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  • 1.
    Adediran, Gbotemi A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Liem-Nguyen, Van
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Song, Yu
    Schaefer, Jeffra K.
    Slcyllberg, Ulf
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Microbial Biosynthesis of Thiol Compounds: Implications for Speciation, Cellular Uptake, and Methylation of Hg(II)2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 14, s. 8187-8196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular uptake of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) is a key step in microbial formation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg), but the mechanisms remain largely unidentified. We show that the iron reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces and exports appreciable amounts of low molecular mass thiol (LMM-RSH) compounds reaching concentrations of about 100 nM in the assay medium. These compounds largely control the chemical speciation and bioavailability of Hg(II) by the formation of Hg(LMM-RS)<INF><INF><INF>2</INF></INF> </INF>complexes (primarily with cysteine) in assays without added thiols. By characterizing these effects, we show that the thermodynamic stability of Hg(II)-complexes is a principal controlling factor for Hg(II) methylation by this bacterium such that less stable complexes with mixed ligation involving LMM-RSH, OH-, and Cl- are methylated at higher rates than the more stable Hg(LMM-RS)<INF>2</INF> complexes. The Hg(II) methylation rate across different Hg(LMM-RS)<INF>2</INF> compounds is also influenced by the chemical structure of the complexes. In contrast to the current perception of microbial uptake of Hg, our results adhere to generalized theories for metal biouptake based on metal complexation with cell surface ligands and refine the mechanistic understanding of Hg(II) availability for microbial methylation.

  • 2. Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Use of Cl and C Isotopic Fractionation to Identify Degradation and Sources of Polychlorinated Phenols: Mechanistic Study and Field Application2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 790-797Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment.

  • 3. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Tranvik, L
    Gogoll, A
    Waldeback, M
    Markides, K
    Rydin, E
    Sediment depth attenuation of biogenic phosphorus compounds measured by P-31 NMR2005Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 867-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality, the turnover of phosphorus (P) in lake sediments is in need of deeper understanding. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. This P is incorporated in a poorly described mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sediment and forms the primary storage of P available for recycling to the water column, thus regulating lake trophic status. To identify and quantify biogenic sediment P and assess its lability, we analyzed sediment cores from Lake Erken, Sweden, using traditional P fractionation, and in parallel, NaOH extracts were analyzed using (31)p NMR. The surface sediments contain orthophosphates (ortho-P) and pyrophosphates (pyro-P), as well as phosphate mono- and diesters. The first group of compounds to disappear with increased sediment depth is pyrophosphate, followed by a steady decline of the different ester compounds. Estimated half-life times of these compound groups are about 10 yr for pyrophosphate and 2 decades for mono- and diesters. Probably, these compounds will be mineralized to ortho-P and is thus potentially available for recycling to the water column, supporting further growth of phytoplankton. In conclusion, P-31 NMR is a useful tool to asses the bioavailability of certain P compound groups, and the combination with traditional fractionation techniques makes quantification possible.

  • 4.
    Amin, Hesham
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Šantl-Temkiv, Tina
    Section for Microbiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Cramer, Christine
    Department of Public Health, Environment, Work and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Occupational Medicine, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Finster, Kai
    Section for Microbiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Real, Francisco Gomez
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Gislason, Thorarinn
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Holm, Mathias
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janson, Christer
    Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory, Allergy, Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences: Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jögi, Nils Oskar
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Jogi, Rain
    Tartu University Hospital, Lung Clinic, Tartu, Estonia.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Department of Medical Sciences: Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marshall, Ian P. G.
    Section for Microbiology, Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Modig, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Norbäck, Dan
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Shigdel, Rajesh
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Sigsgaard, Torben
    Department of Public Health, Environment, Work and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Svanes, Cecilie
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway; Centre for International Health, University of Bergen Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Thorarinsdottir, Hulda
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wouters, Inge M.
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Schlünssen, Vivi
    Department of Public Health, Environment, Work and Health, Danish Ramazzini Center, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Bertelsen, Randi J.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Indoor airborne microbiome and endotoxin: meteorological events and occupant characteristics are important determinants2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 32, s. 11750-11766Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne bacteria and endotoxin may affect asthma and allergies. However, there is limited understanding of the environmental determinants that influence them. This study investigated the airborne microbiomes in the homes of 1038 participants from five cities in Northern Europe: Aarhus, Bergen, Reykjavik, Tartu, and Uppsala. Airborne dust particles were sampled with electrostatic dust fall collectors (EDCs) from the participants' bedrooms. The dust washed from the EDCs' clothes was used to extract DNA and endotoxin. The DNA extracts were used for quantitative polymerase chain (qPCR) measurement and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while endotoxin was measured using the kinetic chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The results showed that households in Tartu and Aarhus had a higher bacterial load and diversity than those in Bergen and Reykjavik, possibly due to elevated concentrations of outdoor bacterial taxa associated with low precipitation and high wind speeds. Bergen-Tartu had the highest difference (ANOSIM R = 0.203) in β diversity. Multivariate regression models showed that α diversity indices and bacterial and endotoxin loads were positively associated with the occupants' age, number of occupants, cleaning frequency, presence of dogs, and age of the house. Further studies are needed to understand how meteorological factors influence the indoor bacterial community in light of climate change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Arnoldsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Formation of environmentally relevant brominated dioxins from 2,4,6,-tribromophenol via bromoperoxidase-catalyzed dimerization2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 13, s. 7239-7244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDD) are emerging environmental pollutants with structural similarities to the highly characterized toxicants polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The geographical and temporal variations of PBDD in biota samples from the Baltic Sea do not display features that are normally related to anthropogenic sources such as incineration, and therefore the natural formation of PBDDs has been suggested. This study of the bromoperoxidase mediated oxidative coupling of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (an abundant substance that is naturally formed in marine systems) identified the formation of ppb-level yields of 1,3,6,8-tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,3,6,8-TeBDD) through direct condensation. Additional TeBDDs (1,3,7,9-TeBDD, 1,2,4,7-TeBDD and/or 1,2,4,8-TeBDD) and tri-BDDs (1,3,7-TrBDD and 1,3,8-TrBDD) were frequently formed, but at lower yields. The formation of these TeBDDs probably proceeds via bromine shifts or Smiles rearrangements, while the TrBDDs may result from subsequent debromination processes. Since all of the congeners formed by oxidative coupling and subsequent reactions are also found in Baltic Sea biota, the results support the theory that PBDDs are formed from natural precursors.

  • 6.
    Arnoldsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Photochemical formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins from environmentally abundant hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 14, s. 7567-7574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) have been found in Baltic Sea biota, where the toxic load owing to, for example, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and other organic pollutants is already high. The levels and geographic pattern of PBDDs suggest biogenic rather than anthropogenic origin, and both biotic and abiotic formation pathways have been proposed. Photochemical formation from hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDE) is a proposed pathway. for PBDDs in marine environments. Ultraviolet radiation-initiated transformations of OH-BDEs 47, 68, 85, 90, 99, and 123, which all are abundant in the environment, were investigated. It was shown that the most abundant PBDDs in the environment (1,3,7-triBDD and 1,3,8-triBDD) can be formed from the most abundant OH-BDEs (OH-BDE 47 and OH-BDE 68) at high rates and with percentage yields. In fact, most of the PBDDs that have been identified in the Baltic Sea environment were formed with high yield from the six studied OH-PBDE, through initial cyclization and subsequent debromination reactions. The high formation yields point to this route as an important source of PBDDs in biota. However, congeners showing relatively high retention in fish, specifically 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD, were not formed. These are likely formed by enzymatic coupling of brominated phenols.

  • 7. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Enell, Anja
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 19, s. 11187-11195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, C-pw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, K-TOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed K-TOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native K-TOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, C-pw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, C-lipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than C-pw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically contaminated soils despite expectations from PAH spiked reference soils. Worm reproducibility weakly correlated to C-lipid of PACs, though the contributing influence of metal concentrations and soil texture could not be taken into account. The good agreement of POM-derived C-pw with independent soil and lipid partitioning models further supports that soil risk assessments would improve by accounting for bioavailability. Strategies for including bioavailability in soil risk assessment are presented.

