larger events in the context of climate change. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 23.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eklöf, Karin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ring, Eva
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerblom, Staffan
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    From wicked problem to governable entity?: The effects of forestry on mercury in aquatic ecosystems2018Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 90, s. 90-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In all Swedish lakes, the concentration of mercury (Hg) in fish exceeds the European Union threshold limit. While the ultimate source of Hg is primarily airborne emissions from fossil energy, forestry plays a small but important role because some forestry operations help mobilize and transform Hg, increasing Hg loads in downstream aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneously, climate change is placing additional demands on forests to provide biomass as a substitute for fossil fuel. Thus, decision-makers are facing a complex situation, a “wicked problem,” when it comes to how to handle the problem of forestry’s effects on Hg in aquatic ecosystems while at the same time securing other ecosystem services. In order to explore forestry’s degree of responsibility as well as possible solutions to this problem in Sweden, a transdisciplinary method has been used consisting of a structured dialogue with actors from relevant governmental agencies, forest companies, and forest associations. The analysis shows that while the issue can be addressed constructively, the complex character of the problem requires consideration of not only management practices for forestry but also current regulatory goals and environmental objectives. The Hg problem represents a class of difficult issues for forestry where stand- or property-based production has an impact on a greater spatial scale. This means that regulating the more direct impacts of forestry needs to be weighed against the implications this regulation may have on the overall issue of ecosystem services.

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  • 24.
    Lieberherr, Eva
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Natural Resource Policy Group, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Deuffic, Philippe
    INRAE, UR ETBX, Cestas Cedex, France.
    Jandl, Robert
    Austrian Research Centre for Forest, Vienna, Austria.
    Foldal, Cecilie
    Austrian Research Centre for Forest, Vienna, Austria.
    Lidestav, Gun
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Weiss, Gerhard
    Institute of Forest, Environment and Natural Resource Policy, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU) and European Forest Institute, Forest Policy Research Network, Vienna, Austria.
    Živojinović, Ivana
    Institute of Forest, Environment and Natural Resource Policy, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU) and European Forest Institute, Forest Policy Research Network, Vienna, Austria.
    Pecurul-Botines, Mireia
    Forest Science and Technology Centre of Catalonia (CTFC), Crta. Sant Llorenç de Morunys, Solsona, Lleida, Spain.
    Koller, Nancy
    Chair of Forest and Environmental Policies, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
    Haltia, Emmi
    Pellervo Economic Research PTT, Helsinki, Finland; Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Bioeconomy and Environment, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sarvašová, Zuzana
    National Forest Centre, Zvolen, Slovakia; Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Praha 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Sarvaš, Milan
    National Forest Centre, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Curman, Marta
    Croatian Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Croatia.
    Zabel, Astrid
    Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Riedl, Marcel
    Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Praha 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Jarský, Vilém
    Czech University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Praha 6, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Wilkes-Allemann, Jerylee
    ETH Zurich, Natural Resource Policy Group, Zurich, Switzerland; Bern University of Applied Sciences, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Zollikofen, Switzerland.
    Communication campaigns to engage (non-traditional) forest owners: A European perspective2021Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 133, artikel-id 102621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, private forest owners play an important role in achieving sustainability goals, such as those set by the European Green Deal. Efficient communication and coordination with these actors is therefore central. However, ongoing structural changes in forest ownership have in many cases silenced traditional communication channels, especially those involving owners of small forests. Their economic performance is often negligible at an individual level, yet collectively their forests play a pivotal role in a context of increasing demand for wood products. In this article, we analyse and compare forest campaigns in nine European countries. Specifically, we assess one-way and two-way communication models applying different techniques to engage (non-traditional) forest owners. Our analysis of 34 campaigns shows that (i) one-way communication models are still more widely used in the forest sector to engage non-traditional forest owners than two-way communication models; (ii) one-way communication aims at informing and is effective for short-term awareness raising, while two-way communication aims at persuading and is essential to trigger forest management activities over the long-term, (iii) interactive learning tools can play a crucial role for reaching and engaging (non-traditional) forest owners. We further conclude that campaigns could be improved by having 1) joint campaigns with public and private actors, 2) convincing narratives developed based on a good understanding of forest owners' motivations, 3) adapting the timing of campaigns to windows of opportunities and 4) developing intermediary associations (e.g. non-traditional forest owner associations) as connectors and trust builders between different actors as they play a crucial role in providing information to forest owners and supporting their engagement.

