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  • 1. Almroth, Bethanie M. Carney
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lina M.
    Cuklev, Filip
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Waterborne beclomethasone dipropionate affects the physiology of fish while its metabolite beclomethasone is not taken up2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 511, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is commonly treated with inhalable glucocorticosteroids, including beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP). This is a synthetic prodrug which is metabolized to the more active monopropionate (BMP) and free beclomethasone in humans. To evaluate potential effects of residual drugs on fish, we conducted a 14 day flow-through exposure experiment with BDP and beclomethasone using rainbow trout, and analyzed effects on plasma glucose, hepatic glutathione and catalase activity together with water and body concentrations of the BDP, BMP and beclomethasone. We also analyzed hepatic gene expression in BDP-exposed fish by micro-array and quantitative PCR Beclomethasone (up to 0.65 mu g/L) was not taken up in the fish while BDP (0.65 and 0.07 mu g/L) resulted in accumulation of both beclomethasone, BMP and BDP in plasma, reaching levels up to those found in humans during therapy. Accordingly, exposure to 0.65 mu g/L of BDP significantly increased blood glucose as well as oxidized glutathione levels and catalase activity in the liver. Exposure to beclomethasone or the low concentration of BDP had no effect on these endpoints. Both exposure concentrations of BDP resulted in significantly higher transcript abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase involved in gluconeogenesis, and of genes involved in immune responses. As only the rapidly metabolized prodrug was potent in fish, the environmental risks associated with the use of BDP are probably small. However, the observed physiological effects in fish of BDP at plasma concentrations known to affect human physiology provides valuable input to the development of read-across approaches in the identification of pharmaceuticals of environmental concern.

  • 2. Alonso, Carlos
    et al.
    Roman, Alfonso
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Garcia de Jalon, Diego
    Carolli, Mauro
    A graphical approach to characterize sub-daily flow regimes and evaluate its alterations due to hydropeaking2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 574, p. 532-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most flow regime characterizations focus on long time scale flow patterns, which are not precise enough to capture key components of short-term flow fluctuations. Recent proposed methods describing sub-daily flow fluctuations are focused on limited components of the flow regime being unable to fully represent it, or on the identification of peaking events based on subjectively defined thresholds, being unsuitable for evaluations of short-term flow regime alterations through comparisons between regulated and free-flowing rivers. This study aims to launch an innovative approach based on the visual display of quantitative information to address the challenge of the short-term hydrologic characterization and evaluation of alteration resulting from hydropeaking. We propose a graphical method to represent a discrete set of ecologically relevant indices that characterize and evaluate the alteration of sub-daily flow regimes. The frequency of occurrence of classified values of a descriptive hydrological variable is represented in a map-like graph where longitude, latitude and altitude represent the Julian day, the value of the variable and the frequency of occurrence, respectively. Subsequently, we tested the method on several rivers, both free-flowing and subjected to hydropower production. The advantages of our approach compared to other analytical methods are: (i) it displays a great amount of information without oversimplification; (ii) it takes into account changes in the intensity, timing and frequency of the sub-daily flows, without needing a priori defined thresholds to identify hydropeaking events; and (iii) it supports the Water Framework Directive goal. Specifically, results from applications of our graphical method agree with Sauterleute and Charmasson (2014) analytical method.

  • 3. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodríguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    la Cour Jansen, Jes
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 456-457, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1μg/L) and treated with different O3 doses (0.5-12.0mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments. In order to compare the sensitivity of APIs in each matrix, the specific dose of ozone required to achieve reduction by one decade of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics. The specific ozone dose was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents. 15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.7<DDO3/DOC≤1.4), and 8 were recalcitrant towards O3-treatment (DDO3/DOC >1.4). Furthermore, we predict that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent.

  • 4. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Morin, Nicolas A. O.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Wania, Frank
    Breivik, Knut
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    The presence, emission and partitioning behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls in waste, leachate and aerosols from Norwegian waste-handling facilities2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 715, p. 1-12, article id 136824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though production and open use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been phased out in Western industrialised countries since the 1980s, PCBs were still present in waste collected from different waste handling facilities in Norway in 2013. Sums of seven indicator-PCBs (I-PCB7:PCB-28, -52, -101, -118, -138, -153 and -180) were highest in plastic waste (3700 +/- 1800 mu g/kg, n=15), waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) (1300 +/- 400 mu g/kg, n=12) and fine vehicle fluff (1800 = 1400 mu g/kg, n=4) and lowest in glass waste, combustibles, bottom ash and fly ash (0.3 to 65 mu g/kg). Concentrations in leachate water varied from 1.7 to 2900 ng/L, with higher concentrations found at vehicle and WEEE handling facilities. Particles in leachate water exhibited similar PCB sorption properties as solid waste collected on site, with waste-water partitioning coefficients ranging from 10(5)to 10(7) .I-PCB7 in air samples collected at the sites were mostly in the gas phase (100-24000 pg/m(3)), compared to those associated with particles (9-1900 pg/m(3)). In contrast, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in the same samples were predominantly found associated with particles (e.g. sum of 10 brominated diethyl ethers, Sigma BDE10, associated with particles 77-194,000 pg/m(3)) compared to the gas phase (Sigma DE10 6-473 pg/m(3)). Measured gas-phase I-PCB7 concentrations are less than predicted, assuming waste-air partitioning in equilibrium with predominant waste on site. However, the gas-particle partitioning behavior of PCBs and BFRs could be predicted using an established partitioning model for ambient aerosols. PCB emissions from Norwegian waste handling facilities occurred primarily in the form of atmospheric vapor or leachate particles.

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  • 5.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Danet, Andrei-Florin
    Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) - A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 514, p. 459-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mustafa, Majid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The Kd was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and Kd values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log Kd-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log Kd values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  • 7. Baker, Nathan Jay
    et al.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Jourdan, Jonas
    Beudert, Burkhard
    Haase, Peter
    Recovery from air pollution and subsequent acidification masks the effects of climate change on a freshwater macroinvertebrate community2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 758, article id 143685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater ecosystems are dynamic, complex systems with a multitude of physical and ecological processes and stressors which drive fluctuations on the community-level. Disentangling the effects of different processes and stressors is challenging due to their interconnected nature. However, as protected areas (i.e. national parks) are less anthropogenically impacted, they are ideal for investigating single stressors. We focus on the Bavarian Forest National Park, a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in Germany, where the major stressors are climate warming, air pollution (i.e. acidification) and bark beetle infestations. We investigated the effects of these stressors on freshwater macroinvertebrates using comprehensive long-term (1983–2014) datasets comprising high-resolution macroinvertebrate and physico-chemical data from a near-natural stream. Macroinvertebrate communities have undergone substantial changes over the past 32 years, highlighted by increases in overall community abundance (+173%) and richness (+51.6%) as well as taxonomic restructuring driven by a disproportional increase of dipterans. Prior to the year 2000, regression analyses revealed a decline in sulphate deposition and subsequent recovery from historical acidification as potential drivers of the increases in abundance and richness rather than to increases in water temperature (1.5 °C overall increase). Post 2000, however, alterations to nutrient cycling caused by bark beetle infestations coupled with warming temperatures were correlated to taxonomic restructuring and disproportional increases of dipterans at the expense of sensitive taxa such as plecopterans and trichopterans. Our results highlight the challenges when investigating the effects of climate change within a multi-stressor context. Even in conservation areas, recovery from previous disturbance might mask the effects of ongoing disturbances like climate change. Overall, we observed strong community restructuring, demonstrating that stenothermal headwater communities face additional stress due to emerging competition with tolerant taxa. Conservation efforts should consider the temporal variability of communities and their recovery from disturbances to adequately identify species vulnerable to local or widespread extinction.