  • 8.
    Assefa, Anteneh Taye
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sobek, Anna
    Sundqvist, Kristina L.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Jonsson, Per
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Temporal Trends of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea Sediment Cores Covering the 20th Century2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 947-953Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pollution trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the Baltic Sea region was studied based on depth profiles of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores collected from six offshore areas, eight coastal sites impacted by industrial/urban emissions, and one coastal reference site. A general trend was observed for the offshore and coastal reference sites with substantial increase in PCDD/F concentrations in the mid-late 1970s and peak levels during 1985-2002. The overall peak year for PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea offshore areas was estimated (using spline-fit modeling) to 1994 ± 5 years, and a half-life in sediments was estimated at 29 ± 11 years. For the industrial/urban impacted coastal sites, the temporal trend was more variable with peak years occurring 1-2 decades earlier compared to offshore areas. The substantial reductions from peak levels (38 ± 11% and 81 ± 12% in offshore and coastal areas, respectively) reflect domestic and international actions taken for reduction of the release of PCDD/Fs to the environment. The modeled overall half-life and reductions of PCDD/Fs in offshore Baltic Sea sediment correspond well to both PCDD/F trends in European lakes without any known direct PCDD/F sources (half-lives 30 and 32 years), and previously modeled reduction in atmospheric deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea since 1990. These observations support previous findings of a common diffuse source, such as long-range air transport of atmospheric emissions, as the prime source of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea region. The half-life of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea offshore sediments was estimated to be approximately 2 and 4-6 times longer than in semirural and urban European air, respectively. This study highlights the need for further international actions to reduce the levels of PCDD/Fs in Baltic Sea air specifically and in European air in general.

  • 9.
    Augulyte, Lijana
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Estimation of Water Sampling Rates and Concentrations of PAHs in a Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant Using SPMDs with Performance Reference Compounds2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 14, s. 5044-5049Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were exposed at ten sampling points, each representing a different stage in the treatment process, in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Differences in SPMD uptake kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to variations in conditions at the sampling sites were evaluated by using five performance reference compounds (PRCs) with log Kow values of 4.20 to 6.34. PRC release rate constants (ke,PRC values) were calculated for PRCs for which 50-98% of the initial amounts were lost during the sampling period. The ke,PRC values were high, ranging from 0.08 to 0.11 day-1 for the studied PRCs, at sampling site W1 (raw sewage), the only sampling site where significant amounts of the PRCs with log Kow values >5 were released from the SPMDs. At the other sampling sites, only PRCs with log Kow values between 4.20 and 4.50 were released in significant amounts. The release rates at these sites were lowest (0.04 day-1) at sampling site W9 (the secondary clarifier) and highest (0.18 day-1) at W8 (the active sludge aeration basin). Differences between sampling rates (Rs) obtained using published laboratory-calibrated data and PRC-corrected Rs values were visualized by principal component analysis (PCA). The water concentrations of 24 studied PAHs fell substantially during the course of the sewage treatment process. However, low molecular weight PAHs were more effectively removed than high molecular weight PAHs. Significant deviations between actual and estimated water concentrations may arise unless PRC-corrected Rs values are applied.

  • 10.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Vogt, Carsten
    Weber, Stefanie
    Danet, Andrei-Florin
    Richnow, Hans-Hermann
    Stable isotope fractionation of γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) during reductive dechlorination by two strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 9, s. 3155-3161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon isotope fractionation factors were determined with the dichloro elimination of γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) by the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfococcus multivorans DSM 2059 and Desulfovibrio gigas DSM 1382. Both strains are known for cometabolic HCH dechlorination. Degradation experiments with γ-HCH in concentrations of 22−25 μM were carried out using benzoate (for D. multivorans) and lactate (for D. gigas) as electron donors, respectively. γ-HCH was dechlorinated by both bacterial strains within four weeks, and the metabolites γ-3,4,5,6-tetrachlorocyclohexene (γ-TCCH), chlorobenzene (CB), and benzene were formed. The carbon isotope fractionation of γ-HCH dechlorination was quantified by the Rayleigh model, using a bulk enrichment factor (εC) of −3.9 ± 0.6 for D. gigas and −3.4 ± 0.5 for D. multivorans, which correspond to apparent kinetic isotope effect (AKIEC) values of 1.023 ± 0.004 or 1.02 ± 0.003 for stepwise Cl−C bond cleavage. The extent and range of isotope fractionation suggest that γ-HCH dechlorination can be monitored in anoxic environments by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA).

  • 11.
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Guldhedsgatan 10, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Antibiotic Resistance Research (CARe) at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Heß, Stefanie
    Institute of Microbiology, Technische Universität Dresden, Zellescher Weg 20b, Dresden, Germany.
    What Is the Role of the Environment in the Emergence of Novel Antibiotic Resistance Genes? A Modeling Approach2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, nr 23, s. 15734-15743Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that intervention strategies to curb antibiotic resistance cannot solely focus on human and veterinary medicine but must also consider environmental settings. While the environment clearly has a role in transmission of resistant bacteria, its role in the emergence of novel antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is less clear. It has been suggested that the environment constitutes an enormous recruitment ground for ARGs to pathogens, but its extent is practically unknown. We have constructed a model framework for resistance emergence and used available quantitative data on relevant processes to identify limiting steps in the appearance of ARGs in human pathogens. We found that in a majority of possible scenarios, the environment would only play a minor role in the emergence of novel ARGs. However, the uncertainty is enormous, highlighting an urgent need for more quantitative data. Specifically, more data is most needed on the fitness costs of ARG carriage, the degree of dispersal of resistant bacteria from the environment to humans, and the rates of mobilization and horizontal transfer of ARGs. This type of data is instrumental to determine which processes should be targeted for interventions to curb development and transmission of ARGs in the environment.

  • 12.
    Bergdahl, Ingvar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Correspondence on "Endocytosis-Mediated Transport of Pb in Rat Blood Cells"2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 40, s. 15134-15135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Bergknut, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vertical and lateral redistribution of POPs in soils developed along a hydrological gradient2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 24, s. 10378-10384Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study of the dispersion of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) throughout the environment is necessitated by their toxicological properties and propensity to accumulate in biota. In this study, we use data from the analysis of three (210)Pb dated soil profiles collected along a 30-m hydrological gradient to demonstrate postdepositional mobility of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We found that (i) humus originating from litter exposed to surface fallout during the 1960-1970s contains the highest concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the O-horizon of the soils; (ii) accumulation rates of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the O-horizon (similar to 5.0 and similar to 210 mu g m(-2) yr(-1)) constituted only 9.1% and 3.5%, respectively, of the measured annual input, demonstrating that a minor fraction of the deposited material is retained within the O-horizon; (iii) POP inventories in the upper 0.5-0.9 m of the mineral soil constituted a considerable part (40-70%) of the total pool stored in the soil, implying significant vertical translocation of atmospheric derived POPs; and (iv) increasing downslope inventories of POPs suggest a lateral downward transport of POPs from uphill soils. The findings challenge the commonly accepted view that POPs fallout is effectively retained within O-horizons.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nyholm, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of reduced lead deposition on Pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca): tracing exposure routes using stable lead Isotopes2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 208-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent the lead burden of birds living in strongly contaminated ecosystems is responding to decreased atmospheric lead deposition is not well known. In this study, we measured lead concentrations and stable lead isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) in liver and feces from pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) along a 90 km pollution gradient from the Rönnskär smelter in northern Sweden. Changes in lead concentration in the birds from 1984 to 2006 were used for assessing the recovery of the environment following reduced lead emissions at the smelter. The 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios were used to identify lead sources to the birds. Lead concentrations in liver and feces have decreased since the 1980s, typically by 9−15% (liver) and 18−40% (feces) as a result of a 98% emission reduction. This relatively weak recovery is explained by a transfer of old lead contaminants accumulated in soil to the birds via their prey, which was evident by a 206Pb/207Pb ratio in liver tissue (1.15 ± 0.01) that overlapped with the ratio in ants (1.16 ± 0.01) and organic soil horizon (1.17 ± 0.01) rather than the current atmospheric lead pollution (1.11 ± 0.01). Our findings suggest that insectivorous birds living around smelters may remain contaminated decades after ceased emissions.

