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  • 1.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Berg, Charlotte
    Samakovlis, Eva
    The economy-wide rebound effect from improved energy efficiency in Swedish industries–A general equilibrium analysis2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 83, p. 26-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the rebound effect from increased efficiency in industrial energy use in Sweden. Energy efficiency improvements can have significant micro- and macroeconomic effects that hamper the positive effect on real energy savings. To assess the size of the overall rebound effect in the Swedish economy, we apply a computable general equilibrium model. The results show that the economy-wide rebound effect depends on a number of factors, e.g. the extent of the energy efficiency improvement, how the labour market is modelled as well as whether the increase in energy efficiency is combined with a cost or not. We find that the rebound effect following a five per cent increase in energy efficiency in the Swedish industry lies in the 40-70 per cent range. When energy efficiency is only improved in energy-intensive production, the rebound effect becomes even higher. These findings are in line with the results in the literature.

  • 2.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kažukauskas, Andrius
    Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vilnius University.
    Information policies and biased cost perceptions: The case of Swedish residential energy consumption2021In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 149, article id 112095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Households typically receive utility bills where all electricity use during a fixed period is lumped together. The lack of direct feedback in the form of marginal costs of using specific electric appliances potentially leads to mistakes in households' decision-making because of biased cost perceptions. In this paper, we test the commonly held notion that lack of relevant energy-related knowledge results in cost underestimation of using electric appliances that may lead to over-consumption of energy. Contrary to this notion, our results show that less knowledgeable energy consumers tend to have higher cost perceptions than others. This finding implies that less knowledgeable energy consumers may consume too little of energy. We also find that a substantial share of the sampled households, in particular less knowledgeable energy consumers, are less willing to receive relevant cost-free information about their energy use and costs. This finding suggests that poor energy-related knowledge may not only be a matter of high information search and processing costs, but also a matter of consumers’ limited attention capacity.

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  • 3.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Swedish industry and Kyoto:  An assessment of the effects of the European CO2emission permit trading system 2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 4749-4762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assess the effects on Swedish industry input demands and output of different climate policy scenarios connected to energy policy induced by the Kyoto protocol. We use a unique dataset containing firm-level data on outputs and inputs between 1991 and 2001 to estimate a factor demand model, which we use to simulate different policy scenarios. Sector-specific estimation suggests that the proposed quadratic profit function specification exhibits properties and robustness that are consistent with economic theory; that is, all own-price elasticities are negative and all output elasticities are positive. Furthermore, the elasticities show that the input demands are, in most cases, relatively inelastic. Simulation of the model for six different policy scenarios reveal that effects on the Swedish base industry of a EU-level permit-trading system depends on (i) the removal or maintenance of the current CO2 tax, (ii) the price of permits, and (iii) the future price of electricity. Our analysis shows that changes in electricity price may be more important than the price of permits for some sectors.

  • 4.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 67, p. 844-857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate "test bench" for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990-2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

  • 5.
    Carvalho, Ricardo L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, Dept. of Environment and Planning, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Environmental Comfort, Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lopez, N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nyambane, Anne
    Nyberg, Gert
    Diaz-Chavez, Rocio
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Household air pollution mitigation with integrated biomass/cookstove strategies in Western Kenya2019In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 131, p. 168-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional cooking is today's largest global environmental health risk. Over 640 million people in Africa are expected to rely on biomass for cooking by 2040. In Kenya, cooking inefficiently with wood and charcoal persists as a cause of deforestation and household air pollution. This research analyses the effects of four biomass cookstove strategies on reducing air pollutant emissions in Kisumu County between 2015 and 2035 using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning system. The Business as Usual scenario (BAU) was developed considering the historical trends in household energy use. Energy transition scenarios to Improved Cookstoves (ICS), Pellet Gasifier Stoves (PGS) and Biogas Stoves (BGS) were applied to examine the impact of these systems on energy savings and air pollution mitigation. An integrated scenario (INT) was evaluated as a mix of the ICS, PGS and BGS. The highest energy savings, in relation to the BAU, are achieved in the BGS (30.9%), followed by the INT (23.5%), PGS (19.4%) and ICS (9.2%). The BGS offers the highest reduction in the GHG (37.6%), CH4 (94.3%), NMVOCs (85.0%), CO (97.4%), PM2.5 (64.7%) and BC (48.4%) emissions, and the PGS the highest reduction in the N2O (83.0%) and NOx (90.7%) emissions, in relation to the BAU.