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  • 25. Lindahl, Karin Beland
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Stens, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Alternative pathways to sustainability?: Comparing forest governance models2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 69-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Mancheva, Irina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Which factors spur forest owners' collaboration over forest waters?2018Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 91, s. 54-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative river basin governance has been advocated both by research and legislation, while at the same time certain silvicultural practices are shown to lead to deteriorating water quality. In order for collaboration to be initiated, however, the majority of key stakeholders must be willing to participate. This paper investigates which factors at the local level are crucial for initiating collaboration over forest waters among individual private forest owners. For that purpose, a survey was sent out to all individual forest owners within a catchment area in northern Sweden. The survey was complemented by a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews. The existence of several key preconditions for the initiation of collaboration was investigated, namely: low belief and cultural heterogeneity, information diffusion, perception of the problem, existing stores of social capital, interdependence, and leadership. The results show that although the context was one of low belief and cultural heterogeneity, individual private forest owners are not interested in collaborating for improved forest water unless they perceive the issue of water quality important enough to invest resources in collaboration. It also became clear that the diffusion of information about the problem is not reaching those stakeholders who are crucial for the commencement of collaboration. Moreover, those stakeholders do not recognise their interdependence on each other for resolving the issue and therefore the need for collaboration. Finally, initiating leadership was also found to be lacking, leading to the conclusion that to successfully implement policies requiring collaborative management of natural resources among highly empowered individual forest owners, those missing factors need to be addressed by the state.

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  • 27.
    Miljand, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Primmer, Eeva
    Finnish Environment Institute, Finland.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Voluntary agreements to protect private forests: a realist review2021Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 128, artikel-id 102457Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing political interest in the use of voluntary agreements (VA) as a policy instrument. The attraction has grown also in environmental policy, VAs are expected to be less costly, more effective and more cost-efficient than regulation. Using a realist review methodology, our analysis focuses on the effect of contextual factors and mechanisms on private forest owners' willingness to enter into formal voluntary nature conservation agreements. The framework we use to analyse the effects includes: forest owner characteristics, forest attributes, institutional context and process, advisors and other forest owners, and contract design, for contextual factors – and economic attitudes, environmental attitudes, sense of autonomy, sense of justice and fairness, trust as well as knowledge, for mechanisms. The analysis allowed merging findings from different types of VAs in varying contexts in a systematized way, and consolidating evidence of how the mechanisms influence the programme implementation process, and its outcome. 43 reviewed articles, from an originally retrieved set of 2231 papers, provide evidence for environmental attitudes supporting willingness to enter into an agreement. Environmental attitudes are strengthened by forest owners' wishes to protect a heritage, suggesting considerable influence through personal, emotional attachment to the forest. This finding shows the central role played by sense of autonomy, with economic compensation also importantly affecting the willingness to enter a VA. Along with these results, the developed comprehensive analytical framework shows how VAs can become more effective if tailored for different contexts and types of forest owners.