  • 8.
    Baladrón, Alejandro
    et al.
    CERIS, Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Bejarano, María Dolores
    Natural Resources Department, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Calle José Antonio Novais, 10, Madrid, Spain.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Boavida, Isabel
    CERIS, Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Trapped between drowning and desiccation: riverine plants under hydropeaking2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 829, article id 154451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropeaking is part of hydropower production. The discontinuous release of turbined water during hydropeaking generates sudden rise and falls of the water levels, as well as extended droughts. These artificial flow fluctuations impose challenging growing conditions for riverine vegetation. In order to identify vulnerable/resistant plant species to hydropeaking and to evaluate the impact of contrasting hydropeaking scenarios (simplified (i.e., sudden deep floods, frequent soil saturation and drought) and real-life, power plant-induced scenarios), we measured germination, survival, and morphological and physiological attributes of a selection of 14 plant species commonly found along riparian areas. Species were subject to different hydropeaking scenarios during three months (vegetative period) in the field and in a greenhouse. Half of the species performed worse under hydropeaking in comparison to the control (e.g., less germination and biomass, lower growth rates, reduced stem and root length, physiological stress) but none of the tested hydropeaking scenarios was clearly more disruptive than others. Betula pubescens, Alnus incana and Filipendula ulmifolia showed the largest vulnerability to hydropeaking, while other species (e.g., Carex acuta) were resistant to it. Both in the field and in the greenhouse, plants in perturbed scenarios accumulated more 13C than in the control scenario indicating limited capacity to perform 13C isotope discrimination and evidencing plant physiological stress. The highest 13C abundances were found under drought or flooding conditions in the greenhouse, and under the highest hydropeaking intensities in the field (e.g., Betula pubescens). Our results suggest that any hydropeaking scheme can be equally detrimental in terms of plant performance. Hydropeaking schemes that combine periods of severe drought with long and frequent flooding episodes may create a hostile environment for riverine species. Further research on "hydropeaking-tolerant" plant traits is key to draw the boundaries beyond which riverine species can germinate, grow and complete their life cycle under hydropeaking.

  • 9.
    Bathi, Jejal Reddy
    et al.
    Civil and Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, TN, United States.
    Moazeni, Faegheh
    School of Science Engineering and Technology, Penn State Harrisburg University, PA, United States.
    Upadhyayula, Venkata Krishna Kumar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chowdhury, Indranil
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, WA, Pullman, United States.
    Palchoudhury, Soubantika
    Civil and Chemical Engineering, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, TN, United States.
    Potts, Gretchen E.
    Department of Chemistry and Physics, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, TN, United States.
    Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana
    Civil and Environmental Engineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, SD, United States; 2-Dimensional Materials for Biofilm Engineering Science and Technology (2DBEST) Center, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, SD, Rapid City, United States.
    Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic environmental samples: Current status and challenges2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 793, article id 148560Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in consumer products has led to their increased presence in natural water systems. Here, we present a critical overview of the studies that analyzed the fate and transport behavior of ENPs using real environmental samples. We focused on cerium dioxide, titanium dioxide, silver, carbon nanotubes, and zinc oxide, the widely used ENPs in consumer products. Under field scale settings, the transformation rates of ENPs and subsequently their physicochemical properties (e.g., toxicity and bioavailability) are primarily influenced by the modes of interactions among ENPs and natural organic matter. Other typical parameters include factors related to water chemistry, hydrodynamics, and surface and electronic properties of ENPs. Overall, future nanomanufacturing processes should fully consider the health, safety, and environmental impacts without compromising the functionality of consumer products.

  • 10. Bazzanti, Marcello
    et al.
    Mastrantuono, Luciana
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Depth-related response of macroinvertebrates to the reversal of eutrophication in a Mediterranean lake: Implications for ecological assessment2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 579, p. 456-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic Wastewater. The infralittoral zone responded more rapidly than the other two depth-zones to the improved ecological conditions, as shown by larger differences in community composition between the two periods. In the eulittoral sand, the combined effects of hydromorphological pressures and reversal of eutrophication hindered the biotic response. In the eulittoral and infralittoral zones, typical taxa of mesotrophic waters appeared or increased their abundances after the eutrophication reversal. Benthic invertebrate response was slower in the sublittoral/profundal zone due to deoxygenation that continued to prevail in the deepest area of the lake during summer. However, both tolerant and more sensitive taxa were collected there for the first time. After the reversal of eutrophication, the percentage of molluscan + large crustaceans increased in the infralittoral zone, whereas the oligochaete/chironomid ratio decreased in both sublittoral/profundal and infralittoral zones. Functional feeding metrics (percentages of filter-feeders, collector-gatherers, miners and scrapers/grazers) differently tracked the reversal of eutrophication in the three depth-zones probably according to the effects of the-reduction of nutrients on food-web structure influencing macroinvertebrates. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) seemed to respond to eutrophication reversal only in the sublittoral/profundal zone, where deoxygenation plays a major role as a structuring agent of the community. Our results suggest that the effects of re-. versal of eutrophication can be better assessed by examining the response of the communities belonging to each zone individually. 

  • 11.
    Benedict, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience (Sleep Science Lab, BMC), Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Franklin, Karl A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Bukhari, Shervin
    Department of Neuroscience (Sleep Science Lab, BMC), Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Mirjam
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sex-specific association of the lunar cycle with sleep2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 804, article id 150222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using one-night sleep recordings from 852 subjects all living in Uppsala, Sweden, the present study represents one of the largest polysomnography investigations into the association of the 29.53-day long lunar cycle with sleep among men and women and across a wide age range (22–81 years). Following the day after the new moon until the day of the full moon (also named the waxing period), the moon's illumination increases, and the timing of the meridian of the moon is gradually shifted from noontime toward midnight. In contrast, from the day after the full moon until the day of the new moon (also named the waning period), the moon's illumination decreases, and the timing of the meridian of the moon is gradually shifted from early night hours toward noontime. Thus, we focused on the contrast between the waxing and waning periods. Sleep duration was shorter on nights during the waxing period as compared to waning period (P < 0.001). In addition, a significant interaction effect of participants' sex with the lunar period on sleep was noted (P < 0.05). Men, but not women, exhibited lower sleep efficiency (P < 0.001 and P = 0.748, respectively) and were longer awake after sleep onset (P = 0.010 and P = 0.890, respectively) on nights during the waxing period. All associations were robust to adjustment for confounders (including regular sleep disturbances). Our findings suggest that the effects of the lunar cycle on human sleep are more pronounced among men. Based on the cross-sectional design of the study, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the causality of the relations.

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  • 12. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammarén, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resistance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, p. 697-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as “hotspots” for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted.

  • 13. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 20, p. 4326-4334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition.

  • 15. Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    Ripszám, Mátyás
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57–3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10−9 s−1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

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  • 16.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persistence, mobility and bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants discharged from sewage treatment plants2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 612, p. 1532-1542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the impact of emissions of micropollutants from small and large-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs) on drinking water source areas. We investigated a populated catchment that drains into Lake Malaren, which is the drinking water source for around 2 million people including the inhabitants of Stockholm, Sweden. To assess the persistence, mobility, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of 32 structurally diverse emerging organic contaminants, sediment, integrated passive and grab water samples were collected along the catchment of the River Fyris, Sweden. The samples were complemented with STP effluent and fish samples from one sampling event. Contaminants identified as persistent, mobile, and bioavailable were 4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydrocyclopenta[g] isochromene (galaxolide), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Galaxolide and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol were additionally found to be bioaccumulative, whereas n-butylbenzenesulfonamide was found to be only persistent and mobile. The total median mass flux of the persistent and mobile target analytes from Lake Ekoln into the drinking water source area of Lake Malaren was estimated to be 27 kg per year. Additionally, 10 contaminants were tentatively identified by non-target screening using NIST library searches and manual review. Two of those were confirmed by reference standards and further two contaminants, propylene glycol and rose acetate, were discharged from STPs and travelled far from the source. Attenuation of mass fluxes was highest in the summer and autumn seasons, suggesting the importance of biological degradation and photodegradation for the persistence of the studied compounds.

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  • 17.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Renman, Gunno
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Gros, Meritxell
    Wiberg, Karin
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 575, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC × GC–MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, α-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p = 0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p = 0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. α-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000 ng L− 1), galaxolide (1400 ng L− 1), octocrylene (1200 ng L− 1), and α-tocopheryl acetate (660 ng L− 1).

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  • 18.
    Boudier, Anne
    et al.
    Team of Environmental Epidemiology Applied to the Development and Respiratory Health, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, CNRS UMR 5309, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France; Pediatrics, CHU Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Markevych, Iana
    Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.
    Jacquemin, Bénédicte
    Univ Rennes, Inserm, EHESP, Irset (Institut de recherche en santé, environnement et travail), Rennes, France.
    Abramson, Michael J.
    School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Accordini, Simone
    Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Fuertes, Elaine
    National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.
    Heinrich, Joachim
    Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Germany.
    Johannessen, Ane
    Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Leynaert, Bénédicte
    Univ Paris Sud, Villejuif, France.
    Pin, Isabelle
    Pediatrics, CHU Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Siroux, Valérie
    Team of Environmental Epidemiology Applied to the Development and Respiratory Health, Institute for Advanced Biosciences, Inserm U 1209, CNRS UMR 5309, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France.
    Long-term air pollution exposure, greenspace and health-related quality of life in the ECRHS study2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 849, article id 157693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Associations of long-term exposure to air pollution and greenspace with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are poorly studied and few studies have accounted for asthma-rhinitis status.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of air pollution and greenspace with HRQOL and whether asthma and/or rhinitis modify these associations.