  • 6.
    Coria, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jaraitė, Jūratė
    Umeå University. Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Ownership structure and prices: a case study of the Swedish tradable green certificate market2023In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 183, article id 113822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the ownership structure among participants in the Swedish tradable green certificate (TGC) system and its implications for TGC prices. First, we investigate cross-ownership – a situation when a firm is active on both the demand and supply sides of the TGC market – by linking suppliers and obliged parties to their parent firms. Next, we calculate indexes of market concentration that account for cross-ownership. Finally, we use detailed TGC transaction-level data to analyze differences in the prices of the TGCs traded by cross-ownership versus non-cross-ownership firms. Our results show considerable cross-ownership, with many firms active on both TGC supply and demand sides. However, even after accounting for cross-ownership, the market concentration of the entire TGC market is low and has decreased over time. Despite the absence of market concentration, our analysis of TGC prices indicates that cross-ownership firms have the ability to differentiate TGC prices from non-cross-ownership firms. Such behavior is consistent with the behavioral assumption that the ultimate owner's objective is to maximize the total profit of the portfolio of shares, and that, therefore, the pricing behavior would differ from that of a perfectly competitive firm without ownership links to other firms in the industry.

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  • 7.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Lulea University of Technology, Division of Economics and Social Sciences, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Johansson, Maria
    Lund University, Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund, Sweden.
    Waldo, Åsa
    Lund University, Department of Sociology, Lund, Sweden.
    Location of Swedish wind power - Random or not?: A quantitative analysis of differences in installed wind power capacity across Swedish municipalities2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 58, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of installed wind power varies significantly across municipalities although the financial support for wind power production and the technology available is identical in all Swedish municipalities. This study analyses how local differences between municipalities, such as local wind prerequisites and socioeconomic conditions, might explain the establishment of wind power. The analysis is carried out for a cross section of Swedish municipalities. The time periods before and after 2006 are analyzed separately; and results reveal that the factors affecting wind power establishments are different between the two periods. In the later time period we found a statistically significant positive relationship between good wind resources and the presence of wind power as well as with the amount of wind energy installed. This result is consistent with the idea that the first wind power investments in Sweden were highly affected by individual wind energy enthusiasts, while in the more recent large-scale investments market-based judgments about future profitability may have become increasingly important. In addition, previous experience seems to be a factor that in itself facilitates additional future wind power establishments, thereby pointing to the role of accumulated institutional capacity.

  • 8.
    Ghalwash, Tarek
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Energy taxes as a signaling device: An empirical analysis of consumer preferences2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 29-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an econometric study dealing with household demand in Sweden. The main objective is to empirically examine the differences in consumer reaction to the introduction of, or the change, in environmental taxes. Main focus is on environmental taxes as asignalingdevice. The hypothesis is that the introduction of an environmental tax provides new information about the properties of the directly taxed goods. This in turn may affect consumer preferences for these goods, hence altering the consumption choice. The result from the econometric analysis shows that all goods have negative own-price elasticities, and positive income elasticities. Concerning the signalling effect of environmental taxes the results are somewhat ambiguous. The tax elasticity for energy goods used for heating seems to be significantly higher than the traditional price elasticity, whereas the opposite seems to be the case for energy goods used for transportation.