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  • 28. Olschewski, Roland
    et al.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Johansson, Johanna
    Fürst, Christine
    Ring, Irene
    Policy Forum: Challenges and opportunities in developing new forest governance systems: insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2018Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 97, s. 175-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Comparing forest governance models2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika
    Räty, Riitta
    Mossberg Sonnek, Karin
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Mossing, Annika
    Nordin, Annika
    Policy goals and instruments for achieving a desirable future forest: Experiences from backcasting with stakeholders in Sweden2020Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 111, artikel-id 102051Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of forests is a controversial issue in Sweden and elsewhere. Different stakeholder groups differ in the importance they give to roles they envision forests should have in, for example, the national economy, the protection of biodiversity and sustainable use of ecosystem services, and in mitigating climate change. We used participatory backcasting, a solution-oriented form of scenario analysis, as a method to identify stakeholders' various views as to what constitutes a desirable future forest in Sweden. By involving key stakeholders, we wanted to explore how to broaden the scope of potential solutions to the controversial issue of forest futures by analyzing goals, measures and policy instruments in order to form a bridge between stakeholders' policy objectives, and the instruments and support tools they would like to use to implement those policies. Preferences for particular policy instruments varied considerably among the stakeholder groups. In line with the literature, our study confirms that policy instruments are not mere empty vessels, but represent particular policy ideas, objectives and outlooks, and can show how stakeholders want forests to be governed in the future.

  • 31.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Raitio, Kaisa
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Studying conflicts, proposing solutions: Towards multi-level approaches to the analyses of forest conflicts2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, s. 123-127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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    Studying Conflict
  • 32.
    Sandström, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Widmark, Camilla
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stakeholders’ perceptions of consultations as tools for co-management: A case study of the forestry and reindeer herding sectors in northern Sweden2007Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 10, nr 1-2, s. 25-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The forestry and reindeer herding sectors utilize the same land in northern Sweden, and adversely affect each other's productivity. The common pool resource character of this situation has made it difficult to find ways to resolve conflicts that could threaten the two sectors' continued co-existence. A consultation procedure that was introduced to reduce conflicts does not appear to be effective, since conflicts between the two actors still occur. One reason for this failure might be found in the power distribution between forestry and reindeer herding. Earlier research has shown that a co-management system in which the allocation of power between the stakeholders is uneven is difficult to maintain in the long term. However, it is unclear just how uneven the power distribution is between the two actors in this case, and the consequences the disparity might have for the viability and stability of the management system. Focusing on the power relations within the consultation procedures, this paper explores the potential of the present institutional system to take the different interests of the stakeholders into account and to use the consultation procedures as tools for co-managing the forest resources in northern Sweden.

  • 33.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    “Forest property rights under attack”: Actors, networks and claims about forest ownership in the Swedish press 2014–20172020Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 111, artikel-id 102038Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is a leading country in governance of property rights, according to global assessments, but Swedish landowners currently argue that their forest property rights are being eroded. Thus, the aim of this article is to investigate when and why the current debate on forest property rights came about, and its resemblance to discussion in an ‘echo-chamber’. This refers to an arena in which information is accessed from limited sources and a small number of actors with ideological homogeneity may exert substantial influence and reinforce established opinions. Hence, it may spread disinformation, increase polemic tensions, and hamper deliberative policy processes in society. We assess the resemblance by identifying where the issue is debated in printed news media, the active actors, the interests they represent and how they problematize property rights, i.e. the claims they make and the claims’ homogeneity. Our results show that the debate has intensified in recent years, but several issues are not new. The debate is mainly limited to the Swedish rural business press and rural conservative press. Moreover, the main claim-makers are representatives of land and forest owner organizations, and members of agrarian and conservative political parties, which have close organizational and individual connections, thereby forming a metaphorical ‘chamber’. The ‘echo’ consists of repetitive claims about withdrawal and management rights, with no efforts to examine and contextualize complex aspects of private property rights in a changing society. The debate about forest ownership in an echo-chamber is problematic in several ways. It hampers efforts of claim-makers in the chamber to reach out, undermines current systems’ legitimacy, and locks important questions about sustainable forestry and property rights into a narrow societal sphere.

