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  • 1.
    Alshwairikh, Yara A.
    et al.
    School of the Environment, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Kroeze, Shayla L.
    Department of Biology, Western University, ON, London, Canada.
    Olsson, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stephens-Cardenas, Steve A.
    Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Latina de Costa Rica, San Pedro, Costa Rica.
    Swain, William L.
    Wildlife Genomics and Disease Laboratory, Program in Ecology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, WY, Laramie, United States.
    Waits, Lisette P.
    Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, University of Idaho, ID, Moscow, United States.
    Horn, Rebekah L.
    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, ID, Hagerman, United States.
    Narum, Shawn R.
    Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission, ID, Hagerman, United States.
    Seaborn, Travis
    Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences, University of Idaho, ID, Moscow, United States.
    Influence of environmental conditions at spawning sites and migration routes on adaptive variation and population connectivity in Chinook salmon2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 23, s. 16890-16908Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many species that undergo long breeding migrations, such as anadromous fishes, face highly heterogeneous environments along their migration corridors and at their spawning sites. These environmental challenges encountered at different life stages may act as strong selective pressures and drive local adaptation. However, the relative influence of environmental conditions along the migration corridor compared with the conditions at spawning sites on driving selection is still unknown. In this study, we performed genome–environment associations (GEA) to understand the relationship between landscape and environmental conditions driving selection in seven populations of the anadromous Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)—a species of important economic, social, cultural, and ecological value—in the Columbia River basin. We extracted environmental variables for the shared migration corridors and at distinct spawning sites for each population, and used a Pool-seq approach to perform whole genome resequencing. Bayesian and univariate GEA tests with migration-specific and spawning site-specific environmental variables indicated many more candidate SNPs associated with environmental conditions at the migration corridor compared with spawning sites. Specifically, temperature, precipitation, terrain roughness, and elevation variables of the migration corridor were the most significant drivers of environmental selection. Additional analyses of neutral loci revealed two distinct clusters representing populations from different geographic regions of the drainage that also exhibit differences in adult migration timing (summer vs. fall). Tests for genomic regions under selection revealed a strong peak on chromosome 28, corresponding to the GREB1L/ROCK1 region that has been identified previously in salmonids as a region associated with adult migration timing. Our results show that environmental variation experienced throughout migration corridors imposed a greater selective pressure on Chinook salmon than environmental conditions at spawning sites.

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  • 2.
    Baker, Nathan Jay
    et al.
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Haubrock, Phillip Joschka
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany; Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Vodňany, Czech Republic.
    Beudert, Burkhard
    Department of Conservation and Research, Bavarian Forest National Park, Grafenau, Germany.
    Haase, Peter
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany; Faculty of Biology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Multidecadal changes in functional diversity lag behind the recovery of taxonomic diversity2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 23, s. 17471-17484Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there has been increasing interest in how taxonomic diversity is changing over time, less is known about how long-term taxonomic changes may affect ecosystem functioning and resilience. Exploring long-term patterns of functional diversity can provide key insights into the capacity of a community to carry out ecological processes and the redundancy of species’ roles. We focus on a protected freshwater system located in a national park in southeast Germany. We use a high-resolution benthic macroinvertebrate dataset spanning 32 years (1983–2014) and test whether changes in functional diversity are reflected in taxonomic diversity using a multidimensional trait-based approach and regression analyses. Specifically, we asked: (i) How has functional diversity changed over time? (ii) How functionally distinct are the community's taxa? (iii) Are changes in functional diversity concurrent with taxonomic diversity? And (iv) what is the extent of community functional redundancy? Resultant from acidification mitigation, macroinvertebrate taxonomic diversity increased over the study period. Recovery of functional diversity was less pronounced, lagging behind responses of taxonomic diversity. Over multidecadal timescales, the macroinvertebrate community has become more homogenous with a high degree of functional redundancy, despite being isolated from direct anthropogenic activity. While taxonomic diversity increased over time, functional diversity has yet to catch up. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic pressures can remain a threat to biotic communities even in protected areas. The differences in taxonomic and functional recovery processes highlight the need to incorporate functional traits in assessments of biodiversity responses to global change.

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  • 3.
    Bandara, Tharindu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Animal Science and Export Agriculture, Uva Wellassa University, Badulla, Sri Lanka.
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lau, Danny Chun Pong
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Retention of essential fatty acids in fish differs by species, habitat use and nutritional quality of prey2023Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id e10158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Algae-produced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA; with ≥20 carbon atoms) are key biomolecules for consumer production and animal health. They are transferred to higher trophic levels and accumulated in food chains. However, LC-PUFA accumulation in consumers and their trophic transfer vary with the diet quality and the physiological demand for LC-PUFA of consumers. The goal of this study was to investigate spatial and taxonomic differences in LC-PUFA retention of coastal fish predators that potentially differ in their habitat use (benthic versus pelagic) and prey quality. We analyzed the fatty acid (FA) composition of common fish species, namely roach and European perch, as well as their potential prey from benthic and pelagic habitats in three bays of the northern Baltic Sea. We then assessed whether the fish LC-PUFA retention differed between species and among the study bays with different diet quality, that is, LC-PUFA availability. Our data indicated taxon-specific differences in the retention of LC-PUFA and their precursor FA in fish (i.e., short-chain PUFA with <20 carbon atoms). Perch did not show any spatial variation in the retention of all these FA, while roach showed spatial differences in the retention of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and their precursor FA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Data suggest that diet quality and trophic reliance on benthic prey underlay the DHA retention differences in roach. Although the PUFA supply might differ among sites, the low spatial variation in LC-PUFA content of perch and roach indicates that both fishes were able to selectively retain dietary LC-PUFA. Climate change together with other existing human-caused environmental stressors are expected to alter the algal assemblages and lower their LC-PUFA supply for aquatic food webs. Our findings imply that these stressors will pose heterogeneous impacts on different fish predators. We advocate further investigations on how environmental changes would affect the nutritional quality of the basal trophic level, and their subsequent impacts on LC-PUFA retention, trophic ecology, and performance of individual fish species.

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  • 4. Behl, Stephan
    et al.
    de Schryver, Vera
    Diehl, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stibor, Herwig
    Trophic transfer of biodiversity effects: functional equivalence of prey diversity and enrichment?2012Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 2, nr 12, s. 3110-3122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Producer diversity is frequently assumed to be detrimental to herbivores, because less edible taxa are more likely to dominate diverse communities. Many producers are, however, complementary in their resource use, and primary production is often positively related to producer diversity. We performed an experiment with microalgae and a generalist herbivore to explore the hypothesis that such positive effects are transferred up the food chain and are functionally comparable to effects of enrichment with a limiting resource. In both absence and presence of grazers, primary production was positively affected by both light supply and producer diversity. Survival, reproduction, and biomass of herbivores were also positively affected by light supply and producer diversity, with both factors contributing equally to grazer performance. We conclude that producer diversity can indeed have similar positive effects on secondary production as enrichment with a limiting resource and discuss conditions under which such positive effects are likely to dominate over negative ones.

  • 5. Brodie, Juliet
    et al.
    Williamson, Christopher J.
    Smale, Dan A.
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Mieszkowska, Nova
    Santos, Rui
    Cunliffe, Michael
    Steinke, Michael
    Yesson, Christopher
    Anderson, Kathryn M.
    Asnaghi, Valentina
    Brownlee, Colin
    Burdett, Heidi L.
    Burrows, Michael T.
    Collins, Sinead
    Donohue, Penelope J. C.
    Harvey, Ben
    Foggo, Andrew
    Noisette, Fanny
    Nunes, Joana
    Ragazzola, Federica
    Raven, John A.
    Schmidt, Daniela N.
    Suggett, David
    Teichberg, Mirta
    Hall-Spencer, Jason M.
    The future of the northeast Atlantic benthic flora in a high CO2 world2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 13, s. 2787-2798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweed and seagrass communities in the northeast Atlantic have been profoundly impacted by humans, and the rate of change is accelerating rapidly due to runaway CO2 emissions and mounting pressures on coastlines associated with human population growth and increased consumption of finite resources. Here, we predict how rapid warming and acidification are likely to affect benthic flora and coastal ecosystems of the northeast Atlantic in this century, based on global evidence from the literature as interpreted by the collective knowledge of the authorship. We predict that warming will kill off kelp forests in the south and that ocean acidification will remove maerl habitat in the north. Seagrasses will proliferate, and associated epiphytes switch from calcified algae to diatoms and filamentous species. Invasive species will thrive in niches liberated by loss of native species and spread via exponential development of artificial marine structures. Combined impacts of seawater warming, ocean acidification, and increased storminess may replace structurally diverse seaweed canopies, with associated calcified and noncalcified flora, with simple habitats dominated by noncalcified, turf-forming seaweeds.

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  • 6. Calboli, Federico C. F.
    et al.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Merila, Juha
    A test for within-lake niche differentiation in the nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius)2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 14, s. 4753-4760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Specialization for the use of different resources can lead to ecological speciation. Accordingly, there are numerous examples of ecologically specialized pairs of fish species in postglacial lakes. Using a polymorphic panel of single nucleotide variants, we tested for genetic footprints of within-lake population stratification in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) collected from three habitats (viz. littoral, benthic, and pelagic) within a northern Swedish lake. Analyses of admixture, population structure, and relatedness all supported the conclusion that the fish from this lake form a single interbreeding unit.

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  • 7. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Mahani, Seyed Alireza Nematollahi
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Avdelningen för virologi.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Khalil, Hussein
    Wildfire-induced short-term changes in a small mammal community increase prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen?2019Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, nr 22, s. 12459-12470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural disturbances like droughts and fires are important determinants of wildlife community structure and are suggested to have important implications for prevalence of wildlife-borne pathogens. After a major wildfire affecting >1,600 ha of boreal forest in Sweden in 2006, we took the rare opportunity to study the short-term response (2007-2010 and 2015) of small mammal community structure, population dynamics, and prevalence of the Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) hosted by bank voles (Myodes glareolus). We performed snap-trapping in permanent trapping plots in clear-cuts (n = 3), unburnt reference forests (n = 7), and the fire area (n = 7) and surveyed vegetation and habitat structure. Small mammal species richness was low in all habitats (at maximum three species per trapping session), and the bank vole was the only small mammal species encountered in the fire area after the first postfire year. In autumns of years of peak rodent densities, the trapping index of bank voles was lowest in the fire area, and in two of three peak-density years, it was highest in clear-cuts. Age structure of bank voles varied among forest types with dominance of overwintered breeders in the fire area in the first postfire spring. PUUV infection probability in bank voles was positively related to vole age. Infection probability was highest in the fire area due to low habitat complexity in burnt forests, which possibly increased encounter rate among bank voles. Our results suggest that forest fires induce cascading effects, including fast recovery/recolonization of fire areas by generalists like bank voles, impoverished species richness of small mammals, and altered prevalence of a rodent-borne zoonotic pathogen. Our pilot study suggests high human infection risk upon encountering a bank vole in the fire area, however, with even higher overall risk in unburnt forests due to their higher vole numbers.