    METHODS: The study was based on the participants in the second (2000-2002, n = 6542) and third (2011-2013, n = 3686) waves of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) including 19 centres. The mean follow-up time was 11.3 years. HRQOL was assessed by the SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 annual concentrations were estimated at the residential address from existing land-use regression models. Greenspace around the residential address was estimated by the (i) mean of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and by the (ii) presence of green spaces within a 300 m buffer. Associations of each exposure variable with PCS and MCS were assessed by mixed linear regression models, accounting for the multicentre design and repeated data, and adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were stratified by asthma-rhinitis status.

    RESULTS: The mean (SD) age of the ECRHS-II and III participants was 43 (7.1) and 54 (7.2) years, respectively, and 48 % were men. Higher NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were associated with lower MCS (regression coefficients [95%CI] for one unit increase in the inter-quartile range of exposures were -0.69 [-1.23; -0.15], -1.79 [-2.88; -0.70], -1.80 [-2.98; -0.62] respectively). Higher NDVI and presence of forests were associated with higher MCS. No consistent associations were observed for PCS. Similar association patterns were observed regardless of asthma-rhinitis status.

    CONCLUSION: European adults who resided at places with higher air pollution and lower greenspace were more likely to have lower mental component of HRQOL. Asthma or rhinitis status did not modify these associations.

  • 19. Bratt, P
    et al.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Cariology.
    Linder, J
    Ericson, T
    Function of the rat salivary glands after exposure to inorganic mercury1995In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 172, no 1, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of many studies on the toxicity of mercury, very little is known about the effects of mercury on the function of exocrine glands. In the present paper selected functions of Sprague-Dawley rat salivary glands were studied after the exposure of the animals to inorganic mercury at two different doses; 3.25 mg/kg body weight given during 25 days and 7.0 mg/kg body weight given during 27 days. The function of the salivary glands was estimated by saliva secretion rate, secretion of electrolytes, proteins and biosynthesis of glycoproteins. The function was compared between mercury exposed rats and age and sex matched control rats that were given injections with equal volumes of 0.154 mol/l NaCl on the same time schedule. In the present study we report that no significant effect on saliva secretion rate, concentrations of salivary constituents or biosynthesis of glycoproteins in the salivary glands could be observed in rats as a result of mercury exposure at two levels that gave 30 or 60 times higher serum mercury concentrations than in the majority of the Swedish population.

  • 20. Buffam, Ishi
    et al.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seibert, Jan
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Bishop, Kevin
    Spatial heterogeneity of the spring flood acid pulse in a boreal stream network.2008In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 407, no 1, p. 708-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial and temporal patterns in streamwater acidity are ecologically important, but difficult to measure in parallel. Here we present the spatial distribution of streamwater chemistry relevant to acidity from 60 stream sites distributed throughout a 67 km(2) boreal catchment, sampled during a period of winter baseflow (high pH) and during a spring flood episode (low pH). Sites were grouped based on pH level and pH change from winter baseflow to spring flood. The site attributes of each pH group were then assessed in terms of both stream chemistry and subcatchment landscape characteristics. Winter baseflow pH was high throughout most of the stream network (median pH 6.4), but during the spring flood episode stream sites experienced declines in pH ranging from 0-1.6 pH units, resulting in pH ranging from 4.3-6.3. Spring flood pH was highest in larger, lower altitude catchments underlain by fine sorted sediments, and lowest in small, higher altitude catchments with a mixture of peat wetlands and forested till. Wetland-dominated headwater catchments had low but stable pH, while the spring flood pH drop was largest in a group of catchments of intermediate size which contained well-developed coniferous forest and a moderate proportion of peat wetlands. There was a trend with distance downstream of higher pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and base cation concentrations together with lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC, strongly negatively correlated with pH). This apparent scale-dependence of stream chemistry could be explained by a number of environmental factors which vary predictably with altitude, catchment area and distance downstream-most notably, a shift in surficial sediment type from unsorted till and peat wetlands to fine sorted sediments at lower altitudes in this catchment. As a result of the combination of spatial heterogeneity in landscape characteristics and scale-related processes, boreal catchments like this one can be expected to experience high spatial variability both in terms of chemistry at any given point in time, and in the change experienced during high discharge episodes. Although chemistry patterns showed associations with landscape characteristics, considerable additional variability remained, suggesting that the modeling of dynamic stream chemistry from map parameters will continue to present a challenge. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 21.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Brodin, T.
    Cisar, P.
    McCallum, Erin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconcentration and behavioral effects of four benzodiazepines and their environmentally relevant mixture in wild fish2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 702, article id 134780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the adverse effects of four benzodiazepines frequently measured in European surface waters. We evaluated bioaccumulation potential of oxazepam, bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam in freshwater fish species - perch (Perca fluviatilis) and we conducted a series of behavioral trials to assess their potential to alter boldness, activity, and social behavior. All selected endpoints were studied individually for each target benzodiazepine and as a mixture of all tested compounds to assess possible combinatory effects. We used a three-dimensional automated tracking system to quantify the fish behavior. The four compounds bioconcentrated differently in fish muscle (temazepam > clobazam > oxazepam > bromazepam) at high exposure (9.1, 6.9, 5.7, 8.1 mu g L-1, respectively) and low exposure (0.5, 0.5, 0.3, 0.4 mu g L-1, respectively) concentrations. A significant amount of oxazepam was also measured in fish exposed to temazepam, most likely because of the metabolic transformation of temazepam within the fish. Bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam significantly affected fish behavior at high concentration, while no statistically significant changes were registered for oxazepam. The studied benzodiazepines affected behavior in combination, because the mixture treatment significantly changed several important behavioral traits even at low concentration, while no single compound exposure had such an effect at that dose. Based on our results, we conclude that effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic environments could be underestimated if risk assessments only rely on the evaluation of single compounds. More studies focused on the combinatory effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of pharmaceuticals are necessary to fill the gaps in this knowledge. 

  • 22. Cooke, Colin A.
    et al.
    Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gustin, Mae Sexauer
    Environmental archives of atmospheric Hg deposition: a review2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 709, article id 134800Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archives offer an opportunity to reconstruct temporal trends in atmospheric Hg deposition at various timescales. Lake sediment and peat have been the most widely used archives; however, new records from ice, tree rings, and the measurement of Hg stable isotopes, are offering new insights into past Hg cycling. Preindustrial Hg deposition has been studied over decadal to millennial timescales extending as far back as the late Pleistocene. Exploitation of mercury deposits (mainly cinnabar) first began during the mid to late Holocene in South America, Europe, and Asia, but increased dramatically during the Colonial era (1532-1900) for silver production. However, evidence for preindustrial Hg pollution is restricted to regions directly downwind or downstream of cinnabar or precious metal mining centers. Excluding these areas, there has been an approximately four-fold increase in atmospheric deposition globally over the industrial era (i.e., since 1800-1850), though regional differences exist, especially during the early 20th Century. Lake sediments, peat, ice, and tree rings are all influenced by (and integrate) a range of processes. For example, lake sediments are influenced by atmospheric deposition, sediment focusing, and the input of allochthonous material from the watershed, peat records reflect atmospheric deposition and biotic uptake, ice cores are a record of Hg scrubbed during precipitation, and tree rings record atmospheric concentrations. No archive represents an absolute record of past Hg deposition or concentrations, and post-depositional transformation of Hg profiles remains an important topic of research. However, natural archives continue to provide important insight into atmospheric Hg cycling over various timescales.

  • 23.
    Das, Atanu Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Islam, Md. Nazrul
    Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
    Billah, Md. Morsaline
    Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.
    Sarker, Asim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    COVID-19 pandemic and healthcare solid waste management strategy – A mini-review2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 778, article id 146220Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare waste comprises the waste generated by healthcare facilities, medical laboratories and biomedical research facilities. Improper treatment of this waste poses serious risks of disease transmission to waste pickers, waste workers, health workers, patients, and the community in general through exposure to infectious agents. Poor management of the waste emits harmful and deleterious contaminants into society. However, contamination of highly contagious agents such as the COVID-19 virus has created enormous instability in healthcare waste handling and subsequent recycling because of the volume of the waste generated and its contagious nature. Several countries have adopted safety measures to combat this contamination and manage healthcare waste; however, these measures are insufficient and vary depending on the context of the country. In addition, the WHO has set out guidelines for management of healthcare waste. These guidelines are helping to manage the highly contagious healthcare waste resulting from the current pandemic. Proper healthcare waste management may add value by reducing the spread of the COVID-19 virus and increasing the recyclability of materials instead of sending them to landfill. Disinfecting and sorting out healthcare waste facilitates sustainable management and allows their utilization for valuable purposes. This review discusses the different healthcare solid waste management strategies practiced in different countries, the challenges faced during this management, and the possible solutions for overcoming these challenges. It also provides useful insights into healthcare solid waste management scenarios during the COVID-19 pandemic and a possible way forward.

