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  • 1.
    Dahlström, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Influence of woody debris on channel structure in old growth and managedforest streams in central Sweden2004In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 376-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anecdotal information suggests that woody debris have had an important channel-forming role in Swedish streams and rivers, but there are few data to support this view. We identified 10 streams within near-natural and 10 streams within managed forest landscapes in central Sweden, and quantified their channel characteristics and content of woody debris. All pieces of woody debris greater than 0.5 m in length and greater than 0.05 m in base diameter were included. The near-natural forests were situated in reserves protected from forest cutting, whereas the managed forests had previously faced intensive logging in the area adjacent to the stream, The two sets of streams did not differ in general abiotic characteristics such as width, slope, or boulder cover, but the number of wood pieces was twice as high and the wood volume almost four times as high in the near-natural streams. This difference resulted in a higher frequency of debris dams in the near-natural streams. Although the total pool area did not differ between the two sets of streams, the wood-formed pools were larger and deeper, and potentially ecologically more important than other pools. In contrast to what has been believed so far, woody debris can be a channel-forming agent also in steeper streams with boulder beds. In a step-wise multiple regression analysis, pool area was positively and most strongly related to the quantity of woody debris, whereas channel gradient and wood volume were negatively related. The frequency of debris dams increased with the number of pieces of woody debris, but was not affected by other variables. The management implications of this study are that the wood quantity in streams in managed forests would need to be increased if management of streams will target more pristine conditions.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Conventional and new ways of governing forest threats: a study of stakeholder coherence in Sweden2018In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 61, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a framework for analyzing stakeholder coherence horizontally and vertically, the present study examined the governance of forest threats in Sweden. Opinions of forest risk governance in stakeholder groups with and without a connection to private forestry were compared (n = 2496) and the opinions were analyzed in relation to current governance practices. More specifically, forest threat appraisals, trust in the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA), and the acceptability of forest risk policy measures directed at private forest owners were assessed. Results revealed an overall coherence between different stakeholders in this context. However, the groups differed in, for example, the acceptability of the hypothetical regulative measure aiming to reduce damages threatening the forest long-term (e.g., climate change). Furthermore, an extensive use of advice for a fee may challenge particularly the internal, but also the external, legitimacy of forest risk governance. The forest owner stakeholder group showed lower threat appraisals when evaluating threat to one’s own forest rather than to the Swedish forest, except regarding browsing by animals. Regulations were not disapproved of in any of the stakeholder groups, although the forest owner group generally displayed higher acceptability of encouraging measures compared to the general public. Trust in the SFA was furthermore confirmed as an important driver of policy acceptability, and higher threat appraisals of novel threats, such as climate change and fire, resulted in a higher acceptability of measures less central or new in this context. The value of analyzing stakeholder coherence for natural resource management and governance is discussed.

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  • 3.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Fries, Clas
    The Knowledge and Value Basis of Private Forest Management in Sweden: Actual Knowledge, Confidence, and Value Priorities2020In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 549-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing demands on forests, there is a need to understand the drivers of managing the forest for diverse objectives, such as production, recreation, and climate adaptation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and value basis of forest management behaviors, including different management strategies and management inactivity, among private forest owners in Sweden. Different dimensions of knowledge (declarative and procedural knowledge, assessed in terms of objective and subjective knowledge measures) and value priorities (basic values and forest values), as well as the role of forest owner identity, were examined. The study was conducted by means of a postal questionnaire to a random sample of private forest owners in Sweden (n = 3000, response rate 43%). The distinctions between actual knowledge (objective knowledge), confidence (subjective knowledge), and value priorities, in addition to the hierarchical structure of how these factors are linked to management behaviors, proved to be valuable. Results revealed that different knowledge dimensions and value priorities were jointly important for forest management behaviors. In addition, the role of forest owner identity for management behaviors was confirmed. Insights from the study may be used to develop policy and outreach to private forest owners and thereby facilitate different forest functions in private forestry.

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  • 4.
    Helfield, James M
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225-9181 USA.
    Engström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Michel, James T
    Department of Environmental Science, Huxley College of the Environment, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225-9181 USA.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden2012In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 130-141Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating.  Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes.  In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers.  In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River.  We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities.  At disconnected sites, plots closest to the stream featured greater representation of mesic-hydric floodplain species, whereas plots farthest from the stream featured greater representation of mesic-xeric species characteristic of the surrounding upland forest.  In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream.  These patterns suggest that restoration has resulted in increased water levels in reconnected channels, but that the restored fluvial regime has not influenced the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities.  This may be due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration.  Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems.  These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  • 5.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Institute of Geography and Geology, Turku University, Finland.
    Lind, Torgny
    Moen, Jon
    Quantifying the Implications of Different Land Users' Priorities in the Management of Boreal Multiple-Use Forests2016In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 770-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the management of natural resources, conflicting interests and objectives among different stakeholders often need to be considered. Here, we examine how two contrasting management scenarios of boreal forests in northern Sweden differ in their consequences on forest structural composition and the economic gains at harvest. Management strategies prioritize either (i) forest characteristics that promote grazing resources for reindeer herded by the indigenous Sami, or (ii) timber production as practiced in Sweden today. When prioritizing reindeer grazing, forest stands develop a higher abundance of older age classes with larger trees and lower stem density, which reduces harvest and revenue levels by approximately 20 % over a 100-year period. The differences between these strategies illustrate the complexity in finding a trade-off for coexistence between industrial land users and other livelihoods that share the same landscape. Political support and institutional solutions are necessary to initiate changes in policy in finding such trade-offs in the management of environmental resources and thereby influence the optimal distribution of costs and benefits between different actors.