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  • 8. Firbank, Les G.
    et al.
    Bertora, Chiara
    Blankman, David
    Delle Vedove, Gemini
    Frenzel, Mark
    Grignani, Carlo
    Groner, Elli
    Kertész, Miklós
    Krab, Eveline J.
    Department of Ecological Science, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Matteucci, Giorgio
    Menta, Christina
    Mueller, Carsten W.
    Stadler, Jutta
    Kunin, William E.
    Towards the co-ordination of terrestrial ecosystem protocols across European research infrastructures2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. 3967-3975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of ecosystem processes over multiple scales of space and time is often best achieved using comparable data from multiple sites. Yet, long-term ecological observatories have often developed their own data collection protocols. Here, we address this problem by proposing a set of ecological protocols suitable for widespread adoption by the ecological community. Scientists from the European ecological research community prioritized terrestrial ecosystem parameters that could benefit from a more consistent approach to data collection within the resources available at most long-term ecological observatories. Parameters for which standard methods are in widespread use, or for which methods are evolving rapidly, were not selected. Protocols were developed by domain experts, building on existing methods where possible, and refined through a process of field testing and training. They address above-ground plant biomass; decomposition; land use and management; leaf area index; soil mesofaunal diversity; soil C and N stocks, and greenhouse gas emissions from soils. These complement existing methods to provide a complete assessment of ecological integrity. These protocols offer integrated approaches to ecological data collection that are low cost and are starting to be used across the European Long Term Ecological Research community.

  • 9. Fitzer, Susan C.
    et al.
    Vittert, Liberty
    Bowman, Adrian
    Kamenos, Nicholas A.
    School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
    Phoenix, Vernon R.
    Cusack, Maggie
    Ocean acidification and temperature increase impact mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?2015Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, nr 21, s. 4875-4884Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M.edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000atm pCO(2), and 750, 1000atm pCO(2)+2 degrees C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000atm pCO(2)) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380atm pCO(2)). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

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  • 10.
    Fohringer, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dudka, Ilona
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Spitzer, Robert
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenbacka, Fredrik
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rzhepishevska, Olena I
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ericsson, Göran
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Singh, Navinder J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Integrating omics to characterize eco‐physiological adaptations: How moose diet and metabolism differ across biogeographic zones2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 7, s. 3159-3183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. With accelerated land conversion and global heating at northern latitudes, it becomes crucial to understand, how life histories of animals in extreme environments adapt to these changes. Animals may either adapt by adjusting foraging behavior or through physiological responses, including adjusting their energy metabolism or both. Until now, it has been difficult to study such adaptations in free‐ranging animals due to methodological constraints that prevent extensive spatiotemporal coverage of ecological and physiological data.

    2. Through a novel approach of combining DNA‐metabarcoding and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)‐based metabolomics, we aim to elucidate the links between diets and metabolism in Scandinavian moose Alces alces over three biogeographic zones using a unique dataset of 265 marked individuals.

    3. Based on 17 diet items, we identified four different classes of diet types that match browse species availability in respective ecoregions in northern Sweden. Individuals in the boreal zone consumed predominantly pine and had the least diverse diets, while individuals with highest diet diversity occurred in the coastal areas. Males exhibited lower average diet diversity than females.

    4. We identified several molecular markers indicating metabolic constraints linked to diet constraints in terms of food availability during winter. While animals consuming pine had higher lipid, phospocholine, and glycerophosphocholine concentrations in their serum than other diet types, birch‐ and willow/aspen‐rich diets exhibit elevated concentrations of several amino acids. The individuals with highest diet diversity had increased levels of ketone bodies, indicating extensive periods of starvation for these individuals.

    5. Our results show how the adaptive capacity of moose at the eco‐physiological level varies over a large eco‐geographic scale and how it responds to land use pressures. In light of extensive ongoing climate and land use changes, these findings pave the way for future scenario building for animal adaptive capacity.

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  • 11.
    Fuentes-Hurtado, Marcelo
    et al.
    Departamento de Ecosistemas y Medio Ambiente, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Paleodistribution modeling suggests glacial refugia in Scandinavia and out-of-Tibet range expansion of the Arctic fox2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 170-180Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quaternary glacial cycles have shaped the geographic distributions and evolution of numerous species in the Arctic. Ancient DNA suggests that the Arctic fox went extinct in Europe at the end of the Pleistocene and that Scandinavia was subsequently recolonized from Siberia, indicating inability to track its habitat through space as climate changed. Using ecological niche modeling, we found that climatically suitable conditions for Arctic fox were found in Scandinavia both during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene. Our results are supported by fossil occurrences from the last glacial. Furthermore, the model projection for the LGM, validated with fossil records, suggested an approximate distance of 2000 km between suitable Arctic conditions and the Tibetan Plateau well within the dispersal distance of the species, supporting the recently proposed hypothesis of range expansion from an origin on the Tibetan Plateau to the rest of Eurasia. The fact that the Arctic fox disappeared from Scandinavia despite suitable conditions suggests that extant populations may be more sensitive to climate change than previously thought.

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  • 12.
    Garrison, Julie A.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Marie C.
    Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal and spatial changes in benthic invertebrate trophic networks along a taxonomic richness gradient2022Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikel-id e8975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Species interactions underlie most ecosystem functions and are important for understanding ecosystem changes. Representing one type of species interaction, trophic networks were constructed from biodiversity monitoring data and known trophic links to assess how ecosystems have changed over time. The Baltic Sea is subject to many anthropogenic pressures, and low species diversity makes it an ideal candidate for determining how pressures change food webs. In this study, we used benthic monitoring data for 20 years (1980-1989 and 2010-2019) from the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak to investigate changes in benthic invertebrate trophic interactions. We constructed food webs and calculated fundamental food web metrics evaluating network horizontal and vertical diversity, as well as stability that were compared over space and time. Our results show that the west coast of Sweden (Skagerrak) suffered a reduction in benthic invertebrate biodiversity by 32% between the 1980s and 2010s, and that the number of links, generality of predators, and vulnerability of prey have been significantly reduced. The other basins (Bothnian Sea, Baltic Proper, and Bornholm Basin) do not show any significant changes in species richness or consistent significant trends in any food web metrics investigated, demonstrating resilience at a lower species diversity. The decreased complexity of the Skagerrak food webs indicates vulnerability to further perturbations and pressures should be limited as much as possible to ensure continued ecosystem functions.

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  • 13.
    Geue, Julia C.
    et al.
    Comparative Zoology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Thomassen, Henri A.
    Comparative Zoology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Unraveling the habitat preferences of two closely related bumble bee species in Eastern Europe2020Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 10, nr 11, s. 4773-4790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-occurrence of closely related species is often explained through resource partitioning, where key morphological or life-history traits evolve under strong divergent selection. In bumble bees (genus Bombus), differences in tongue lengths, nest sites, and several life-history traits are the principal factors in resource partitioning. However, the buff-tailed and white-tailed bumble bee (Bombus terrestris and B. lucorum respectively) are very similar in morphology and life history, but their ranges nevertheless partly overlap, raising the question how they are ecologically divergent. What little is known about the environmental factors determining their distributions stems from studies in Central and Western Europe, but even less information is available about their distributions in Eastern Europe, where different subspecies occur. Here, we aimed to disentangle the broad habitat requirements and associated distributions of these species in Romania and Bulgaria. First, we genetically identified sampled individuals from many sites across the study area. We then not only computed species distributions based on presence-only data, but also expanded on these models using relative abundance data. We found that B. terrestris is a more generalist species than previously thought, but that B. lucorum is restricted to forested areas with colder and wetter climates, which in our study area are primarily found at higher elevations. Both vegetation parameters such as annual mean Leaf Area Index and canopy height, as well as climatic conditions, were important in explaining their distributions. Although our models based on presence-only data suggest a large overlap in their respective distributions, results on their relative abundance suggest that the two species replace one another across an environmental gradient correlated to elevation. The inclusion of abundance enhances our understanding of the distribution of these species, supporting the emerging recognition of the importance of abundance data in species distribution modeling.

  • 14.
    Geue, Julia C.
    et al.
    Comparative Zoology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Vágási, Csongor I.
    MTA-DE ‘Lendület’ Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary; Evolutionary Ecology Group, Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj- Napoca, Romania.
    Schweizer, Mona
    Animal Physiological Ecology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Pap, Péter L.
    MTA-DE ‘Lendület’ Behavioural Ecology Research Group, Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary ;Evolutionary Ecology Group, Hungarian Department of Biology and Ecology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj- Napoca, Romania.
    Thomassen, Henri A.
    Comparative Zoology, Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Environmental selection is a main driver of divergence in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in Romania and Bulgaria2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 22, s. 7954-7964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes can cause population divergence, but their relative contributions remain unclear. We investigated the roles of these processes in population divergence in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from Romania and Bulgaria, regions characterized by high landscape heterogeneity compared to Western Europe. We asked whether morphological divergence, complemented with genetic data in this human commensal species, was best explained by environmental variation, geographic distance, or landscape resistance—the effort it takes for an individual to disperse from one location to the other—caused by either natural or anthropogenic barriers. Using generalized dissimilarity modeling, a matrix regression technique that fits biotic beta diversity to both environmental predictors and geographic distance, we found that a small set of climate and vegetation variables explained up to ~30% of the observed divergence, whereas geographic and resistance distances played much lesser roles. Our results are consistent with signals of selection on morphological traits and of isolation by adaptation in genetic markers, suggesting that selection by natural environmental conditions shapes population divergence in house sparrows. Our study thus contributes to a growing body of evidence that adaptive evolution may be a major driver of diversification.

  • 15.
    Gibson, Kate
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Simon Fraser University, BC, Burnaby, Canada.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mooers, Arne Ø.
    Department of Biology, Simon Fraser University, BC, Burnaby, Canada.
    Monroe, Melanie J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biology, Simon Fraser University, BC, Burnaby, Canada.
    Pulse grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) can increase the phylogenetic diversity of vascular plant communities in the Fennoscandian tundra2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 21, s. 14598-14614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivore grazing is an important determinant of plant community assemblages. Thus, it is essential to understand its impact to direct conservation efforts in regions where herbivores are managed. While the impacts of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) grazing on plant biodiversity and community composition in the Fennoscandian tundra are well studied, the impact of reindeer grazing on phylogenetic community structure is not. We used data from a multiyear quasi-experimental study in northern Fennoscandia to analyze the effect of reindeer grazing on plant community diversity including its phylogenetic structure. Our study design used a permanent fence constructed in the 1960s and temporary fences constructed along the permanent fence to expose plant communities to three different grazing regimes: light (almost never grazed), pulse (grazed every other year), and press (chronic grazing for over 40 years). Similar to previous studies on low productivity ecosystems in this region, the species richness and evenness of plant communities with pulse and press grazing did not differ from communities with light grazing. Also consistent with previous studies in this region, we observed a transition from shrub-dominated communities with light grazing to graminoid-dominated communities with pulse and press grazing. Interestingly, communities with pulse, but not press, grazing were more phylogenetically dispersed than communities with light grazing. If grazing pulses can increase the phylogenetic diversity of plant communities, our result suggests changes in reindeer management allowing for pulses of grazing to increase phylogenetic diversity of plant communities.

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  • 16. Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel
    et al.
    Thorlacius, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia
    An approach to incorporate individual personality in modeling fish dispersal across in-stream barriers2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 720-732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personalities are an important factor that affects the dispersal of animals. In the context of aquatic species, dispersal modeling needs to consider that most freshwater ecosystems are highly fragmented by barriers reducing longitudinal connectivity. Previous research has incorporated such barriers into dispersal models under the neutral assumption that all migrating animals attempt to ascend at all times. Modeling dispersal of animals that do not perform trophic or reproductive migrations will be more realistic if it includes assumptions of which individuals attempt to overcome a barrier. We aimed to introduce personality into predictive modeling of whether a nonmigratory invasive freshwater fish (the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus) will disperse across an in-stream barrier. To that end, we experimentally assayed the personalities of 259 individuals from invasion fronts and established round goby populations. Based on the population differences in boldness, asociability, and activity, we defined a priori thresholds with bolder, more asocial, and more active individuals having a higher likelihood of ascent. We then combined the personality thresholds with swimming speed data from the literature and in situ measurements of flow velocities in the barrier. The resulting binary logistic regression model revealed probabilities of crossing a barrier which depended not only on water flow and fish swimming speed but also on animal personalities. We conclude that risk assessment through predictive dispersal modeling across fragmented landscapes can be advanced by including personality traits as parameters. The inclusion of behavior into modeling the spread of invasive species can help to improve the accuracy of risk assessments.