  • 24.
    Duarte, Irina A.
    et al.
    MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cabral, Henrique N.
    INRAE, UR EABX, Centre Nouvelle-Aquitaine Bordeaux, France.
    Fonseca, Vanessa F.
    MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Bioconcentration of neuroactive pharmaceuticals in fish: Relation to lipophilicity, experimental design and toxicity in the aquatic environment2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 812, article id 152543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake of contaminants is linked to their toxicity and is usually estimated through their lipophilicity (logKow). Here, we review current literature regarding bioconcentration, i.e. uptake of contaminants from the external environment only, and the effects of exposure to neuroactive pharmaceuticals in fish. We aim to determine if lipophilicity is a suitable predictor of bioconcentration of these compounds in fish, to identify major drivers of bioconcentration and explore the link between bioconcentration potential and toxicity, focusing on survival, growth, condition, behaviour and reproduction endpoints. Additionally, we compare concentrations known to elicit significant effects in fish with current environmental concentrations, identifying exposure risk in ecosystems. The majority of studies have focused on antidepressants, mainly fluoxetine, and encompasses mostly freshwater species. Few studies determined pharmaceuticals bioconcentration, and even a smaller portion combined bioconcentration with other toxicity endpoints. Results show that lipophilicity isn't a good predictor of neuroactive pharmaceuticals' bioconcentration in fish, which in turn is highly influenced by experimental parameters, including abiotic conditions, species and life-stage. The need for increased standardization of experimental settings is key towards improving accuracy of environmental risk assessments and application in future regulatory schemes. Still, increased fish lethality was linked to increased bioconcentration, yet no other correlations were observed when considering effects on growth, condition, behaviour or reproduction, likely as a result of insufficient and variable data. In the context of current environmental concentrations, several neuroactive pharmaceuticals were found to be potentially threatening, while data on occurrence is lacking for some compounds, particularly in brackish/marine systems. Specifically, nine compounds (fluoxetine, citalopram, sertraline, amitriptyline, venlafaxine, clozapine, carbamazepine, metamfetamine and oxazepam) were found at concentrations either above or critically close to minimum response concentrations, thus likely to affect fish in freshwater and brackish or marine environments, which supports further exploration in risk management strategies and monitoring programs in aquatic environments.

  • 25. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Berglund, A. M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Engström, Emma
    Plassmann, Merle M.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Sörlin, Dieke
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Spatio-temporal variation of metals and organic contaminants in bank voles (Myodes glareolus)2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 713, article id 136353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contamination with metals and organic compounds is of increasing concern for ecosystem and human health. Still, our knowledge about spatial distribution, temporal changes and ecotoxicological fate of metals and organic contaminants in wildlife is limited. We studied concentrations of 69 elements and 50 organic compounds in 300 bank voles (Myodes glareolus), Europe's most common mammal, sampled in spring and autumn 2017-2018 in five monitoring areas, representing three biogeographic regions. In addition, we compared measured concentrations with previous results from bank voles sampled within the same areas in 1995-1997 and 2001. In general, our results show regional differences, but no consistent patterns among contaminants and study areas. The exception was for the lowest concentrations of organic contaminants (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS), which were generally found in the northern Swedish mountain area Concentrations of metals and organic contaminants in adults varied seasonally with most organic contaminants being higher in spring; likely induced by diet shifts but potentially also related to age differences. In addition, metal concentrations varied between organs (liver vs. kidney), age classes (juveniles vs. adults; generally higher in adults) as well as between males and females. Concentrations of chromium and nickel in kidney and liver in the northernmost mountain area were lower in 2017-2018 than in 1995-1997 and in three of four areas, lead concentrations were lower in 2017-2018 than in 2001. Current metal concentrations (except mercury) are not expected to negatively affect the voles. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene displayed highest concentrations in 2001 in the mountains, while it was close to detection limit in 2017-2018. Likewise, PFOS concentrations decreased in the mountains and in south-central lowland forests between 2001 and 2017-2018. Our results suggest that season, age class and sex need to be considered when designing and interpreting results from monitoring programs targeting inorganic and organic contaminants in wildlife. 

  • 26. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Engström, Emma
    Pallavicin, Nicola
    Sörlin, Dieke
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Seasonal shift of diet in bank voles explains trophic fate of anthropogenic osmium?2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 624, p. 1634-1639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diet shifts are common in mammals and birds, but little is known about how such shifts along the food web affect contaminant exposure. Voles are staple food for many mammalian and avian predators. There is therefore a risk of transfer of contaminants accumulated in voles within the food chain. Osmium is one of the rarest earth elements with osmium tetroxide (OsO4 ) as the most toxic vapor-phase airborne contaminant. Anthropogenic OsO4 accumulates in fruticose lichens that are important winter food of bank voles (Myodes glareolus). Here, we test if a) anthropogenic osmium accumulates in bank voles in winter, and b) accumulation rates and concentrations are lower in autumn when the species is mainly herbivorous. Our study, performed in a boreal forest impacted by anthropogenic osmium, supported the hypotheses for all studied tissues (kidney, liver, lung, muscle and spleen) in 50 studied bank voles. In autumn, osmium concentrations in bank voles were even partly similar to those in the graminivorous field vole (Microtus agrestis: n =3D 14). In autumn but not in late winter/early spring, osmium concentrations were generally negatively correlated with body weight and root length of the first mandible molar, i.e. proxies of bank vole age. Identified negative correlations between organ-to-body weight ratios and osmium concentrations in late winter/early spring indicate intoxication. Our results suggest unequal accumulation risk for predators feeding on different cohorts of bank voles. 

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  • 27.
    Ehnvall, Betty
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ågren, Anneli M.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ratcliffe, Joshua L.
    Unit for Field-Based Forest Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Vindeln, Sweden.
    Noumonvi, Koffi Dodji
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Peichl, Matthias
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lidberg, William
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Svante Arrheniusväg 8, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öquist, Mats G.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skogsmarksgränd 17, Umeå, Sweden.
    Catchment characteristics control boreal mire nutrient regime and vegetation patterns over ~5000 years of landscape development2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 895, article id 165132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation holds the key to many properties that make natural mires unique, such as surface microtopography, high biodiversity values, effective carbon sequestration and regulation of water and nutrient fluxes across the landscape. Despite this, landscape controls behind mire vegetation patterns have previously been poorly described at large spatial scales, which limits the understanding of basic drivers underpinning mire ecosystem services. We studied catchment controls on mire nutrient regimes and vegetation patterns using a geographically constrained natural mire chronosequence along the isostatically rising coastline in Northern Sweden. By comparing mires of different ages, we can partition vegetation patterns caused by long-term mire succession (<5000 years) and present-day vegetation responses to catchment eco-hydrological settings. We used the remote sensing based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to describe mire vegetation and combined peat physicochemical measures with catchment properties to identify the most important factors that determine mire NDVI. We found strong evidence that mire NDVI depends on nutrient inputs from the catchment area or underlying mineral soil, especially concerning phosphorus and potassium concentrations. Steep mire and catchment slopes, dry conditions and large catchment areas relative to mire areas were associated with higher NDVI. We also found long-term successional patterns, with lower NDVI in older mires. Importantly, the NDVI should be used to describe mire vegetation patterns in open mires if the focus is on surface vegetation, since the canopy cover in tree-covered mires completely dominated the NDVI signal. With our study approach, we can quantitatively describe the connection between landscape properties and mire nutrient regime. Our results confirm that mire vegetation responds to the upslope catchment area, but importantly, also suggest that mire and catchment aging can override the role of catchment influence. This effect was clear across mires of all ages, but was strongest in younger mires.

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  • 28. Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buck, Moritz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden, Uppsala SE-75236, Sweden.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Osman, Omneya A.
    Kronberg, Rose-Marie
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Formation of mercury methylation hotspots as a consequence of forestry operations2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613-614, p. 1069-1078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that boreal forest logging can increase the concentration and export of methylmercury (MeHg) in stream runoff. Here we test whether forestry operations create soil environments of high MeHg net formation associated with distinct microbial communities. Furthermore, we test the hypothesis that Hg methylation hotspots are more prone to form after stump harvest than stem-only harvest, because of more severe soil compaction and soil disturbance. Concentrations of MeHg, percent MeHg of total Hg (THg), and bacterial community composition were determined at 200 soil sampling positions distributed across eight catchments. Each catchment was either stem-only harvested (n = 3), stem-and stump-harvested (n = 2) or left undisturbed (n = 3). In support of our hypothesis, higher MeHg to THg ratios was observed in one of the stump-harvested catchments. While the effects of natural variation could not be ruled out, we noted that most of the highest % MeHg was observed in water-filled cavities created by stump removal or driving damage. This catchment also featured the highest bacterial diversity and highest relative abundance of bacterial families known to include Hg methylators. We propose that water-logged and disturbed soil environments associated with stump harvest can favor methylating microorganisms, which also enhance MeHg formation. 