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  • 34.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Divergent interests and ideas around property rights: the case of berry harvesting in Sweden2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, s. 56-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates the clash between interests and ideas concerning property rights and regulation by analyzing the ongoing debate on the right of public access in Sweden, which has recently intensified due to an influx of foreign professional berry harvesters. The conflicts in Sweden are found to stem from contradictory concepts concerning property (notably, ownership and the right of public access) and ideological differences in terms of whether forest resources should be regulated by government or governance. While the precise circumstances of this case are somewhat unique to Sweden, differences of opinion concerning property rights and regulations are common and so our findings will be broadly applicable when defining and analyzing forest-related conflicts, especially those involving multiple-use situations.

  • 35.
    Söderberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, avdelning samhällsvetenskap.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rising policy conflicts in Europe over bioenergy and forestry2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, s. 112-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing concerns over emissions of green-house gases causing climate change as well as energy security concerns have spurred the interest in bioenergy production pushed by EU targets to fulfil the goal of 20 per cent renewable energy in 2020, as well as the goal of 10 per cent renewable fuels in transport by 2020. Increased bioenergy production is also seen to have political and economic benefits for rural areas and farming regions in Europe and in the developing world. There are, however, conflicting views on the potential benefits of large scale bioenergy production, and recent debates have also drawn attention to a range of environmental and socio-economic issues that may arise in this respect. One of these challenges will be that of accommodating forest uses – including wood for energy, and resulting intensification of forest management – with biodiversity protection in order to meet EU policy goals. We note that the use of biomass and biofuels spans over several economic sector policy areas, which calls for assessing and integrating environmental concerns across forest, agriculture, energy and transport sectors.In this paper, we employ frame analysis to identify the arguments for promoting bioenergy and assess the potential policy conflicts in the relevant sectors, through the analytical lens of environmental policy integration. We conclude that while there is considerable leverage of environmental arguments in favour of bioenergy in the studied economic sectors, and potential synergies with other policy goals, environmental interest groups remain sceptical to just how bioenergy is currently being promoted. There is a highly polarised debate particularly relating to biofuel production. Based on our analysis, we discuss the potential for how those issues could be reconciled drawing on the frame conflict theory, distinguishing between policy disagreements and policy controversies.

  • 36.
    Westin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Bolte, Andreas
    Haeler, Elena
    Haltia, Emmi
    Jandl, Robert
    Juutinen, Artti
    Kuhlmey, Katharina
    Lidestav, Gun
    Mäkipää, Raisa
    Rosenkranz, Lydia
    Triplat, Matevž
    Skudnik, Mitja
    Vilhar, Urša
    Schueler, Silvio
    Forest values and application of different management activities among small-scale forest owners in five EU countries2023Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 146, artikel-id 102881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests are important for the transition to a bioeconomy. With 60% of Europe's forest area owned and managed by small-scale owners, these owners' management behaviour is key. Identifying commonalities and differences between owners in different EU countries promotes effective implementation of EU strategies for a sustainable transition to a wood-based bioeconomy. This study examines the value orientations and management behaviour of private small-scale forest owners in five EU countries. Based on a questionnaire survey in Austria, Finland, Germany, Slovenia, and Sweden (n = 2524), we analysed these owners' values, and how various management activities are perceived in relation to management strategies. Respondents rated the importance of economic, environmental, and social values regarding their forest holdings, and were divided into groups based on their value orientation. Overall, the largest value group was ‘All values very important’; more so in Austria, Finland, and Germany than in Slovenia and Sweden. In Finland and Sweden the proportion of respondents in the ‘Economic and environmental values’ value group was low. This suggets that small-scale forest owners in these countries rarely consider economics and the environment together. Forest management activities were applied to varying degrees in the five countries. However, respondents in all countries who considered all values to be very important were the most active in all management activities compared to those who considered all values to be somewhat important. Our analysis highlighted the importance of context, showing that the propensity to use a particular activity was explained to a lesser extent by owner characteristics and value orientation and, in the case of most activities, more strongly by country. The way objectives of policies and management strategies are communicated may need to be adapted to the specific conditions of each country.