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  • 17.
    Hofhansl, Florian
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Chacón-Madrigal, Eduardo
    Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria; Department of Evolutionary Studies of Biosystems, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Hayama, Japan.
    Franklin, Oskar
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mechanisms driving plant functional trait variation in a tropical forest2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 9, s. 3856-3870Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant functional trait variation in tropical forests results from taxonomic differences in phylogeny and associated genetic differences, as well as, phenotypic plastic responses to the environment. Accounting for the underlying mechanisms driving plant functional trait variation is important for understanding the potential rate of change of ecosystems since trait acclimation via phenotypic plasticity is very fast compared to shifts in community composition and genetic adaptation. We here applied a statistical technique to decompose the relative roles of phenotypic plasticity, genetic adaptation, and phylogenetic constraints. We examined typically obtained plant functional traits, such as wood density, plant height, specific leaf area, leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf dry mass content, leaf nitrogen content, and leaf phosphorus content. We assumed that genetic differences in plant functional traits between species and genotypes increase with environmental heterogeneity and geographic distance, whereas trait variation due to plastic acclimation to the local environment is independent of spatial distance between sampling sites. Results suggest that most of the observed trait variation could not be explained by the measured environmental variables, thus indicating a limited potential to predict individual plant traits from commonly assessed parameters. However, we found a difference in the response of plant functional traits, such that leaf traits varied in response to canopy-light regime and nutrient availability, whereas wood traits were related to topoedaphic factors and water availability. Our analysis furthermore revealed differences in the functional response of coexisting neotropical tree species, which suggests that endemic species with conservative ecological strategies might be especially prone to competitive exclusion under projected climate change.

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  • 18. Hudson, Lawrence N.
    et al.
    Newbold, Tim
    Contu, Sara
    Hill, Samantha L. L.
    Lysenko, Igor
    De Palma, Adriana
    Phillips, Helen R. P.
    Alhusseini, Tamera I.
    Bedford, Felicity E.
    Bennett, Dominic J.
    Booth, Hollie
    Burton, Victoria J.
    Chng, Charlotte W. T.
    Choimes, Argyrios
    Correia, David L. P.
    Day, Julie
    Echeverria-Londono, Susy
    Emerson, Susan R.
    Gao, Di
    Garon, Morgan
    Harrison, Michelle L. K.
    Ingram, Daniel J.
    Jung, Martin
    Kemp, Victoria
    Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    Martin, Callum D.
    Pan, Yuan
    Pask-Hale, Gwilym D.
    Pynegar, Edwin L.
    Robinson, Alexandra N.
    Sanchez-Ortiz, Katia
    Senior, Rebecca A.
    Simmons, Benno I.
    White, Hannah J.
    Zhang, Hanbin
    Aben, Job
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    Adum, Gilbert B.
    Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    Albertos, Belen
    Alcala, E. L.
    del Mar Alguacil, Maria
    Alignier, Audrey
    Ancrenaz, Marc
    Andersen, Alan N.
    Arbelaez-Cortes, Enrique
    Armbrecht, Inge
    Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor
    Aumann, Tom
    Axmacher, Jan C.
    Azhar, Badrul
    Azpiroz, Adrian B.
    Baeten, Lander
    Bakayoko, Adama
    Baldi, Andras
    Banks, John E.
    Baral, Sharad K.
    Barlow, Jos
    Barratt, Barbara I. P.
    Barrico, Lurdes
    Bartolommei, Paola
    Barton, Diane M.
    Basset, Yves
    Batary, Peter
    Bates, Adam J.
    Baur, Bruno
    Bayne, Erin M.
    Beja, Pedro
    Benedick, Suzan
    Berg, Ake
    Bernard, Henry
    Berry, Nicholas J.
    Bhatt, Dinesh
    Bicknell, Jake E.
    Bihn, Jochen H.
    Blake, Robin J.
    Bobo, Kadiri S.
    Bocon, Roberto
    Boekhout, Teun
    Bohning-Gaese, Katrin
    Bonham, Kevin J.
    Borges, Paulo A. V.
    Borges, Sergio H.
    Boutin, Celine
    Bouyer, Jeremy
    Bragagnolo, Cibele
    Brandt, Jodi S.
    Brearley, Francis Q.
    Brito, Isabel
    Bros, Vicenc
    Brunet, Jorg
    Buczkowski, Grzegorz
    Buddle, Christopher M.
    Bugter, Rob
    Buscardo, Erika
    Buse, Joern
    Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy
    Caceres, Nilton C.
    Cagle, Nicolette L.
    Calvino-Cancela, Maria
    Cameron, Sydney A.
    Cancello, Eliana M.
    Caparros, Rut
    Cardoso, Pedro
    Carpenter, Dan
    Carrijo, Tiago F.
    Carvalho, Anelena L.
    Cassano, Camila R.
    Castro, Helena
    Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.
    Cerda, Rolando B.
    Cerezo, Alexis
    Chapman, Kim Alan
    Chauvat, Matthieu
    Christensen, Morten
    Clarke, Francis M.
    Cleary, Daniel F. R.
    Colombo, Giorgio
    Connop, Stuart P.
    Craig, Michael D.
    Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo
    Cunningham, Saul A.
    D'Aniello, Biagio
    D'Cruze, Neil
    da Silva, Pedro Giovani
    Dallimer, Martin
    Danquah, Emmanuel
    Darvill, Ben
    Dauber, Jens
    Davis, Adrian L. V.
    Dawson, Jeff
    de Sassi, Claudio
    de Thoisy, Benoit
    Deheuvels, Olivier
    Dejean, Alain
    Devineau, Jean-Louis
    Diekoetter, Tim
    Dolia, Jignasu V.
    Dominguez, Erwin
    Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth
    Dorn, Silvia
    Draper, Isabel
    Dreber, Niels
    Dumont, Bertrand
    Dures, Simon G.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Edenius, Lars
    Eggleton, Paul
    Eigenbrod, Felix
    Elek, Zoltan
    Entling, Martin H.
    Esler, Karen J.
    De Lima, Ricardo F.
    Faruk, Aisyah
    Farwig, Nina
    Fayle, Tom M.
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Felton, Annika M.
    Fensham, Roderick J.
    Fernandez, Ignacio C.
    Ferreira, Catarina C.
    Ficetola, Gentile F.
    Fiera, Cristina
    Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.
    Firincioglu, Huseyin K.
    Flaspohler, David
    Floren, Andreas
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fournier, Anne
    Fowler, Robert E.
    Franzen, Markus
    Fraser, Lauchlan H.
    Fredriksson, Gabriella M.
    Freire-, Geraldo B., Jr.
    Frizzo, Tiago L. M.
    Fukuda, Daisuke
    Furlani, Dario
    Gaigher, Rene
    Ganzhorn, Joerg U.
    Garcia, Karla P.
    Garcia-R, Juan C.
    Garden, Jenni G.
    Garilleti, Ricardo
    Ge, Bao-Ming
    Gendreau-Berthiaume, Benoit
    Gerard, Philippa J.
    Gheler-Costa, Carla
    Gilbert, Benjamin
    Giordani, Paolo
    Giordano, Simonetta
    Golodets, Carly
    Gomes, Laurens G. L.
    Gould, Rachelle K.
    Goulson, Dave
    Gove, Aaron D.
    Granjon, Laurent
    Grass, Ingo
    Gray, Claudia L.
    Grogan, James
    Gu, Weibin
    Guardiola, Moises
    Gunawardene, Nihara R.
    Gutierrez, Alvaro G.
    Gutierrez-Lamus, Doris L.
    Haarmeyer, Daniela H.
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hanson, Thor
    Hashim, Nor R.
    Hassan, Shombe N.
    Hatfield, Richard G.
    Hawes, Joseph E.
    Hayward, Matt W.
    Hebert, Christian
    Helden, Alvin J.
    Henden, John-Andre
    Henschel, Philipp
    Hernandez, Lionel
    Herrera, James P.
    Herrmann, Farina
    Herzog, Felix
    Higuera-Diaz, Diego
    Hilje, Branko
    Hofer, Hubert
    Hoffmann, Anke
    Horgan, Finbarr G.
    Hornung, Elisabeth
    Horvath, Roland
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Isaacs-Cubides, Paola
    Ishida, Hiroaki
    Ishitani, Masahiro
    Jacobs, Carmen T.
    Jaramillo, Victor J.
    Jauker, Birgit
    Jimenez Hernandez, F.
    Johnson, McKenzie F.
    Jolli, Virat
    Jonsell, Mats
    Juliani, S. Nur
    Jung, Thomas S.
    Kapoor, Vena
    Kappes, Heike
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Katovai, Eric
    Kellner, Klaus
    Kessler, Michael
    Kirby, Kathryn R.
    Kittle, Andrew M.
    Knight, Mairi E.
    Knop, Eva
    Kohler, Florian
    Koivula, Matti
    Kolb, Annette
    Kone, Mouhamadou
    Koroesi, Adam
    Krauss, Jochen
    Kumar, Ajith
    Kumar, Raman
    Kurz, David J.
    Kutt, Alex S.
    Lachat, Thibault
    Lantschner, Victoria
    Lara, Francisco
    Lasky, Jesse R.
    Latta, Steven C.
    Laurance, William F.
    Lavelle, Patrick
    Le Feon, Violette
    LeBuhn, Gretchen
    Legare, Jean-Philippe
    Lehouck, Valerie
    Lencinas, Maria V.
    Lentini, Pia E.
    Letcher, Susan G.
    Li, Qi
    Litchwark, Simon A.
    Littlewood, Nick A.
    Liu, Yunhui
    Lo-Man-Hung, Nancy
    Lopez-Quintero, Carlos A.
    Louhaichi, Mounir
    Lovei, Gabor L.
    Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban
    Luja, Victor H.
    Luskin, Matthew S.
    MacSwiney G, M. Cristina
    Maeto, Kaoru
    Magura, Tibor
    Mallari, Neil Aldrin
    Malone, Louise A.
    Malonza, Patrick K.
    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba
    Mandujano, Salvador
    Maren, Inger E.
    Marin-Spiotta, Erika
    Marsh, Charles J.
    Marshall, E. J. P.
    Martinez, Eliana
    Pastur, Guillermo Martinez
    Mateos, David Moreno
    Mayfield, Margaret M.
    Mazimpaka, Vicente
    McCarthy, Jennifer L.
    McCarthy, Kyle P.
    McFrederick, Quinn S.
    McNamara, Sean
    Medina, Nagore G.
    Medina, Rafael
    Mena, Jose L.
    Mico, Estefania
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Milder, Jeffrey C.
    Miller, James R.
    Miranda-Esquivel, Daniel R.
    Moir, Melinda L.
    Morales, Carolina L.
    Muchane, Mary N.
    Muchane, Muchai
    Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja
    Munira, A. Nur
    Muonz-Alonso, Antonio
    Munyekenye, B. F.
    Naidoo, Robin
    Naithani, A.
    Nakagawa, Michiko
    Nakamura, Akihiro
    Nakashima, Yoshihiro
    Naoe, Shoji
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Gutierrez, Dario A. Navarrete
    Navarro-Iriarte, Luis
    Ndang'ang'a, Paul K.
    Neuschulz, Eike L.
    Ngai, Jacqueline T.
    Nicolas, Violaine
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Noreika, Norbertas
    Norfolk, Olivia
    Noriega, Jorge Ari
    Norton, David A.
    Noeske, Nicole M.
    Nowakowski, A. Justin
    Numa, Catherine
    O'Dea, Niall
    O'Farrell, Patrick J.
    Oduro, William
    Oertli, Sabine
    Ofori-Boateng, Caleb
    Oke, Christopher Omamoke
    Oostra, Vicencio
    Osgathorpe, Lynne M.
    Eduardo Otavo, Samuel
    Page, Navendu V.
    Paritsis, Juan
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Parry, Luke
    Pe'er, Guy
    Pearman, Peter B.
    Pelegrin, Nicolas
    Pelissier, Raphael
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Peri, Pablo L.
    Persson, Anna S.
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Peters, Marcell K.
    Pethiyagoda, Rohan S.
    Phalan, Ben
    Philips, T. Keith
    Pillsbury, Finn C.
    Pincheira-Ulbrich, Jimmy
    Pineda, Eduardo
    Pino, Joan
    Pizarro-Araya, Jaime
    Plumptre, A. J.
    Poggio, Santiago L.
    Politi, Natalia
    Pons, Pere
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Presley, Steven J.
    Proenca, Vania
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Rader, Romina
    Ramesh, B. R.
    Ramirez-Pinilla, Martha P.
    Ranganathan, Jai
    Rasmussen, Claus
    Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.
    Reid, J. Leighton
    Reis, Yana T.
    Rey Benayas, Jose M.
    Carlos Rey-Velasco, Juan
    Reynolds, Chevonne
    Ribeiro, Danilo Bandini
    Richards, Miriam H.
    Richardson, Barbara A.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Macip Rios, Rodrigo
    Robinson, Richard
    Robles, Carolina A.
    Roembke, Joerg
    Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad
    Ros, Matthias
    Rosselli, Loreta
    Rossiter, Stephen J.
    Roth, Dana S.
    Roulston, T'ai H.
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Rubio, Andre V.
    Ruel, Jean-Claude
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
    Safian, Szabolcs
    Saldana-Vazquez, Romeo A.
    Sam, Katerina
    Samnegard, Ulrika
    Santana, Joana
    Santos, Xavier
    Savage, Jade
    Schellhorn, Nancy A.
    Schilthuizen, Menno
    Schmiedel, Ute
    Schmitt, Christine B.
    Schon, Nicole L.
    Schuepp, Christof
    Schumann, Katharina
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Scott, Dawn M.
    Scott, Kenneth A.
    Sedlock, Jodi L.
    Seefeldt, Steven S.
    Shahabuddin, Ghazala
    Shannon, Graeme
    Sheil, Douglas
    Sheldon, Frederick H.
    Shochat, Eyal
    Siebert, Stefan J.
    Silva, Fernando A. B.
    Simonetti, Javier A.
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Smith, Jo
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Sodhi, Navjot S.
    Somarriba, Eduardo J.
    Sosa, Ramon A.
    Soto Quiroga, Grimaldo
    St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues
    Starzomski, Brian M.
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Stouffer, Philip C.
    Stout, Jane C.
    Strauch, Ayron M.
    Struebig, Matthew J.
    Su, Zhimin
    Suarez-Rubio, Marcela
    Sugiura, Shinji
    Summerville, Keith S.
    Sung, Yik-Hei
    Sutrisno, Hari
    Svenning, Jens-Christian
    Teder, Tiit
    Threlfall, Caragh G.
    Tiitsaar, Anu
    Todd, Jacqui H.
    Tonietto, Rebecca K.
    Torre, Ignasi
    Tothmeresz, Bela
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Turner, Edgar C.
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Uehara-Prado, Marcio
    Urbina-Cardona, Nicolas
    Vallan, Denis
    Vanbergen, Adam J.
    Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Verdasca, Maria Joao
    Verdu, Jose R.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Vergara, Pablo M.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Virgilio, Massimiliano
    Van Vu, Lien
    Waite, Edward M.
    Walker, Tony R.
    Wang, Hua-Feng
    Wang, Yanping
    Watling, James I.
    Weller, Britta
    Wells, Konstans
    Westphal, Catrin
    Wiafe, Edward D.
    Williams, Christopher D.
    Willig, Michael R.
    Woinarski, John C. Z.
    Wolf, Jan H. D.
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Woodcock, Ben A.
    Wu, Jihua
    Wunderle, Joseph M., Jr.
    Yamaura, Yuichi
    Yoshikura, Satoko
    Yu, Douglas W.
    Zaitsev, Andrey S.
    Zeidler, Juliane
    Zou, Fasheng
    Collen, Ben
    Ewers, Rob M.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Purves, Drew W.
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Purvis, Andy
    The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 145-188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.

