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  • 1. Burte, Emilie
    et al.
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    De Hoogh, Kees
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Gormand, Frédéric
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Just, Jocelyne
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Künzli, Nino
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Villani, Simona
    Siroux, Valérie
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Nadif, Rachel
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Association between air pollution and rhinitis incidence in two European cohorts2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 115, s. 257-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between air pollution and rhinitis is not well established.

    Aim: The aim of this longitudinal analysis was to study the association between modeled air pollution at the subjects' home addresses and self-reported incidence of rhinitis.

    Methods: We used data from 1533 adults from two multicentre cohorts' studies (EGEA and ECRHS). Rhinitis incidence was defined as reporting rhinitis at the second follow-up (2011 to 2013) but not at the first follow-up (2000 to 2007). Annual exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 at the participants' home addresses was estimated using land-use regression models developed by the ESCAPE project for the 2009-2010 period. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression. Pooled analysis, analyses by city and meta-regression testing for heterogeneity were carried out.

    Results: No association between long-term air pollution exposure and incidence of rhinitis was found (adjusted IRR (aIRR) for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.00 [0.91-1.09], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.88 [0.73-1.04]). Similar results were found in the two-pollutant model (aIRR for an increase of 10 mu g center dot m(-3) of NO2: 1.01 [0.87-1.17], for an increase of 5 mu g center dot m(-3) of PM2.5: 0.87 [0.68-1.08]). Results differed depending on the city, but no regional pattern emerged for any of the pollutants.

    Conclusions: This study did not find any consistent evidence of an association between long-term air pollution and incident rhinitis.

  • 2.
    Cerveny, D.
    et al.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea, Sweden; University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zatisi 728/II, Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    McCallum, E. S.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea, Sweden.
    Bertram, M. G.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea, Sweden.
    Castillo, N. A.
    Department of Earth and Environment, Institute of Environment, Florida International University, FL, Miami, United States.
    Brodin, T.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umea, Sweden.
    Water temperature affects the biotransformation and accumulation of a psychoactive pharmaceutical and its metabolite in aquatic organisms2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 155, artikkel-id 106705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been shown to accumulate in aquatic and riparian food-webs. Yet, our understanding of how temperature, a key environmental factor in nature, affects uptake, biotransformation, and the subsequent accumulation of PhACs in aquatic organisms is limited. In this study, we tested to what extent bioconcentration of an anxiolytic drugs (temazepam and oxazepam) is affected by two temperature regimes (10 and 20 °C) and how the temperature affects the temazepam biotransformation and subsequent accumulation of its metabolite (oxazepam) in aquatic organisms. We used European perch (Perca fluviatilis) and dragonfly larvae (Sympetrum sp.), which represent predator and prey species of high ecological relevance in food chains of boreal and temperate aquatic ecosystems. Experimental organisms were exposed to target pharmaceuticals at a range of concentrations (0.2–6 µg L−1) to study concentration dependent differences in bioconcentration and biotransformation. We found that the bioconcentration of temazepam in perch was significantly reduced at higher temperatures. Also, temperature had a strong effect on temazepam biotransformation in the fish, with the production and subsequent accumulation of its metabolite (oxazepam) being two-fold higher at 20 °C compared to 10 °C. In contrast, we found no temperature dependency for temazepam bioconcentration in dragonfly larvae and no detectable biotransformation of the parent compound that would result in measurable concentrations of oxazepam in this organism. Our results highlight that while organisms may share the same aquatic ecosystem, their exposure to PhACs may change differently across temperature gradients in the environment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 3. Cerveny, Daniel
    et al.
    Grabic, Roman
    Grabicova, Katerina
    Randak, Tomas
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Johnson, Andrew C.
    Jurgens, Monika D.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Neuroactive drugs and other pharmaceuticals found in blood plasma of wild European fish2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, artikkel-id 106188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain a better understanding of which pharmaceuticals could pose a risk to fish, 94 pharmaceuticals representing 23 classes were analyzed in blood plasma from wild bream, chub, and roach captured at 18 sites in Germany, the Czech Republic and the UK, respectively. Based on read across from humans, we evaluated the risks of pharmacological effects occurring in the fish for each measured pharmaceutical. Twenty-three compounds were found in fish plasma, with the highest levels measured in chub from the Czech Republic. None of the German bream had detectable levels of pharmaceuticals, whereas roach from the Thames had mostly low concentrations. For two pharmaceuticals, four individual Czech fish had plasma concentrations higher than the concentrations reached in the blood of human patients taking the corresponding medication. For nine additional compounds, determined concentrations exceeded 10% of the corresponding human therapeutic plasma concentration in 12 fish. The majority of the pharmaceuticals where a clear risk for pharmacological effects was identified targets the central nervous system. These include e.g. flupentixol, haloperidol, and risperidone, all of which have the potential to affect fish behavior. In addition to identifying pharmaceuticals of environmental concern, the results emphasize the value of environmental monitoring of internal drug levels in aquatic wildlife, as well as the need for more research to establish concentration-response relationships.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 4.
    de Bont, Jeroen
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pickford, Regina
    Institute of Epidemiology (EPI), Helmholtz Zentrum München – Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Colomar, Fabian
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Allschwil, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Ibi, Dorina
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; MRC Centre for Environment and Health, Environmental Research Group, Imperial College London, United Kingdom; NIHR HPRU in Environmental Exposures and Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Melén, Erik
    Department of Clinical Science and Education Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nobile, Federica
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service /ASL Roma 1, Rome, Italy.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Åsa
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service /ASL Roma 1, Rome, Italy.
    Tonne, Cathryn
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Vlaanderen, Jelle
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Wolf, Kathrin
    Institute of Epidemiology (EPI), Helmholtz Zentrum München – Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Peters, Annette
    Institute of Epidemiology (EPI), Helmholtz Zentrum München – Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany; Chair of Epidemiology, Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry and Epidemiology, Medical Faculty, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany; Munich Heart Alliance, German Center for Cardiovascular Health (DZHK e.V., partner-site Munich), Munich, Germany.
    Ljungman, Petter
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mixtures of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution, built environment and temperature and stroke incidence across Europe2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 179, artikkel-id 108136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The complex interplay of multiple environmental factors and cardiovascular has scarcely been studied. Within the EXPANSE project, we evaluated the association between long-term exposure to multiple environmental indices and stroke incidence across Europe.

    Methods: Participants from three traditional adult cohorts (Germany, Netherlands and Sweden) and four administrative cohorts (Catalonia [region Spain], Rome [city-wide], Greece and Sweden [nationwide]) were followed until incident stroke, death, migration, loss of follow-up or study end. We estimated exposures at residential addresses from different exposure domains: air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone), built environment (green/blue spaces, impervious surfaces) and meteorology (seasonal mean and standard deviation of temperatures). Associations between environmental exposures and stroke were estimated in single and multiple-exposure Cox proportional hazard models, and Principal Component (PC) Analyses derived prototypes for specific exposures domains. We carried out random effects meta-analyses by cohort type.

    Results: In over 15 million participants, increased levels of NO2 and BC were associated with increased higher stroke incidence in both cohort types. Increased Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was associated with a lower stroke incidence in both cohort types, whereas an increase in impervious surface was associated with an increase in stroke incidence. The first PC of the air pollution domain (PM2.5, NO2 and BC) was associated with an increase in stroke incidence. For the built environment, higher levels of NDVI and lower levels of impervious surfaces were associated with a protective effect [%change in HR per 1 unit = −2.0 (95 %CI, −5.9;2.0) and −1.1(95 %CI, −2.0; −0.3) for traditional adult and administrative cohorts, respectively]. No clear patterns were observed for distance to blue spaces or temperature parameters.

    Conclusions: We observed increased HRs for stroke with exposure to PM2.5, NO2 and BC, lower levels of greenness and higher impervious surface in single and combined exposure models.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 5. de Hoogh, Kees
    et al.
    Korek, Michal
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Keuken, Menno
    Kukkonen, Jaakko
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Beelen, Rob
    Bolignano, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Pradas, Marta Cirach
    Cyrys, Josef
    Douros, John
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Forastiere, Francesco
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fuks, Kateryna
    Gehring, Ulrike
    Gryparis, Alexandros
    Gulliver, John
    Hansell, Anna L
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Johansson, Christer
    Jonkers, Sander
    Kangas, Leena
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Künzli, Nino
    Lanki, Timo
    Memmesheimer, Michael
    Moussiopoulos, Nicolas
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Schindler, Christian
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Sugiri, Dorothee
    Teixidó, Oriol
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Bellander, Tom
    Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies2014Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 382-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods.

    OBJECTIVES: Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.

    METHODS: The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area.

    RESULTS: The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5.

    CONCLUSIONS: LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5.

  • 6. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Koponen, Jani
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Associations between repeated measure of plasma perfluoroalkyl substances and cardiometabolic risk factors2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 124, s. 58-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent synthetic chemicals that may affect components of metabolic risk through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor but epidemiological data remain scarce and inconsistent.

    Objective: To estimate associations between repeated measurements of the main PFAS in plasma and total cholesterol, triglycerides and hypertension among the control subjects from a population-based nested case-control study on diabetes type 2 in middle-aged women and men.

    Methods: Participants (n = 187) were free of diabetes at both baseline and follow-up visits to the Västerbotten Intervention Programme, 10 years apart: during 1990 to 2003 (baseline) and 2001 to 2013 (follow-up). Participants left blood samples, completed questionnaires on diet and lifestyle factors, and underwent medical examinations, including measurement of blood pressure. PFAS and lipids were later determined in stored plasma samples. Associations for the repeated measurements were assessed using generalized estimating equations.

    Results: Six PFAS exceeded the limit of quantitation. Repeated measures of PFAS in plasma, cardiometabolic risk factors and confounders, showed an average decrease of triglycerides from −0.16 mmol/l (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.33, 0.02 for PFOA) to −0.26 mmol/l (95% CI: −0.50, −0.08 for PFOS), when comparing the highest tertile of PFAS plasma levels with the lowest. Associations based on average PFAS measurements and follow-up triglycerides revealed similar inverse associations, although attenuated. The estimates for cholesterol and hypertension were inconsistent and with few exception non-significant.

    Conclusions: This study found inverse associations between PFAS and triglycerides, but did not support any clear link with either cholesterol or hypertension.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 7. Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    et al.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Koponen, Jani
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Akesson, Agneta
    Perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type II diabetes: A prospective nested case-control study2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 123, s. 390-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have drawn much attention due to bioaccumulation potential and their current omnipresence in human blood. We assessed whether plasma PFAS, suspected to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, were prospectively associated with clinical type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk.

    Methods: We established a nested case-control study within the Swedish prospective population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Several PFAS were measured in plasma from a subset of 124 case-control pairs at baseline (during 1990–2003) and at 10-year follow-up. T2D cases were matched (1:1) according to gender, age and sample date with participants without T2D (controls).

    Conditional logistic regressions were used to prospectively assess risk of T2D by baseline PFAS plasma concentrations. Associations between long-term PFAS plasma levels (mean of baseline and follow-up) and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA2-B%) at follow-up were prospectively explored among 178 and 181 controls, respectively, by multivariable linear regressions.

    Results: After adjusting for gender, age, sample year, diet and body mass index, the odds ratio of T2D for the sum of PFAS (Σ z-score PFAS) was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.20, 1.36), comparing third with first tertile; and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.00) per one standard deviation increment of sum of log-transformed PFAS. Among the controls, the adjusted β of HOMA2-IR and HOMA-B% for the sum of PFAS were −0.26 (95% CI: −0.52, −0.01) and −9.61 (95% CI: −22.60, 3.39) respectively comparing third with first tertile.