  • 15.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Letter to the Editor regarding 'Celebrating Bidleman's 1988 "Atmospheric Processes"2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 2586-2586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Agosta, Kathleen
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nygren, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Air-water exchange of brominated anisoles in the northern baltic sea2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 6124-6132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bromophenols produced by marine algae undergo O-methylation to form bromoanisoles (BAs), which are exchanged between water and air. BAs were determined in surface water of the northern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Bothnia, consisting of Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea) during 2011-2013 and on a transect of the entire Baltic in September 2013. The abundance decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TBA) > 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DBA) ≫ 2,6-dibromoanisole (2,6-DBA). Concentrations of 2,4-DBA and 2,4,6-TBA in September were higher in the southern than in the northern Baltic and correlated well with the higher salinity in the south. This suggests south-to-north advection and dilution with fresh riverine water enroute, and/or lower production in the north. The abundance in air over the northern Baltic also decreased in the following order: 2,4,6-TBA > 2,4-DBA. However, 2,6-DBA was estimated as a lower limit due to breakthrough from polyurethane foam traps used for sampling. Water/air fugacity ratios ranged from 3.4 to 7.6 for 2,4-DBA and from 18 to 94 for 2,4,6-TBA, indicating net volatilization. Flux estimates using the two-film model suggested that volatilization removes 980-1360 kg of total BAs from Bothnian Bay (38000 km(2)) between May and September. The release of bromine from outgassing of BAs could be up to 4-6% of bromine fluxes from previously reported volatilization of bromomethanes and bromochloromethanes.

  • 17.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Will Climate Change Influence Production and Environmental Pathways of Halogenated Natural Products?2020Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, nr 11, s. 6468-6485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thousands of halogenated natural products (HNPs) pervade the terrestrial and marine environment. HNPs are generated by biotic and abiotic processes and range in complexity from low molecular mass natural halocarbons (nHCs, mostly halomethanes and haloethanes) to compounds of higher molecular mass which often contain oxygen and/or nitrogen atoms in addition to halogens (hHNPs). nHCs have a key role in regulating tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, while some hHNPs bioaccumulate and have toxic properties similar those of anthropogenic-persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Both chemical classes have common sources: biosynthesis by marine bacteria, phytoplankton, macroalgae, and some invertebrate animals, and both may be similarly impacted by alteration of production and transport pathways in a changing climate. The nHCs scientific community is advanced in investigating sources, atmospheric and oceanic transport, and forecasting climate change impacts through modeling. By contrast, these activities are nascent or nonexistent for hHNPs. The goals of this paper are to (1) review production, sources, distribution, and transport pathways of nHCs and hHNPs through water and air, pointing out areas of commonality, (2) by analogy to nHCs, argue that climate change may alter these factors for hHNPs, and (3) suggest steps to improve linkage between nHCs and hHNPs science to better understand and predict climate change impacts.

  • 18.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Backus, Sean
    Great Lakes Ecosystem Management Section, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Dove, Alice
    Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Lohmann, Rainer
    Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI, United States.
    Muir, Derek
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Teixeira, Camilla
    Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada.
    Jantunen, Liisa
    Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Egbert, ON, Canada.
    Lake Superior Has Lost over 90% of Its Pesticide HCH Load since 19862021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, nr 14, s. 9518-9526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The time trend of α- and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers in Lake Superior water was followed from 1986 to 2016, the longest record for any persistent organic pollutant (POP) in Great Lakes water. Dissipation of α-HCH and γ-HCHs was first order, with halving times (t1/2) of 5.7 and 8.5 y, respectively. Loss rates were not significantly different starting a decade later (1996−2016). Concentrations of β-HCH were followed from 1996−2016 and dissipated more slowly (t1/2 = 16 y). In 1986, the lake contained an estimated 98.8 tonnes of α-HCH and 13.2 tonnes of γ-HCH; by 2016, only 2.7% and 7.9% of 1986 quantities remained. Halving times of both isomers in water were longer than those reported in air, and for γ-HCH, they were longer in water than those reported in lake trout. Microbial degradation was evident by enantioselective depletion of (+)α-HCH, which increased from 1996 to 2011. Volatilization was the main removal process for both isomers, followed by degradation (hydrolytic and microbial) and outflow through the St. Mary’s River. Sedimentation was minor. Major uncertainties in quantifying removal processes were in the two-film model for predicting volatilization and in microbial degradation rates. The study highlights the value of long-term monitoring of chemicals in water to interpreting removal processes and trends in biota.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 19.
    Bidleman, Terry Frank
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE), Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0, Canada.
    Stern, Gary A.
    Tomy, Gregg T.
    Hargrave, Barry T.
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Scavenging amphipods: sentinels for penetration of mercury and persistent organic chemicals into food webs of the deep arctic ocean2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 11, s. 5553-5561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Archived specimens of the scavenging amphipod Eurythenes gryllus, collected from 2075 to 4250 m below the surface on five expeditions to the western and central Arctic Ocean between 1983 and 1998, were analyzed for total mercury (∑Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other industrial or byproduct organochlorines (chlorobenzenes, pentachloroanisole, octachlorostyrene), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Median ∑Hg concentrations ranged from 70 to 366 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). MeHg concentrations (3.55 to 23.5 ng g(-1) ww) accounted for 1.7 to 20.1% (median 3.7%) of ∑Hg. ∑Hg and MeHg were positively and significantly correlated with ww (∑Hg r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.0004, n = 63; MeHg r(2) = 0.42, p = 0.0004, n = 25), but not significantly with δ(13)C nor δ(15)N. Median concentrations of total persistent organic pollutants (POPs) ranged from 9750 to 156 000 ng g(-1) lipid weight, with order of abundance: ∑TOX (chlorobornanes quantified as technical toxaphene) > ∑PCBs > ∑DDTs > ∑chlordanes > ∑mirex compounds > ∑BDEs ∼ ∑chlorobenzenes ∼ octachlorostyrene > α-hexachlorocyclohexane ∼ hexachlorobenzene ∼ pentachloroanisole. Enantioselective accumulation was found for the chiral OCPs o,p'-DDT, cis- and trans-chlordane, nonachlor MC6 and oxychlordane. Lipid-normalized POPs concentrations were elevated in amphipods with lipid percentages ≤10%, suggesting that utilization of lipids resulted in concentration of POPs in the remaining lipid pool. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis using log-transformed physiological variables and lipid-normalized organochlorine concentrations distinguished amphipods from the central vs western arctic stations. This distinction was also seen for PCB homologues, whereas profiles of other compound classes were more related to specific stations rather than central-west differences.

  • 20. Bidleman, TF
    et al.
    Jantunen, LMM
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Harner, T
    Brice, K
    Su, K
    Falconer, RL
    Leone, AD
    Aigner, EJ
    Parkhurst, WJ
    Soil as a source of atmospheric heptachlor epoxide1998Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 1546-1548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chiral pesticide heptachlor can undergo photolysis to yield the racemic products heptachlor-exo-epoxide (HEPX) and photoheptachlor. Heptachlor is also metabolized to nonracemic HEPX in biological systems and soils. HEPX in ambient air samples from the southern United States and Lakes Ontario and Superior was nonracemic and enriched in the (+) enantiomer. Average enantiomer ratios (ER = areas of (+)/(-) HEPX) in these locations ranged from 1.51 to 2.02, and were similar to ER values of HEPX reported for agricultural soils. Airborne heptachlor was racemic, with ERs of 0.98-1.02. These results suggest that the main source of HEPX in ambient air is not photolysis of heptachlor, hut rather metabolism of heptachlor in soils followed by volatilization of HEPX. The study exemplifies the use of chiral analysis for investigating the environmental fate of pesticides.