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  • 19. Hudson, Lawrence N.
    et al.
    Newbold, Tim
    Contu, Sara
    Hill, Samantha L. L.
    Lysenko, Igor
    De Palma, Adriana
    Phillips, Helen R. P.
    Senior, Rebecca A.
    Bennett, Dominic J.
    Booth, Hollie
    Choimes, Argyrios
    Correia, David L. P.
    Day, Julie
    Echeverria-Londono, Susy
    Garon, Morgan
    Harrison, Michelle L. K.
    Ingram, Daniel J.
    Jung, Martin
    Kemp, Victoria
    Kirkpatrick, Lucinda
    Martin, Callum D.
    Pan, Yuan
    White, Hannah J.
    Aben, Job
    Abrahamczyk, Stefan
    Adum, Gilbert B.
    Aguilar-Barquero, Virginia
    Aizen, Marcelo A.
    Ancrenaz, Marc
    Arbelaez-Cortes, Enrique
    Armbrecht, Inge
    Azhar, Badrul
    Azpiroz, Adrian B.
    Baeten, Lander
    Baldi, Andras
    Banks, John E.
    Barlow, Jos
    Batary, Peter
    Bates, Adam J.
    Bayne, Erin M.
    Beja, Pedro
    Berg, Ake
    Berry, Nicholas J.
    Bicknell, Jake E.
    Bihn, Jochen H.
    Boehning-Gaese, Katrin
    Boekhout, Teun
    Boutin, Celine
    Bouyer, Jeremy
    Brearley, Francis Q.
    Brito, Isabel
    Brunet, Joerg
    Buczkowski, Grzegorz
    Buscardo, Erika
    Cabra-Garcia, Jimmy
    Calvino-Cancela, Maria
    Cameron, Sydney A.
    Cancello, Eliana M.
    Carrijo, Tiago F.
    Carvalho, Anelena L.
    Castro, Helena
    Castro-Luna, Alejandro A.
    Cerda, Rolando
    Cerezo, Alexis
    Chauvat, Matthieu
    Clarke, Frank M.
    Cleary, Daniel F. R.
    Connop, Stuart P.
    D'Aniello, Biagio
    da Silva, Pedro Giovani
    Darvill, Ben
    Dauber, Jens
    Dejean, Alain
    Diekoetter, Tim
    Dominguez-Haydar, Yamileth
    Dormann, Carsten F.
    Dumont, Bertrand
    Dures, Simon G.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Edenius, Lars
    Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Elek, Zoltan
    Entling, Martin H.
    Farwig, Nina
    Fayle, Tom M.
    Felicioli, Antonio
    Felton, Annika M.
    Ficetola, Gentile F.
    Filgueiras, Bruno K. C.
    Fonte, Steven J.
    Fraser, Lauchlan H.
    Fukuda, Daisuke
    Furlani, Dario
    Ganzhorn, Joerg U.
    Garden, Jenni G.
    Gheler-Costa, Carla
    Giordani, Paolo
    Giordano, Simonetta
    Gottschalk, Marco S.
    Goulson, Dave
    Gove, Aaron D.
    Grogan, James
    Hanley, Mick E.
    Hanson, Thor
    Hashim, Nor R.
    Hawes, Joseph E.
    Hebert, Christian
    Helden, Alvin J.
    Henden, John-Andre
    Hernandez, Lionel
    Herzog, Felix
    Higuera-Diaz, Diego
    Hilje, Branko
    Horgan, Finbarr G.
    Horvath, Roland
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Isaacs-Cubides, Paola
    Ishitani, Masahiro
    Jacobs, Carmen T.
    Jaramillo, Victor J.
    Jauker, Birgit
    Jonsell, Mats
    Jung, Thomas S.
    Kapoor, Vena
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Katovai, Eric
    Kessler, Michael
    Knop, Eva
    Kolb, Annette
    Koroesi, Adam
    Lachat, Thibault
    Lantschner, Victoria
    Le Feon, Violette
    LeBuhn, Gretchen
    Legare, Jean-Philippe
    Letcher, Susan G.
    Littlewood, Nick A.
    Lopez-Quintero, Carlos A.
    Louhaichi, Mounir
    Loevei, Gabor L.
    Lucas-Borja, Manuel Esteban
    Luja, Victor H.
    Maeto, Kaoru
    Magura, Tibor
    Mallari, Neil Aldrin
    Marin-Spiotta, Erika
    Marshall, E. J. P.
    Martinez, Eliana
    Mayfield, Margaret M.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    Milder, Jeffrey C.
    Miller, James R.
    Morales, Carolina L.
    Muchane, Mary N.
    Muchane, Muchai
    Naidoo, Robin
    Nakamura, Akihiro
    Naoe, Shoji
    Nates-Parra, Guiomar
    Navarrete Gutierrez, Dario A.
    Neuschulz, Eike L.
    Noreika, Norbertas
    Norfolk, Olivia
    Noriega, Jorge Ari
    Noeske, Nicole M.
    O'Dea, Niall
    Oduro, William
    Ofori-Boateng, Caleb
    Oke, Chris O.
    Osgathorpe, Lynne M.
    Paritsis, Juan
    Parra-H, Alejandro
    Pelegrin, Nicolas
    Peres, Carlos A.
    Persson, Anna S.
    Petanidou, Theodora
    Phalan, Ben
    Philips, T. Keith
    Poveda, Katja
    Power, Eileen F.
    Presley, Steven J.
    Proenca, Vania
    Quaranta, Marino
    Quintero, Carolina
    Redpath-Downing, Nicola A.
    Reid, J. Leighton
    Reis, Yana T.
    Ribeiro, Danilo B.
    Richardson, Barbara A.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Robles, Carolina A.
    Roembke, Joerg
    Romero-Duque, Luz Piedad
    Rosselli, Loreta
    Rossiter, Stephen J.
    Roulston, T'ai H.
    Rousseau, Laurent
    Sadler, Jonathan P.
    Safian, Szabolcs
    Saldana-Vazquez, Romeo A.
    Samnegard, Ulrika
    Schueepp, Christof
    Schweiger, Oliver
    Sedlock, Jodi L.
    Shahabuddin, Ghazala
    Sheil, Douglas
    Silva, Fernando A. B.
    Slade, Eleanor M.
    Smith-Pardo, Allan H.
    Sodhi, Navjot S.
    Somarriba, Eduardo J.
    Sosa, Ramon A.
    Stout, Jane C.
    Struebig, Matthew J.
    Sung, Yik-Hei
    Threlfall, Caragh G.
    Tonietto, Rebecca
    Tothmeresz, Bela
    Tscharntke, Teja
    Turner, Edgar C.
    Tylianakis, Jason M.
    Vanbergen, Adam J.
    Vassilev, Kiril
    Verboven, Hans A. F.
    Vergara, Carlos H.
    Vergara, Pablo M.
    Verhulst, Jort
    Walker, Tony R.
    Wang, Yanping
    Watling, James I.
    Wells, Konstans
    Williams, Christopher D.
    Willig, Michael R.
    Woinarski, John C. Z.
    Wolf, Jan H. D.
    Woodcock, Ben A.
    Yu, Douglas W.
    Zaitsev, Andrey S.
    Collen, Ben
    Ewers, Rob M.
    Mace, Georgina M.
    Purves, Drew W.
    Scharlemann, Joern P. W.
    Purvis, Andy
    The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 24, s. 4701-4735Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity continues to decline in the face of increasing anthropogenic pressures such as habitat destruction, exploitation, pollution and introduction of alien species. Existing global databases of species' threat status or population time series are dominated by charismatic species. The collation of datasets with broad taxonomic and biogeographic extents, and that support computation of a range of biodiversity indicators, is necessary to enable better understanding of historical declines and to project - and avert - future declines. We describe and assess a new database of more than 1.6 million samples from 78 countries representing over 28,000 species, collated from existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database contains measurements taken in 208 (of 814) ecoregions, 13 (of 14) biomes, 25 (of 35) biodiversity hotspots and 16 (of 17) megadiverse countries. The database contains more than 1% of the total number of all species described, and more than 1% of the described species within many taxonomic groups - including flowering plants, gymnosperms, birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, beetles, lepidopterans and hymenopterans. The dataset, which is still being added to, is therefore already considerably larger and more representative than those used by previous quantitative models of biodiversity trends and responses. The database is being assembled as part of the PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems - ). We make site-level summary data available alongside this article. The full database will be publicly available in 2015.