    Conclusions: This prospective nested case-control study yielded overall inverse associations between individual PFAS and risk of T2D, although mostly non-significant. Among participants without T2D, long-term PFAS exposure was prospectively associated with lower insulin resistance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Dürig, Wiebke
    et al.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7050, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Sofia
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7050, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Golovko, Oksana
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7050, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gkotsis, Georgios
    Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Aalizadeh, Reza
    Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Nika, Maria-Christina
    Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Thomaidis, Nikolaos
    Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Alygizakis, Nikiforos A.
    Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; Environmental Institute, Okružná 784/42, Koš, Slovakia.
    Plassmann, Merle
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fu, Qiuguo
    Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, Dübendorf, Switzerland; Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Permoserstraße 15, Leipzig, Germany.
    Hollender, Juliane
    Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Überlandstrasse 133, Dübendorf, Switzerland; Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Universitätstrasse 16, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Chaker, Jade
    Université de Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset - UMR_S, Rennes, France.
    David, Arthur
    Université de Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset - UMR_S, Rennes, France.
    Kunkel, Uwe
    Bavarian Environment Agency, Bürgermeister-Ulrich-Straße 160, Augsburg, Germany.
    Macherius, André
    Bavarian Environment Agency, Bürgermeister-Ulrich-Straße 160, Augsburg, Germany.
    Belova, Lidia
    Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Poma, Giulia
    Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Preud'Homme, Hugues
    IPREM-UMR5254, E2S UPPA, CNRS, 2 avenue Angot, Pau cedex, France.
    Munschy, Catherine
    Ifremer, CCEM Contamination Chimique des Écosystèmes Marins, Nantes, France.
    Aminot, Yann
    Ifremer, CCEM Contamination Chimique des Écosystèmes Marins, Nantes, France.
    Jaeger, Carsten
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Analytical Chemistry, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, Berlin, Germany.
    Lisec, Jan
    Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Analytical Chemistry, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, Berlin, Germany.
    Hansen, Martin
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Vorkamp, Katrin
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Zhu, Linyan
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Cappelli, Francesca
    Water Research Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Mulino 19, MB, Brugherio, Italy.
    Roscioli, Claudio
    Water Research Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Mulino 19, MB, Brugherio, Italy.
    Valsecchi, Sara
    Water Research Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Via del Mulino 19, MB, Brugherio, Italy.
    Bagnati, Renzo
    Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Via Mario Negri 2, Milan, Italy.
    González, Belén
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena s/n, Leioa, Spain; Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Areatza Pasealekua 47, Plentzia, Spain.
    Prieto, Ailette
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena s/n, Leioa, Spain; Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Areatza Pasealekua 47, Plentzia, Spain.
    Zuloaga, Olatz
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena s/n, Leioa, Spain; Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Areatza Pasealekua 47, Plentzia, Spain.
    Gil-Solsona, Ruben
    Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Carrer Emili Grahit 101, Girona, Spain; Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain; Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research – Severo Ochoa Excellence Center (IDAEA), Spanish Council of Scientific Research (CSIC), Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo
    Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Carrer Emili Grahit 101, Girona, Spain; Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research – Severo Ochoa Excellence Center (IDAEA), Spanish Council of Scientific Research (CSIC), Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara
    Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Carrer Emili Grahit 101, Girona, Spain; Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Budzinski, Hélène
    University Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, EPOC, UMR 5805, Pessac, France.
    Devier, Marie-Helene
    University Bordeaux, CNRS, Bordeaux INP, EPOC, UMR 5805, Pessac, France.
    Dierkes, Georg
    Federal Institute of Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, Koblenz, Germany.
    Boulard, Lise
    Federal Institute of Hydrology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, Koblenz, Germany; Metabolomics Core Facility, Centre de Ressources et Recherches Technologiques (C2RT), Institut Pasteur, 25-28 Rue du Dr Roux, Paris, France.
    Jacobs, Griet
    Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Unit Separation and Conversion Technology, Boeretang 200, Mol, Belgium.
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Unit Separation and Conversion Technology, Boeretang 200, Mol, Belgium.
    Rüdel, Heinz
    Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (Fraunhofer IME), Auf dem Aberg 1, Schmallenberg, Germany.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Box 7050, Uppsala, Sweden.
    What is in the fish? Collaborative trial in suspect and non-target screening of organic micropollutants using LC- and GC-HRMS2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 181, artikkel-id 108288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A collaborative trial involving 16 participants from nine European countries was conducted within the NORMAN network in efforts to harmonise suspect and non-target screening of environmental contaminants in whole fish samples of bream (Abramis brama). Participants were provided with freeze-dried, homogenised fish samples from a contaminated and a reference site, extracts (spiked and non-spiked) and reference sample preparation protocols for liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Participants extracted fish samples using their in-house sample preparation method and/or the protocol provided. Participants correctly identified 9–69 % of spiked compounds using LC-HRMS and 20–60 % of spiked compounds using GC-HRMS. From the contaminated site, suspect screening with participants’ own suspect lists led to putative identification of on average ∼145 and ∼20 unique features per participant using LC-HRMS and GC-HRMS, respectively, while non-target screening identified on average ∼42 and ∼56 unique features per participant using LC-HRMS and GC-HRMS, respectively. Within the same sub-group of sample preparation method, only a few features were identified by at least two participants in suspect screening (16 features using LC-HRMS, 0 features using GC-HRMS) and non-target screening (0 features using LC-HRMS, 2 features using GC-HRMS). The compounds identified had log octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) values from −9.9 to 16 and mass-to-charge ratios (m/z) of 68 to 761 (LC-HRMS and GC-HRMS). A significant linear trend was found between log KOW and m/z for the GC-HRMS data. Overall, these findings indicate that differences in screening results are mainly due to the data analysis workflows used by different participants. Further work is needed to harmonise the results obtained when applying suspect and non-target screening approaches to environmental biota samples.

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  • 9.
    Fiolet, Thibault
    et al.
    Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, “Exposome and Heredity” Team, CESP, Villejuif, France.
    Casagrande, Corinne
    Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, CEDEX 08, Lyon, France.
    Nicolas, Geneviève
    Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, CEDEX 08, Lyon, France.
    Horvath, Zsuzsanna
    European Food Safety Authority, Via Carlo Magno 1A, Parma, Italy.
    Frenoy, Pauline
    Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, “Exposome and Heredity” Team, CESP, Villejuif, France.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, CEDEX 08, Lyon, France.
    Katzke, Verena
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
    Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública (EASP), Granada, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Granada, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Panico, Salvatore
    Dipartimento di medicina clinica e chirurgia Federico II University, Naples, Italy.
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital, Via Santena 7, Turin, Italy.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Dept Surgery, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Nutritional Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Grioni, Sara
    Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, Milano, Italy.
    Agudo, Antonio
    Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain., Nutrition and Cancer Group, Epidemiology, Public Health, Cancer Prevention and Palliative Care Program, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.
    Rylander, Charlotta
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø (UiT), The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Haugdahl Nøst, Therese
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø (UiT), The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Skeie, Guri
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø (UiT), The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Navarra Public Health Institute, Pamplona, Spain; IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain.
    Amiano, Pilar
    Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Ministry of Health of the Basque Government, Sub-Directorate for Public Health and Addictions of Gipuzkoa, Biodonostia Health Research Institute, Group of Epidemiology of Chronic and Communicable Diseases, San Sebastián, Spain.
    Dolores Chirlaque López, María
    Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Department of Epidemiology, Regional Health Council, IMIB-Arrixaca, Murcia University, Murcia, Spain.
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Germen Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehruecke, Nuthetal, Germany; Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Harlid, Sophia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Cairat, Manon
    Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, “Exposome and Heredity” Team, CESP, Villejuif, France; Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, CEDEX 08, Lyon, France.
    Kvaskoff, Marina
    Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, “Exposome and Heredity” Team, CESP, Villejuif, France.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, CEDEX 08, Lyon, France.
    Romana Mancini, Francesca
    Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, “Exposome and Heredity” Team, CESP, Villejuif, France.
    Dietary intakes of dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk in 9 European countries2022Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 163, artikkel-id 107213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dioxins and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have demonstrated endocrine disrupting properties. Several of these chemicals are carcinogenic and positive associations have been suggested with breast cancer risk. In general population, diet represents the main source of exposure.

    Methods: Associations between dietary intake of 17 dioxins and 35 PCBs and breast cancer were evaluated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from nine European countries using multivariable Cox regressions. The present study included 318,607 women (mean ± SD age: 50.7 ± 9.7) with 13,241 incident invasive breast cancers and a median follow-up of 14.9 years (IQR = 13.5–16.4). Dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs was assessed combining EPIC food consumption data with food contamination data provided by the European Food Safety Authority.

    Results: Exposure to dioxins, dioxins + Dioxin-Like-PCBs, Dioxin-Like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), and Non-Dioxin-Like-PCBs (NDL-PCBs) estimated from reported dietary intakes were not associated with breast cancer incidence, with the following hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for an increment of 1 SD: HRdioxins = 1.00 (0.98 to 1.02), HRdioxins+DL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), HRDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.98 to 1.03), and HRNDL-PCB = 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03). Results remained unchanged when analyzing intakes as quintile groups, as well as when analyses were run separately per country, or separating breast cancer cases based on estrogen receptor status or after further adjustments on main contributing food groups to PCBs and dioxins intake and nutritional factors.

    Conclusions: This large European prospective study does not support the hypothesis of an association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and breast cancer risk.

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  • 10. Fuertes, Elaine
    et al.
    Markevych, Iana
    Jarvis, Deborah
    Vienneau, Danielle
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Antó, Josep Maria
    Bowatte, Gayan
    Bono, Roberto
    Corsico, Angelo G
    Emtner, Margareta
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Gullón, José Antonio
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Henderson, John
    Holm, Mathias
    Johannessen, Ane
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Marchetti, Pierpaolo
    Moratalla, Jesús Martínez
    Pascual, Silvia
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Siroux, Valerie
    Sommar, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Weyler, Joost
    Kuenzli, Nino
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    Residential air pollution does not modify the positive association between physical activity and lung function in current smokers in the ECRHS study2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, s. 364-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Very few studies have examined whether a long-term beneficial effect of physical activity on lung function can be influenced by living in polluted urban areas.

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether annual average residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and <10 μm (PM10) modify the effect of physical activity on lung function among never- (N = 2801) and current (N = 1719) smokers in the multi-center European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    METHODS: Associations between repeated assessments (at 27-57 and 39-67 years) of being physically active (physical activity: ≥2 times and ≥1 h per week) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated using adjusted mixed linear regression models. Models were conducted separately for never- and current smokers and stratified by residential long-term NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (≤75th percentile (low/medium) versus >75th percentile (high)).

    RESULTS: Among current smokers, physical activity and lung function were positively associated regardless of air pollution levels. Among never-smokers, physical activity was associated with lung function in areas with low/medium NO2, PM2.5 mass and PM10 mass concentrations (e.g. mean difference in FVC between active and non-active subjects was 43.0 mL (13.6, 72.5), 49.5 mL (20.1, 78.8) and 49.7 mL (18.6, 80.7), respectively), but these associations were attenuated in high air pollution areas. Only the interaction term of physical activity and PM10 mass for FEV1 among never-smokers was significant (p-value = 0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity has beneficial effects on adult lung function in current smokers, irrespective of residential air pollution levels in Western Europe. Trends among never-smokers living in high air pollution areas are less clear.

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  • 11. Georgiadis, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Gavriil, Marios
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Ladoukakis, Efthymios
    Botsivali, Maria
    Kelly, Rachel S
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Vermeulen, Roel C H
    Späth, Florentin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Hebbels, Dennie G A J
    Kleinjans, Jos C S
    de Kok, Theo M C M
    Palli, Domenico
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A
    DNA methylation profiling implicates exposure to PCBs in the pathogenesis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 126, s. 24-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of PCB exposure on DNA methylation in peripheral blood leucocytes and to evaluate the corresponding changes in relation to possible health effects, with a focus on B-cell lymphoma.

    METHODS: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on 611 adults free of diagnosed disease, living in Italy and Sweden, in whom we also measured plasma concentrations of 6 PCB congeners, DDE and hexachlorobenzene.

    RESULTS: We identified 650 CpG sites whose methylation correlates strongly (FDR < 0.01) with plasma concentrations of at least one PCB congener. Stronger effects were observed in males and in Sweden. This epigenetic exposure profile shows extensive and highly statistically significant overlaps with published profiles associated with the risk of future B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as well as with clinical CLL (38 and 28 CpG sites, respectively). For all these sites, the methylation changes were in the same direction for increasing exposure and for higher disease risk or clinical disease status, suggesting an etiological link between exposure and CLL. Mediation analysis reinforced the suggestion of a causal link between exposure, changes in DNA methylation and disease. Disease connectivity analysis identified multiple additional diseases associated with differentially methylated genes, including melanoma for which an etiological link with PCB exposure is established, as well as developmental and neurological diseases for which there is corresponding epidemiological evidence. Differentially methylated genes include many homeobox genes, suggesting that PCBs target stem cells. Furthermore, numerous polycomb protein target genes were hypermethylated with increasing exposure, an effect known to constitute an early marker of carcinogenesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides mechanistic evidence in support of a link between exposure to PCBs and the etiology of CLL and underlines the utility of omic profiling in the evaluation of the potential toxicity of environmental chemicals.

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  • 12. Glynn, Anders
    et al.
    Lignell, Sanna
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Aune, Marie
    Halldin Ankarberg, Emma
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Barregård, Lars
    Bensryd, Inger
    Regional differences in levels of chlorinated and brominated pollutants in mother's milk from primiparous women in Sweden2011Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 71-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Early life exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the DDT metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may affect human health. We determined if there are regional differences in mother's milk levels of these compounds in Sweden. In year 2000-2004, milk was sampled from 204 randomly recruited primiparas from four regions of Sweden. Levels of the compounds were measured by gas chromatography with dual electron-capture detectors. Women were recruited at delivery in three hospitals located in urban areas in southern and central Sweden (Lund, Gothenburg and Uppsala), and in one hospital located in a more rural area in northern Sweden (Lycksele). Information about dietary habits and medical/life-style factors were collected by questionnaires. Among PCB congeners, CB 153, CB 138 and CB 180 showed the highest median concentrations (18-48 ng/g mother's milk lipid), whereas more than 50% of the women had CB 52, CB 101, CB 114, and CB 157 levels below the LOQ (0.3-1.5 ng/g lipid). Median p,p'-DDE levels were in the range of 46-78 ng/g lipid. BDE 47 showed the highest median concentrations (1-2 ng/g lipid) among the brominated compounds, whereas more than 50% of the women had levels of BDE 28, BDE 66, BDE 138, BDE 154, and HBCD below the LOQ (0.05-0.10 ng/g lipid). Regional differences in median organohalogen compound concentrations were small, less than 2-fold. Lycksele women generally had the lowest levels of Σmono-and Σdi-ortho PCBs, mainly due to a lower average age. In contrast, these women had higher tetra- to penta-brominated PBDE levels, but no diet or life-style factor could explain this finding. Wide ranges of PBDEs and HBCD levels (up to 200-fold) were found, especially in the Lycksele area. The highest levels of PBDE were in the range of average levels found in mother's milk from North America, suggesting that food may not be the only source of exposure to PBDEs among some individuals.

  • 13.
    Gustin, Klara
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barman, Malin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skröder, Helena
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Domain of Health Data and Digitalisation, Institute of Public Health Oslo, Norway.
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Institute of Biomedicine, Dept, of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thyroid hormones in relation to toxic metal exposure in pregnancy, and potential interactions with iodine and selenium2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 157, artikkel-id 106869Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several endocrine-disrupting metals may affect thyroid function, but the few available studies of exposure during pregnancy and thyroid hormones are inconclusive.

    Objective: To explore if environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and methylmercury (MeHg) impacts thyroid function in pregnancy, and interacts with iodine and selenium status.