  • 6.
    Kivinen, Sonja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berg, Anna
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Östlund, Lars
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden2012In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 295-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  • 7.
    Pellikka, Jani
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The role of large carnivore committees in legitimising large carnivore management in Finland and Sweden: Environmental management2011In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 212-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries, including Sweden and Finland, are decentralizing the management of large carnivore species within their borders and emphasizing the role of stakeholder participation in legitimizing formal policy. Regional large carnivore committees (RLCCs), including representatives of authorities and non-governmental organizations, are essential to these endeavors. These committees are formally constituted in Sweden, whereas in Finland, they are informally developed from the bottom-up. In both countries, the declared roles of these committees are consultative. A comparative study based on survey data is described here, which address the question of how procedural legitimacy is shaped and maintained in institutional settings with different origins, such as top-down or bottom-up. The results indicate no clear difference in the representatives’ general satisfaction with the country-specific arrangements. Notable differences were found in specific perceptions of the clarity and purposes of the RLCCs. In both countries, the perceived rationale for the establishment of RLCCs emphasized the knowledge and expertise of the represented interest groups and authorities. Between the countries, similarities were also found in the strong links between overall satisfaction and personally perceived success and progress in communication and information exchange, i.e., deliberative processes. The capacity of the RLCCs to improve trust and acceptability with regard to different opinions was viewed as a key element underlying satisfactory RLCC activities, irrespective of the institutional settings.

  • 8. Rosenfeld, Jordan
    et al.
    Hogan, Daniel
    Palm, Daniel
    Lundquist, Hans
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Beechie, Timothy J
    Contrasting Landscape Influences on Sediment Supply and Stream Restoration Priorities in Northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) and Coastal British Columbia2011In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment size and supply exert a dominant control on channel structure. We review the role of sediment supply in channel structure, and how regional differences in sediment supply and landuse affect stream restoration priorities. We show how stream restoration goals are best understood within a common fluvial geomorphology framework defined by sediment supply, storage, and transport. Landuse impacts in geologically young landscapes with high sediment yields (e.g., coastal British Columbia) typically result in loss of instream wood and accelerated sediment inputs from bank erosion, logging roads, hillslopes and gullies. In contrast, northern Sweden and Finland are landscapes with naturally low sediment yields caused by low relief, resistant bedrock, and abundant mainstem lakes that act as sediment traps. Landuse impacts involved extensive channel narrowing, removal of obstructions, and bank armouring with boulders to facilitate timber floating, thereby reducing sediment supply from bank erosion while increasing export through higher channel velocities. These contrasting landuse impacts have pushed stream channels in opposite directions (aggradation versus degradation) within a phase-space defined by sediment transport and supply. Restoration in coastal British Columbia has focused on reducing sediment supply (through bank and hillslope stabilization) and restoring wood inputs. In contrast, restoration in northern Fennoscandia (Sweden and Finland) has focused on channel widening and removal of bank-armouring boulders to increase sediment supply and retention. These contrasting restoration priorities illustrate the consequences of divergent regional landuse impacts on sediment supply, and the utility of planning restoration activities within a mechanistic sediment supply-transport framework.

  • 9. Strand, Geir-Harald
    et al.
    Hansen, Inger
    de Boon, Auvikki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Carnivore Management Zones and their Impact on Sheep Farming in Norway2019In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 537-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the impact of Norway's current zonal carnivore management system for four large carnivore species on sheep farming. Sheep losses increased when the large carnivores were reintroduced, but has declined again after the introduction of the zoning management system. The total number of sheep increased outside, but declined slightly inside the management zones. The total sheep production increased, but sheep farming was still lost as a source of income for many farmers. The use of the grazing resources became more extensive. Losses decreased because sheep were removed from the open outfield pastures and many farmers gave up sheep farming. While wolves expel sheep farming from the outfield grazing areas, small herds can still be kept in fenced enclosures. Bears are in every respect incompatible with sheep farming. Farmers adjust to the seasonal and more predictable behavior of lynx and wolverine, although these species also may cause serious losses when present. The mitigating efforts are costly and lead to reduced animal welfare and lower income for the farmers, although farmers in peri-urban areas increasingly are keeping sheep as an avocation. There is a spillover effect of the zoning strategy in the sense that there is substantial loss of livestock to carnivores outside, but geographically near the management zones. The carnivore management policy used in Norway is a reasonably successful management strategy when the goal is to separate livestock from carnivores and decrease the losses, but the burdens are unequally distributed and farmers inside the management zones are at an economic disadvantage.

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