  • 29. Englyst, Vagn
    et al.
    Lundström, Nils-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Gerhardsson, Lars
    Rylander, Lars
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Lung cancer risks among lead smelter workers also exposed to arsenic2001In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 273, no 1-3, p. 77-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Eriksson, Andreas N.M.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Finland.
    Rigaud, Cyril
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Finland.
    Rokka, Anne
    Turku Proteomics Facility, Turku University, Tykistökatu 6, Turku, Finland.
    Skaugen, Morten
    Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Campus Ås, Universitetstunet 3, Ås, Norway.
    Lihavainen, Jenna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Vehniäinen, Eeva-Riikka
    Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Finland.
    Changes in cardiac proteome and metabolome following exposure to the PAHs retene and fluoranthene and their mixture in developing rainbow trout alevins2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 830, article id 154846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is known to affect developing organisms. Utilization of different omics-based technologies and approaches could therefore provide a base for the discovery of novel mechanisms of PAH induced development of toxicity. To this aim, we investigated how exposure towards two PAHs with different toxicity mechanisms: retene (an aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (Ahr2) agonist), and fluoranthene (a weak Ahr2 agonist and cytochrome P450 inhibitor (Cyp1a)), either alone or as a mixture, affected the cardiac proteome and metabolome in newly hatched rainbow trout alevins (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In total, we identified 65 and 82 differently expressed proteins (DEPs) across all treatments compared to control (DMSO) after 7 and 14 days of exposure. Exposure to fluoranthene altered the expression of 11 and 19 proteins, retene 29 and 23, while the mixture affected 44 and 82 DEPs by Days 7 and 14, respectively. In contrast, only 5 significantly affected metabolites were identified. Pathway over-representation analysis identified exposure-specific activation of phase II metabolic processes, which were accompanied with exposure-specific body burden profiles. The proteomic data highlights that exposure to the mixture increased oxidative stress, altered iron metabolism and impaired coagulation capacity. Additionally, depletion of several mini-chromosome maintenance components, in combination with depletion of several intermediate filaments and microtubules, among alevins exposed to the mixture, suggests compromised cellular integrity and reduced rate of mitosis, whereby affecting heart growth and development. Furthermore, the combination of proteomic and metabolomic data indicates altered energy metabolism, as per amino acid catabolism among mixture exposed alevins; plausibly compensatory mechanisms as to counteract reduced absorption and consumption of yolk. When considered as a whole, proteomic and metabolomic data, in relation to apical effects on the whole organism, provides additional insight into PAH toxicity and the effects of exposure on heart structure and molecular processes.

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  • 31.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Veenstra, A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Six common behavioral trials and their relevance for perch performance in natural lakes2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 732, article id 139101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral traits measured in laboratory settings are commonly used when predicting ecological effects and evolutionary outcomes in natural systems. However, uncertainties regarding the relevance of simplified lab-based behavioral tests for complex natural environments have created doubts about the use of these tests within aquatic ecology and ecotoxicology. In this study, we scrutinize the assumption that fish performance in six commonly applied behavioral assays has relevance for in situ behavior, by comparing individual behavior tracked in both artificial laboratory settings as well as in two natural lakes. We show that: i) commonly measured behavioral traits of individual fish (Perca fluviatilis) have low predictive power for within-lake behaviors if interpreted alone, but that; ii) composite variables synthesized from several (six) behavioral assays explain important in situ measures such as swimming activity, dispersion, home-range size, and habitat preference. While our findings support recent criticisms against the use of single behavioral tests for predicting environmental effects, we provide empirical evidences suggesting that fish performances in multiple laboratory assays are highly relevant for fish behavior in nature.

  • 32. Faleye, A. C.
    et al.
    Adegoke, A. A.
    Ramluckan, K.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bux, F.
    Stenstrom, T. A.
    Concentration and reduction of antibiotic residues in selected wastewater treatment plants and receiving waterbodies in Durban, South Africa2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 678, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa the incidence of resistant tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract diseases as well as diarrhoeal and parasitic infections is high. Treatment of these diseases with antibiotics is partly reflected by the excretion of the respective antibiotics and their subsequent occurrence in wastewater. Their quantitative reduction in wastewater treatment reflects their potential environmental as well as human impact, the latter due to the use of the recipient water for domestic purposes and for irrigation. Information of the occurrence and reduction of different classes of antibiotics in wastewater treatment is sparse, especially the particle bound fraction of these. Due to this, analyses of aqueous and particle bound antibiotics in untreated wastewater of four selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies was carried out in Durban, South Africa. The treatment step especially considered was the biological one, represented by activated sludge and trickling filters. The treatment further included secondary clarifiers and final chlorine disinfection. Composite samples were collected during the period February 2017 to May 2017 and analysed with online solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS). For the 13 assessed antibiotics, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 ng L-1 and 0.23 to 1.09 ng L-1 respectively, while the total percentage recovery was in the range of 51 to 111%. The percentage of individual antibiotics bound to the particulate fraction normally lost by sample (influent) filtration, if not analysed in parallel, was in the range of 2.6%-97.3% (n = 32). In this fraction (sludge from centrifuge sample), the concentration of bound antibiotics of all the target antibiotics were detected in the influent of all WWTP in concentration ranges between 1.3 ng L-1 (Azithromycin; AZI) to 81,748 ng(-1) (Ciprofloxacin; CIP). The antibiotics with the highest median concentrations in receiving water bodies of the respective WWTP were: Sulfamethoxazole; SUL (239 ng L-1) WWTP "K", Ciprofloxacin; CIP (708 ng L-1) WWTP "S" and Albendazole; ALB (325 ng L-1 and 683 ng L-1) WWTP "P" and "I" respectively.

    The overall percentage removal efficiency for the four WWTPs ranged from 21% to 100%. The biological treatment steps, activated sludge and trickling filters, were effective in removing antibiotics especially with the trickling filter and the impact of the sedimentation stage after activated sludge treatment. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Fernández-Domínguez, David
    et al.
    INRAE, Univ. Montpellier, LBE, 102 Avenue des étangs, Narbonne, France.
    Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri
    Department of Thematic Studies-Environmental Change and Biogas Research Center, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Patureau, Dominique
    INRAE, Univ. Montpellier, LBE, 102 Avenue des étangs, Narbonne, France.
    Jimenez, Julie
    INRAE, Univ. Montpellier, LBE, 102 Avenue des étangs, Narbonne, France.
    Deciphering the contribution of microbial biomass to the properties of dissolved and particulate organic matter in anaerobic digestates2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 877, article id 162882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recalcitrant structures either from substrate or microbial biomass contained in digestates after anaerobic digestion (AD) highly influence digestate valorization. To properly assess the microbial biomass contribution to the digested organic matter (OM), a combination of characterization methods and the use of various substrate types in anaerobic continuous reactors was required. The use of totally biodegradable substrates allowed detecting soluble microbial products via fluorescence spectroscopy at emission wavelengths of 420 and 460 nm while the protein-like signature was enhanced by the whey protein. During reactors' operation, a transfer of complex compounds to the dissolved OM from the particulate OM was observed through fluorescence applied on biochemical fractionation. Consequently, the fluorescence complexity index of the dissolved OM increased from 0.59–0.60 to 1.06–1.07, whereas it decreased inversely for the extractable soluble from the particulate OM from 1.16–1.19 to 0.42–0.54. Accordingly, fluorescence regional integration showed differences among reactors based on visual inspection and orthogonal partial latent structures (OPLS) analysis. Similarly, the impact of the substrate type and operation time on the particulate OM was revealed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance using OPLS, providing a good model (R2X = 0.93 and Q2 = 0.8) with a clear time-trend. A high signal resonated at ∼30 ppm attributed to CH2-groups in the aliphatic chain of lipid-like structure besides carbohydrates intensities at 60–110 ppm distinguished the reactor fed with whey protein from the other, which was mostly biomass related. Indeed, this latter displayed a higher presence of peptidoglycan (δH/C: 1.6–2.0/20–25 ppm) derived from microbial biomass by 1H-13C heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance. Interestingly, the sample distribution obtained by non-metric multidimensional scaling of bacterial communities resembled the attained using 13C NMR properties, opening new research perspectives. Overall, this study discloses the microbial biomass contribution to digestates composition to improve the OM transformation mechanism knowledge.