  • 21. Biester, Harald
    et al.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio
    Engström, daniel R
    Modeling the Past Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury Using Natural Archives2007Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, nr 14, s. 4851-4860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical records of mercury (Hg) accumulation in lake sediments and peat bogs are often used to estimate human impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury. On the basis of studies of lake sediments, modern atmospheric mercury deposition rates are estimated to have increased by a factor of 3-5 compared to background values: i.e., from about 3-3.5 g Hg m-2 yr-1 to 10-20 g Hg m-2 yr-1. However, recent studies of the historical mercury record in peat bogs suggest significantly higher increases (9-400 fold, median 40×), i.e., from about 0.6-1.7 g Hg m-2 yr -1 to 8-184 g Hg m-2 yr -1. We compared published data of background and modern mercury accumulation rates derived from globally distributed lake sediments and peat bogs and discuss reasons for the differences observed in absolute values and in the relative increase in the industrial age. Direct measurements of modern wet mercury deposition rates in remote areas are presently about 1-4 g m-2 yr -1, but were possibly as high as 20 g Hg m-2 yr -1 during the 1980s. These values are closer to the estimates of past deposition determined from lake sediments, which suggests that modern mercury accumulation rates derived from peat bogs tend to over-estimate deposition. We suggest that smearing of 210Pb in the uppermost peat sections contributes to an underestimation of peat ages, which is the most important reason for the overestimation of mercury accumulation rates in many bogs. The lower background mercury accumulation rates in peat as compared to lake sediments we believe is the result of nonquantitative retention and loss of mercury during peat diagenesis. As many processes controlling time-resolved mercury accumulation in mires are still poorly understood, lake sediments appear to be the more reliable archive for estimating historical mercury accumulation rates.

  • 22.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Yu, Ruilian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, P.R. China.
    Hansson, Sophia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Classen, Neele
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mining, Metallurgy and the Historical Origin of Mercury Pollution in Lakes and Watercourses in Central Sweden2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 15, s. 7984-7991Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Central Sweden an estimated 80% of the lakes contain fish exceeding health guidelines for mercury. This area overlaps extensively with the Bergslagen ore region, where intensive mining of iron ores and massive sulfide ores occurred over the past millennium. Although only a few mines still operate today, thousands of mineral occurrences and mining sites are documented in the region. Here, we present data on long-term mercury pollution in 16 sediment records from 15 lakes, which indicate that direct release of mercury to lakes and watercourses was already significant prior to industrialization (<AD 1800). Thirteen of our lakes show increases in mercury from 3-fold-equivalent to the enrichment factor in many remote lakes today-to as much as 60-fold already during the period AD 1500-1800, with the highest values in the three lakes most closely connected to major mines. Although the timing and magnitude of the historical increases in mercury are heterogeneous among lakes, the data provide unambiguous evidence for an incidental release of mercury along with other mining metals to lakes and watercourses, which suggests that the present-day problem of elevated mercury concentrations in the Bergslagen region can trace its roots back to historical mining.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Weidemann, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs ) in a waste-to-energy plant: tracking PFASs in internal residual streams2024Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 58, nr 19, s. 8457-8463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) constitute a diverse group of man-made chemicals characterized by their water- and oil-repellent properties and persistency. Given their widespread use in consumer products, PFASs will inevitably be present in waste streams sent to Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. We have previously observed a subset of PFASs in residual streams (ashes, treated process water, and flue gas) from a WtE plant. However, the transport and distribution of PFASs inside the WtE plant have remained unaddressed. This study is part of a comprehensive investigation to create a synoptic overview of the distribution of PFASs in WtE residues. PFASs were found in all sample types except for boiler ash. The total levels of 18 individual PFASs (Σ18PFASs) in untreated flue gas ranged from 5.2 to 9.5 ng m-3, decreasing with 35% ± 10% after wet flue gas treatment. Σ18PFASs in the condensate ranged from 46 to 50 ng L-1, of which perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) made up 90% on a ng L-1 basis. PFHxA was also dominant in filter ash, where Σ18PFASs ranged from 0.28 to 0.79 ng g-1. This study shows that flue gas treatment can capture some PFASs and transfer them into WtE residues.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 24.
    Björklund, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Weidemann, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Emission of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances from a waste-to-energy plant-occurrence in ashes, treated process water, and first observation in flue gas2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 27, s. 10089-10095Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of compounds commonly used as industrial chemicals and constituents of consumer products, e.g., as surfactants and surface protectors. When products containing PFASs reach their end of life, some end up in waste streams sent to waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. However, the fate of PFASs in WtE processes is largely unknown, as is their potential to enter the environment via ash, gypsum, treated process water, and flue gas. This study forms part of a comprehensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PFASs in WtE residues. Sampling was performed during incineration of two different waste mixes: normal municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and incineration of a waste mix with 5-8 wt % sewage sludge added to the MSWI (referred to as Sludge:MSWI). PFASs were identified in all examined residues, with short-chain (C4-C7) perfluorocarboxylic acids being the most abundant. Total levels of extractable PFASs were higher during Sludge:MSWI than during MSWI, with the total annual release estimated to be 47 and 13 g, respectively. Furthermore, PFASs were detected in flue gas for the first time (4.0-5.6 ng m-3). Our results demonstrate that some PFASs are not fully degraded by the high temperatures during WtE conversion and can be emitted from the plant via ash, gypsum, treated process water, and flue gas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 25.
    Boily, Jean-François
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Gassman, Paul L
    Peretyazhko, Tetyana
    Szanyi, János
    Zachara, John M
    FTIR spectral components of schwertmannite2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 1185-1190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral components of three dominant groups of sulfate species in synthetic schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6-x(SO4)x*nH2O) are presented. These components were extracted by multivariate curve resolution analysis of spectra obtained from N2(g)-dry samples initially reacted in aqueous solutions (pH 3-9) at room temperature. Each component contains complex sets of bands that correspond to mixtures of similar species. We tentatively assign these components to sulfate ions that are hydrogen- (components I and III) and iron-bonded (component I) to schwertmannite. Another component (II) is assigned to protonated sulfate species. Heating experiments to 130 degrees C moreover confirmed this possibility for component II. The spectral components extracted from this study can be used to identify dominant sulfate species in FTIR spectra of naturally occurring schwertmannite samples.

  • 26.
    Bouchet, Sylvain
    et al.
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, E2S UPPA, CNRS, IPREM, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux, Pau, France.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tessier, Emmanuel
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, E2S UPPA, CNRS, IPREM, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux, Pau, France.
    Amouroux, David
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, E2S UPPA, CNRS, IPREM, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l’Environnement et les Matériaux, Pau, France.
    Mercury sources and fate in a large brackish ecosystem (the Baltic Sea) depicted by stable isotopes2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 38, s. 14340-14350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying Hg sources to aquatic ecosystems and processes controlling the levels of monomethylmercury (MMHg) is critical for developing efficient policies of Hg emissions reduction. Here we measured Hg concentrations and stable isotopes in sediment, seston, and fishes from the various basins of the Baltic Sea, a large brackish ecosystem presenting extensive gradients in salinity, redox conditions, dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, and biological activities. We found that Hg mass dependent fractionation (Hg-MDF) values in sediments mostly reflect a mixing between light terrestrial Hg and heavier industrial sources, whereas odd Hg isotope mass independent fractionation (odd Hg-MIF) reveals atmospheric inputs. Seston presents intermediate Hg-MDF and odd Hg-MIF values falling between sediments and fish, but in northern basins, high even Hg-MIF values suggest the preferential accumulation of wet-deposited Hg. Odd Hg-MIF values in fish indicate an overall low extent of MMHg photodegradation due to limited sunlight exposure and penetration but also reveal large spatial differences. The photodegradation extent is lowest in the central basin with recurrent algal blooms due to their shading effect and is highest in the northern, least saline basin with high concentrations of terrestrial DOM. As increased loads of terrestrial DOM are expected in many coastal areas due to global changes, its impact on MMHg photodegradation needs to be better understood and accounted for when predicting future MMHg concentrations in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 27.
    Bouchet, Sylvain
    et al.
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CNRS, IPREM, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux, Pau, France.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tessier, Emmanuel
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CNRS, IPREM, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux, Pau, France.
    Amouroux, David
    Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CNRS, IPREM, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux, Pau, France.
    Mercury sources and fate in a large brackish ecosystem (The Baltic Sea) depicted by stable isotopes2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 38, s. 14340-14350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying Hg sources to aquatic ecosystems and processes controlling the levels of monomethylmercury (MMHg) is critical for developing efficient policies of Hg emissions reduction. Here we measured Hg concentrations and stable isotopes in sediment, seston, and fishes from the various basins of the Baltic Sea, a large brackish ecosystem presenting extensive gradients in salinity, redox conditions, dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, and biological activities. We found that Hg mass dependent fractionation (Hg-MDF) values in sediments mostly reflect a mixing between light terrestrial Hg and heavier industrial sources, whereas odd Hg isotope mass independent fractionation (odd Hg-MIF) reveals atmospheric inputs. Seston presents intermediate Hg-MDF and odd Hg-MIF values falling between sediments and fish, but in northern basins, high even Hg-MIF values suggest the preferential accumulation of wet-deposited Hg. Odd Hg-MIF values in fish indicate an overall low extent of MMHg photodegradation due to limited sunlight exposure and penetration but also reveal large spatial differences. The photodegradation extent is lowest in the central basin with recurrent algal blooms due to their shading effect and is highest in the northern, least saline basin with high concentrations of terrestrial DOM. As increased loads of terrestrial DOM are expected in many coastal areas due to global changes, its impact on MMHg photodegradation needs to be better understood and accounted for when predicting future MMHg concentrations in aquatic ecosystems.