  • 37.
    Westin, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Do trees make people more rooted?: Private forest owners’ migration behavior2018Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 94, s. 11-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forestland is a tangible asset, likely both indicating and creating attachment to the forest site for the owners. Forest ownership can both create and maintain a strong motive for developing the forest holding and its surroundings. Decisions made by non-industrial private forest (NIPF) owners can therefore be expected to influence population development in the local communities. This paper addresses forest owners' migration propensity, and whether forest ownership influences migration to and from the municipality where the forest holding is located. Comparing the non-forest owners to the group of local NIPF owners, we found that the latter are more sedentary. Forest owners living in their forest municipalities seldom move out – about a third annually compared to others in the same age group. When moving, about half of absentee forest owners select their forest municipality as their destination and thus become local forest owners. Although private forest ownership significantly contributes to population development in small, remote rural municipalities, policies for local and rural development rarely acknowledge the potential private forest owners represent for economic and population development in rural areas.

  • 38.
    Widman, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Shared responsibility for forest protection?2015Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 50, s. 220-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, there is growing reliance in forest politics on public-private partnerships (PPPs) as a means for forest-environmental protection. In Sweden, such partnership characterizes the approach in nature conservation agreements (NCAs) in the forest policy from 1993 and onwards. NCAs are negotiated between the County Administrative Board/the Forest Agency and a landowner, where the landowner agrees to, with some compensation, provide a public service in terms of protecting biodiversity. However, assessments of the implementation of NCAs show rather inefficient implementation of set goals in general, even if there are great regional variations. This paper explores factors affecting the establishment of PPPs in two neighboring counties distinguished by high and low level of goal achievement of NCAs respectively. The analysis focuses on the process among the landowners and responsible authorities, their incentives for collaboration, and the potential for developing shared motives. The results suggest that in particular the discretionary power of authorities influences not only the willingness to participate, but also the institutional ability to develop sustainable relationships which largely explains why landowners in some counties are keener to engage in NCAs.

  • 39.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Ekvall, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Policies for Forest Landscape Management: a Conceptual Approach with an Empirical Application for Swedish Conditions2018Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 86, s. 13-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are major factors leading to forest biodiversity decline. This paper discusses landscape planning as strategy to improve connectivity in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of ecologically valuable areas across land owners. A tax-fund system is proposed, that following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, tries to spread the burden of conservation equally across land owners while optimizing the environmental outcome. Design options of such a tax-fund system are discussed along the lines of a simple theoretical model. Financial effects of a tax-fund system are computed for a small model landscape set in Sweden. Two design questions stand out as particularly important. The first is whether the policy is intended to be self-sustained among the land owners or if the budget can be supplemented by general tax money. The second is whether the land owners or the relevant authority select the stands for conservation set-aside.

  • 40.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Conflict resolution through collaboration: preconditions and limitations in forest and nature conservation controversies2013Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, s. 39-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing competition over the world's forest resources will likely aggravate conflict, though conflict should not be seen as bad per se. As the challenge is to develop institutions and practices capable of handling conflict constructively, various collaborative approaches involving disputing actors are evolving worldwide. In Sweden, most such approaches pertain to protected areas and few involve commercial forestry. The reasons for the rise of different approaches to collaboration in protected areas and commercially managed forest lands are explored through a comparison of two conflicts embedded in different management regimes. The study suggests that actor interdependence is critical to how collaboration evolves. Interdependence is in turn affected by the institutions, discourses, and economic context in which the process is embedded. When contextual factors are unfavourable, power relations too unequal, and interdependencies between dominant and subordinated actors weak, the prospects for collaboration are slim. In an enabling context, in contrast, mobilization may alter power relations and interdependencies, making collaboration possible. This study suggests that the low occurrence of collaborative land use planning in many parts of Sweden may be related to the presence of strong economic land use interests, un-successful mobilization of weaker parties, and absence of enabling institutional and discursive factors.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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