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  • 1. Calverley, Hannah
    et al.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harvey, Jack
    Mesagno, Christopher
    Examining Group Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies and the State and Trait Anxiety of Lifeguards and Non-Lifeguards in a Real-World Precompetitive Situation2020In: International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, ISSN 1932-9997, E-ISSN 1932-9253, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences, between swimmer-lifeguards and swimmer-non-lifeguards, in trait and state anxiety and emotion regulation techniques in a real-life precompetitive situation with a secondary focus on gender differences. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale – 2 and the Mental Readiness Form – 3 were distributed to 100 participants at university swimming competitions in the United Kingdom. Swimmer-lifeguards displayed significantly lower cognitive (p=.03) and somatic state (p=.05) anxiety and cognitive trait anxiety (p=.02) than swimmer-non-lifeguards. Males reported significantly lower levels of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety (p<.01) than females. There was also a gender-group interaction, with male swimmer-lifeguards showing significantly lower somatic trait anxiety than the other groups (p<.03). Males indicated significantly greater use of reappraisal than females (p=.01); no other effects were observed. These results support previous research regarding lifeguard characteristics, however the nature of these qualities and how they originate require further exploration.

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