  • 28. Cao, Lin-Ying
    et al.
    Zheng, Ziye
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ren, Xiao-Min
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Guo, Liang-Hong
    Structure-dependent activity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated metabolites on estrogen related receptor gamma: in vitro and in silico study2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 15, s. 8894-8902Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERR gamma) is an orphan nuclear receptor having functional cross-talk with classical estrogen receptors. Here, we investigated whether ERR gamma is a potential target 8 of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs). By using a fluorescence competitive binding method established in our laboratory, the binding potencies of 30 PBDEs/OH-PBDEs with ERR gamma were determined for the first time. All of the tested OH-PBDEs and some PBDEs bound to ERR gamma with K-d values ranging from 0.13-13.61 mu M. The OH-PBDEs showed much higher binding potency than their parent PBDEs. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed to analyze the chemical binding potencies in relation to their structural and chemical characteristics. The QSAR model indicated that the molecular size, relative ratios of aromatic atoms, and hydrogen bond donors and acceptors were crucial factors for PBDEs/OH-PBDEs binding. By using a reporter gene assay, we found that most of the low-brominated PBDEs/OH-PBDEs exerted agonistic activity toward ERR gamma, while high-brominated PBDEs/OH-PBDEs had no effect on the basal ERR gamma activity. The docking results showed that the low-brominated PBDEs/OH-PBDEs tended to take an agonistic binding mode while the high-brominated ones tended to take an antagonistic binding mode. Overall, our results suggest ERR gamma to be a potential novel target for PBDEs/OH-PBDEs.

  • 29.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Marine Biology, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Feng, Caiyan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bravo, Andrea G.
    Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Sciences, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Soerensen, Anne L.
    Department of Environmental Research and Monitoring, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pinhassi, Jarone
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems-EEMiS, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Buck, Moritz
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems-EEMiS, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Hawkes, Jeffrey
    Department of Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Expression Levels of hgcAB Genes and Mercury Availability Jointly Explain Methylmercury Formation in Stratified Brackish Waters2022Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, nr 18, s. 13119-13130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) is formed by microbial methylation of inorganic divalent Hg (HgII) and constitutes severe environmental and human health risks. The methylation is enabled by hgcA and hgcB genes, but it is not known if the associated molecular-level processes are rate-limiting or enable accurate prediction of MeHg formation in nature. In this study, we investigated the relationships between hgc genes and MeHg across redox-stratified water columns in the brackish Baltic Sea. We showed, for the first time, that hgc transcript abundance and the concentration of dissolved HgII-sulfide species were strong predictors of both the HgII methylation rate and MeHg concentration, implying their roles as principal joint drivers of MeHg formation in these systems. Additionally, we characterized the metabolic capacities of hgc+ microorganisms by reconstructing their genomes from metagenomes (i.e., hgc+ MAGs), which highlighted the versatility of putative HgII methylators in the water column of the Baltic Sea. In establishing relationships between hgc transcripts and the HgII methylation rate, we advance the fundamental understanding of mechanistic principles governing MeHg formation in nature and enable refined predictions of MeHg levels in coastal seas in response to the accelerating spread of oxygen-deficient zones.

  • 30.
    Chelcea, Ioana C.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Örn, Stefan
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Box 7028, Sweden.
    Hamers, Timo
    Department of Environment & Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Koekkoek, Jacco
    Department of Environment & Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Legradi, Jessica
    Department of Environment & Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vogs, Carolina
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Box 7028, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Modeling of Bisphenols in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Accounting for Variations in Metabolic Rates, Brain Distribution, and Liver Accumulation2022Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, nr 14, s. 10216-10228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical, which has raised human health and environmental concerns due to its endocrine-disrupting properties. BPA analogues are less well-studied despite their wide use in consumer products. These analogues have been detected in water and aquatic organisms around the world, with some analogues showing toxic effects in various species including fish. Here, we present novel organ-specific time-course distribution data of bisphenol Z (BPZ) in female zebrafish (Danio rerio), including concentrations in the ovaries, liver, and brain, a rarely sampled organ with high toxicological relevance. Furthermore, fish-specific in vitro biotransformation rates were determined for 11 selected bisphenols. A physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was adapted for four of these bisphenols, which was able to predict levels in the gonads, liver, and brain as well as the whole body within a 2-5-fold error with respect to experimental data, covering several important target organs of toxicity. In particular, predicted liver concentrations improved compared to currently available PBTK models. Predicted data indicate that studied bisphenols mainly distribute to the carcass and gonads and less to the brain. Our model provides a tool to increase our understanding on the distribution and kinetics of a group of emerging pollutants.

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  • 31.
    Cheng, Wei
    et al.
    College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central Minzu University, Wuhan, China.
    Li, Jiabin
    College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central Minzu University, Wuhan, China.
    Sun, Jie
    College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central Minzu University, Wuhan, China.
    Luo, Tao
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Université de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, ISCR-UMR 6226, Rennes, France.
    Marsac, Rémi
    Université de Rennes, CNRS, Géosciences Rennes─UMR 6118, Rennes, France.
    Boily, Jean-Francois
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hanna, Khalil
    Université de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, ISCR-UMR 6226, Rennes, France.
    Nalidixic acid and Fe(II)/Cu(II) coadsorption at Goethite and Akaganéite surfaces2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, nr 41, s. 15680-15692Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between aqueous Fe(II) and solid Fe(III) oxy(hydr)oxide surfaces play determining roles in the fate of organic contaminants in nature. In this study, the adsorption of nalidixic acid (NA), a representative redox-inactive quinolone antibiotic, on synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganéite (β-FeOOH) was examined under varying conditions of pH and cation type and concentration, by means of adsorption experiments, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, surface complexation modeling (SCM), and powder X-ray diffraction. Batch adsorption experiments showed that Fe(II) had marginal effects on NA adsorption onto akaganéite but enhanced NA adsorption on goethite. This enhancement is attributed to the formation of goethite-Fe(II)-NA ternary complexes, without the need for heterogeneous Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at low Fe(II) loadings (2 Fe/nm2), as confirmed by SCM. However, higher Fe(II) loadings required a goethite-magnetite composite in the SCM to explain Fe(II)-driven recrystallization and its impact on NA binding. The use of a surface ternary complex by SCM was supported further in experiments involving Cu(II), a prevalent environmental metal incapable of transforming Fe(III) oxy(hydr)oxides, which was observed to enhance NA loadings on goethite. However, Cu(II)-NA aqueous complexation and potential Cu(OH)2 precipitates counteracted the formation of ternary surface complexes, leading to decreased NA loadings on akaganéite. These results have direct implications for the fate of organic contaminants, especially those at oxic-anoxic boundaries.