    Methods: Women in a Swedish birth cohort provided blood and urine samples in early third trimester. Concentrations of erythrocyte Cd, Pb, and Hg (n = 544), urinary Cd and iodine (n = 542) and plasma selenium (n = 548) were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Free and total thyroxine (fT4, tT4) and triiodothyronine (fT3, tT3), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), were measured in plasma (n = 548) with electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Metal-hormone associations were assessed in regression models, and metal mixture effects and metal-nutrient interactions were explored in Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR).

    Results: In multivariable-adjusted regression models, a doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a mean increase in tT4 of 2.7 nmol/L (95% CI: 0.78, 4.6), and in fT3 and tT3 of 0.06 pmol/L (0.02, 0.10) and 0.09 nmol/L (0.05, 0.13), respectively. A doubling of urinary Cd was associated with a −0.002 (−0.003, −0.001) and −0.03 (−0.05, −0.02) decrease in the fT4:tT4 and fT3:tT3 ratio, respectively. A doubling of erythrocyte Hg (>1 µg/kg) was associated with a decrease in fT3 and tT3 by −0.11 pmol/L (−0.16, −0.05) and −0.11 nmol/L (−0.16, −0.06), respectively, and a −0.013 (−0.02, −0.01) decrease in the fT3:fT4 ratio. BKMR did not indicate any mixture effect of toxic metals or interactions between metals and iodine or selenium in relation to the hormones.

    Conclusion: Our findings suggest that exposure to Cd and Hg, at levels globally prevalent through the diet, may affect thyroid function during pregnancy, independently of iodine and selenium levels. Further studies on potential implications for maternal and child health are warranted.

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  • 14. Hruba, Frantiska
    et al.
    Stromberg, Ulf
    Cerna, Milena
    Chen, Chunying
    Harari, Florencia
    Harari, Raul
    Horvat, Milena
    Koppova, Kvetoslava
    Kos, Andreja
    Krskova, Andrea
    Krsnik, Mladen
    Laamech, Jawhar
    Li, Yu-Feng
    Lofmark, Lina
    Lundh, Thomas
    Lundström, Nils-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lyoussi, Badiaa
    Mazej, Darja
    Osredkar, Josko
    Pawlas, Krystyna
    Pawlas, Natalia
    Prokopowicz, Adam
    Rentschler, Gerda
    Spevackova, Vera
    Spiric, Zdravko
    Tratnik, Janja
    Skerfving, Staffan
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Blood cadmium, mercury, and lead in children: An international comparison of cities in six European countries, and China, Ecuador, and Morocco2012Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 41, s. 29-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's blood-lead concentration (B-Pb) is well studied, but little is known about cadmium (B-Cd) and mercury (B-Hg), in particular for central Europe. Such information is necessary for risk assessment and management. Therefore, we here describe and compare B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg in children in six European, and three non-European cities, and identify determinants of these exposures. About 50 school children (7-14 years) from each city were recruited (totally 433) in 2007-2008. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. A blood sample was analyzed: only two laboratories with strict quality control were used. The European cities showed only minor differences for B-Cd (geometric means 0.11-0.17 mu g/L) and B-Pb (14-20 mu g/L), but larger for B-Hg (0.12-0.94 mu g/L). Corresponding means for the non-European countries were 0.21-0.26, 32-71, and 0.3-3.2 mu g/L, respectively. For B-Cd in European samples, traffic intensity close to home was a statistically significant determinant, for B-Hg fish consumption and amalgam fillings, and for B-Pb sex (boys higher). This study shows that European city children's B-Cd and B-Pb vary only little between countries; B-Hg differs considerably, due to varying tooth restoration practices and fish intake. Traffic intensity seemed to be a determinant for B-Cd. The metal concentrations were low from a risk perspective but the chosen non-European cities showed higher concentrations than the cities in Europe. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15. Jaspers, Veerle L B
    et al.
    Covaci, Adrian
    Deleu, Pieter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Neels, Hugo
    Eens, Marcel
    Preen oil as the main source of external contamination with organic pollutants onto feathers of the common magpie (Pica pica).2008Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 741-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the possible sources of contamination with organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), /p/,/p/'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in and onto tail feathers of a large songbird, the common magpie (Pica pica). Although feathers are potentially useful as a non-destructive biomonitor for organic pollutants, concentrations may be influenced by external contamination onto the feather surface. In a first approach, a group of magpies was captured after the completion of moult. The third tail feather was pulled out and a blood sample was taken. Most PCBs, DDTs and some PBDEs could be quantified in one single tail feather, indicating that the applicability of feathers goes beyond monitoring with predatory birds, as shown previously. Nevertheless, correlations between levels in serum and feathers were found significant in three cases only (i.e. CB 170, CB 180 and CB 187). This finding may be attributed to different factors, such as varying diet, condition, sample size or external contamination. In a second approach, cadavers of magpies were collected throughout Flanders. The preen gland was removed and the first, third and fifth tail feathers were pulled out at both sides. No significant differences were found among tail feathers within an individual. We compared three washing procedures to remove external contamination with organic pollutants from these feathers: deionised water, acetone and a surfactant/acetone solution. Right feathers were washed and left feathers were kept as control. Concentrations in the resulting washes were found highest in the acetone solutions. Furthermore, feathers washed with acetone or with a surfactant/acetone solution had significantly lower mean concentrations than the control feathers. Highest correlations with levels in preen gland were obtained for the control feathers. Consequently, the source of external contamination with organic pollutants onto feathers seems to be endogenous, originating from the preen gland. This is in great contrast to the extensive airborne pollution that has been reported for most heavy metals. In summary, the results of the current study highlight the usefulness of feathers for non-destructive biomonitoring of organic pollutants.

  • 16.
    Kampouri, Mariza
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustin, Klara
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stråvik, Mia
    Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Life Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barman, Malin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Life Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Food and Nutrition Science, Department of Life Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wold, Agnes E.
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vahter, Marie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kippler, Maria
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Associations of gestational and early-life exposure to toxic metals and fluoride with a diagnosis of food allergy or atopic eczema at 1 year of age2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 178, artikkel-id 108071Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have indicated that early-life exposure to toxic metals and fluoride affects the immune system, but evidence regarding their role in allergic disease development is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the relations of exposure to such compounds in 482 pregnant women and their infants (4 months of age) with food allergy and atopic eczema diagnosed by a paediatric allergologist at 1 year of age within the Swedish birth-cohort NICE (Nutritional impact on Immunological maturation during Childhood in relation to the Environment). Urinary cadmium and erythrocyte cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), urinary inorganic arsenic metabolites by ICP-MS after separation by ion exchange chromatography, and urinary fluoride by an ion-selective electrode. The prevalence of food allergy and atopic eczema was 8 and 7%, respectively. Gestational urinary cadmium, reflecting chronic exposure, was associated with increased odds of infant food allergy (OR [95% CI]: 1.34 [1.09, 1.66] per IQR [0.08 μg/L]). Both gestational and infant urinary fluoride were associated, albeit at a statistically non-significant level, with increased atopic eczema odds (1.48 [0.98, 2.25], 1.36 [0.95, 1.95], per doubling, respectively). By contrast, gestational and infant erythrocyte lead was associated with decreased odds of atopic eczema (0.48 [0.26, 0.87] per IQR [6.6 μg/kg] and 0.38 [0.16, 0.91] per IQR [5.94 μg/kg], respectively), and infant lead with decreased odds of food allergy (0.39 [0.16, 0.93] per IQR [5.94 μg/kg]). Multivariable adjustment had marginal impact on the estimates above. After additional adjustment for fish intake biomarkers, the methylmercury associated atopic-eczema odds were considerably increased (1.29 [0.80, 2.06] per IQR [1.36 μg/kg]). In conclusion, our results indicate that gestational cadmium exposure might be associated with food allergy at 1 year of age and, possibly, early-life exposure to fluoride with atopic eczema. Further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to establish causality.

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  • 17. Kraupner, Nadine
    et al.
    Ebmeyer, Stefan
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Selective concentration for ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli grown in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 116, s. 255-268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that antibiotics in the environment can select for and enrich bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, thus increasing the potential of those genes to emerge in a clinical context. A critical question for understanding and managing such risks is what levels of antibiotics are needed to select for resistance in complex bacterial communities. Here, we address this question by examining the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of aquatic communities exposed to ciprofloxacin, also evaluating the within-species selection of resistant E. coli in complex communities. The taxonomic composition was significantly altered at ciprofloxacin exposure concentrations down to 1 mu g/L. Shotgun metagenomic analysis indicated that mobile quinolone resistance determinants (qnrD, qnrS and qnrB) were enriched as a direct consequence of ciprofloxacin exposure from 1 mu g/L or higher. Only at 5-10 mu g/L resistant E. coli increased relative to their sensitive counterparts. These resistant E. coli predominantly harbored non-transferrable, chromosomal triple mutations (gyrA S83 L, D87N and parC S80I), which confer high-level resistance. In a controlled experimental setup such as this, we interpret effects on taxonomic composition and enrichment of mobile quinolone resistance genes as relevant indicators of risk. Hence, the lowest observed effect concentration for resistance selection in complex communities by ciprofloxacin was 1 mu g/L and the corresponding no observed effect concentration 0.1 mu g/L. These findings can be used to define and implement discharge or surface water limits to reduce risks for selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  • 18. Kraupner, Nadine
    et al.
    Ebmeyer, Stefan
    Hutinel, Marion
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Selective concentrations for trimethoprim resistance in aquatic environments2020Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 144, artikkel-id 106083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance presents a serious and still growing threat to human health. Environmental exposure levels required to select for resistance are unknown for most antibiotics. Here, we evaluated different experimental approaches and ways to interpret effect measures, in order to identify what concentration of trimethoprim that are likely to select for resistance in aquatic environments. When grown in complex biofilms, selection for resistant E. coli increased at 100 µg/L, whereas there was only a non-significant trend with regards to changes in taxonomic composition within the tested range (0–100 µg/L). Planktonic co-culturing of 149 different E. coli strains isolated from sewage again confirmed selection at 100 µg/L. Finally, pairwise competition experiments were performed with engineered E. coli strains carrying different trimethoprim resistance genes (dfr) and their sensitive counterparts. While strains with introduced resistance genes grew slower than the sensitive ones at 0 and 10 µg/L, a significant reduction in cost was found already at 10 µg/L. Defining lowest effect concentrations by comparing proportion of resistant strains to sensitive ones at the same time point, rather than to their initial ratios, will reflect the advantage a resistance factor can bring, while ignoring exposure-independent fitness costs. As costs are likely to be highly dependent on the specific environmental and genetic contexts, the former approach might be more suitable as a basis for defining exposure limits with the intention to prevent selection for resistance. Based on the present and other studies, we propose that 1 µg/L would be a reasonably protective exposure limit for trimethoprim in aquatic environments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 19.
    Kraupner, Nadine
    et al.
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hutinel, Marion
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schumacher, Kilian
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Biology I, Microbiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Martinsried, Germany.
    Gray, Declan A.
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Genheden, Maja
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evidence for selection of multi-resistant E. coli by hospital effluent2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 150, artikkel-id 106436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a risk that residues of antibiotics and other antimicrobials in hospital and municipal wastewaters could select for resistant bacteria. Still, direct experimental evidence for selection is lacking. Here, we investigated if effluent from a large Swedish hospital, as well as influent and effluent from the connected municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) select for antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in three controlled experimental setups. Exposure of sterile-filtered hospital effluent to a planktonic mix of 149 different E. coli wastewater isolates showed a strong selection of multi-resistant strains. Accordingly, exposure to a complex wastewater community selected for strains resistant to several antibiotic classes. Exposing individual strains with variable resistance patterns revealed a rapid bactericidal effect of hospital effluent on susceptible, but not multi-resistant E. coli. No selection was observed after exposure to WWTP effluent, while exposure to WWTP influent indicated a small selective effect for ceftazidime and cefadroxil resistant strains, and only in the E. coli mix assay. An analysis of commonly used antibiotics and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals in combination with growth and resistance pattern of individual E. coli isolates suggested a possible contribution of ciprofloxacin and β-lactams to the selection by hospital effluent. However, more research is needed to clarify the contribution from different selective agents. While this study does not indicate selection by the studied WWTP effluent, there is some indications of selective effects by municipal influent on β-lactam-resistant strains. Such effects may be more pronounced in countries with higher antibiotic use than Sweden. Despite the limited antibiotic use in Sweden, the hospital effluent strongly and consistently selected for multi-resistance, indicating widespread risks. Hence, there is an urgent need for further evaluation of risks for resistance selection in hospital sewers, as well as for strategies to remove selective agents and resistant bacteria.