  • 20.
    Hwang, Bernice C.
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Giardina, Christian P.
    Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, HI, Hilo, United States.
    Litton, Creighton M.
    Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, HI, Honolulu, United States.
    Francisco, Kainana S.
    Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, HI, Hilo, United States.
    Pacheco, Cody
    Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, HI, Hilo, United States.
    Thomas, Naneaikealaula
    Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, HI, Hilo, United States.
    Uehara, Tyler
    Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, HI, Hilo, United States.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Impacts of insect frass and cadavers on soil surface litter decomposition along a tropical forest temperature gradient2022Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 12, nr 9, artikel-id e9322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Insect herbivores play important roles in shaping many ecosystem processes, but how climate change will alter the effects of insect herbivory are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified for the first time how insect frass and cadavers affected leaf litter decomposition rates and nutrient release along a highly constrained 4.3°C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient in a Hawaiian montane tropical wet forest. We constructed litterbags of standardized locally sourced leaf litter, with some amended with insect frass + cadavers to produce treatments designed to simulate ambient (Control = no amendment), moderate (Amended-Low = 2 × Control level), or severe (Amended-High = 11 × Control level) insect outbreak events. Multiple sets of these litterbags were deployed across the MAT gradient, with individual litterbags collected periodically over one year to assess how rising MAT altered the effects of insect deposits on litter decomposition rates and nitrogen (N) release. Increased MAT and insect inputs additively increased litter decomposition rates and N immobilization rates, with effects being stronger for Amended-High litterbags. However, the apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of litter decomposition was not clearly affected by amendments. The effects of adding insect deposits in this study operated differently than the slower litter decomposition and greater N mobilization rates often observed in experiments which use chemical fertilizers (e.g., urea, ammonium nitrate). Further research is required to understand mechanistic differences between amendment types. Potential increases in outbreak-related herbivore deposits coupled with climate warming will accelerate litter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates with short-term consequences for nutrient cycling and carbon storage in tropical montane wet forests.

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  • 21. Jerney, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Kremp, Anke
    Future temperature and salinity do not exert selection pressure on cyst germination of a toxic phytoplankton species2019Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 4443-4451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental conditions regulate the germination of phytoplankton resting stages. While some factors lead to synchronous germination, others stimulate germination of only a small fraction of the resting stages. This suggests that habitat filters may act on the germination level and thus affect selection of blooming strains. Benthic seed banks of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea are genetically and phenotypically diverse, indicating a high potential for adaptation by selection on standing genetic variation. Here, we experimentally tested the role of climate-related salinity and temperature as selection filters during germination and subsequent establishment of A.ostenfeldii strains. A representative resting cyst population was isolated from sediment samples, and germination and reciprocal transplantation experiments were carried out, including four treatments: Average present day germination conditions and three potential future conditions: high temperature, low salinity, and high temperature in combination with low salinity. We found that the final germination success of A.ostenfeldii resting cysts was unaffected by temperature and salinity in the range tested. A high germination success of more than 80% in all treatments indicates that strains are not selected by temperature and salinity during germination, but selection becomes more important shortly after germination, in the vegetative stage of the life cycle. Moreover, strains were not adapted to germination conditions. Instead, highly plastic responses occurred after transplantation and significantly higher growth rates were observed at higher temperature. High variability of strain-specific responses has probably masked the overall effect of the treatments, highlighting the importance of testing the effect of environmental factors on many strains. It is likely that A.ostenfeldii populations can persist in the future, because suitable strains, which are able to germinate and grow well at potential future climate conditions, are part of the highly diverse cyst population. OPEN RESEARCH BADGESThis article has earned an Open Data Badge for making publicly available the digitally-shareable data necessary to reproduce the reported results. The data is available at .

  • 22. Johansson, Jacob
    et al.
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Metz, Johan A. J.
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Twelve fundamental life histories evolving through allocation-dependent fecundity and survival2018Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 3172-3186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An organism's life history is closely interlinked with its allocation of energy between growth and reproduction at different life stages. Theoretical models have established that diminishing returns from reproductive investment promote strategies with simultaneous investment into growth and reproduction (indeterminate growth) over strategies with distinct phases of growth and reproduction (determinate growth). We extend this traditional, binary classification by showing that allocation-dependent fecundity and mortality rates allow for a large diversity of optimal allocation schedules. By analyzing a model of organisms that allocate energy between growth and reproduction, we find twelve types of optimal allocation schedules, differing qualitatively in how reproductive allocation increases with body mass. These twelve optimal allocation schedules include types with different combinations of continuous and discontinuous increase in reproduction allocation, in which phases of continuous increase can be decelerating or accelerating. We furthermore investigate how this variation influences growth curves and the expected maximum life span and body size. Our study thus reveals new links between eco-physiological constraints and life-history evolution and underscores how allocation-dependent fitness components may underlie biological diversity.

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  • 23. Karlsson, Konrad
    et al.
    Winder, Monika
    Adaptation potential of the copepod Eurytemora affinis to a future warmer Baltic Sea2020Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To predict effects of global change on zooplankton populations, it is important to understand how present species adapt to temperature and how they respond to stressors interacting with temperature. Here, we ask if the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis from the Baltic Sea can adapt to future climate warming. Populations were sampled at sites with different temperatures. Full sibling families were reared in the laboratory and used in two common garden experiments (a) populations crossed over three temperature treatments 12, 17, and 22.5°C and (b) populations crossed over temperature in interaction with salinity and algae of different food quality. Genetic correlations of the full siblings’ development time were not different from zero between 12°C and the two higher temperatures 17 and 22.5°C, but positively correlated between 17 and 22.5°C. Hence, a population at 12°C is unlikely to adapt to warmer temperature, while a population at ≥17°C can adapt to an even higher temperature, that is, 22.5°C. In agreement with the genetic correlations, the population from the warmest site of origin had comparably shorter development time at high temperature than the populations from colder sites, that is, a cogradient variation. The population with the shortest development time at 22.5°C had in comparison lower survival on low quality food, illustrating a cost of short development time. Our results suggest that populations from warmer environments can at present indirectly adapt to a future warmer Baltic Sea, whereas populations from colder areas show reduced adaptation potential to high temperatures, simply because they experience an environment that is too cold.

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  • 24.
    Kolzenburg, Regina
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
    Nicastro, Katy R.
    Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal.
    McCoy, Sophie J.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida.
    Ford, Alex T.
    Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
    Zardi, Gerardo I.
    Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa.
    Ragazzola, Federica
    Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.
    Understanding the margin squeeze: differentiation in fitness-related traits between central and trailing edge populations of Corallina officinalis2019Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 5787-5801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing population responses to climate-related environmental change is key to understanding the adaptive potential of the species as a whole. Coralline algae are critical components of marine shallow water ecosystems where they function as important ecosystem engineers. Populations of the calcifying algae Corallina officinalis from the center (southern UK) and periphery (northern Spain) of the North Atlantic species natural distribution were selected to test for functional differentiation in thermal stress response. Physiological measurements of calcification, photosynthesis, respiration, growth rates, oxygen, and calcification evolution curves were performed using closed cell respirometry methods. Species identity was genetically confirmed via DNA barcoding. Through a common garden approach, we identified distinct vulnerability to thermal stress of central and peripheral populations. Southern populations showed a decrease in photosynthetic rate under environmental conditions of central locations, and central populations showed a decline in calcification rates under southern conditions. This shows that the two processes of calcification and photosynthesis are not as tightly coupled as previously assumed. How the species as whole will react to future climatic changes will be determined by the interplay of local environmental conditions and these distinct population adaptive traits. 

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  • 25. Kristensen, Jeppe A.
    et al.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Background insect herbivory increases with local elevation but makes minor contribution to element cycling along natural gradients in the Subarctic2020Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 10, nr 20, s. 11684-11698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Herbivores can exert major controls over biogeochemical cycling. As invertebrates are highly sensitive to temperature shifts (ectothermal), the abundances of insects in high-latitude systems, where climate warming is rapid, is expected to increase. In subarctic mountain birch forests, research has focussed on geometrid moth outbreaks, while the contribution of background insect herbivory (BIH) to elemental cycling is poorly constrained. In northern Sweden, we estimated BIH along 9 elevational gradients distributed across a gradient in regional elevation, temperature, and precipitation to allow evaluation of consistency in local versus regional variation. We converted foliar loss via BIH to fluxes of C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) from the birch canopy to the soil to compare with other relevant soil inputs of the same elements and assessed different abiotic and biotic drivers of the observed variability. We found that leaf area loss due to BIH was similar to 1.6% on average. This is comparable to estimates from tundra, but considerably lower than ecosystems at lower latitudes. The C, N, and P fluxes from canopy to soil associated with BIH were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the soil input from senesced litter and external nutrient sources such as biological N fixation, atmospheric deposition of N, and P weathering estimated from the literature. Despite the minor contribution to overall elemental cycling in subarctic birch forests, the higher quality and earlier timing of the input of herbivore deposits to soils compared to senesced litter may make this contribution disproportionally important for various ecosystem functions. BIH increased significantly with leaf N content as well as local elevation along each transect, yet showed no significant relationship with temperature or humidity, nor the commonly used temperature proxy, absolute elevation. The lack of consistency between the local and regional elevational trends calls for caution when using elevation gradients as climate proxies.