  • 32. De Laender, F.
    et al.
    Verschuren, D.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Thas, O.
    Janssen, C. R.
    Biodiversity of Freshwater Diatom Communities during 1000 Years of Metal Mining, Land Use, and Climate Change in Central Sweden2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 16, s. 9097-9105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We subjected a unique set of high-quality paleoecological data to statistical modeling to examine if the biological richness and evenness of freshwater diatom communities in the Falun area, a historical copper (Cu) mining region in central Sweden, was negatively influenced by 1000 years of metal exposure. Contrary to ecotoxicological predictions, we found no negative relation between biodiversity and the sedimentary concentrations of eight metals. Strikingly, our analysis listed metals (Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) or the fractional land cover of cultivated crops, meadow, and herbs indicating land disturbance as potentially promoting biodiversity. However, correlation between metal-and land-cover trends prevented concluding which of these two covariate types positively affected biodiversity. Because historical aqueous metal concentrations-inferred from solid-water partitioning-approached experimental toxicity thresholds for freshwater algae, positive effects of metal mining on biodiversity are unlikely. Instead, the positive relationship between biodiversity and historical land-cover change can be explained by the increasing proportion of opportunistic species when anthropogenic disturbance intensifies. Our analysis illustrates that focusing on the direct toxic effects of metals alone may yield inaccurate environmental assessments on time scales relevant for biodiversity conservation.

  • 33.
    Dracheva, Elena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Rydén, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Engelhardt, Josefin
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    Department of Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    In Silico Identification of Potential Thyroid Hormone System Disruptors among Chemicals in Human Serum and Chemicals with a High Exposure Index2022Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, nr 12, s. 8363-8372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on toxic effects are at large missing the prevailing understanding of the risks of industrial chemicals. Thyroid hormone (TH) system disruption includes interferences of the life cycle of the thyroid hormones and may occur in various organs. In the current study, high-throughput screening data available for 14 putative molecular initiating events of adverse outcome pathways, related to disruption of the TH system, were used to develop 19 in silico models for identification of potential thyroid hormone system-disrupting chemicals. The conformal prediction framework with the underlying Random Forest was used as a wrapper for the models allowing for setting the desired confidence level and controlling the error rate of predictions. The trained models were then applied to two different databases: (i) an in-house database comprising xenobiotics identified in human blood and ii) currently used chemicals registered in the Swedish Product Register, which have been predicted to have a high exposure index to consumers. The application of these models showed that among currently used chemicals, fewer were overall predicted as active compared to chemicals identified in human blood. Chemicals of specific concern for TH disruption were identified from both databases based on their predicted activity.

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  • 34.
    Drott, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bouchet, Sylvain
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    SLU.
    Refining Thermodynamic Constants for Mercury(II)-Sulfides in Equilibrium with Metacinnabar at Sub-Micromolar Aqueous Sulfide Concentrations2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 4197-4203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue in mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry is to explore the influence of aqueous Hg(II) forms on bacterial uptake, and subsequent methyl mercury formation, under iron(III) and sulfate reducing conditions. The success of this is dependent on relevant information on the thermodynamic stability of Hg-sulfides. In the present study, we determined the solubility of a commercially available HgS(s) phase, which was shown by X-ray diffraction to be a mixture of 83% metacinnabar and 17% cinnabar. At aqueous sulfide concentrations between 0.060 and 84 µM, well below levels in previous studies, we report a solubility product (log Ksp±SE) of -36.8±0.3 (HgS(s) + H+ = Hg2+ + HS-, I=0, T=25°C, pH 6-10, n=20) for metacinnabar. This value is 0.7 log units higher than previous estimates. Complementing our data with data from Paquette and Helz (1997), we took advantage of a large data set (n=65) covering a wide range of aqueous sulfide (0.06 µM-140 mM), and pH (1-11). Based on this we report refined formation constants (±SE) for the three aqueous Hg(II)-sulfide species proposed by Schwarzenbach and Widmer (1963): Hg2+ + 2HS- = Hg(SH)20; log K = 39.1±0.1, Hg2+ + 2HS- = HgS2H- + H+; log K = 32.5±0.1, Hg2+ + 2HS- = HgS22- + 2H+; log K = 23.2±0.1. Our refined log K values differ from previous estimates by 0.2-0.6 log units. Furthermore, at the low sulfide concentrations in our study we could rule out the value of -10.0 for the reaction HgS(s) + H2O = HgOHSH(aq), as reported by Dyrssén and Wedborg (1991). By establishing a solubility product for the most environmentally relevant HgS(s) phase, metacinnabar, and extending the range of aqueous sulfide concentrations to sub-µM levels, relevant for soils, sediments and waters, this study decreases the uncertainty in stability constants for Hg-sulfides, thereby improving the basis for understanding the bioavailability and mobility of Hg(II) in the environment.

  • 35. Drott, Andreas
    et al.
    Lambertsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Do Potential Methylation Rates Reflect Accumulated Methyl Mercury in Contaminated Sediments?2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 153-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships between the short-term mono-methyl mercury (MeHg) production, determined as the specific, potential methylation rate constant Km (day−1) after 48 h of incubation with isotope-enriched 201Hg(II) at 23 °C, and the long-term accumulation of ambient MeHg, were investigated in contaminated sediments. The sediments covered a range of environments from small freshwater lakes to large brackish water estuaries and differed with respect to source and concentration of Hg, salinity, primary productivity, quantity and quality of organic matter, and temperature climate. Significant (p < 0.001), positive relationships were observed between Km (day−1) and the concentration of MeHg normalized to total Hg (%MeHg) for surface sediments (0–10, 0–15, and in one case 0–20 cm) across all environments, and across subsets of organic and minerogenic freshwaters. This suggests that the methylation process (MeHg production) overruled demethylation and net transport processes in the surface sediments. The lack of a relationship between Km and %MeHg in two brackish water sediment depth profiles (0–100 cm) indicates that demethylation and the net effect of input−output are relatively more important at greater depths. Differences in the primary production and subsequent availability of easily degradable organic matter (serving as electron donor for methylating bacteria) was indicated to be the most important factor behind observed differences in %MeHg and Km among sites. In contrast, concentrations of sulfate were not correlated to Km, %MeHg, or absolute concentrations of MeHg. We conclude that total concentrations of Hg are of importance for the long-term accumulation of MeHg, and that %MeHg in surface sediments can be used as a proxy for the rate of methylation, across a range of sites from different environments.

  • 36. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Zhou, Yihui
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Zheng, Ziye
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Yin, Ge
    Chlorinated Paraffins in Two Snake Species from the Yangtze River Delta: Tissue Distribution and Biomagnification2020Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 2753-2762Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Very-short, short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs, respectively) were analyzed in different tissues of the terrestrial short-tailed mamushi (Gloydius brevicaudus) and the semi-aquatic red-backed rat snake (Elaphe rufodorsata) from the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total CP concentrations in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues in the two snake species were in the range of 2500-24 000, 4900-48 000, and 12-630 ng/g lw, respectively. Tissue burdens indicated that vSCCPs (C6-9) and SCCPs (C10-3) preferentially distributed to snake liver, while adipose was an important storage site and sink of MCCPs (C14-17) and LCCPs (C->18). On a lipid weight basis, vSCCPs and SCCPs were found in highest concentrations in red-backed rat snake liver and MCCPs and LCCPs in muscle, whereas for short-tailed mamushi, all CP groups were predominant in muscle, probably reflecting ecosystem/food web differences. Moreover, vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were found to be biomagnified from black-spotted frogs to red-backed rat snakes with mean (maximum) biomagnification factors of 2.2 (3.4), 1.9 (3.7), 1.8 (2.8), and 1.7 (4.5), respectively. This is the first field study of biomagnification potential involving vSCCPs and LCCPs and highlights the need to include all CPs in studies.