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  • 20. Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    et al.
    Andremont, Antoine
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Brandt, Kristian Koefoed
    Husman, Ana Maria de Roda
    Fagerstedt, Patriq
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Gaze, William H.
    Kuroda, Makoto
    Kvint, Kristian
    Laxminarayan, Ramanan
    Manaia, Celia M.
    Nielsen, Kaare Magne
    Plant, Laura
    Ploy, Marie-Cécile
    Segovia, Carlos
    Simonet, Pascal
    Smalla, Kornelia
    Snape, Jason
    Topp, Edward
    van Hengel, Arjon J.
    Verner-Jeffreys, David W.
    Virta, Marko P. J.
    Wellington, Elizabeth M.
    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie
    Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 117, s. 132-138Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 21.
    Larsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljung Björklund, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Brita
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindh, Christian H
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bo A G
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Marika
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exposure determinants of phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A and triclosan in Swedish mothers and their children2014Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 73, s. 323-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS), used in a wide variety of consumer products, are suspected endocrine disrupters although their level of toxicity is thought to be low. Combined exposure may occur through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure, and their toxic as well as combined effects are poorly understood. The objective of the study was to estimate the exposure to these chemicals in Swedish mothers and their children (6-11 years old) and investigate potential predictors of the exposure. Urine samples from 98 mother-child couples living in either a rural or an urban area were analyzed for the concentrations of four metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), three metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), methylparaben (MetP), ethylparaben (EthP), propylparaben (ProP), butylparaben, benzylparaben, BPA, and TCS. Information on sociodemographics, food consumption habits and use of personal care products, obtained via a questionnaire, was used to investigate the associations between the urinary levels of chemicals and potential exposure factors. There were fairly good correlations of biomarker levels between the mothers and their children. The children had generally higher levels of phthalates (geometric mean ΣDEHP 65.5 μg/L; ΣDiNP 37.8 μg/L; MBzP 19.9 μg/L; MnBP 76.9 μg/L) than the mothers (ΣDEHP 38.4 μg/L; ΣDiNP 33.8 μg/L; MBzP 12.8 μg/L; MnBP 63.0 μg/L). Conversely, the mother's levels of parabens (MetP 37.8 μg/L; ProP 13.9 μg/L) and MEP (43.4 μg/L) were higher than the children's levels of parabens (MetP 6.8 μg/L; ProP 2.1 μg/L) and MEP (28.8 μg/L). The urinary levels of low molecular weight phthalates were higher among mothers and children in the rural area (MBzP p=<0.001; MnBP p=0.001-0.002), which is probably due to higher presence of PVC in floorings and wall coverings in this area, whereas the levels of parabens were higher among the children in the urban area (MetP p=0.003; ProP p=0.004) than in the rural area. The levels of high molecular weight phthalates were associated with consumption of certain foods (i.e. chocolate and ice cream) whereas the levels of parabens were associated with use of cosmetics and personal care products.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 22. Lee, Jae Young
    et al.
    Kim, Ho
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Armstrong, Ben
    Bell, Michelle L
    Sera, Francesco
    Lavigne, Eric
    Abrutzky, Rosana
    Tong, Shilu
    Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    Correa, Patricia Matus
    Ortega, Nicolas Valdes
    Kan, Haidong
    Garcia, Samuel Osorio
    Kyselý, Jan
    Urban, Aleš
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Indermitte, Ene
    Jaakkola, Jouni J K
    Ryti, Niilo R I
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Goodman, Patrick G
    Zeka, Ariana
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Honda, Yasushi
    Hurtado, Magali
    Cruz, Julio
    Seposo, Xerxes
    Nunes, Baltazar
    Teixeira, João Paulo
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria
    Ragettli, Martina S
    Guo, Yue-Liang Leon
    Chen, Bing-Yu
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Schwartz, Joel
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Do Van, Dung
    Mayvaneh, Fetemeh
    Overcenco, Ala
    Li, Shanshan
    Guo, Yuming
    Predicted temperature-increase-induced global health burden and its regional variability2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 131, artikkel-id 105027Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the global health burden of temperature was projected for 459 locations in 28 countries worldwide under four representative concentration pathway scenarios until 2099. We determined that the amount of temperature increase for each 100 ppm increase in global CO2 concentrations is nearly constant, regardless of climate scenarios. The overall average temperature increase during 2010-2099 is largest in Canada (1.16 °C/100 ppm) and Finland (1.14 °C/100 ppm), while it is smallest in Ireland (0.62 °C/100 ppm) and Argentina (0.63 °C/100 ppm). In addition, for each 1 °C temperature increase, the amount of excess mortality is increased largely in tropical countries such as Vietnam (10.34%p/°C) and the Philippines (8.18%p/°C), while it is decreased in Ireland (-0.92%p/°C) and Australia (-0.32%p/°C). To understand the regional variability in temperature increase and mortality, we performed a regression-based modeling. We observed that the projected temperature increase is highly correlated with daily temperature range at the location and vulnerability to temperature increase is affected by health expenditure, and proportions of obese and elderly population.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 23. Lee, Whanhee
    et al.
    Bell, Michelle L.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Armstrong, Ben G.
    Sera, Francesco
    Hwang, Sunghee
    Lavigne, Eric
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Coelho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    Osorio, Samuel
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Zeka, Ariana
    Goodman, Patrick G.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Honda, Yasushi
    Guo, Yue-Liang Leon
    Seposo, Xerxes
    Van Dung, Do
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Tong, Shilu
    Guo, Yuming
    Kim, Ho
    Mortality burden of diurnal temperature range and its temporal changes: a multi-country study2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 110, s. 123-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a key index of climate change, few studies have reported the health burden of DTR and its temporal changes at a multi-country scale. Therefore, we assessed the attributable risk fraction of DTR on mortality and its temporal variations in a multi-country data set. We collected time-series data covering mortality and weather variables from 308 cities in 10 countries from 1972 to 2013. The temporal change in DTR-related mortality was estimated for each city with a time-varying distributed lag model. Estimates for each city were pooled using a multivariate meta-analysis. The results showed that the attributable fraction of total mortality to DTR was 2.5% (95% eCI: 2.3-2.7%) over the entire study period. In all countries, the attributable fraction increased from 2.4% (2.1-2.7%) to 2.7% (2.4-2.9%) between the first and last study years. This study found that DTR has significantly contributed to mortality in all the countries studied, and this attributable fraction has significantly increased over time in the USA, the UK, Spain, and South Korea. Therefore, because the health burden of DTR is not likely to reduce in the near future, countermeasures are needed to alleviate its impact on human health.

  • 24.
    Lepistö, Teemu
    et al.
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Lintusaari, Henna
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Barreira, Luis M.F.
    Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Niemi, Jarkko V.
    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY, Helsinki, Finland.
    Karjalainen, Panu
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Salo, Laura
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Silvonen, Ville
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Markkula, Lassi
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Hoivala, Jussi
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Marjanen, Petteri
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Martikainen, Sampsa
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Aurela, Minna
    Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Reyes, Felipe Reyes
    Centro Mario Molina Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Oyola, Pedro
    Centro Mario Molina Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Kuuluvainen, Heino
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Manninen, Hanna E.
    Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority HSY, Helsinki, Finland.
    Schins, Roel P.F.
    IUF-Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal
    Centre of Vehicles for Sustainable Mobility, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ondracek, Jakub
    Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, ICPF CAS, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Topinka, Jan
    Department of Genetic Toxicology and Epigenetics, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Timonen, Hilkka
    Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jalava, Pasi
    Inhalation Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Saarikoski, Sanna
    Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rönkkö, Topi
    Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Particle lung deposited surface area (LDSAal) size distributions in different urban environments and geographical regions: Towards understanding of the PM2.5 dose–response2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 180, artikkel-id 108224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies indicate that monitoring only fine particulate matter (PM2.5) may not be enough to understand and tackle the health risk caused by particulate pollution. Health effects per unit PM2.5 seem to increase in countries with low PM2.5, but also near local pollution sources (e.g., traffic) within cities. The aim of this study is to understand the differences in the characteristics of lung-depositing particles in different geographical regions and urban environments. Particle lung deposited surface area (LDSAal) concentrations and size distributions, along with PM2.5, were compared with ambient measurement data from Finland, Germany, Czechia, Chile, and India, covering traffic sites, residential areas, airports, shipping, and industrial sites. In Finland (low PM2.5), LDSAal size distributions depended significantly on the urban environment and were mainly attributable to ultrafine particles (<100 nm). In Central Europe (moderate PM2.5), LDSAal was also dependent on the urban environment, but furthermore heavily influenced by the regional aerosol. In Chile and India (high PM2.5), LDSAal was mostly contributed by the regional aerosol despite that the measurements were done at busy traffic sites. The results indicate that the characteristics of lung-depositing particles vary significantly both within cities and between geographical regions. In addition, ratio between LDSAal and PM2.5 depended notably on the environment and the country, suggesting that LDSAal exposure per unit PM2.5 may be multiple times higher in areas having low PM2.5 compared to areas with continuously high PM2.5. These findings may partly explain why PM2.5 seems more toxic near local pollution sources and in areas with low PM2.5. Furthermore, performance of a typical sensor based LDSAal measurement is discussed and a new LDSAal2.5 notation indicating deposition region and particle size range is introduced. Overall, the study emphasizes the need for country-specific emission mitigation strategies, and the potential of LDSAal concentration as a health-relevant pollution metric.

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  • 25.
    Lexén, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Sustainability Centre, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bernander, Maria
    Sustainability Centre, Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    Bioeconomy and Health, Department Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development, Unit Chemical and Pharmaceutical Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Assessing exposure of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in car cabins: Current understanding and future challenges in developing a standardized methodology2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 157, artikkel-id 106847Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) can be found in air, dust and on surfaces in car cabins, leading to exposure to humans via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. This review aims at describing current understanding concerning sampling, levels, and human exposure of SVOCs from car cabin environments. To date, several different methods are used to sample SVOCs in car cabin air and dust and there are no standard operating procedures for sampling SVOCs in cars detailed in the literature. The meta-analysis of SVOCs in car cabin air and dust shows that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been most frequently studied, primarily focusing on concentrations in dust. In dust, detected concentrations span over three to seven orders of magnitude, with highest median concentrations for OPFRs, followed by BFRs and, thereafter, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In air, the variation is smaller, spanning over one to three orders of magnitude, with phthalates and siloxanes having the highest median concentrations, followed by OPFRs, fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and BFRs. Assessments of human exposures to SVOCs in cars have, so far, mainly focused on external exposure, most often only studying one exposure route, primarily via dust ingestion. In order to perform relevant and complete assessments of human exposure to SVOCs in cars, we suggest broadening the scope to which SVOCs should be studied, promoting more comprehensive external exposure assessments that consider exposure via all relevant exposure routes and making comparisons of external and internal exposure, in order to understand the importance of in-car exposure as a source of SVOC exposure. We also suggest a new sampling approach that includes sampling of SVOCs in both car cabin air and dust, aiming to reduce variability in data due to differences in sampling techniques and protocols.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 26.
    Malmqvist, Ebba
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Lisberg Jensen, Ebba
    Dept. of urban studies, Malmö University, Sweden..
    Westerberg, Karin
    Dept. of urban studies, Malmö University, Sweden..
    Stroh, Emilie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Rittner, Ralf
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Susanna
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden..
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Henric
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden..
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Estimated health benefits of exhaust free transport in the city of Malmö, Southern Sweden2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 118, s. 78-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Air pollution is responsible for one in eight premature deaths worldwide, and thereby a major threat to human health. Health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution concentrations can be used as a mean of assessing the health impacts of policy, plans and projects, and support decision-makers in choices to prevent disease.

    The aim of this study was to estimate health impacts attributable to a hypothetical decrease in air pollution concentrations in the city of Malmö in Southern Sweden corresponding to a policy on-road transportations without tail-pipe emissions in the municipality. We used air pollution data modelled for each of the 326,092 inhabitants in Malmö by a Gaussian dispersion model combined with an emission database with >40,000 sources. The dispersion model calculates Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) (later transformed into Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μg/m3 (PM2.5) with high spatial and temporal resolution (85 m and 1 h, respectively).

    The average individual reduction was 5.1 (ranging from 0.6 to 11.8) μg/m3 in NO2, which would prevent 55 (2% of all deaths) to 93 (4%) deaths annually, depending on dose-response function used. Furthermore, we estimate that the NO2 reduction would result in 21 (6%) fewer cases of incident asthma in children, 95 (10%) fewer children with bronchitis every year, 30 (1%) fewer hospital admissions for respiratory disease, 87(4%) fewer dementia cases, and 11(11%) fewer cases of preeclampsia every year. The average reduction in PM2.5 of 0.6 (ranging from 0.1 till 1.7) μg/m3 would mean that 2729 (0.3%) work days would not be lost due to sick-days and that there would be 16,472 fewer restricted activity days (0.3%) that year had all on-road transportations been without tail-pipe emissions.

    Even though the estimates are sensitive to the dose-response functions used and to exposure misclassification errors, even the most conservative estimate of the number of prevented deaths is 7 times larger than the annual traffic fatalities in Malmö, indicating a substantial possibility to reduce the health burden attributed to tail-pipe emissions in the study area.

  • 27. Mamsen, Linn Salto
    et al.
    Björvang, Richelle D.
    Mucs, Daniel
    Vinnars, Marie-Therese
    Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Papadogiannakis, Nikos
    Lindh, Christian
    Andersen, Claus Yding
    Damdimopoulou, Pauliina
    Concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human embryonic and fetal organs from first, second, and third trimester pregnancies2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 124, s. 482-492Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The persistent environmental contaminants perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have gained attention due to their potential adverse health effects, in particular following early life exposure. Information on human fetal exposure to PFASs is currently limited to one report on first trimester samples. There is no data available on PFAS concentrations in fetal organs throughout all three trimesters of pregnancy.

    Methods: We measured the concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) in human embryos and fetuses with corresponding placentas and maternal serum samples derived from elective pregnancy terminations and cases of intrauterine fetal death. A total of 78 embryos and fetuses aged 7–42 gestational weeks were included and a total of 225 fetal organs covering liver, lung, heart, central nervous system (CNS), and adipose tissue were analyzed, together with 71 placentas and 63 maternal serum samples. PFAS concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Results: All evaluated PFASs were detected and quantified in maternal sera, placentas and embryos/fetuses. In maternal serum samples, PFOS was detected in highest concentrations, followed by PFOA > PFNA > PFDA = PFUnA = PFHxS. Similarly, PFOS was detected in highest concentrations in embryo/fetal tissues, followed by PFOA > PFNA = PFDA = PFUnA. PFHxS was detected in very few fetuses. In general, PFAS concentrations in embryo/fetal tissue (ng/g) were lower than maternal serum (ng/ml) but similar to placenta concentrations. The total PFAS burden (i.e. the sum of all PFASs) was highest in lung tissue in first trimester samples and in liver in second and third trimester samples. The burden was lowest in CNS samples irrespective of fetal age. The placenta:maternal serum ratios of PFOS, PFOA and PFNA increased across gestation suggesting bioaccumulation in the placenta. Further, we observed that the ratios were higher in pregnancies with male fetuses compared to female fetuses.