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  • 26.
    Lidman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Burrows, Ryan M.
    Bundschuh, Mirco
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Composition of riparian litter input regulates organic matter decomposition: Implications for headwater stream functioning in a managed forest landscape2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1068-1077Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags. Total litter inputs ranged more than fivefold among sites and increased with the proportion of deciduous vegetation in the riparian zone. In line with differences in initial litter quality, mean decomposition rate was highest for alder, followed by birch, spruce, and lodgepole pine (12, 55, and 68% lower rates, respectively). Further, these rates were greater in coarse-mesh bags that allow colonization by macroinvertebrates. Variance in decomposition rate among sites for different species was best explained by different sets of environmental conditions, but litter-input composition (i.e., quality) was overall highly important. On average, native litter decomposed faster in sites with higher-quality litter input and (with the exception of spruce) higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients and open canopies. By contrast, lodgepole pine decomposed more rapidly in sites receiving lower-quality litter inputs. Birch litter decomposition rate in coarse-mesh bags was best predicted by the same environmental variables as in fine-mesh bags, with additional positive influences of macroinvertebrate species richness. Hence, to facilitate energy turnover in boreal headwaters, forest management with focus on conifer production should aim at increasing the presence of native deciduous trees along streams, as they promote conditions that favor higher decomposition rates of terrestrial plant litter.

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  • 27.
    Lind, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weber, Christine
    Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
    Effects of ice and floods on vegetation in streams in cold regions: implications for climate change2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 21, s. 4173-4184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian zones support some of the most dynamic and species-rich plant communities in cold regions. A common conception among plant ecologists is that flooding during the season when plants are dormant generally has little effect on the survival and production of riparian vegetation. We show that winter floods may also be of fundamental importance for the composition of riverine vegetation. We investigated the effects of ice formation on riparian and in-stream vegetation in northern Sweden using a combination of experiments and observations in 25 reaches, spanning a gradient from ice-free to ice-rich reaches. The ice-rich reaches were characterized by high production of frazil and anchor ice. In a couple of experiments, we exposed riparian vegetation to experimentally induced winter flooding, which reduced the dominant dwarf-shrub cover and led to colonization of a species-rich forb-dominated vegetation. In another experiment, natural winter floods caused by anchor-ice formation removed plant mimics both in the in-stream and in the riparian zone, further supporting the result that anchor ice maintains dynamic plant communities. With a warmer winter climate, ice-induced winter floods may first increase in frequency because of more frequent shifts between freezing and thawing during winter, but further warming and shortening of the winter might make them less common than today. If ice-induced winter floods become reduced in number because of a warming climate, an important disturbance agent for riparian and in-stream vegetation will be removed, leading to reduced species richness in streams and rivers in cold regions. Given that such regions are expected to have more plant species in the future because of immigration from the south, the distribution of species richness among habitats can be expected to show novel patterns.

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  • 28.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Landscape, Environment and Geomatics, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ermold, Matti
    Landscape, Environment and Geomatics, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kuglerová, Lenka
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Larson, Keith W.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Milbau, Ann
    Province of Antwerp, Department of Sustainable Environment and Nature Policy, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Landscape, Environment and Geomatics, Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How does a wetland plant respond to increasing temperature along a latitudinal gradient?2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 22, s. 16228-16238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming affects plant fitness through changes in functional traits and thereby ecosystem function. Wetlands are declining worldwide, and hence, ecosystem functions linked to wetlands are threatened. We use Caltha palustris “a common wetland plant” to study whether warming affects growth and reproduction differently depending on origin of source population, potentially affecting phenotypic response to local climate. We conducted a 2-year in situ temperature manipulation experiment using clone pairs of C. palustris in four regions, along a 1300-km latitudinal gradient of Sweden. Open-top chambers were used to passively increase temperature, paired with controls. Growth and reproductive traits were measured from 320 plants (four regions × five sites × two treatments × eight plants) over two consecutive seasons to assess the effect of warming over time. We found that warming increased plant height, leaf area, number of leaves, and roots. High-latitude populations responded more strongly to warming than low-latitude populations, especially by increasing leaf area. Warming increased number of flowers in general, but only in the second year, while number of fruits increased in low-latitude populations the first year. Prolonged warming leads to an increase in both number of leaves and flowers over time. While reproduction shows varying and regional responses to warming, impacts on plant growth, especially in high-latitude populations, have more profound effects. Such effects could lead to changes in plant community composition with increased abundance of fast-growing plants with larger leaves and more clones, affecting plant competition and ecological functions such as decomposition and nutrient retention. Effects of warming were highly context dependent; thus, we encourage further use of warming experiments to predict changes in growth, reproduction, and community composition across wetland types and climate gradients targeting different plant forms.

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  • 29. Lindh, Magnus
    et al.
    Falster, Daniel S.
    Zhang, Lai
    Dieckmann, Ulf
    Brännström, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Evolution and Ecology Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Latitudinal effects on crown shape evolution2018Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, nr 16, s. 8149-8158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large variations in crown shape are observed across the globe, from plants with wide and deep crowns to those with leaves clustered at the top. While there have been advances in the large-scale monitoring of forests, little is known about factors driving variations in crown shape with environmental conditions. Previous theoretical research suggests a gradient in crown shape with latitude, due to the effects of sun angle. Yet, it remains unclear whether such changes are also predicted under competition. Using a size-structured forest-growth model that incorporates self-shading from plants and competitive shading from their neighbors, we investigate how changes in site productivity and sun angle shape crown evolution. We consider evolution in two traits describing the top-heaviness and width-to-height ratio of crowns, shaped by trade-offs reflecting the costs and benefits of alternative architectures. In top-heavy trees, most of the leaves are at the top half of the trunk. We show that, contrary to common belief, the angle of sun beams per se has only a weak influence on crown shapes, except at low site productivity. By contrast, reduced site productivity has a strong effect, with trees growing in less productive sites keeping their leaves closer to the ground. The crown width-to-height ratio is generally higher at a lower site productivity, but this trait is not strongly influenced by any environmental factor. This theoretical analysis brings into question established beliefs about the effects of latitude on crown shapes. By introducing geometry-related growth constraints caused by shading from both the surrounding forest and the tree on itself, and costs for constructing and maintaining a three-dimensional crown, our analysis suggests crown shapes may vary with latitude, mostly via effects on overall site productivity, and less because of the angle of the sun.

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  • 30.
    Lindén, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gough, Laura
    Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, MD, Towson, United States.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Large and small herbivores have strong effects on tundra vegetation in Scandinavia and Alaska2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 17, s. 12141-12152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large and small mammalian herbivores are present in most vegetated areas in the Arctic and often have large impacts on plant community composition and ecosystem functioning. The relative importance of different herbivores and especially how their specific impact on the vegetation varies across the Arctic is however poorly understood. Here, we investigate how large and small herbivores influence vegetation density and plant community composition in four arctic vegetation types in Scandinavia and Alaska. We used a unique set of exclosures, excluding only large (reindeer and muskoxen) or all mammalian herbivores (also voles and lemmings) for at least 20 years. We found that mammalian herbivores in general decreased leaf area index, NDVI, and abundance of vascular plants in all four locations, even though the strength of the effect and which herbivore type caused these effects differed across locations. In three locations, herbivore presence caused contrasting plant communities, but not in the location with lowest productivity. Large herbivores had a negative effect on plant height, whereas small mammalian herbivores increased species diversity by decreasing dominance of the initially dominating plant species. Above- or belowground disturbances caused by herbivores were found to play an important role in shaping the vegetation in all locations. Synthesis: Based on these results, we conclude that both small and large mammalian herbivores influence vegetation in Scandinavia and Alaska in a similar way, some of which can mitigate effects of climate change. We also see important differences across locations, but these depend rather on local herbivore and plant community composition than large biogeographical differences among continents.

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  • 31.
    Mähler, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Schiffthaler, Bastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Terebieniec, Barbara K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Vucak, Matej
    Mannapperuma, Chanaka
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bailey, Mark
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Hvidsten, Torgeir
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Leaf shape in Populus tremula is a complex, omnigenic trait2020Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 10, nr 21, s. 11922-11940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaf shape is a defining feature of how we recognize and classify plant species. Although there is extensive variation in leaf shape within many species, few studies have disentangled the underlying genetic architecture. We characterized the genetic architecture of leaf shape variation in Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula L.) by performing genome‐wide association study (GWAS) for physiognomy traits. To ascertain the roles of identified GWAS candidate genes within the leaf development transcriptional program, we generated RNA‐Seq data that we used to perform gene co‐expression network analyses from a developmental series, which is publicly available within the PlantGenIE resource. We additionally used existing gene expression measurements across the population to analyze GWAS candidate genes in the context of a population‐wide co‐expression network and to identify genes that were differentially expressed between groups of individuals with contrasting leaf shapes. These data were integrated with expression GWAS (eQTL) results to define a set of candidate genes associated with leaf shape variation. Our results identified no clear adaptive link to leaf shape variation and indicate that leaf shape traits are genetically complex, likely determined by numerous small‐effect variations in gene expression. Genes associated with shape variation were peripheral within the population‐wide co‐expression network, were not highly connected within the leaf development co‐expression network, and exhibited signatures of relaxed selection. As such, our results are consistent with the omnigenic model.

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  • 32.
    Palmqvist, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Franklin, Oskar
    Nasholm, Torgny
    Symbiosis constraints: Strong mycobiont control limits nutrient response in lichens2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 18, s. 7420-7433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Symbioses such as lichens are potentially threatened by drastic environmental changes. We used the lichen Peltigera aphthosaa symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont), a green alga (Coccomyxa sp.), and N-2-fixing cyanobacteria (Nostoc sp.)as a model organism to assess the effects of environmental perturbations in nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). Growth, carbon (C) and N stable isotopes, CNP concentrations, and specific markers were analyzed in whole thalli and the partners after 4months of daily nutrient additions in the field. Thallus N was 40% higher in N-fertilized thalli, amino acid concentrations were twice as high, while fungal chitin but not ergosterol was lower. Nitrogen also resulted in a thicker algal layer and density, and a higher C-13 abundance in all three partners. Photosynthesis was not affected by either N or P. Thallus growth increased with light dose independent of fertilization regime. We conclude that faster algal growth compared to fungal lead to increased competition for light and CO2 among the Coccomyxa cells, and for C between alga and fungus, resulting in neither photosynthesis nor thallus growth responded to N fertilization. This suggests that the symbiotic lifestyle of lichens may prevent them from utilizing nutrient abundance to increase C assimilation and growth.