  • 37. Du, Xinyu
    et al.
    Yuan, Bo
    Zhou, Yihui
    Zheng, Ziye
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Wu, Yan
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Yin, Ge
    Tissue-Specific Accumulation, Sexual Difference, and Maternal Transfer of Chlorinated Paraffins in Black-Spotted Frogs2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 9, s. 4739-4746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The restriction on usage of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) under Stockholm Convention may promote the production and application of medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) and long chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs) as substitutes. This study focused on the tissue-specific exposure to SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in black-spotted frog, a prevalent amphibian species in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total CP concentrations in frog liver, muscle, and egg samples ranged of 35-1200, 6.3-97, and 6.8-300 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Livers and eggs contained primary SCCPs (on average 78%) while MCCPs (43%) together with SCCPs (41%) were dominant in muscles. A significantly negative correlation was observed between hepatosomatic index and CPs concentration in liver (p < 0.01), indicating that CP exposure may lower survival rates of frogs by suppressing the energy storage in liver. Additionally, maternal transfer, an important uptake pathway for CPs, was evaluated for the first time by calculating the ratios of CP levels in eggs to those in their paired liver tissues. The ratio of egg to liver for CP congener groups raised with the increasing of log K-ow values, indicating mother to egg transport of CPs was related to the lipophilicity of the chemicals.

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  • 38.
    Duc, Nguyen Thanh
    et al.
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silverstein, Samuel
    Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Reyier, Henrik
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Crill, Patrick
    Department of Geological Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Department of Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Automated Flux Chamber for Investigating Gas Flux at Water-Air Interfaces2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 968-975Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Representative measurements of GHG fluxes from aquatic ecosystems to the atmosphere are vital for quantitative understanding of relationships between biogeochemistry and climate. Fluxes occur at high temporal variability at diet or longer scales, which are not captured by traditional short-term deployments (often in the order of 30 min) of floating flux chambers. High temporal frequency measurements are necessary but also extremely labor intensive if manual flux chamber based methods are used. Therefore, we designed an inexpensive and easily mobile automated flux chamber (AFC) for extended deployments. The AFC was designed to measure in situ accumulation of gas in the chamber and also to collect gas samples in an array of sample bottles for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, providing two independent ways of CH4 concentration measurements. We here present the AFC design and function together with data from initial laboratory tests and from a field deployment.

  • 39. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Singh, Navinder J.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Bignert, Anders
    Helander, Björn
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Borg, Hans
    Bröjer, Caroline
    Holm, Karin
    Lanzone, Michael
    Miller, Tricia
    Nordström, Åke
    Räikkönen, Jannikke
    Rodushkin, Ilia
    Ågren, Erik
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, nr 10, s. 5729-5736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.

  • 40. Enell, Anja
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Wik, Ola
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 21, s. 11797-11805Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

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  • 41. Englund, Edvard
    et al.
    Aldahan, Ala
    Possnert, Göran
    Haltia-Hovi, Eeva
    Hou, Xiaolin
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Saarinen, Timo
    Modeling Fallout of Anthropogenic I-1292008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 24, s. 9225-9230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 1291, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 1291 concentrations in sediment archives from Sweden and Finland covering the period 1942-2006. The results revealed impression of 1291 emissions from the nuclear reprocessing facility at Sellafield and La Hague and a clear Chernobyl fallout enhancement during 1986. In order to estimate relative contributions from the different sources, a numerical model approach was used taking into account the emission rates/estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 1291 to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 1291 from sea to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1).

  • 42. Eriksson, A. C.
    et al.
    Nordin, E. Z.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Pettersson, E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Bergvall, C.
    Westerholm, R.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Pagels, J. H.
    Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 12, s. 7143-7150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved emissions of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic particulate matter (OA) from a wood log stove and an adjusted pellet stove were investigated with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ANIS). The highest OA emissions were found during the addition of log wood on glowing embers, that is, slow burning pyrolysis conditions. These emissions contained about 1% PAHs (of OA). The highest PAH emissions were found during fast burning under hot air starved combustion conditions, in both stoves. In the latter case, PAHs contributed up to 40% of OA, likely due to thermal degradation of other condensable species. The distribution of PAHs was also shifted toward larger molecules in these emissions. ANIS signals attributed to PAHs were found at molecular weights up to 600 Da. The vacuum aerodynamic size distribution was found to be bimodal with a smaller mode (D-va similar to 200 nm) dominating under hot air starved combustion and a larger sized mode dominating under slow burning pyrolysis (D-va similar to 600 nm). Simultaneous reduction of PAHs, OA and total particulate matter from residential biomass combustion may prove to be a challenge for environmental legislation efforts as these classes of emissions are elevated at different combustion conditions.

  • 43. Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    Fölster, Jens
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A
    Bishop, Kevin
    Natural variability in lake pH on seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales: implications for assessment of human impact2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. 5594-5599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference values define the natural state with respect to environmental stressors and are commonly used for assessments of ecological impacts and to set restoration targets. These reference values are often treated as constants, whereas in reality they can be highly variable. Here, we study the significance of this variability for assessments of human impact on the environment, by using almost two decades of observations from 95 acid-sensitive Swedish lakes. Our approach was to first estimate the preindustrial, steady-state reference level of acid neutralization capacity (ANC) for each lake with the hydro-geochemical model MAGIC. Then the variability in pH around this "baseline" was reconstructed from the contemporary, "natural" variability in the ANC, total organic carbon (TOC) and Al-concentrations, and partial CO2 pressure. The variability in reference pH was then examined for the period 1990-2004, on seasonal (single measurements), interannual (1-year median), and decadal (5-year median) scales. On the seasonal scale, the variability in reference pH ranged between 0.40 and 1.7. The range on the interannual time scale was up to 1.3 units and for the decadal scale up to 0.76 units. Since an anthropogenic pH decline of more than 0.4 units is deemed significant according to the Swedish Environmental Quality Criteria, this natural variability clearly needs to be accounted for when assessing acidification.

  • 44.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Berglund Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Impacts of Oxazepam on Perch (Perca fluviatilis) Behavior: Fish Familiarized to Lake Conditions Do Not Show Predicted Anti-anxiety Response2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 3624-3633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A current theory in environmental science states that dissolved anxiolytics (oxazepam) from wastewater effluents can reduce anti-predator behavior in fish with potentially negative impacts on prey fish populations. Here, we hypothesize that European perch (Perca fluviatilis) populations being exposed to oxazepam in situ show reduced anti-predator behavior, which has previously been observed for exposed isolated fish in laboratory studies. We tested our hypothesis by exposing a whole-lake ecosystem, containing both perch (prey) and northern pike (Esox lucius; predator), to oxazepam while tracking fish behavior before and after exposure in the exposed lake as well as in an unexposed nearby lake (control). Oxazepam concentrations in the exposed lake ranged between 11 and 24 μg L-1, which is >200 times higher than concentrations reported for European rivers. In contrast to our hypothesis, we did not observe an oxazepam-induced reduction in anti-predator behavior, inferred from perch swimming activity, distance to predators, distance to conspecifics, home-range size, and habitat use. In fact, exposure to oxazepam instead stimulated anti-predator behavior (decreased activity, decreased distance to conspecifics, and increased littoral habitat use) when using behavior in the control lake as a reference. Shoal dynamics and temperature changes may have masked modest reductions in anti-predator behavior due to oxazepam. Although we cannot fully resolve the mechanism(s) behind our observations, our results indicate that the effects of oxazepam on perch behavior in a familiar natural ecosystem are negligible in comparison to the effects of other environmental conditions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45. Fernández-Gómez, Cristal
    et al.
    Drott, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Díez, Sergi
    Bayona, Josep M
    Tesfalidet, Solomon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindfors, Anders
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Towards Universal Wavelength-Specific Photodegradation Rate Constants for Methyl Mercury in Humic Waters, Exemplified by a Boreal Lake-Wetland Gradient.2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 12, s. 6279-6287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report experimentally determined first-order rate constants of MeHg photolysis in three waters along a Boreal lake-wetland gradient covering a range of pH (3.8-6.6), concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC 17.5-81 mg L(-1)), total Fe (0.8-2.1 mg L(-1)), specific UV254 nm absorption (3.3-4.2 L mg(-1) m(-1)) and TOC/TON ratios (24-67 g g(-1)). Rate constants determined as a function of incident sunlight (measured as cumulative photon flux of photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) decreased in the order dystrophic lake > dystrophic lake/wetland > riparian wetland. After correction for light attenuation by dissolved natural organic matter (DOM), wavelength-specific (PAR: 400-700 nm, UVA: 320-400 nm and UVB: 280-320 nm) first-order photodegradation rate constants (kpd) determined at the three sites were indistinguishable, with average values (±SE) of 0.0023 ± 0.0002, 0.10 ± 0.024 and 7.2 ± 1.3 m(2) E(-1) for kpdPAR, kpdUVA, and kpdUVB, respectively. The relative ratio of kpdPAR, kpdUVA, and kpdUVB was 1:43:3100. Experiments conducted at varying MeHg/TOC ratios confirm previous suggestions that complex formation with organic thiol groups enhances the rate of MeHg photodegradation, as compared to when O and N functional groups are involved in the speciation of MeHg. We suggest that if the photon fluxes of PAR, UVA, and UVB radiation are separately determined and the wavelength-specific light attenuation is corrected for, the first-order rate constants kpdPAR, kpdUVA, and kpdUVB will be universal to waters in which DOM (possibly in concert with Fe) controls the formation of ROS, and the chemical speciation of MeHg is controlled by the complexation with DOM associated thiols.