    Conclusions: Human fetuses were intrinsically exposed to a mixture of PFASs throughout gestation. The compounds were detected in all analyzed tissues, suggesting that PFASs reach and may affect many types of organs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PFASs pass the placenta and deposit to embryo and fetal tissues, calling for risk assessment of gestational exposures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 28.
    Markevych, Iana
    et al.
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Zhao, Tianyu
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany.
    Fuertes, Elaine
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; MRC Centre for Environment & Health, London, United Kingdom.
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Dadvand, Payam
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Allschwil, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Garcia Aymerich, Judith
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.
    Nowak, Dennis
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany.
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Allschwil, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Jarvis, Deborah
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; MRC Centre for Environment & Health, London, United Kingdom.
    Abramson, Michael J.
    School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, Australia.
    Accordini, Simone
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Amaral, Andre F.S.
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Bentouhami, Hayat
    Social Epidemiology and Health Policy, Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Jacobsen Bertelsen, Randi
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Boudier, Anne
    Team of Environmental Epidemiology Applied to the Development and Respiratory Health, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Inserm U 1209, CNRS, UMR 5309, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Pediatric Department, CHU Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Bono, Roberto
    Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Bowatte, Gayan
    Allergy and Lung Health Unit, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Faculty of Allied Health, University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka; National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
    Casas, Lidia
    Social Epidemiology and Health Policy, Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development (IMDO), University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Dharmage, Shyamali C.
    Allergy and Lung Health Unit, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gnesi, Marco
    Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Holm, Mathias
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacquemin, Benedicte
    Univ Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail), UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France.
    Janson, Christer
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jogi, Rain
    Lung Clinic, Tartu University Hospital, Tartu, Estonia.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Keidel, Dirk
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Allschwil, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Leynaert, Benedicte
    Université Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm, Center for Epidemiology and Population Health (CESP) - Integrative Respiratory Epidemiology Team, Villejuif, France.
    Maldonado Perez, José Antonio
    Sección de Neumología, Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva, Spain.
    Marchetti, Pierpaolo
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Migliore, Enrica
    Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Turin, Italy.
    Martínez-Moratalla, Jesús
    Servicio de Neumología del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Pin, Isabelle
    Pediatric Department, CHU Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; CHU de Grenoble Alpes, Department of Pédiatrie, Inserm, Grenoble, France.
    Potts, James
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Allschwil, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Centre for Environmental Health and Prevention, Regional Agency for Prevention, Environment and Energy of Emilia-Romagna, Modena, Italy.
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Department of Nursing, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain.
    Siroux, Valerie
    Pediatric Department, CHU Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Soussan, David
    Paris Diderot University, Faculty of Medicine, Paris, France; Laboratory of Excellence, INFLAMEX, Université Sorbonne Paris Cité and DHU FIRE, Paris, France.
    Sunyer, Jordi
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.
    Urrutia Landa, Isabel
    Department of Pneumology, Galdakao Hospital, Galdakao, Spain.
    Villani, Simona
    Unit of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany; Allergy and Lung Health Unit, School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Residential greenspace and lung function decline over 20 years in a prospective cohort: the ECRHS study2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 178, artikkel-id 108036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The few studies that have examined associations between greenspace and lung function in adulthood have yielded conflicting results and none have examined whether the rate of lung function decline is affected.

    Objective: We explored the association between residential greenspace and change in lung function over 20 years in 5559 adults from 22 centers in 11 countries participating in the population-based, international European Community Respiratory Health Survey.

    Methods: Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured by spirometry when participants were approximately 35 (1990–1994), 44 (1999–2003), and 55 (2010–2014) years old. Greenness was assessed as the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in 500 m, 300 m, and 100 m circular buffers around the residential addresses at the time of lung function measurement. Green spaces were defined as the presence of agricultural, natural, or urban green spaces in a circular 300 m buffer. Associations of these greenspace parameters with the rate of lung function change were assessed using adjusted linear mixed effects regression models with random intercepts for subjects nested within centers. Sensitivity analyses considered air pollution exposures.

    Results: A 0.2-increase (average interquartile range) in NDVI in the 500 m buffer was consistently associated with a faster decline in FVC (−1.25 mL/year [95% confidence interval: −2.18 to −0.33]). These associations were especially pronounced in females and those living in areas with low PM10 levels. We found no consistent associations with FEV1 and the FEV1/FVC ratio. Residing near forests or urban green spaces was associated with a faster decline in FEV1, while agricultural land and forests were related to a greater decline in FVC.

    Conclusions: More residential greenspace was not associated with better lung function in middle-aged European adults. Instead, we observed slight but consistent declines in lung function parameters. The potentially detrimental association requires verification in future studies.

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  • 29. Mostafavi, Nahid
    et al.
    Vlaanderen, Jelle
    Chadeau-Hyam, Marc
    Beelen, Rob
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Palli, Domenico
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Hoek, Gerard
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution2015Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 81, s. 1-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on blood markers of systemic inflammation. We measured a panel of 28 inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples from 587 individuals that were biobanked as part of a prospective study. Participants were from Varese and Turin (Italy) and Umea (Sweden). Long-term air pollution estimates of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were available from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Linear mixed models adjusted for potential confounders were applied to assess the association between NOx and the markers of inflammation. Long-term exposure to NO was associated with decreased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Italy, but not in Sweden. NOx exposure levels were considerably lower in Sweden than in Italy (Sweden: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 6.65 mu g/m(3) (4.8, 19.7); Italy: median (5th, 95th percentiles) 94.2 mu g/m(3) (7.8, 124.5)). Combining data from Italy and Sweden we only observed a significant association between long-term exposure to NOx and decreased levels of circulating IL-8. We observed some indication for perturbations in the inflammatory markers due to long-term exposure to NOx. Effects were stronger in Italy than in Sweden, potentially reflecting the difference in air pollution levels between the two cohorts.

  • 30. Nordeide Kuiper, Ingrid
    et al.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Markevych, Iana
    Accordini, Simone
    Bertelsen, Randi J.
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Heile Christensen, Jesper
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Halvorsen, Thomas
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Hertel, Ole
    Hoek, Gerard
    Holm, Mathias
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Janson, Christer
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Miodini Nilsen, Roy
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Johannessen, Ane
    Lifelong exposure to air pollution and greenness in relation to asthma, rhinitis and lung function in adulthood2020Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, artikkel-id 106219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if air pollution and greenness exposure from birth till adulthood affects adult asthma, rhinitis and lung function.

    METHODS: We analysed data from 3428 participants (mean age 28) in the RHINESSA study in Norway and Sweden. Individual mean annual residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were averaged across susceptibility windows (0-10 years, 10-18 years, lifetime, adulthood (year before study participation)) and analysed in relation to physician diagnosed asthma (ever/allergic/non-allergic), asthma attack last 12 months, current rhinitis and low lung function (lower limit of normal (LLN), z-scores of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC below 1.64). We performed logistic regression for asthma attack, rhinitis and LLN lung function (clustered with family and study centre), and conditional logistic regression with a matched case-control design for ever/allergic/non-allergic asthma. Multivariable models were adjusted for parental asthma and education.

    RESULTS: Childhood, adolescence and adult exposure to NO2, PM10 and O3 were associated with an increased risk of asthma attacks (ORs between 1.29 and 2.25), but not with physician diagnosed asthma. For rhinitis, adulthood exposures seemed to be most important. Childhood and adolescence exposures to PM2.5 and O3 were associated with lower lung function, in particular FEV1 (range ORs 2.65 to 4.21). No associations between NDVI and asthma or rhinitis were revealed, but increased NDVI was associated with lower FEV1 and FVC in all susceptibility windows (range ORs 1.39 to 1.74).

    CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution exposures in childhood, adolescence and adulthood were associated with increased risk of asthma attacks, rhinitis and low lung function in adulthood. Greenness was not associated with asthma or rhinitis, but was a risk factor for low lung function.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 31.
    Olsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Bråbäck, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Geels, Camilla
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Christensen, Jesper H.
    Frohn, Lise M.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Early childhood exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with increased risk of paediatric asthma: An administrative cohort study from Stockholm, Sweden2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 155, artikkel-id 106667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disease and one of the most common chronic diseases among children. Exposure to ambient air pollution in early life and childhood may influence asthma aetiology, but it is uncertain which specific components of air pollution and exposure windows are of importance. The role of socioeconomic status (SES) is also unclear. The aims of the present study are, therefore, to investigate how various exposure windows of different pollutants affect risk-induced asthma in early life and to explore the possible effect SES has on that relationship.

    Methods: The study population was constructed using register data on all singleton births in the greater Stockholm area between 2006 and 2013. Exposure to ambient black carbon (BC), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), primary organic carbon (pOC) secondary organic aerosols (SOA), secondary inorganic aerosols, and oxidative potential at the residential address was modelled as mean values for the entire pregnancy period, the first year of life and the first three years of life. Swedish national registers were used to define the outcome: asthma diagnosis assessed at hospital during the first six years of life. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were modelled with Cox proportional hazards model with age as the underlying time-scale, adjusting for relevant potential confounding variables.

    Results: An increased risk for developing childhood asthma was observed in association with exposure to PM2.5, pOC and SOA during the first three years of life. With an interquartile range increase in exposure, the HRs were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10), 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00-1.04), for PM2.5, pOC and SOA, respectively, in the fully adjusted models. Exposure during foetal life or the first year of life was not associated with asthma risk, and the other pollutants were not statistically significantly associated with increased risk. Furthermore, the increase in risk associated with PM2.5 and the components BC, pOC and SOA were stronger in areas with lower SES.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during the first three years of life may increase the risk for asthma in early childhood. The findings further imply a possible increased vulnerability to air pollutionattributed asthma among low SES children.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 32.
    Oudin, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Frondelius, Kasper
    Haglund, Nils
    Källén, Karin
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Peik
    Malmqvist, Ebba
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden..
    Prenatal exposure to air pollution as a potential risk factor for autism and ADHD2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 133, artikkel-id 105149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic and environmental factors both contribute to the development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). One suggested environmental risk factor for ASD and ADHD is air pollution, but knowledge of its effects, especially in low-exposure areas, are limited. Here, we investigate risks for ASD and ADHD associated with prenatal exposure to air pollution in an area with air pollution levels generally well below World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guidelines. We used an epidemiological database (MAPSS) consisting of virtually all (99%) children born between 1999 and 2009 (48,571 births) in the study area, in southern Sweden. MAPSS consists of data on modelled nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels derived from a Gaussian dispersion model; maternal residency during pregnancy; perinatal factors collected from a regional birth registry; and socio-economic factors extracted from Statistics Sweden. All ASD and ADHD diagnoses in our data were undertaken at the Malmö and Lund Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, using standardized diagnostic instruments. We used logistic regression analyses to obtain estimates of the risk of developing ASD and ADHD associated with different air pollution levels, with adjustments for potential perinatal and socio-economic confounders. In this longitudinal cohort study, we found associations between air pollution exposure during the prenatal period and and the risk of developing ASD. For example, an adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) of 1.40 and its 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (95% CI: 1.02-1.93) were found when comparing the fourth with the first quartile of NOx exposure. We did not find similar associations on the risk of developing ADHD. This study contributes to the growing evidence of a link between prenatal exposure to air pollution and autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that prenatal exposure even below current WHO air quality guidelines may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

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  • 33. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Hao, Xin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Yang, Wanxin
    Lin, Chunye
    Wang, Aihua
    Typical pesticides diffuse loading and degradation pattern differences under the impacts of climate and land-use variations2020Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 139, artikkel-id 105717Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Riverine sediment can reconstruct the history of organic pollution loads and can provide reliable temporal information for pesticide metabolite dynamics in watershed. Sediment core samples were collected from two riverine sections of a cold watershed base in the presence land use change under agricultural development, and the vertical concentrations of four pesticides (atrazine, prometryn, isoprothiolane, and oxadiazon) and two atrazine metabolites (deisopropyl-atrazine and deethyl-atrazine) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The presence of pesticides and metabolites was detected at different depths (11-17 cm) at 1-cm intervals along the two sediment cores, and the flux was calculated with a constant rate of supply model based on the observed concentrations and Pb-210 isotope radioactivity chronology. By comparing the concentrations and fluxes of pesticides between the two sediment sections, significant differences in accumulation under different land-use patterns were found. Redundancy analysis further indicated that temporal watershed farmland variance was the dominant factor for pesticide loading. The lower concentration of atrazine and the higher concentration of the other pesticides in the estuarine sediment was closely related to the decreasing upland in the upstream area and the increase in paddy fields in the downstream area. The analysis of atrazine and the metabolites indicated that atrazine is more likely degraded to deethyl-atrazine and the metabolites have similar migration processes in the sediments, which can easily migrate downward. Moreover, the ratio of metabolites to atrazine showed that atrazine degradation was intensive during the transport process, but the metabolites efficiency was lower in this area due to the cold temperature. The results provide insights for the management of pesticide pollution control in watersheds and the potential effects of low temperature on the degradation of pesticides.