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  • 33.
    Prager, Case M.
    et al.
    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of Michigan, MI, Ann Arbor, United States; The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, CO, Crested Butte, United States.
    Classen, Aimee T.
    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of Michigan, MI, Ann Arbor, United States; The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, CO, Crested Butte, United States; Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barrios-Garcia, Maria Noelia
    CONICET, CENAC-APN, Rio Negro, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina; Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, VT, Burlington, United States.
    Cameron, Erin K.
    Department of Environmental Science, Saint Mary's University, NS, Halifax, Canada.
    Chen, Litong
    Qinghai Provincial Key Laboratory of Restoration Ecology of Cold Area and Key Laboratory of Adaptation and Evolution of Plant Biota, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China.
    Chisholm, Chelsea
    Department of Environment Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Crowther, Thomas W.
    Department of Environment Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Deslippe, Julie R.
    Centre for Biodiversity and Restoration Ecology, School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Grigulis, Karl
    Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, Université Grenoble Alpes – CNRS – Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, Grenoble, France.
    He, Jin-Sheng
    Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Henning, Jeremiah A.
    The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, CO, Crested Butte, United States; Department of Biology, University of South Alabama, AL, Mobile, United States.
    Hovenden, Mark
    Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, TAS, Hobart, Australia.
    Høye, Toke T. Thomas
    Department of Ecoscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Jing, Xin
    Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, and College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Gansu, Lanzhou, China.
    Lavorel, Sandra
    Laboratoire d'Ecologie Alpine, Université Grenoble Alpes – CNRS – Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, Grenoble, France.
    McLaren, Jennie R.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, TX, El Paso, United States.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Newman, Gregory S.
    Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, OK, Norman, United States.
    Nielsen, Marie Louise
    Department of Ecoscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Rixen, Christian
    Mountain Ecosystems Group, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, Davos Dorf, Switzerland.
    Read, Quentin D.
    The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, CO, Crested Butte, United States; National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center, MD, Annapolis, United States.
    Rewcastle, Kenna E.
    Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, VT, Burlington, United States.
    Rodriguez-Cabal, Mariano
    Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, VT, Burlington, United States; Grupo de Ecología de Invasiones, INIBIOMA, CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina.
    Wardle, David A.
    Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Wipf, Sonja
    Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, OK, Norman, United States; Department of Research and Monitoring, Chastè Planta-Wildenberg, Zernez, Switzerland.
    Sanders, Nathan J.
    Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of Michigan, MI, Ann Arbor, United States; The Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory, CO, Crested Butte, United States; Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Integrating natural gradients, experiments, and statistical modeling in a distributed network experiment: An example from the WaRM Network2022Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikel-id e9396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of work examines the direct and indirect effects of climate change on ecosystems, typically by using manipulative experiments at a single site or performing meta-analyses across many independent experiments. However, results from single-site studies tend to have limited generality. Although meta-analytic approaches can help overcome this by exploring trends across sites, the inherent limitations in combining disparate datasets from independent approaches remain a major challenge. In this paper, we present a globally distributed experimental network that can be used to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of climate change. We discuss how natural gradients, experimental approaches, and statistical techniques can be combined to best inform predictions about responses to climate change, and we present a globally distributed experiment that utilizes natural environmental gradients to better understand long-term community and ecosystem responses to environmental change. The warming and (species) removal in mountains (WaRM) network employs experimental warming and plant species removals at high- and low-elevation sites in a factorial design to examine the combined and relative effects of climatic warming and the loss of dominant species on community structure and ecosystem function, both above- and belowground. The experimental design of the network allows for increasingly common statistical approaches to further elucidate the direct and indirect effects of warming. We argue that combining ecological observations and experiments along gradients is a powerful approach to make stronger predictions of how ecosystems will function in a warming world as species are lost, or gained, in local communities.

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  • 34.
    Pérez-Izquierdo, Leticia
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Clemmensen, Karina E.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ibáñez, Theresa S.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Björn D.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strengbom, Joachim
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Taylor, Astrid
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Viketoft, Maria
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wardle, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fire severity as a key determinant of aboveground and belowground biological community recovery in managed even-aged boreal forests2023Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, nr 5, artikel-id e10086Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Changes in fire regime of boreal forests in response to climate warming are expected to impact postfire recovery. However, quantitative data on how managed forests sustain and recover from recent fire disturbance are limited.
    2. Two years after a large wildfire in managed even-aged boreal forests in Sweden, we investigated how recovery of aboveground and belowground communities, that is, understory vegetation and soil microbial and faunal communities, responded to variation in the severity of soil (i.e., consumption of soil organic matter) and canopy fires (i.e., tree mortality).
    3. While fire overall enhanced diversity of understory vegetation through colonization of fire adapted plant species, it reduced the abundance and diversity of soil biota. We observed contrasting effects of tree- and soil-related fire severity on survival and recovery of understory vegetation and soil biological communities. Severe fires that killed overstory Pinus sylvestris promoted a successional stage dominated by the mosses Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum juniperinum, but reduced regeneration of tree seedlings and disfavored the ericaceous dwarf-shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the grass Deschampsia flexuosa. Moreover, high tree mortality from fire reduced fungal biomass and changed fungal community composition, in particular that of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and reduced the fungivorous soil Oribatida. In contrast, soil-related fire severity had little impact on vegetation composition, fungal communities, and soil animals. Bacterial communities responded to both tree- and soil-related fire severity.
    4. Synthesis: Our results 2 years postfire suggest that a change in fire regime from a historically low-severity ground fire regime, with fires that mainly burns into the soil organic layer, to a stand-replacing fire regime with a high degree of tree mortality, as may be expected with climate change, is likely to impact the short-term recovery of stand structure and above- and belowground species composition of even-aged P. sylvestris boreal forests.
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  • 35.
    Ramirez, Juan Ignacio
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Environmental Science Group, University & Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA, Universidad San Franscisco de Quito USFQ, Quito, Ecuador.
    Uncovering the different scales in deer–forest interactions2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 10, s. 5017-5024Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deer are regarded to be a keystone species as they play a crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions. Most deer–forest interaction studies apply a single scale — process of analyzing ecological interactions by only taking into account one dependent variable — to understand how deer browsing behavior shapes different forest components, but they overlook the fact that forests respond to multiple scales simultaneously. This research evaluates the effect of browsing by wild deer on temperate and boreal forests at different scales by synthesizing seminal papers, specifically (a) what are the effects of deer population density in forest regeneration? (b) What are the effects of deer when forests present diverging spatial characteristics? (c) What are the effects on vegetation at different temporal scales? and (d) What are the hierarchical effects of deer when considering other trophic levels? Additionally, a framework based on modern technology is proposed to answer the multiscale research questions previously identified. When analyzing deer–forest interactions at different scales, the strongest relationships occur at the extremes. For example: when deer assemblage occurs in low or high density and is composed of a mix of small and large species. As forests on poor soils remain restrained in size, isolated and chronically browsed. When forests harbor incomplete trophic levels, the effects spill over to lower trophic levels. To better understand the complexities in deer–forest interactions, researchers should combine technology-based instruments like fixed sensors and drones with field-tested methods such observational studies and experiments to tackle multiscale research questions.

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  • 36.
    Ramirez, Juan Ignacio
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands; Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Quito, Ecuador.
    Zwerts, Joeri A.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands; Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    van Kuijk, Marijke
    Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Iacobelli, Palma
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Li, Xuqing
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Herdoiza, Natalie
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Jansen, Patrick A.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama, Panama.
    Density dependence of daily activity in three ungulate species2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 7390-7398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily activity in herbivores reflects a balance between finding food and safety. The safety-in-numbers theory predicts that living in higher population densities increases safety, which should affect this balance. High-density populations are thus expected to show a more even distribution of activity—that is, spread—and higher activity levels across the day. We tested these predictions for three ungulate species; red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and wild boar (Sus scrofa). We used camera traps to measure the level and spread of activity across ten forest sites at the Veluwe, the Netherlands, that widely range in ungulate density. Food availability and hunting levels were included as covariates. Daily activity was more evenly distributed when population density was higher for all three species. Both deer species showed relatively more feeding activity in broad daylight and wild boar during dusk. Activity level increased with population density only for wild boar. Food availability and hunting showed no correlation with activity patterns. These findings indicate that ungulate activity is to some degree density dependent. However, while these patterns might result from larger populations feeling safer as the safety-in-numbers theory states, we cannot rule out that they are the outcome of greater intraspecific competition for food, forcing animals to forage during suboptimal times of the day. Overall, this study demonstrates that wild ungulates adjust their activity spread and level based on their population size.

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  • 37.
    Reinikainen, Marko
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Åhlen, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Resurrected Ceriodaphnia quadrangula highlight differences between pheno- and genotypic expressions2012Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 2, nr 12, s. 2989-2998Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The hatching of cladoceran ephippia from a 15-cm long sediment core was investigated, and Ceriodaphnia quadrangula clones were isolated from different sediment layers. Bosmina microfossil data were also analyzed, and compared with the corresponding data from a Pb210 dated core, which allowed us to infer the age of the sediment layers. Using changes in Bosmina microfossil morphologies, we were, furthermore, able to infer the presence of different regimes of fish predation. C. quadrangula was found to hatch in layers with an inferred age of approximately a century. Newly hatched individuals had smaller eye-size in sediment layers corresponding to high predation by young-of-the-year perch. Newly hatched individuals also generally had a marked neck-spine. In contrast, morphological characters of C. quadrangula clones reared in the laboratory over several generations showed no variation in relation to predation regime, indicating the absence of fixed genotype level changes. Furthermore, the laboratory grown clones only rarely produced a neck-spine. The results suggest phenotypic variation in response to the regime under which ephippia were produced.

  • 38.
    Riehl, Jennifer F. L.
    et al.
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Cole, Christopher T.
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Morrow, Clay J.
    Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Barker, Hilary L.
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala BioCenter, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindroth, Richard L.
    Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Genomic and transcriptomic analyses reveal polygenic architecture for ecologically important traits in aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.)2023Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikel-id e10541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific genetic variation in foundation species such as aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) shapes their impact on forest structure and function. Identifying genes underlying ecologically important traits is key to understanding that impact. Previous studies, using single-locus genome-wide association (GWA) analyses to identify candidate genes, have identified fewer genes than anticipated for highly heritable quantitative traits. Mounting evidence suggests that polygenic control of quantitative traits is largely responsible for this “missing heritability” phenomenon. Our research characterized the genetic architecture of 30 ecologically important traits using a common garden of aspen through genomic and transcriptomic analyses. A multilocus association model revealed that most traits displayed a highly polygenic architecture, with most variation explained by loci with small effects (likely below the detection levels of single-locus GWA methods). Consistent with a polygenic architecture, our single-locus GWA analyses found only 38 significant SNPs in 22 genes across 15 traits. Next, we used differential expression analysis on a subset of aspen genets with divergent concentrations of salicinoid phenolic glycosides (key defense traits). This complementary method to traditional GWA discovered 1243 differentially expressed genes for a polygenic trait. Soft clustering analysis revealed three gene clusters (241 candidate genes) involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and regulation. Our work reveals that ecologically important traits governing higher-order community- and ecosystem-level attributes of a foundation forest tree species have complex underlying genetic structures and will require methods beyond traditional GWA analyses to unravel.

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  • 39.
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hauzy, Céline
    Loeuille, Nicolas
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Relative impacts of environmental variation and evolutionary history on the nestedness and modularity of tree-herbivore networks2015Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, nr 14, s. 2898-2915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nestedness and modularity are measures of ecological networks whose causative effects are little understood. We analyzed antagonistic plant-herbivore bipartite networks using common gardens in two contrasting environments comprised of aspen trees with differing evolutionary histories of defence against herbivores. These networks were tightly connected owing to a high level of specialization of arthropod herbivores that spend a large proportion of the life cycle on aspen. The gardens were separated by ten degrees of latitude with resultant differences in abiotic conditions. We evaluated network metrics and reported similar connectance between gardens but greater numbers of links per species in the northern common garden. Interaction matrices revealed clear nestedness, indicating subsetting of the bipartite interactions into specialist divisions, in both the environmental and evolutionary aspen groups, although nestedness values were only significant in the northern garden. Variation in plant vulnerability, measured as the frequency of herbivore specialization in the aspen population, was significantly partitioned by environment (common garden) but not by evolutionary origin of the aspens. Significant values of modularity were observed in all network matrices. Trait-matching indicated that growth traits, leaf morphology, and phenolic metabolites affected modular structure in both the garden and evolutionary groups, whereas extra-floral nectaries had little influence. Further examination of module configuration revealed that plant vulnerability explained considerable variance in web structure. The contrasting conditions between the two gardens resulted in bottom-up effects of the environment, which most strongly influenced the overall network architecture, however, the aspen groups with dissimilar evolutionary history also showed contrasting degrees of nestedness and modularity. Our research therefore shows that, while evolution does affect the structure of aspen-herbivore bipartite networks, the role of environmental variations is a dominant constraint.