  • 34.
    Fischer, Sandra
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wide-spread microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) in northern European freshwater systems: drivers, magnitudes and seasonality2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 889, article id 163764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), which transforms sulfate into sulfide through the consumption of organic matter, is an integral part of sulfur and carbon cycling. Yet, the knowledge on MSR magnitudes is limited and mostly restricted to snap-shot conditions in specific surface water bodies. Potential impacts of MSR have consequently been unaccounted for, e.g., in regional or global weathering budgets. Here, we synthesize results from previous studies on sulfur isotope dynamics in stream water samples and apply a sulfur isotopic fractionation and mixing scheme combined with Monte Carlo simulations to derive MSR in entire hydrological catchments. This allowed comparison of magnitudes both within and between five study areas located between southern Sweden and the Kola Peninsula, Russia. Our results showed that the freshwater MSR ranged from 0 to 79 % (interquartile range of 19 percentage units) locally within the catchments, with average values from 2 to 28 % between the catchments, displaying a non-negligible catchment-average value of 13 %. The combined abundance or deficiency of several landscape elements (e.g., the areal percentage of forest and lakes/wetlands) were found to indicate relatively well whether or not catchment-scale MSR would be high. A regression analysis showed specifically that average slope was the individual element that best reflected the MSR magnitude, both at sub-catchment scale and between the different study areas. However, the regression results of individual parameters were generally weak. The MSR-values additionally showed differences between seasons, in particular in wetland/lake dominated catchments. Here MSR was high during the spring flood, which is consistent with the mobilization of water that under low-flow winter periods have developed the needed anoxic conditions for sulfate-reducing microorganisms. This study presents for the first time compelling evidence from multiple catchments of wide-spread MSR at levels slightly above 10 %, implying that the terrestrial pyrite oxidation may be underestimated in global weathering budgets.

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  • 35. Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Pal, Chandan
    Svensson, Carl Johan
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 461-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5–4 weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the clear increase of genes involved in mobilizing DNA provides a foundation for increased opportunities for gene transfer in such communities, which might also involve yet unknown resistance mechanisms.

  • 36.
    Gao, Qiuju
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Blum, Kristin M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo
    Wiberg, Karin
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Impact of on-site wastewater infiltration systems on organic contaminants in groundwater and recipient waters2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 651, p. 1670-1679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-site sewage treatment facilities, particularly septic systems combined with soil infiltration, can be an important source of emerging organic contaminants in groundwater and surface water and thus represent a significant source of environmental and human exposure. Two infiltration systems in Åre municipality, Sweden, were examined to assess the occurrence of contaminants in groundwater and their fate and transport during infiltration. Groundwater samples, recipient surface water samples, and wastewater samples from septic tanks were collected from 2016 to 2017 covering all climatological seasons. These samples were analysed for a total of 103 contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, organic phosphorus flame-retardants, plasticisers, perfluoroalkyl substances, and food additives. Fourteen of 103 contaminants showed 100% detection frequency in groundwater at concentrations in the low ng L−1 to low μg L−1 range. Of the compounds analysed, tris(2‑butoxyethyl) phosphate, sucralose, caffeine, and benzophenone showed high abundancy with maximum concentrations in the μg L−1 range. The data were normalised for dilution using chloride and sucralose as commonly applied tracers; however, the level of sucralose decreased significantly during infiltration and it is thus suboptimal as a sewage water tracer. Large differences between the two infiltration sites were observed in detection frequencies and concentrations in groundwater, which could be attributed to the system design and the contaminant's migration time from release to sampling point. Seasonal variation was observed for selected chemicals, and the more hydrophobic chemicals showed a higher tendency for attenuation, indicating sorption as a major retention mechanism. A moderate environmental risk to aquatic organisms was estimated in adjacent surface water for galaxolide, tris(1‑chloro‑2‑propyl) phosphate, and tris(2‑butoxyethyl) phosphate. Due to this site-dependency and potential environmental risks, further studies are needed on infiltration systems in different settings and on alternative treatment techniques to reduce the contaminant discharge from on-site sewage treatment facilities.

  • 37.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Ingrisch, Johannes
    Hasibeder, Roland
    Mills, Robert T E
    Buttler, Alexandre
    Gleixner, Gerd
    Pumpanen, Jukka
    Bahn, Michael
    Winter ecology of a subalpine grassland: Effects of snow removal on soil respiration, microbial structure and function2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 590-591, p. 316-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal snow cover provides essential insulation for mountain ecosystems, but expected changes in precipitation patterns and snow cover duration due to global warming can influence the activity of soil microbial communities. In turn, these changes have the potential to create new dynamics of soil organic matter cycling. To assess the effects of experimental snow removal and advanced spring conditions on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics, and on the biomass and structure of soil microbial communities, we performed an in situ study in a subalpine grassland in the Austrian Alps, in conjunction with soil incubations under controlled conditions. We found substantial winter C-mineralisation and high accumulation of inorganic and organic N in the topsoil, peaking at snowmelt. Soil microbial biomass doubled under the snow, paralleled by a fivefold increase in its C:N ratio, but no apparent change in its bacteria-dominated community structure. Snow removal led to a series of mild freeze-thaw cycles, which had minor effects on in situ soil CO2 production and N mineralisation. Incubated soil under advanced spring conditions, however, revealed an impaired microbial metabolism shortly after snow removal, characterised by a limited capacity for C-mineralisation of both fresh plant-derived substrates and existing soil organic matter (SOM), leading to reduced priming effects. This effect was transient and the observed recovery in microbial respiration and SOM priming towards the end of the winter season indicated microbial resilience to short-lived freeze-thaw disturbance under field conditions. Bacteria showed a higher potential for uptake of plant-derived C substrates during this recovery phase. The observed temporary loss in microbial C-mineralisation capacity and the promotion of bacteria over fungi can likely impede winter SOM cycling in mountain grasslands under recurrent winter climate change events, with plausible implications for soil nutrient availability and plant-soil interactions.

  • 38.
    Golosovskaia, Elena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Örn, Stefan
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chelcea, Ioana C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Studying mixture effects on uptake and tissue distribution of PFAS in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modelling2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 912, article id 168738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. They include persistent, mobile, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals and it is therefore critical to increase our understanding on their adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME). The current study focused on uptake of seven emerging PFAS in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and their potential maternal transfer. In addition, we aimed at increasing our understanding on mixture effects on ADME by developing a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model capable of handling co-exposure scenarios of any number of chemicals. All studied chemicals were taken up in the fish to varying degrees, whereas only perfluorononanoate (PFNA) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were quantified in all analysed tissues. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) was measured at concerningly high concentrations in the brain (Cmax over 15 μg/g) but also in the liver and ovaries. All studied PFAS were maternally transferred to the eggs, with FOSA and 6:2 perfluorooctane sulfonate (6,2 FTSA) showing significant (p < 0.02) signs of elimination from the embryos during the first 6 days of development, while perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), PFNA, and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were not eliminated in embryos during this time-frame. The mixture PBK model resulted in >85 % of predictions within a 10-fold error and 60 % of predictions within a 3-fold error. At studied levels of PFAS exposure, competitive binding was not a critical factor for PFAS kinetics. Gill surface pH influenced uptake for some carboxylates but not the sulfonates. The developed PBK model provides an important tool in understanding kinetics under complex mixture scenarios and this use of New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) is critical in future risk assessment of chemicals and early warning systems.

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  • 39. Grabicova, Katerina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Randak, Tomas
    Larsson, DG Joakim
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of antidepressants in fish exposed to effluent from a municipal sewage treatment plant2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 488, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue-specific bioconcentration of selected antidepressants was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to undiluted effluent from a Swedish municipal sewage treatment plant for 13 days. Citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine were found in the brains and livers of most fish, but not in blood plasma or muscle. Venlafaxine was the only drug found in plasma (3/20 fish). Fluoxetine was not detected in any fish tissue, in accordance with a low concentration in the effluent and a comparably high limit of quantification in tissues. Concentrations of citalopram, sertraline and venlafaxine in fish brain were up to 1/12, 1/8 and 1/26, respectively, of the lowest concentrations found in the brains of mammals treated with therapeutic doses. Thus, given coexposure to several antidepressants and an assumed similar potency in fish, the margin of safety for targetrelated effects in fish residing in effluent-dominated streams is relatively low. Furthermore, the non-detectable levels of these drugs in blood plasma suggest that analyses of concentrations in target tissues (brain) would be more informative in field studies and other studies with environmentally realistic exposure concentrations.