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  • 34. Ouyang, Wei
    et al.
    Zhang, Yu
    Gu, Xiang
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lin, Chunye
    Wang, Baodong
    Xin, Ming
    Occurrence, transportation, and distribution difference of typical herbicides from estuary to bay2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 130, artikkel-id 104858Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In several watersheds, agricultural activities are the cause of pollution, mainly due to the discharge of herbicides. Often, these herbicide plumes are transported to the surrounding bays. Samples of water, suspended particulate sediments (SPSs), and sediments from 37 sites in the Jiaozhou Bay in the western Pacific Ocean were collected in April 2018. The total concentrations of atrazine and acetochlor in these samples were analyzed, that showed different patterns in each sampled area. Atrazine had 2-3 times higher concentrations in coastal areas and bays compared to the estuary, indicating that it had a higher residence time in the marine environment. In contrast, acetochlor concentration decreased with an increase in the depth of seawater. Both the spatial distributions and the vertical concentrations in water, SPS, and sediment proved that these two herbicides had different responses during transportation from the estuary to the bay. Despite the significant difference in concentration of the two herbicides in the water and sediment, their spatially averaged value in SPS was very close, indicating that the particles had saturated sorption capability. The organic carbon normalized partition coefficient (LogK(oc)) was used to explain the partitioning of the herbicides between water and sediment. The LogK(oc) difference between herbicides demonstrated that acetochlor was strongly phase partitioned in the coastal and the bay areas, thereby causing similar distributions of acetochlor in the three matrices. Atrazine had a higher LogK(oc) value in the estuary, which explained its higher concentration in the estuary SPS. The correlation and redundancy analyses both demonstrated that the concentrations of the herbicides in water were sensitive to dissolved organic carbon and dissolved oxygen. The current tides and bathymetry were the critical factors in determining the spatial distribution of herbicides in the water and sediment, resulting in a low herbicide load in the river mouth area.

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  • 35.
    Rai, Masna
    et al.
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Munich, - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology – IBE, Pettenkofer School of Public Health, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, ASL Roma 1, Rome, Italy.
    de'Donato, Francesca
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, ASL Roma 1, Rome, Italy.
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, ASL Roma 1, Rome, Italy.
    Zafeiratou, Sofia
    epartment of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Vazquez Fernandez, Liliana
    Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Zhang, Siqi
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Munich, - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    epartment of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Samoli, Evangelia
    epartment of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Rao, Shilpa
    Department of Air Pollution and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Lavigne, Eric
    School of Epidemiology & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada and Environmental Health Science & Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
    Guo, Yuming
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Kan, Haidong
    Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Osorio, Samuel
    Department of Environmental Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Kyselý, Jan
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Urban, Aleš
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Orru, Hans
    Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Maasikmets, Marek
    Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.
    Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Ryti, Niilo
    Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Santé Publique France, Department of Environmental Health, French National Public Health Agency, Saint Maurice, France.
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fook Sheng Ng, Chris
    School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Alahmad, Barrak
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, MA, Boston, United States.
    Hurtado Diaz, Magali
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
    De la Cruz Valencia, César
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
    Nunes, Baltazar
    Department of Environmental Health, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Porto, Portugal.
    Madureira, Joana
    Department of Environmental Health, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Porto, Portugal.
    Scovronick, Noah
    Department of Environmental Health. Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, United States.
    Garland, Rebecca M.
    Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kim, Ho
    Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, Whanhee
    School of Biomedical Convergence Engineering, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea.
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Department of Statistics and Computational Research, Universitat de València, València, Spain.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Maria Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Ragettli, Martina S.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
    Leon Guo, Yue-Liang
    Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University (NTU) and NTU Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Pan, Shih-Chun
    National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan.
    Li, Shanshan
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Department of Public Health Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Sera, Francesco
    Department of Statistics, Computer Science and Applications “G. Parenti”, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Masselot, Pierre
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Schwartz, Joel
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, MA, Boston, United States.
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, MA, Boston, United States.
    Bell, Michelle L.
    School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Schneider, Alexandra
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Munich, - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Breitner, Susanne
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Munich, - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany; Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometry, and Epidemiology – IBE, Pettenkofer School of Public Health, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Heat-related cardiorespiratory mortality: effect modification by air pollution across 482 cities from 24 countries2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 174, artikkel-id 107825Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence on the potential interactive effects of heat and ambient air pollution on cause-specific mortality is inconclusive and limited to selected locations. Objectives: We investigated the effects of heat on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality and its modification by air pollution during summer months (six consecutive hottest months) in 482 locations across 24 countries.

    Methods: Location-specific daily death counts and exposure data (e.g., particulate matter with diameters ≤ 2.5 µm [PM2.5]) were obtained from 2000 to 2018. We used location-specific confounder-adjusted Quasi-Poisson regression with a tensor product between air temperature and the air pollutant. We extracted heat effects at low, medium, and high levels of pollutants, defined as the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile of the location-specific pollutant concentrations. Country-specific and overall estimates were derived using a random-effects multilevel meta-analytical model.

    Results: Heat was associated with increased cardiorespiratory mortality. Moreover, the heat effects were modified by elevated levels of all air pollutants in most locations, with stronger effects for respiratory than cardiovascular mortality. For example, the percent increase in respiratory mortality per increase in the 2-day average summer temperature from the 75th to the 99th percentile was 7.7% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 7.6–7.7), 11.3% (95%CI 11.2–11.3), and 14.3% (95% CI 14.1–14.5) at low, medium, and high levels of PM2.5, respectively. Similarly, cardiovascular mortality increased by 1.6 (95%CI 1.5–1.6), 5.1 (95%CI 5.1–5.2), and 8.7 (95%CI 8.7–8.8) at low, medium, and high levels of O3, respectively.

    Discussion: We observed considerable modification of the heat effects on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality by elevated levels of air pollutants. Therefore, mitigation measures following the new WHO Air Quality Guidelines are crucial to enhance better health and promote sustainable development.

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  • 36. Rutgersson, Carolin
    et al.
    Ebmeyer, Stefan
    Lassen, Simon Bo
    Karkman, Antti
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Brandt, Kristian K.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Long-term application of Swedish sewage sludge on farmland does not cause clear changes in the soil bacterial resistome2020Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 137, artikkel-id 105339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread practice of applying sewage sludge to arable land makes use of nutrients indispensable for crops and reduces the need for inorganic fertilizer, however this application also provides a potential route for human exposure to chemical contaminants and microbial pathogens in the sludge. A recent concern is that such practice could promote environmental selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Understanding the risks of sludge amendment in relation to antibiotic resistance development is important for sustainable agriculture, waste treatment and infectious disease management. To assess such risks, we took advantage of an agricultural field trial in southern Sweden, where land used for growing different crops has been amended with sludge every four years since 1981. We sampled raw, semi-digested and digested and stored sludge together with soils from the experimental plots before and two weeks after the most recent amendment in 2017. Levels of selected antimicrobials and bioavailable metals were determined and microbial effects were evaluated using both culture-independent metagenome sequencing and conventional culturing. Antimicrobials or bioavailable metals (Cu and Zn) did not accumulate to levels of concern for environmental selection of antibiotic resistance, and no coherent signs, neither on short or long time scales, of enrichment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or resistance genes were found in soils amended with digested and stored sewage sludge in doses up to 12 metric tons per hectare. Likewise, only very few and slight differences in microbial community composition were observed after sludge amendment. Taken together, the current study does not indicate risks of sludge amendment related to antibiotic resistance development under the given conditions. Extrapolations should however be done with care as sludge quality and application practices vary between regions. Hence, the antibiotic concentrations and resistance load of the sludge are likely to be higher in regions with larger antibiotic consumption and resistance burden than Sweden.

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  • 37. Schillemans, Tessa
    et al.
    Shi, Lin
    Donat-Vargas, Carolina
    Hanhineva, Kati
    Tornevi, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Koponen, Jani
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Brunius, Carl
    Plasma metabolites associated with exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and risk of type 2 diabetes: A nested case-control study2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 146, artikkel-id 106180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread persistent environmental pollutants. There is evidence that PFAS induce metabolic perturbations in humans, but underlying mechanisms are still unknown. In this exploratory study, we investigated PFAS-related plasma metabolites for their associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D) to gain potential mechanistic insight in these perturbations. We used untargeted LC-MS metabolomics to find metabolites related to PFAS exposures in a case-control study on T2D (n = 187 matched pairs) nested within the Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort. Following principal component analysis (PCA), six PFAS measured in plasma appeared in two groups: 1) perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid and perfluoroundecanoic acid and 2) perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid. Using a random forest algorithm, we discovered metabolite features associated with individual PFAS and PFAS exposure groups which were subsequently investigated for associations with risk of T2D. PFAS levels correlated with 171 metabolite features (0.16 ≤ |r| ≤ 0.37, false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted p < 0.05). Out of these, 35 associated with T2D (p < 0.05), with 7 remaining after multiple testing adjustment (FDR < 0.05). PCA of the 35 PFAS- and T2D-related metabolite features revealed two patterns, dominated by glycerophospholipids and diacylglycerols, with opposite T2D associations. The glycerophospholipids correlated positively with PFAS and associated inversely with risk for T2D (Odds Ratio (OR) per 1 standard deviation (1-SD) increase in metabolite PCA pattern score = 0.2; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.1-0.4). The diacylglycerols also correlated positively with PFAS, but they associated with increased risk for T2D (OR per 1-SD = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3-2.7). These results suggest that PFAS associate with two groups of lipid species with opposite relations to T2D risk.

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  • 38.
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service / ASL, Rome, Italy.
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service / ASL, Rome, Italy.
    Schneider, Alexandra
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Armstrong, Ben
    Department of Public Health Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Scortichini, Matteo
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service / ASL, Rome, Italy.
    Rai, Masna
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Neuherberg, Germany.
    Achilleos, Souzana
    Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University of Nicosia Medical School, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Alahmad, Barrak
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, MA, Boston, United States.
    Analitis, Antonis
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Bell, Michelle L.
    School of the Environment, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Calleja, Neville
    Directorate for Health Information and Research, Malta.
    Krage Carlsen, Hanne
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carrasco, Gabriel
    Institute of Tropical Medicine “Alexander von Humboldt”, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Paul Cauchi, John
    Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    D.S.Z.S. Coelho, Micheline
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Correa, Patricia M.
    Department of Public Health, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile.
    Diaz, Magali H.
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
    Entezari, Alireza
    Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Khorasan Razavi, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Garland, Rebecca M.
    Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Leon Guo, Yue
    Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University (NTU) and NTU Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Guo, Yuming
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Holobaca, Iulian H.
    Faculty of Geography, Babes-Bolay University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Department of Statistics and Computational Research, Universitat de València, València, Spain.
    Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.
    Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Kan, Haidong
    Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Environmental Research Group, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Kim, Ho
    Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Kyselý, Jan
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lavigne, Eric
    School of Epidemiology & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
    Lee, Whanhee
    School of the Environment, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Li, Shanshan
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Maasikmets, Marek
    Estonian Environmental Research Centre, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Madureira, Joana
    Department of Environmental Health, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Porto, Portugal; EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Laboratório para a Investigação Integrativa e Translacional em Saúde Populacional (ITR), Porto, Portugal.
    Mayvaneh, Fatemeh
    Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Khorasan Razavi, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Fook Sheng Ng, Chris
    Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nunes, Baltazar
    Department of Epidemiology, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Orru, Hans
    Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    V. Ortega, Nicolás
    Department of Public Health, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile.
    Osorio, Samuel
    Department of Environmental Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Palomares, Alfonso D.L.
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Pan, Shih-Chun
    National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan.
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Santé Publique France, Department of Environmental Health, French National Public Health Agency, Saint Maurice, France.
    Ragettli, Martina S.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.
    Rao, Shilpa
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Raz, Raanan
    Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Roye, Dominic
    Climate Research Foundation, Madrid, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.
    Ryti, Niilo
    Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    H.N. Saldiva, Paulo
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Samoli, Evangelia
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Schwartz, Joel
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, MA, Boston, United States.
    Scovronick, Noah
    Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, United States.
    Sera, Francesco
    Department of Public Health Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Department of Statistics, Computer Science and Applications “G. Parenti”, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Tong, Shilu
    School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    D.L.C. Valencia, César
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Morelos, Cuernavaca, Mexico.
    Maria Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Urban, Aleš
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Department of Public Health Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Breitner, Susanne
    IBE-Chair of Epidemiology, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.
    de' Donato, Francesca K.
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Region Health Service / ASL, Rome, Italy.
    Joint effect of heat and air pollution on mortality in 620 cities of 36 countries2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 181, artikkel-id 108258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The epidemiological evidence on the interaction between heat and ambient air pollution on mortality is still inconsistent.

    Objectives: To investigate the interaction between heat and ambient air pollution on daily mortality in a large dataset of 620 cities from 36 countries.

    Methods: We used daily data on all-cause mortality, air temperature, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), PM ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) from 620 cities in 36 countries in the period 1995–2020. We restricted the analysis to the six consecutive warmest months in each city. City-specific data were analysed with over-dispersed Poisson regression models, followed by a multilevel random-effects meta-analysis. The joint association between air temperature and air pollutants was modelled with product terms between non-linear functions for air temperature and linear functions for air pollutants.

    Results: We analyzed 22,630,598 deaths. An increase in mean temperature from the 75th to the 99th percentile of city-specific distributions was associated with an average 8.9 % (95 % confidence interval: 7.1 %, 10.7 %) mortality increment, ranging between 5.3 % (3.8 %, 6.9 %) and 12.8 % (8.7 %, 17.0 %), when daily PM10 was equal to 10 or 90 μg/m3, respectively. Corresponding estimates when daily O3 concentrations were 40 or 160 μg/m3 were 2.9 % (1.1 %, 4.7 %) and 12.5 % (6.9 %, 18.5 %), respectively. Similarly, a 10 μg/m3 increment in PM10 was associated with a 0.54 % (0.10 %, 0.98 %) and 1.21 % (0.69 %, 1.72 %) increase in mortality when daily air temperature was set to the 1st and 99th city-specific percentiles, respectively. Corresponding mortality estimate for O3 across these temperature percentiles were 0.00 % (-0.44 %, 0.44 %) and 0.53 % (0.38 %, 0.68 %). Similar effect modification results, although slightly weaker, were found for PM2.5 and NO2.

    Conclusions: Suggestive evidence of effect modification between air temperature and air pollutants on mortality during the warm period was found in a global dataset of 620 cities.