  • 46.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 2661-2666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. Analyses of pharmaceuticals in blood plasma of fish could provide means to assess risk for pharmacological effects, as these concentrations could be compared with available human therapeutic plasma levels. In this study we investigated if fish exposed to sewage effluents have plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals that are approaching human therapeutic levels. We also evaluated how well the bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals into fish blood plasma can be predicted based on lipophilicity. Rainbow trout were exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents at three sites in Sweden for 14 days. Levels of 25 pharmaceuticals in blood plasma and effluents were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The progestin pharmaceutical levonorgestrel was detected in fish blood plasma at concentrations (8.5-12 ng mL(-1)), exceeding the human therapeutic plasma level. In total 16 pharmaceuticals were detected in fish plasma at concentrations higher than 1/1000 of the human therapeutic plasma concentration. Twenty-one pharmaceuticals were detected in either plasma or effluent, and 14 were detected in both compartments, allowing plasma bioconcentration factors to be determined. For 11 of these, theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values were in reasonably good agreement. However a few drugs, including levonorgestrel, did not bioconcentrate according to the screening model used. This study shows that rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents have blood plasma levels of pharmaceuticals similar to human therapeutic concentrations, suggesting a risk for pharmacological effects in the fish. There is a particular concern about effects of progestin pharmaceuticals. For levonorgestrel, the measured effluent level (1 ng/L) was higher than water levels shown to reduce the fertility of fish.

  • 47. Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    Genheden, Maja
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    A comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolates from Scandinavia's largest sewage treatment plant indicates no selection for antibiotic resistance2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, nr 19, s. 11419-11428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that sewage treatment plants (STPs) serve as hotspots for emergence and selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, field studies investigating resistance selection by comparing bacterial populations in influents and effluents have produced variable and sometimes contradictive results. Also, large taxonomic changes between influents and effluents make interpretation of studies measuring relative gene abundances ambiguous. The aim here was to investigate whether within-species selection occurs by conducting a comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolated from composite influent and effluent samples collected at Scandinavia's largest STP, accompanied by analyses of antibiotics residues. In total, 4028 isolates, collected on eight occasions during 18 months, were screened for resistance to seven antibiotics. Although differences in proportions of resistant E. coli between influent and effluent samples were detected for a few antibiotics on two occasions, aggregated data over time showed no such differences for any of the investigated antibiotics. Neither was there any enrichment of multiresistant or extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing isolates through the treatment process. Despite some antibiotics were detected at or close to concentrations predicted to provide some selective pressure, field observations of resistance profiles in E. coli do not provide support for systematic selection in the investigated STP.

  • 48.
    Fork, Megan L.
    et al.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike AB, NY, Millbrook, United States.
    Fick, Jerker B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Reisinger, Alexander J.
    Soil and Water Sciences Department, University of Florida, FL, Gainesville, United States.
    Rosi, Emma J.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, NY, Millbrook, United States.
    Dosing the Coast: Leaking Sewage Infrastructure Delivers Large Annual Doses and Dynamic Mixtures of Pharmaceuticals to Urban Rivers2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, nr 17, s. 11637-11645Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are commonly detected at low concentrations in surface waters, where they disrupt biological and ecological processes. Despite their ubiquity, the annual mass of pharmaceuticals exported from watersheds is rarely quantified. We used liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy to screen for 92 pharmaceuticals in weekly samples from an urban stream network in Baltimore, MD, USA, that lacks wastewater treatment effluents. Across the network, we detected 37 unique compounds, with higher concentrations and more compounds in streams with higher population densities. We also used concentrations and stream discharge to calculate annual pharmaceutical loads at the watershed outlet, which range from less than 1 kg to μ15 kg and are equivalent to tens of thousands of human doses. By calculating annual watershed mass balances for eight compounds, we show that μ0.05 to μ42% of the pharmaceuticals consumed by humans in this watershed are released to surface waters, with the importance of different pathways (leaking sewage vs treated wastewater effluent) differing among compounds. These results demonstrate the importance of developing, maintaining, and improving sewage infrastructure to protect water resources from pharmaceutical contamination.

  • 49. Frankki, Sofia
    et al.
    Persson, Ylva
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Partitioning of CPs, PCDEs, and PCDD/Fs between particulate and experimentally enhanced dissolved natural organic matter in a contaminated soil.2006Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, nr 21, s. 6668-73Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We determined the distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to fractions of natural organic matter in a soil contaminated by chlorophenol wood preservatives more than 30 years ago. The concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) was enhanced in soil suspensions by raising pH to 6.8-9.1. After 48 h of desorption/equilibration, the DOM fraction was separated from the particulate organic matter (POM) of the soil by filtration. In the next step, DOM was flocculated by Al-nitrate, and free concentrations of HOCs were determined in the aqueous phase. The HOCs associated with DOM and POM were extracted with toluene. No significant differences in gross carbon chemistry were detected between DOM and POM, using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Normalized to organic C, chlorophenols (CPs) showed a similar degree of partitioning between DOM and POM, whereas the partitioning of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and furans (PCDD/Fs) was highly shifted toward POM. The partitioning to POM, relative to DOM, increased in the order PCDE < PCDF < PCDD, reflecting the hydrophobicity of the compounds.

  • 50.
    Giesler , Reiner
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Björkvald , L
    Laudon , Hjalmar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mörth , CM
    Spatial and Seasonal Variations in Stream Water delta S-34-Dissolved Organic Matter in Northern Sweden2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 447-452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discharge of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) by streams is an important cross-system linkage that strongly influences downstream aquatic ecosystems. Isotopic tracers are important tools that can help to unravel the source of DOM from different terrestrial compartments in the landscape. Here we demonstrate the spatial and seasonal variation of delta S-34 of DOM in 70 boreal streams to test if the tracer could provide new insights into the origin of DOM. We found large spatial and seasonal variations in stream water delta S-34-DOM values ranging from -5.2 parts per thousand to + 9.6 parts per thousand with an average of +4.0 +/- 0.6 (N=62; average and 95% confidence interval). Large seasonal variations were found in stream water delta S-34-DOM values: for example, a shift of more than 10 parts per thousand during the spring snowmelt in a wetland-dominated stream. Spatial differences were also observed during the winter base flow with higher delta S-34-DOM values in the fourth-order Krycklan stream at the outlet of the 68 km(2) compared to the small (<1 km(2)) headwater streams. Our data clearly show that the delta S-34-DOM values have the potential to be used as a tracer to identify and generate new insights about terrestrial DOM sources in the boreal landscape.

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