    (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 40. Guedron, S.
    et al.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brisset, E.
    Sabatier, P.
    Perrot, V.
    Bouchet, S.
    Develle, A. L.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cossa, D.
    Fritz, S. C.
    Baker, P. A.
    Late Holocene volcanic and anthropogenic mercury deposition in the western Central Andes (Lake Chungará, Chile)2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 662, p. 903-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volcanismis one of the major natural processes emitting mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, representing a significant component of the global Hg budget. The importance of volcanic eruptions for local-scale Hg deposition was investigated using analyses of Hg, inorganic elemental tracers, and organic biomarkers in a sediment sequence from Lake Chungara (4520 m a.s.l.). Environmental change and Hg deposition in the immediate vicinity of the Parinacota volcano were reconstructed over the last 2700 years, encompassing the pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic periods. Twenty eruptions delivering large amounts of Hg (1 to 457 mu g Hg m(-2) yr(-1) deposited at the timescale of the event) were locally recorded. Peaks of Hg concentration recorded after most of the eruptions were attributed to a decrease in sedimentation rate together with the rapid re-oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg and deposition with fine particles and incorporation into lake primary producers. Over the study period, the contribution of volcanic emissions has been estimated as 32% of the total Hg input to the lake. Sharp depletions in primary production occurred at each eruption, likely resulting from massive volcaniclastic inputs and changes in the lake-water physico-chemistry. Excluding the volcanic deposition periods, Hg accumulation rates rose from natural background values (1.9 +/- 0.5 mu g m(-2) yr(-1)) by a factor of 2.3 during the pre-colonial mining period (1400-900 yr cal. BP), and by a factor of 6 and 7.6, respectively, during the Hispanic colonial epoch (400-150 yr cal. BP) and the industrial era (similar to 140 yr cal. BP to present). Altogether, the dataset indicates that lake primary production has been the main, but not limiting, carrier for Hg to the sediment. Volcanic activity and climate change are only secondary drivers of local Hg deposition relative to the magnitude of regional and global anthropogenic emissions.

  • 41. Haase, Peter
    et al.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany.
    Li, Fengqing
    Sundermann, Andrea
    Lorenz, Armin W.
    Tonkin, Jonathan D.
    Stoll, Stefan
    Moderate warming over the past 25 years has already reorganized stream invertebrate communities2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 658, p. 1531-1538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming often results in species range shifts, biodiversity loss and accumulated climatic debts of biota (i.e. slower changes in biota than in temperature). Here, we analyzed the changes in community composition and temperature signature of stream invertebrate communities over 25 years (1990-€“2014), based on a large set of samples (n = 3782) over large elevation, latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in central Europe. Although warming was moderate (average 0.5°C), we found a strong reorganization of stream invertebrate communities. Total abundance (+35.9%) and richness (+39.2%) significantly increased. The share of abundance (TA) and taxonomic richness (TR) of warm-dwelling taxa (TA: +73.2%; TR: +60.2%) and medium-temperature-dwelling taxa (TA: +0.4%; TR: +5.8%) increased too, while cold-dwelling taxa declined (TA: -61.5%; TR: -ˆ’47.3%). The community temperature index, representing the temperature signature of stream invertebrate communities, increased at a similar pace to physical temperature, indicating a thermophilization of the communities and, for the first time, no climatic debt. The strongest changes occurred along the altitudinal gradient, suggesting that stream invertebrates use the spatial configuration of river networks to track their temperature niche uphill. Yet, this may soon come to an end due to the summit trap effect. Our results indicate an ongoing process of replacement of cold-adapted species by thermophilic species at only 0.5 °C warming, which is particularly alarming in the light of the more drastic climate warming projected for coming decades.

  • 42.
    Haddad, Lenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Vincent, Andrea G.
    Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Schleucher, Jürgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Small molecules dominate organic phosphorus in NaOH-EDTA extracts of soils as determined by 31P NMR2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 931, article id 172496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the composition of organic phosphorus (P) in soils is relevant to various disciplines, from agricultural sciences to ecology. Despite past efforts, the precise nature of soil organic P remains an enigma, especially that of the orthophosphate monoesters, which dominate 31P NMR spectra of NaOH-EDTA extracts of soils worldwide. The monoester region often exhibits an unidentified, broad background believed to represent high molecular weight (MW) P. We investigated this monoester background using 1D 31P NMR and 2D 1H[sbnd]31P NMR, as well as 31P transverse relaxation (T2) measurements to calculate its intrinsic linewidth and relate it to MW. Analyzing seven soils from different ecosystems, we observed linewidths of 0.5 to 3 Hz for resolved monoester signals and the background, indicating that it consists of many, possibly >100, sharp signals associated with small (<1.5 kDa) organic P molecules. This result was further supported by 2D 1H[sbnd]31P NMR spectra revealing signals not resolved in the 1D spectra. Our findings align with 31P NMR studies detecting background signals in soil-free samples and modern evidence that alkali-soluble soil organic matter consists of self-assemblies of small organic compounds mimicking large molecules.

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  • 43.
    Hagberg, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gupta, Shashank
    Rzhepishevska, Olena I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Burmølle, Mette
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Do environmental pharmaceuticals affect the composition of bacterial communities in a freshwater stream?: A case study of the Knivsta river in the south of Sweden2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 763, article id 142991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical substances present at low concentrations in the environment may cause effects on biological systems such as microbial consortia living on solid riverbed substrates. These consortia are an important part of the river ecosystem as they form part of the food chain. This case study aims to contribute to an increased understanding of how low levels of pharmaceuticals in freshwater streams may influence sessile bacterial consortia. An important point source for pharmaceutical release into the environment is treated household sewage water. In order to investigate what types of effects may occur, we collected water samples as well as riverbed substrates from a small stream in the south of Sweden, Knivstaån, upstream and downstream from a sewage treatment plant (STP). Data from these samples formed the base of this case study where we investigated both the presence of pharmaceuticals in the water and bacterial composition on riverbed substrates. In the water downstream from the STP, 19 different pharmaceuticals were detected at levels below 800 ng/dm3. The microbial composition was obtained from sequencing 16S rRNA genes directly from substrates as well as from cultivated isolates. The cultivated strains showed reduced species variability compared with the data obtained directly from the substrates. No systematic differences were observed following the sampling season. However, differences could be seen between samples upstream and downstream from the STP effluent. We further observed large similarities in bacterial composition on natural stones compared to sterile stones introduced into the river approximately two months prior to sampling, giving indications for future sampling methodology of biofilms.

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  • 44.
    Hansson, Sophia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Downwash of atmospherically deposited trace metals in peat and the influence of rainfall intensity: an experimental test2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 506-507, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation records of pollutant metals in peat have been frequently used to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition rates. While there is good support for peat as a record of relative changes in metal deposition over time, questions remain whether peat archives represent a quantitative or a qualitative record. Several processes can potentially influence the quantitative record of which downwashing is particularly pertinent as it would have a direct influence on how and where atmospherically deposited metals are accumulated in peat. The aim of our study was two-fold: first, to compare and contrast the retention of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in peat cores; and second, to test the influence of different precipitation intensities on the potential downwashing of metals. We applied four 'rainfall' treatments to 13 peat cores over a 3-week period, including both daily (2 or 5.3 mm day(-1)) and event-based additions (37 mm day(-1), added over 1 h or over a 10 h rain event). Two main trends were apparent: 1) there was a difference in retention of the added dissolved metals in the surface layer (0-2 cm): 21-85% for Pb, 18-63% for Cu, 10-25% for Zn and 10-20% for Ni. 2) For all metals and both peat types (sphagnum lawn and fen), the addition treatments resulted in different downwashing depths, i.e., as the precipitation-addition increased so did the depth at which added metals could be detected. Although the largest fraction of Pb and Cu was retained in the surface layer and the remainder effectively immobilized in the upper peat (<= 10 cm), there was a smearing effect on the overall retention, where precipitation intensity exerts an influence on the vertical distribution of added trace metals. These results indicate that the relative position of a deposition signal in peat records would be preserved, but it would be quantitatively attenuated. 

  • 45.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kaste, James M.
    College of William & Mary.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Incorporation of radiometric tracers in peat and implications for estimating accumulation rates2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate dating of peat accumulation is essential for quantitatively reconstructing past changes in atmospheric metal deposition and carbon burial. By analyzing fallout radionuclides Pb-210, Cs-137, Am-241, and Be-7, and total Pb and Hg in 5 cores from two Swedish peatlands we addressed the consequence of estimating accumulation rates due to downwashing of atmospherically supplied elements within peat. The detection of Be-7 down to 18-20 cm for some cores, and the broad vertical distribution of Am-241 without a well-defined peak, suggest some downward transport by percolating rainwater and smearing of atmospherically deposited elements in the uppermost peat layers. Application of the CRS age-depth model leads to unrealistic peat mass accumulation rates (400-600 g m(-2) yr(-1)), and inaccurate estimates of past Pb and Hg deposition rates and trends, based on comparisons to deposition monitoring data (forest moss biomonitoring and wet deposition). After applying a newly proposed IP-CRS model that assumes a potential downward transport of Pb-210 through the uppermost peat layers, recent peat accumulation rates (200-300 g m(-2) yr(-1)) comparable to published values were obtained. Furthermore, the rates and temporal trends in Pb and Hg accumulation correspond more closely to monitoring data, although some off-set is still evident. We suggest that downwashing can be successfully traced using Be-7, and if this information is incorporated into age-depth models, better calibration of peat records with monitoring data and better quantitative estimates of peat accumulation and past deposition are possible, although more work is needed to characterize how downwashing may vary between seasons or years.