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  • 39. Supe Tulcan, Roberto Xavier
    et al.
    Ouyang, Wei
    Gu, Xiang
    Lin, Chunye
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wang, Baodong
    Typical herbicide residues, trophic transfer, bioconcentration, and health risk of marine organisms2021Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 152, s. 106500-, artikkel-id 106500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrazine, a potent herbicide for weeds removal during the growing season, has been widely used in China. It is known to be distributed in aquatic ecosystems with a long half-life, thus presenting a potential risk to species and consumers. This study analyzed the concentrations of degraded atrazine residues in marine organisms (N = 129) including 3 species of mollusks, 2 species of crustaceans, and 15 species of fish from a semi-enclosed bay, Jiaozhou Bay (JZB), adjacent to the Northwest Pacific Ocean in China. The corresponding trophic magnification factors (TMF), bioaccumulation factors (BCFs), and subsequent risks to final consumers were also determined. The results showed an average atrazine concentration of (0.301 ± 0.03) ng g−1 and (0.305 ± 0.04) ng g−1 in fish and invertebrates, respectively. The BCFs were (5.23 ± 1.75) L kg−1 and (5.81 ± 1.31) L kg−1 for fish and invertebrates, respectively. Atrazine was significantly bio-diluted in JZB through the sampled marine organisms with increasing trophic levels, with a TMF value below 1 (P < 0.01). An analysis of the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) predicted that<0.02% of species were exposed to a dissolved concentration of atrazine (57.88 ng L−1) that would lead to detrimental effects, while risk quotients predicted low long-term risks for species in the bay. Finally, people with a diet limited to species from JZB were found to face no associated health risk due to a significantly small daily intake and target hazard quotient of atrazine. The corresponding non-carcinogenic effect showed no significant risk from seafood consumption.

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  • 40. Temam, Sofia
    et al.
    Burte, Emilie
    Adam, Martin
    Antó, Josep M
    Basagaña, Xavier
    Bousquet, Jean
    Carsin, Anne-Elie
    Galobardes, Bruna
    Keidel, Dirk
    Künzli, Nino
    Le Moual, Nicole
    Sanchez, Margaux
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Bono, Roberto
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Heinrich, Joachim
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nadif, Rachel
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Pin, Isabelle
    Siroux, Valérie
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Socioeconomic position and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in Western Europe: a multi-city analysis2017Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 101, s. 117-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and outdoor air pollution have been reported in Europe, but methodological differences prevent any direct between-study comparison.

    OBJECTIVES: Assess and compare the association between SEP and outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure as a marker of traffic exhaust, in 16 cities from eight Western European countries.

    METHODS: Three SEP indicators, two defined at individual-level (education and occupation) and one at neighborhood-level (unemployment rate) were assessed in three European multicenter cohorts. NO2 annual concentration exposure was estimated at participants' addresses with land use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE; http://www.escapeproject.eu/). Pooled and city-specific linear regressions were used to analyze associations between each SEP indicator and NO2. Heterogeneity across cities was assessed using the Higgins' I-squared test (I(2)).

    RESULTS: The study population included 5692 participants. Pooled analysis showed that participants with lower individual-SEP were less exposed to NO2. Conversely, participants living in neighborhoods with higher unemployment rate were more exposed. City-specific results exhibited strong heterogeneity (I(2)>76% for the three SEP indicators) resulting in variation of the individual- and neighborhood-SEP patterns of NO2 exposure across cities. The coefficients from a model that included both individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators were similar to the unadjusted coefficients, suggesting independent associations.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed for the first time using homogenized measures of outcome and exposure across 16 cities the important heterogeneity regarding the association between SEP and NO2 in Western Europe. Importantly, our results showed that individual- and neighborhood-SEP indicators capture different aspects of the association between SEP and exposure to air pollution, stressing the importance of considering both in air pollution health effects studies.

  • 41.
    Thacher, Jesse D.
    et al.
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Flanagan, Erin
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Kristoffer
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Albin, Maria
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roswall, Nina
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Pyko, Andrei
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aasvang, Gunn Marit
    Department of Air Quality and Noise, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Broberg, Karin
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Cole-Hunter, Thomas
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Charlotta
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eneroth, Kristina
    Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gudjonsdottir, Hrafnhildur
    Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helte, Emilie
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ketzel, Matthias
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark; Global Centre for Clean Air Research (GCARE), University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.
    Lanki, Timo
    Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland; School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Lim, Youn-Hee
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Leander, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljungman, Petter
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Männistö, Satu
    Department of Public Health and Welfare, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Pershagen, Göran
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Aging Research Centre, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandsveden, Malte
    Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Selander, Jenny
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Simonsen, Mette K.
    Department of Neurology and the Parker Institute, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stucki, Lara
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Spanne, Mårten
    Environment Department, City of Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tiittanen, Pekka
    Department of Health Security, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.
    Valencia, Victor H.
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark; UTE University, Quito, Ecuador.
    Ögren, Mikael
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Agneta
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sørensen, Mette
    Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark; Department of Natural Science and Environment, Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Exposure to long-term source-specific transportation noise and incident breast cancer: A pooled study of eight Nordic cohorts2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 178, artikkel-id 108108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Environmental noise is an important environmental exposure that can affect health. An association between transportation noise and breast cancer incidence has been suggested, although current evidence is limited. We investigated the pooled association between long-term exposure to transportation noise and breast cancer incidence.

    Methods: Pooled data from eight Nordic cohorts provided a study population of 111,492 women. Road, railway, and aircraft noise were modelled at residential addresses. Breast cancer incidence (all, estrogen receptor (ER) positive, and ER negative) was derived from cancer registries. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models, adjusting main models for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together with long-term exposure to air pollution.

    Results: A total of 93,859 women were included in the analyses, of whom 5,875 developed breast cancer. The median (5th–95th percentile) 5-year residential road traffic noise was 54.8 (40.0–67.8) dB Lden, and among those exposed, the median railway noise was 51.0 (41.2–65.8) dB Lden. We observed a pooled HR for breast cancer (95 % confidence interval (CI)) of 1.03 (0.99–1.06) per 10 dB increase in 5-year mean exposure to road traffic noise, and 1.03 (95 % CI: 0.96–1.11) for railway noise, after adjustment for lifestyle and sociodemographic covariates. HRs remained unchanged in analyses with further adjustment for PM2.5 and attenuated when adjusted for NO2 (HRs from 1.02 to 1.01), in analyses using the same sample. For aircraft noise, no association was observed. The associations did not vary by ER status for any noise source. In analyses using <60 dB as a cutoff, we found HRs of 1.08 (0.99–1.18) for road traffic and 1.19 (0.95–1.49) for railway noise.

    Conclusions: We found weak associations between road and railway noise and breast cancer risk. More high-quality prospective studies are needed, particularly among those exposed to railway and aircraft noise before conclusions regarding noise as a risk factor for breast cancer can be made.

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  • 42.
    Triebner, Kai
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Core Facility for Metabolomics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Markevych, Iana
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Bertelsen, Randi J
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Oral Health Centre of Expertise in Western Norway, Bergen, Norway.
    Sved Skottvoll, Bente
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hustad, Steinar
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Core Facility for Metabolomics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Holm, Mathias
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, allergy and sleep research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Carlton, Australia; Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Inner City Clinic, University Hospital of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany.
    Gómez Real, Francisco
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Dadvand, Payam
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; Pompeu Fabra University, Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain; Ciber on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.
    Lifelong exposure to residential greenspace and the premenstrual syndrome: A population-based study of Northern European women2022Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 158, artikkel-id 106975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) causes clinically relevant psychological and physical symptoms in up to 20% of women of reproductive age. To date, no studies have investigated the relationship between PMS and residential surrounding greenspace, although a green living environment has been reported to have beneficial associations with overall and reproductive health.

    Objective: To investigate whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenspace is associated with PMS and whether such an association is mediated by BMI, air pollution or physical activity.

    Methods: This study used data collected in 2013–2015 from 1069 Scandinavian women aged 18–49 years, participating in RHINESSA, a European multi-centre and population-based cohort. Satellite-derived Normalised Difference Vegetation Index was used as a proxy of greenspace. Presence of eight common PMS symptoms and their sum (PMS symptom count) were used as outcomes. The associations were assessed by adjusted multilevel logistic and negative binomial regressions. Subsequently we carried out mediation analyses for physical activity, BMI and air pollution exposure.

    Results: Higher exposure to residential surrounding greenspace was associated with “Anxiety or tension” (Odds Ratio 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.70 – 0.95), ”Depression or hopelessness” (0.84, 0.73 – 0.98), “Difficulty with sleeping” (0.82, 0.68 – 1.00) and “Breast tenderness and abdominal bloating” (0.84, 0.71 – 0.99) before or around the start of the menstrual period. There was also an association with a lower PMS symptom count (Risk Ratio: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91 – 0.99). These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses and were not mediated by BMI, physical activity or air pollution.

    Conclusions: Living in greener areas may be beneficial against PMS symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these novel findings and to explore the underlying biological mechanisms.

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  • 43. Triebner, Kai
    et al.
    Markevych, Iana
    Hustad, Steinar
    Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Franklin, Karl A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Gullón Blanco, José Antonio
    Holm, Mathias
    Jaquemin, Bénédicte
    Jarvis, Debbie
    Jõgi, Rain
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Lindberg, Eva
    Martínez-Moratalla, Jesús
    Muniozguren Agirre, Nerea
    Pin, Isabelle
    Sánchez-Ramos, José Luis
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Gómez Real, Francisco
    Dadvand, Payam
    Residential surrounding greenspace and age at menopause: A 20-year European study (ECRHS)2019Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 132, artikkel-id 105088Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with a number of adverse health effects and its timing has been reported to be influenced by several lifestyle factors. Whether greenspace exposure is associated with age at menopause has not yet been investigated.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether residential surrounding greenspace is associated with age at menopause and thus reproductive aging.

    METHODS: This longitudinal study was based on the 20-year follow-up of 1955 aging women from a large, population-based European cohort (ECRHS). Residential surrounding greenspace was abstracted as the average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) across a circular buffer of 300 m around the residential addresses of each participant during the course of the study. We applied mixed effects Cox models with centre as random effect, menopause as the survival object, age as time indicator and residential surrounding greenspace as time-varying predictor. All models were adjusted for smoking habit, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, ever-use of contraception and age at completed full-time education as socio-economic proxy.

    RESULTS: An increase of one interquartile range of residential surrounding greenspace was associated with a 13% lower risk of being menopausal (Hazard Ratio: 0.87, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.79-0.95). Correspondingly the predicted median age at menopause was 1.4 years older in the highest compared to the lowest NDVI quartile. Results remained stable after additional adjustment for air pollution and traffic related noise amongst others.

    CONCLUSIONS: Living in greener neighbourhoods is associated with older age at menopause and might slow reproductive aging. These are novel findings with broad implications. Further studies are needed to see whether our findings can be replicated in different populations and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association.

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  • 44. Wang, Juan
    et al.
    Janson, Christer
    Lindberg, Eva
    Holm, Mathias
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Johannessen, Ane
    Schlunssen, Vivi
    Jogi, Rain
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Norback, Dan
    Dampness and mold at home and at work and onset of insomnia symptoms, snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness2020Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 139, artikkel-id 105691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate whether exposure to dampness and mold at home and at work induce sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness among adults. Materials and methods: Associations between onset of sleep disturbances and dampness, mold and mold odor at home and at work were investigated in a cohort of 11,318 adults from the population in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Estonia. The participants answered a questionnaire at baseline and 10 years later, with questions on sleep disturbances, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), insomnia symptoms, snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Multiple logistic regression models were applied to estimate associations adjusting for potential confounders including gender, age, smoking habit at baseline, change of smoking habit from baseline to follow up, BMI at baseline, change of BMI from baseline to follow up, education level at follow up, allergic rhinitis at baseline, doctor diagnosed asthma at baseline and chronic bronchitis at baseline. Results: Baseline floor dampness, visible mold and mold odor at home increased onset of DIS, DMS, EMA, insomnia symptoms and snoring during follow up (OR 1.29-1.87). Any sign of dampness at baseline increased onset of DIS (OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.06-1.55), DMS (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.02-1.34) and insomnia symptoms (OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.36). Dampness at home during follow up increased onset of DIS, DMS, EMA, insomnia symptoms and EDS (OR 1.17-1.36). Dampness at work during follow up increased onset of DIS, EMA, insomnia symptoms and EDS (OR 1.16-1.34). Combined dampness at home and at work during follow up increased the risk of onset of DIS, DMS, EMA, insomnia symptoms and EDS (OR 1.29-1.74). Conclusions: Dampness and mold at home and at work can increase the development of insomnia symptoms, snoring and EDS among adults.

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  • 45. Wei, Wenjuan
    et al.
    Bonvallot, Nathalie
    Gustafsson, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Swetox, Karolinska Institute, Unit of Toxicology Sciences, Forskargatan 20, SE-151 36 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Raffy, Gaëlle
    Glorennec, Philippe
    Krais, Annette
    Ramalho, Olivier
    Le Bot, Barbara
    Mandin, Corinne
    Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of environmental semi-volatile organic compounds via inhalation: A review of methods and models2018Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 113, s. 202-213Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) present in indoor environments are known to cause adverse health effects through multiple routes of exposure. To assess the aggregate exposure, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs need to be determined. In this review, we discussed measurements of the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of SVOCs after inhalation. Published literature related to this issue is available for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and a few polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a] pyrene and phenanthrene. Then, we reviewed common modeling approaches for the characterization of the gas-and particle-phase partitioning of SVOCs during inhalation. The models are based on mass transfer mechanisms as well as the structure of the respiratory system, using common computational techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. However, the existing models are restricted to special conditions and cannot predict SVOC bioaccessibility and bioavailability in the whole respiratory system. The present review notes two main challenges for the estimation of SVOC bioaccessibility and bioavailability via inhalation in humans. First, in vitro and in vivo methods need to be developed and validated for a wide range of SVOCs. The in vitro methods should be validated with in vivo tests to evaluate human exposures to SVOCs in airborne particles. Second, modeling approaches for SVOCs need to consider the whole respiratory system. Alterations of the respiratory cycle period and human biological variability may be considered in future studies.