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  • 40. Roe, Amanda D.
    et al.
    MacQuarrie, Chris J. K.
    Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude
    Simpson, J. Dale
    Lamarche, Josyanne
    Beardmore, Tannis
    Thompson, Stacey L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Tanguay, Philippe
    Isabel, Nathalie
    Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: I. Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers impacting a native poplar hybrid stand2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 9, s. 1629-1647Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P.deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P.deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P.balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system.

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  • 41. Roe, Amanda D.
    et al.
    MacQuarrie, Chris J. K.
    Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude
    Simpson, J. Dale
    Lamarche, Josyanne
    Beardmore, Tannis
    Thompson, Stacey L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Tanguay, Philippe
    Isabel, Nathalie
    Fitness dynamics within a poplar hybrid zone: II. Impact of exotic sex on native poplars in an urban jungle2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 10, s. 1876-1889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees bearing novel or exotic gene components are poised to contribute to the bioeconomy for a variety of purposes such as bioenergy production, phytoremediation, and carbon sequestration within the forestry sector, but sustainable release of trees with novel traits in large-scale plantations requires the quantification of risks posed to native tree populations. Over the last century, exotic hybrid poplars produced through artificial crosses were planted throughout eastern Canada as ornamentals or windbreaks and these exotics provide a proxy by which to examine the fitness of exotic poplar traits within the natural environment to assess risk of exotic gene escape, establishment, and spread into native gene pools. We assessed postzygotic fitness traits of native and exotic poplars within a naturally regenerated stand in eastern Canada (Quebec City, QC). Pure natives (P.balsamifera and P.deltoides spp. deltoides), native hybrids (P.deltoidesxP.balsamifera), and exotic hybrids (trees bearing Populus nigra and P.maximowiczii genetic components) were screened for reproductive biomass, yield, seed germination, and fungal disease susceptibility. Exotic hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to pure species and were not significantly different from native hybrids. They formed fully viable seed and backcrossed predominantly with P.balsamifera. These data show that exotic hybrids were not unfit and were capable of establishing and competing within the native stand. Future research will seek to examine the impact of exotic gene regions on associated biotic communities to fully quantify the risk exotic poplars pose to native poplar forests.

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  • 42.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Barel, Janna M.
    Aquatic Ecology & Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Radboud Institute for Biological and Environmental Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Duddigan, Sarah
    Soil Research Centre and Department of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.
    Keuskamp, Joost A.
    Ecology & Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Biont Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Pastor, Ada
    GRECO, Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Sandén, Taru
    Department for Soil Health and Plant Nutrition, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), Vienna, Austria.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reasons to not correct for leaching in TBI; Reply to Lind et al. (2022)2023Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikel-id e10133Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 43.
    Seekell, David A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dakos, Vasilis
    Heteroskedasticity as a leading indicator of desertification in spatially explicit data2015Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, nr 11, s. 2185-2192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regime shifts are abrupt transitions between alternate ecosystem states including desertification in arid regions due to drought or overgrazing. Regime shifts may be preceded by statistical anomalies such as increased autocorrelation, indicating declining resilience and warning of an impending shift. Tests for conditional heteroskedasticity, a type of clustered variance, have proven powerful leading indicators for regime shifts in time series data, but an analogous indicator for spatial data has not been evaluated. A spatial analog for conditional heteroskedasticity might be especially useful in arid environments where spatial interactions are critical in structuring ecosystem pattern and process. We tested the efficacy of a test for spatial heteroskedasticity as a leading indicator of regime shifts with simulated data from spatially extended vegetation models with regular and scale-free patterning. These models simulate shifts from extensive vegetative cover to bare, desert-like conditions. The magnitude of spatial heteroskedasticity increased consistently as the modeled systems approached a regime shift from vegetated to desert state. Relative spatial autocorrelation, spatial heteroskedasticity increased earlier and more consistently. We conclude that tests for spatial heteroskedasticity can contribute to the growing toolbox of early warning indicators for regime shifts analyzed with spatially explicit data.

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  • 44. Sunde, Johanna
    et al.
    Tibblin, Petter
    Larsson, Per
    Forsman, Anders
    Sex-specific effects of outbreeding on offspring quality in pike (Esox lucius)2018Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, nr 21, s. 10448-10459Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intraspecific genetic admixture occurs when previously separated populations within a species start interbreeding, and it can have either positive, negative, or neutral effects on reproductive performance. As there currently is no reliable predictor for the outcome of admixture, an increased knowledge about admixture effects in different species and populations is important to increase the understanding about what determines the response to admixture. We tested for effects of admixture on F1 offspring quality in three subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Gametes were collected in the field, and eggs from each female were experimentally fertilized with milt from a male from each population (one "pure" and two "admixed" treatments). Three offspring quality measures (hatching success, fry survival, and fry length) were determined and compared between (a) pure and admixed population combinations and (b) the sex-specific treatments within each admixed population combination (based on the origin of the male and female, respectively). The results suggested that although there were no overall effects of admixture on offspring quality, the consequences for a given population combination could be sex-specific and thus differ depending on which of the parents originated from one or the other population. All offspring quality traits were influenced by both maternal ID and paternal ID. Sex- and individual-specific effects can have implications for dispersal behavior and gene flow between natural populations, and are important to consider in conservation efforts.

  • 45. Trager, Sabrina
    et al.
    Milbau, Ann
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Research Institute for Nature and Forest INBO, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biology, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.
    Potential contributions of root decomposition to the nitrogen cycle in arctic forest and tundra2017Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, nr 24, s. 11021-11032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant contributions to the nitrogen (N) cycle from decomposition are likely to be altered by vegetation shifts associated with climate change. Roots account for the majority of soil organic matter input from vegetation, but little is known about differences between vegetation types in their root contributions to nutrient cycling. Here, we examine the potential contribution of fine roots to the N cycle in forest and tundra to gain insight into belowground consequences of the widely observed increase in woody vegetation that accompanies climate change in the Arctic. We combined measurements of root production from minirhizotron images with tissue analysis of roots from differing root diameter and color classes to obtain potential N input following decomposition. In addition, we tested for changes in N concentration of roots during early stages of decomposition, and investigated whether vegetation type (forest or tundra) affected changes in tissue N concentration during decomposition. For completeness, we also present respective measurements of leaves. The potential N input from roots was twofold greater in forest than in tundra, mainly due to greater root production in forest. Potential N input varied with root diameter and color, but this variation tended to be similar in forest and tundra. As for roots, the potential N input from leaves was significantly greater in forest than in tundra. Vegetation type had no effect on changes in root or leaf N concentration after 1year of decomposition. Our results suggest that shifts in vegetation that accompany climate change in the Arctic will likely increase plant-associated potential N input both belowground and aboveground. In contrast, shifts in vegetation might not alter changes in tissue N concentration during early stages of decomposition. Overall, differences between forest and tundra in potential contribution of decomposing roots to the N cycle reinforce differences between habitats that occur for leaves.

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  • 46.
    Vinterstare, Jerker
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Brönmark, Christer
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, P. Anders
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Langerhans, R. Brian
    Department of Biological Sciences and W.M. Keck Center for Behavioral Biology, North Carolina State University, NC, Raleigh, United States.
    Berglund, Olof
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Örjes, Jennie
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) – Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hulthén, Kaj
    Department of Biology, Aquatic Ecology Unit, Ecology Building, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Antipredator phenotype in crucian carp altered by a psychoactive drug2021Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, nr 14, s. 9435-9446Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predator-inducible defenses constitute a widespread form of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, and such defenses have recently been suggested linked with the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is a target of endocrine disruptors, such as psychoactive pharmaceuticals, which are common aquatic contaminants. We hypothesized that exposure to an antidepressant pollutant, fluoxetine, influences the physiological stress response in our model species, crucian carp, affecting its behavioral and morphological responses to predation threat. We examined short- and long-term effects of fluoxetine and predator exposure on behavior and morphology in crucian carp. Seventeen days of exposure to a high dose of fluoxetine (100 µg/L) resulted in a shyer phenotype, regardless of the presence/absence of a pike predator, but this effect disappeared after long-term exposure. Fluoxetine effects on morphological plasticity were context-dependent as a low dose (1 µg/L) only influenced crucian carp body shape in pike presence. A high dose of fluoxetine strongly influenced body shape regardless of predator treatment. Our results highlight that environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals could disrupt physiological regulation of ecologically important inducible defenses.

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  • 47. Virtanen, Risto
    et al.
    Oksanen, Lauri
    Oksanen, Tarja
    Cohen, Juval
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Johansen, Bernt
    Käyhkö, Jukka
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pulliainen, Jouni
    Tømmervik, Hans
    Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 143-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middlelatitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome delimitation problem, help in consistent characterization of research sites, and create a basis for further biogeographic and ecological research in global tundra environments.

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  • 48.
    Wang, Baosheng
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mahani, Marjan Khalili
    Ng, Wei Lun
    Kusumi, Junko
    Phi, Hai Hong
    Inomata, Nobuyuki
    Wang, Xiao-Ru
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Szmidt, Alfred E.
    Extremely low nucleotide polymorphism in Pinus krempfii Lecomte, a unique flat needle pine endemic to Vietnam2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 11, s. 2228-2238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte is a morphologically and ecologically unique pine, endemic to Vietnam. It is regarded as vulnerable species with distribution limited to just two provinces: Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong. Although a few phylogenetic studies have included this species, almost nothing is known about its genetic features. In particular, there are no studies addressing the levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations of P.krempfii. In this study, we sampled 57 individuals from six natural populations of P.krempfii and analyzed their sequence variation in ten nuclear gene regions (approximately 9kb) and 14 mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (approximately 10kb). We also analyzed variation at seven chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci. We found very low haplotype and nucleotide diversity at nuclear loci compared with other pine species. Furthermore, all investigated populations were monomorphic across all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions included in our study, which are polymorphic in other pine species. Population differentiation at nuclear loci was low (5.2%) but significant. However, structure analysis of nuclear loci did not detect genetically differentiated groups of populations. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) using nuclear sequence data and mismatch distribution analysis for cpSSR loci suggested recent expansion of the species. The implications of these findings for the management and conservation of P.krempfii genetic resources were discussed.

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  • 49.
    Wang, Jing
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Abbott, Richard
    School of Biology, Mitchell Building, University of St Andrews, St Andrews.
    Ingvarsson, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Liu, Jianquan
    Key Laboratory of Bio-Source and Environmental Conservation, School of Life Science, Sichuan University.
    Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap2014Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 1019-1029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence.

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  • 50.
    Weber, Christine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Scheuber, Hannes
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Alfredsen, Knut T.
    Detection and apparent survival of PIT-tagged stream fish in winter2016Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 8, s. 2536-2547Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental fluctuations exert strong control on behavior, survival, and fitness of stream biota. Technical improvements increasingly allow for tracking the response of large numbers of individuals to environmental fluctuations, for instance, by remote detection of animals equipped with PIT (passive integrated transponder) tags. PIT tags were implanted into 393 juvenile and adult brown trout Salmo trutta L. and European sculpin Cottus gobio L. in a boreal stream subjected to considerable ice formation. With weekly trackings over 6 months, we quantified apparent survival and detection probability in relation to biological, environmental, and methodological factors. Individuals with a higher physical condition in autumn showed a higher apparent survival; this pattern was consistent across all species and age classes. Detection probability decreased with increasing thickness of the surface ice layer; this effect was most pronounced for juvenile trout and benthic-living sculpin, both tagged with smaller-sized tags. Detection probability was reduced in structurally complex habitats. Our study demonstrates that apparent survival and particularly detection probability may show pronounced spatiotemporal variation. In order to compare results from different sampling occasions and sites, a good knowledge of the study site and of the regulating factors is crucial.

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