  • 46.
    Haubrock, Phillip J.
    et al.
    Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Gelnhausen, Germany; University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Vodňany, Czech Republic; CAMB, Center for Applied Mathematics and Bioinformatics, Gulf University for Science and Technology, Kuwait.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Haase, Peter
    Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Clamecystrasse 12, Gelnhausen, Germany; University of Duisburg–Essen, Faculty of Biology, Essen, Germany.
    Multidecadal data indicate increase of aquatic insects in Central European streams2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 879, article id 163017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, declining insect biodiversity has sparked interest among scientists and drawn the attention of society and politicians. However, our understanding of the extent of this decline is incomplete, particularly for freshwater insects that provide a key trophic link between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but that are also especially vulnerable to climate change. To investigate the response of freshwater insects to climate change, we quantified shifts in insect abundance and diversity across 7264 samples covering Central Europe during 1990–2018 and related these changes to annual data on temperature and precipitation. We observed both increases in richness (10.6 %) and abundance (9.5 %) of freshwater insects over the past three decades. These changes were related to increases in summer temperature and summer precipitation, which had negative effects on species richness, and to increases in winter temperature and precipitation, which had positive effects. Further we found that increased temperature was generally related to increased abundance, whereas increased precipitation was associated with declines, thus highlighting the particularly varying impacts on differing insect orders. Given that freshwater insects have been more severely affected by global change than marine and terrestrial species, the observed increases are a positive sign, but the overall situation of freshwater invertebrates is still critical.

  • 47.
    Hermassi, Mehrez
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Granados, M.
    Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Valderrama, C.
    Chemical Engineering Department, East Barcelona Engineering School, Barcelona TECHUPC, Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain.
    Ayora, C.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Cortina, J.L.
    Chemical Engineering Department, East Barcelona Engineering School, Barcelona TECHUPC, Eduard Maristany 10-14 (Campus Diagonal-Besòs), Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain; Water Technology Center CETaqua, Cornellà de Llobregat, Spain.
    Recovery of rare earth elements from acidic mine waters: an unknown secondary resource2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 810, article id 152258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidic mine Drainage (AMD) is still considered one of the greatest mining sustainability challenges due to the large volumes of wastes generated and the high associated treatment cost. New regulation initiatives on sustainable development, circular economy and the need for strategic elements as Rare Earth Elements (REE) may overcome the traditional research initiatives directed to developing low cost treatment options and to develop research initiatives to identify the potential benefit of considering such AMD as a potential secondary resource. As an example, this study develops the integration of a three-stage process where REE are selectively separated from base metals (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Ca, Mg, Cd, Pb) and then concentrate to produce a rich REE by-product recovered as REE-phosphates. Selective separation of Fe (>99%) was achieved by total oxidation to Fe(III) and subsequent precipitation as schwertmannite at pH 3,6 ± 0.2. REE were then extracted from AMD using a sulfonic ion-exchange resin to produce concentrated REE sulfuric solutions up to 0.25 gREE/L. In a final stage selective separation of REE from Al(III), Ca(II) and Mg(II) and transitions elements (Cu, Zn, Ni) was achieved by precipitation with phosphate solutions under optimized pH control and total phosphate concentration. XRD analysis identified low-crystalline minerals. By using a thermal treatment the presence of PrPO4(s) and Cheralite (CePO4(s)) where Ce is substituted by La and Ca and Xenotime (YPO4(s)) were found as main minerals AlPO4(s) Ca,MgYPO4(s) were also identified.

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  • 48.
    Holmgren, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Leif
    FOI CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A generic emission model to predict release of organic substances from materials in consumer goods2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 437, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic chemicals may be released when consumer goods are used, contributing to environmental and human levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. A generic model was developed to predict emissions of organic chemicals from various materials in consumer products. The model involved three modules, which each predict a key parameter needed to calculate the mass of individual chemicals emitted. Partition coefficients between a material and the surrounding air were predicted using Abraham solvation parameters, diffusion coefficients in materials were calculated using the Piringer equation, and convective mass transfer coefficients were evaluated by applying the Chilton–Colburn analogy. The calculated emission rates from predicted parameters were evaluated and agreed well with literature data. The release of plasticizers from vinyl flooring used in Sweden was calculated to demonstrate the utility of the generic model. The estimated emitted masses of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonylphthalate (DINP), and 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid di-iso-nonyl ester (DINCH) in 2012 were 210 kg, 40 kg, and 3.6 kg respectively. Emissions from vinyl flooring were estimated for the period 1990 to 2035 and it was shown that the recent substitution of DEHP with DINP will help to reduce plasticizer emissions. Model calculations for alternative plasticizers revealed that DINCH would yield similar emissions to DINP, whereas use of diethyl hexyl-iso-sorbide or diethyl hexyl adipate would result in higher emissions.

  • 49. Idavain, J.
    et al.
    Julge, K.
    Rebane, T.
    Lang, A.
    Orru, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. University of Tartu, Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Respiratory symptoms, asthma and levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in schoolchildren in the industrial areas of Estonia2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 650, no Pt 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Exposure to air pollutants in the ambient environment has been associated with various respiratory symptoms, and with increased asthma diagnosis, in both children and adults. Most research to date has focussed on core pollutants, such as PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2, and less attention has been given to the effects of industry-specific contamination. The current study aimed to examine the associations between respiratory symptoms, asthma, increased levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) (as a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation) and ambient levels of industrial pollutants (such as benzene, phenol, formaldehyde and non-methane hydrocarbons) for schoolchildren living near oil shale industries in Ida-Viru County, Estonia.

    METHODS: A total of 1326 schoolchildren from Ida-Viru, Lääne-Viru and Tartu Counties participated in a cross-sectional study, consisting of questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and asthma, as well as clinical examinations to measure FeNO. Dispersion modelling was used to characterize individual-level exposure to industrial air pollutants at each subject's home address. Associations between exposure and respiratory health were investigated using logistic regression analysis, and differences in results between regions were analysed using the Chi-squared test.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.05) in children living near (i.e. within 5 km) of an oil shale industry site in Ida-Viru County was 2-4 times higher than in children living in the reference area of Tartu County. Children exposed to 1 μg/m3 higher levels of benzene and formaldehyde had a higher odds ratio (OR) of having rhinitis without a cold (OR 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.06), of ever having had attacks of asthma (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10) and of having a dry cough a few days per year (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10). Children exposed to 1 μg/m3 higher levels of benzene, formaldehyde, phenol and non-methane hydrocarbons had a higher odds ratio of having high FeNO levels (≥30 ppb): OR and 95% CI of 1.05, 1.01-1.09; 1.22, 1.06-1.41; 1.01, 1.00-1.01; and 1.75, 1.75-2.62, respectively.

  • 50.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Relationships between congener distribution patterns of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCNs, PCBs, PCBzs and PCPhs formed during flue gas cooling2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 416, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The congener patterns of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC(1-8)DD), dibenzofurans (PC(1-8)DF), naphthalenes (PC(1-8)N), mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC(1-10)B), di- to hexa-chlorinated benzenes (PC(2-6)Bz) and mono- to penta-chlorinated phenols (PC(1-5)Ph) in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at 450°C, 300°C and 200°C in the post-combustion zone during waste incineration in a laboratory-scale reactor in a previous study, were in this study evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA). To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive chemical and multivariate analysis to date of the thermal formation of dioxins. The PCA indicated that different formation pathways occur in the temperature regions 450-300°C and 300-200°C, and reflected a chlorination effect of PCDF and PCDD between 450°C and 200°C which could not be discerned or was less pronounced for the other compound groups. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, as well as total TEQ values (TEQ(Total)) were also calculated, and correlations between changes in levels of specific congeners and the TEQs were explored in the PCA. Levels of four HxCDF congeners and 1,2,3,4,8-, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showed the strongest correlations with TEQ(Total) (R(2)≥0.9). In addition, levels of 1,2,4-TriCBz correlated strongly with TEQ(Total) (R(2)>0.7), supporting previous reports that it may be a potential indicator of the TEQ.

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