  • 46.
    Wen, Bo
    et al.
    Climate, Air Quality Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Wu, Yao
    Climate, Air Quality Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Guo, Yuming
    Climate, Air Quality Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Gasparrini, Antonio
    Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Centre for Statistical Methodology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Centre on Climate Change & Planetary Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Tong, Shilu
    Shanghai Children's Medical Centre, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; School of Public Health, Institute of Environment and Population Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; Center for Global Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; School of Public Health and Social Work, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.
    Overcenco, Ala
    National Agency for Public Health of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection of the Republic of Moldova, Moldova.
    Urban, Aleš
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schneider, Alexandra
    Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Entezari, Alireza
    Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria
    Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Zanobetti, Antonella
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, Boston, United States.
    Analitis, Antonis
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Zeka, Ariana
    Institute for Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, London, United Kingdom.
    Tobias, Aurelio
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, Spanish Council for Scientific Research, Barcelona, Spain; School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Nunes, Baltazar
    Department of Epidemiology, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr Ricardo Jorge, Porto, Portugal; Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Alahmad, Barrak
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, Boston, United States.
    Armstrong, Ben
    Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Pan, Shih-Chun
    National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan.
    Íñiguez, Carmen
    Department of Statistics and Computational Research, Universitat de València, València, Spain; CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.
    Ameling, Caroline
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Sustainability and Environmental Health, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Valencia, César De la Cruz
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico.
    Åström, Christofer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Houthuijs, Danny
    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Centre for Sustainability and Environmental Health, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Van Dung, Do
    Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.
    Royé, Dominic
    CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain; Department of Geography, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Indermitte, Ene
    Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Lavigne, Eric
    School of Epidemiology & Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, ON, Ottawa, Canada; Air Health Science Division, Health Canada, ON, Ottawa, Canada.
    Mayvaneh, Fatemeh
    Faculty of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Acquaotta, Fiorella
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Torino, Turin, Italy.
    de'Donato, Francesca
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.
    Rao, Shilpa
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Sera, Francesco
    Department of Statistics, Computer Science and Applications “G. Parenti”, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.
    Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel
    Health Innovation Lab, Institute of Tropical Medicine “Alexander von Humboldt”, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.
    Kan, Haidong
    Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Orru, Hans
    Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kim, Ho
    Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Holobaca, Iulian-Horia
    Faculty of Geography, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Kyselý, Jan
    Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic; Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Madureira, Joana
    Environmental Health Department, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr Ricardo Jorge, Porto, Portugal; EPIUnit – Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Laboratório para a Investigação Integrativa e Translacional em Saúde Populacional (ITR), Porto, Portugal.
    Schwartz, Joel
    Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, MA, Boston, United States.
    Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.
    Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Katsouyanni, Klea
    Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; School of Population Health and Environmental Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Diaz, Magali Hurtado
    Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca Morelos, Mexico.
    Ragettli, Martina S.
    Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Hashizume, Masahiro
    Department of Global Health Policy, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Pascal, Mathilde
    Santé Publique France, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, French National Public Health Agency, Saint Maurice, France.
    Coélho, Micheline de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Ortega, Nicolás Valdés
    Department of Public Health, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile.
    Ryti, Niilo
    Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Scovronick, Noah
    Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, GA, Atlanta, United States.
    Michelozzi, Paola
    Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy.
    Matus Correa, Patricia
    Department of Public Health, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile.
    Goodman, Patrick
    School of Physics, Technological University Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento
    INSPER, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Raz, Raanan
    Braun School of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Abrutzky, Rosana
    Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Osorio, Samuel
    Department of Environmental Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Dang, Tran Ngoc
    Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam.
    Colistro, Valentina
    Department of Quantitative Methods, School of Medicine, University of the Republic, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Huber, Veronika
    IBE-Chair of Epidemiology, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain.
    Lee, Whanhee
    School of the Environment, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Seposo, Xerxes
    School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
    Honda, Yasushi
    Center for Climate Change Adaptation, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.
    Kim, Yoonhee
    Department of Global Environmental Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Guo, Yue Leon
    National Institute of Environmental Health Science, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Taiwan; Environmental and Occupational Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine and NTU Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Bell, Michelle L.
    School of the Environment, Yale University, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Li, Shanshan
    Climate, Air Quality Research Unit, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Comparison for the effects of different components of temperature variability on mortality: A multi-country time-series study2024Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 187, artikkel-id 108712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Temperature variability (TV) is associated with increased mortality risk. However, it is still unknown whether intra-day or inter-day TV has different effects. Objectives: We aimed to assess the association of intra-day TV and inter-day TV with all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality.

    Methods: We collected data on total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality and meteorology from 758 locations in 47 countries or regions from 1972 to 2020. We defined inter-day TV as the standard deviation (SD) of daily mean temperatures across the lag interval, and intra-day TV as the average SD of minimum and maximum temperatures on each day. In the first stage, inter-day and intra-day TVs were modelled simultaneously in the quasi-Poisson time-series model for each location. In the second stage, a multi-level analysis was used to pool the location-specific estimates.

    Results: Overall, the mortality risk due to each interquartile range [IQR] increase was higher for intra-day TV than for inter-day TV. The risk increased by 0.59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53, 0.65) for all-cause mortality, 0.64% (95% CI: 0.56, 0.73) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.65% (95% CI: 0.49, 0.80) for respiratory mortality per IQR increase in intra-day TV0–7 (0.9 °C). An IQR increase in inter-day TV0–7 (1.6 °C) was associated with 0.22% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.26) increase in all-cause mortality, 0.44% (95% CI: 0.37, 0.50) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and 0.31% (95% CI: 0.21, 0.41) increase in respiratory mortality. The proportion of all-cause deaths attributable to intra-day TV0–7 and inter-day TV0–7 was 1.45% and 0.35%, respectively. The mortality risks varied by lag interval, climate area, season, and climate type.

    Conclusions: Our results indicated that intra-day TV may explain the main part of the mortality risk related to TV and suggested that comprehensive evaluations should be proposed in more countries to help protect human health.

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  • 47.
    Xu, Shanshan
    et al.
    Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Benediktsdottir, Bryndis
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali – the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Brandt, Jørgen
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Engemann, Kristine
    Section for Ecoinformatics & Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Frohn, Lise Marie
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Geels, Camilla
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali – the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany; Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Holm, Mathias
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janson, Christer
    Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Markevych, Iana
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Orru, Hans
    Department of Public Health, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Department of Public Health, Research Unit for Environment Occupation and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Department of Public Health, Research Unit for Environment Occupation and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and greenness and mortality in Northern Europe: the Life-GAP project2023Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 181, artikkel-id 108257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air pollution has been linked to mortality, but there are few studies examining the association with different exposure time windows spanning across several decades. The evidence for the effects of green space and mortality is contradictory.

    Objective: We investigated all-cause mortality in relation to exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index - NDVI) across different exposure time windows.

    Methods: The exposure assessment was based on a combination of the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model and the Urban Background Model for the years 1990, 2000 and 2010. The analysis included a complete case dataset with 9,135 participants from the third Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study (RHINE III), aged 40–65 years in 2010, with mortality follow-up to 2021. We performed Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results: Altogether, 327 (3.6 %) persons died in the period 2010–2021. Increased exposures in 1990 of PM2.5, PM10, BC and NO2 were associated with increased all-cause mortality hazard ratios of 1.40 (95 % CI1.04–1.87 per 5 μg/m3), 1.33 (95 % CI: 1.02–1.74 per 10 μg/m3), 1.16 (95 % CI: 0.98–1.38 per 0.4 μg/m3) and 1.17 (95 % CI: 0.92–1.50 per 10 μg/m3), respectively. No statistically significant associations were observed between air pollution and mortality in other time windows. O3 showed an inverse association with mortality, while no association was observed between greenness and mortality. Adjusting for NDVI increased the hazard ratios for PM2.5, PM10, BC and NO2 exposures in 1990. We did not find significant interactions between greenness and air pollution metrics. Conclusion: Long term exposure to even low levels of air pollution is associated with mortality. Opening up for a long latency period, our findings indicate that air pollution exposures over time may be even more harmful than anticipated.

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  • 48.
    Xu, Yiyi
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Eva M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krage Carlsen, Hanne
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molnár, Peter
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Susanna
    Environmental Department of the City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Sandra
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department for Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, CRC, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Christensson, Anders
    Department of Nephrology, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Lund University, Sweden.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Associations between long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and risk of chronic kidney disease: findings from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort2022Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 160, artikkel-id 107085Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Associations between air pollution and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been reported, but studies at low exposure levels and relevant exposure time windows are still warranted. This study investigated clinical CKD at low air pollution levels in the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort in different exposure time windows.

    Methods: This study included 30,396 individuals, aged 45–74 at enrollment 1991–1996. Individual annual average residential outdoor PM2.5, PM10, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and black carbon (BC) were assigned using dispersion models from enrollment to 2016. Diagnoses of incident CKD were retrieved from national registries. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain hazard ratios (HRs) for CKD in relation to three time-dependent exposure time windows: exposure at concurrent year (lag 0), mean exposure in the 1–5 or 6–10 preceding years (lag 1–5 and lag 6–10), and baseline exposure.

    Results: During the study period, the average annual residential exposures were 16 μg/m3 for PM10, 11 μg/m3 for PM2.5, 26 μg/m3 for NOx, and 0.97 μg/m3 for BC. For lag 1–5 and lag 6–10 exposure, significantly elevated HRs for incident CKD were found for total PM10:1.13 (95% CI: 1.01–1.26) and 1.22 (1.06–1.41); NOx: 1.19 (1.07–1.33) and 1.13 (1.02–1.25) and BC: 1.12 (1.03–1.22) and 1.11 (1.02–1.21) per interquartile range increase in exposure. For total PM2.5 the positive associations of 1.12 (0.97–1.31) and 1.16 (0.98–1.36) were not significant. For baseline or lag 0 exposure there were significant associations only for NOx and BC, not for PM.

    Conclusion: Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with increased risk of incident CKD at relatively low exposure levels. Average long-term exposure was more clearly associated with CKD than current exposure or exposure at recruitment. Our findings imply that the health effects of low-level air pollution on CKD are considerable.

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  • 49.
    Yan, Dongna
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Han, Yongming
    State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China; National Observation and Research Station of Regional Ecological Environment Change and Comprehensive Management in the Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Zhong, Meifang
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wen, Hanfeng
    State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    An, Zhisheng
    State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China.
    Capo, Eric
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Historical trajectories of antibiotics resistance genes assessed through sedimentary DNA analysis of a subtropical eutrophic lake2024Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 186, artikkel-id 108654Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating the occurrence of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) in sedimentary archives provides opportunities for reconstructing the distribution and dissemination of historical (i.e., non-anthropogenic origin) ARGs. Although ARGs in freshwater environments have attracted great attention, historical variations in the diversity and abundance of ARGs over centuries to millennia remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the vertical change patterns of bacterial communities, ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) found in sediments of Lake Chenghai spanning the past 600 years. Within resistome preserved in sediments, 177 ARGs subtypes were found with aminoglycosides and multidrug resistance being the most abundant. The ARG abundance in the upper sediment layers (equivalent to the post-antibiotic era since the 1940s) was lower than those during the pre-antibiotic era, whereas the ARG diversity was higher during the post-antibiotic era, possibly because human-induced lake eutrophication over the recent decades facilitated the spread and proliferation of drug-resistant bacteria. Statistical analysis suggested that MGEs abundance and the bacterial community structure were significantly correlated with the abundance and diversity of ARGs, suggesting that the occurrence and distribution of ARGs may be transferred between different bacteria by MGEs. Our results provide new perspectives on the natural history of ARGs in freshwater environments and are essential for understanding the temporal dynamics and dissemination of ARGs.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bignert, Anders
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    West, Christina E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap.
    Bergman, Åke
    Department of Environmental Science (ACES), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Polychlorinated alkanes in paired blood serum and breast milk in a Swedish cohort study: matrix dependent partitioning differences compared to legacy POPs2024Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, artikkel-id 108440Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) constitute a large group of individual congeners originating from commercial chlorinated paraffin (CP) products with carbon chain lengths of PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, and PCAs-C18-32, occasionally containing PCAs-C6-9 impurities. The extensive use of CPs has led to global environmental pollution of PCAs. This study aimed to quantify PCAs in paired serum and breast milk of lactating Swedish mothers, exploring their concentration relationship.

    METHODS: Twenty-five paired samples of mothers' blood serum and breast milk were analysed and concentrations were determined for PCAs C6-32 and compared to 4,4'-DDE, the PCB congener 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

    RESULTS: The median concentrations of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs in serum were 14, 790, 520, 16 and 1350 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, and in breast milk 0.84, 36, 63, 6.0 and 107 ng/g lw. Levels of 4,4'-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were comparable in the two matrices, serum and breast milk at 17, 12 and 4.9 ng/g lw. The results show significant differences of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17 in breast milk with 22- and 6.2-times lower lw-based concentrations than those measured in serum. On wet weight the differences serum/breast milk ratios of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs were 1.7, 3.2, 1.0, 0.4 and 1.6, respectively, while the ratio for 4,4'-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were each close to 0.1.

    CONCLUSION: Swedish lactating mothers had high serum concentrations of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17, with the ΣPCAs median serum concentration of 1350 ng/g lw. The breast milk concentration, although considerably lower at 107 ng/g lw, still surpassed those of 4,4'-DDE, CB-153 and HCB, suggesting an exposure risk of infants to PCAs. The variation in blood and breast milk accumulation between PCAs and studied legacy POPs, is rarely discussed but warrants further studies on partitioning properties as well as associated toxicological implications.

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