  • 9.
    Gransaull, Gareth
    et al.
    School of Public Administration, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
    Rhodes, Ekaterina
    School of Public Administration, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sociology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Institutions for effective climate policymaking: Lessons from the case of the United Kingdom2023In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 175, article id 113484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The United Kingdom (UK) is home to one of the most ambitious climate policy regimes in the world, centred around the 2008 Climate Change Act (CCA), the first strategic climate legislation of its kind. Building on prior studies of the CCA while highlighting Germany as a counterfactual case study, we demonstrate the significant positive role that strategic framework legislation can play in improving climate policy integration and coherence. We further show that important new institutions can be established under the right historical conditions. Specifically, we argue that the political weakening of the UK coal sector was a necessary precursor to the adoption of strong climate policy and the emergence of a structural consensus towards accelerating climate ambition, as compared with Germany where consolidation of the coal regime has been a major factor in the country's failure to meet its emissions targets. We show how business associations and labour groups in the UK were a key supportive coalition for early climate action, while in Germany industry and organized labour have been key actors obstructing and delaying the passage of pro-climate reforms. Our study raises questions about the prospects for energy transitions that are both just and rapid, particularly by discussing the trade-offs between cost-effectiveness, speed, and distributional concerns.

    The full text will be freely available from 2025-04-15 07:31
  • 10. Hammar, Henrik
    et al.
    Sjöstrom, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Accounting for behavioral effects of increases in the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tax in revenue estimation in Sweden2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 10, p. 6672-6676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe how behavioral responses of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) tax increases are accounted for in tax revenue estimation in Sweden. The rationale for developing a method for this is a mix between that a CO(2) tax is a primary climate policy tool aiming to reduce CO(2) emissions and that the CO(2) tax generates sizable tax revenues.

  • 11.
    Liljenfeldt, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Distributional justice in Swedish wind power development – an odds ratio analysis of windmill localization and local residents' socio-economic characteristics2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 105, p. 648-657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a fast rise in large-scale wind power development in Sweden and other countries in recent years, issues related to energy justice generally and distributional justice specifically have become concerns in windmill siting. Some research, for instance, has indicated that it is easier to build windmills in economically marginalized communities. The evidence for this, however, is still limited. Thus, this study aims to statistically evaluate the extent to which the decisions to approve or reject windmill proposals in Sweden can be explained by factors related to the socio-economic characteristics of people living in the areas surrounding windmill sites. The study is based on an odds ratio analysis of decisions on all windmill proposals in Sweden, in which georeferenced socio-economic data on an individual level for all inhabitants within 3 and 10 km of the windmill sites are studied. The results show skewness in the distribution of windmills, with a higher likelihood of rejection in areas with more highly educated people and people working in the private sector, compared to a higher likelihood of approval in areas with more unemployed people. This skewness, while not necessarily unjust, warrants further policy and research attention to distributional justice issues when developing wind power.

  • 12.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Energy transition, carbon dioxide reduction and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: 1973-20062011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 5449-5456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry from 1973 to 2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emission, where most of the reduction took place before the implementation of active climate policy in 1991. Foremost energy substitution and also efficiency improvements contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subsidies, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. The study finds that energy transformation was coinciding with ongoing structural change in the industry during the 1970s and 1980s as well as a strong period of environmental adaption. We therefore suggest that the oil reduction was reinforced through the dynamics between the energy issue and an overall renewing process of the industry. This suggests a need to coordinate climate and environmental policy measures with the long-term industrial dynamics of structural change. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 7, Special Issue, p. 4264-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 14.
    Mannberg, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Do tax incentives affect households' adoption of ‘green’ cars?: A panel study of the Stockholm congestion tax2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 74, p. 286-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers have made several attempts to introduce local and national policies to reduce CO2 emissions and stimulate the consumer adoption of alternative fuel vehicles (ethanol/E85 cars). The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a local policy measure impacts the composition of the car fleet over time. More specifically, we take advantage of the natural experiment setting caused by the introduction of the Stockholm congestion tax (2006) to analyze how the tax affected purchases of ethanol cars that were exempted from the tax. To estimate effects, we employ a Difference-in-differences methodology. By using a comprehensive database of the car fleet and car owners, sociodemographic and geographic factors are analyzed, which is unique in the existing literature. Our results suggest that the congestion tax had a significant impact on ethanol car purchases although the effect fades away over time. Furthermore, there is a positive relationship between the level of education and ethanol car purchases. Previous adoption of an ethanol car is found to be the strongest predictor of ethanol car purchases. Finally, data indicate that Stockholmers substantially increased purchases of ethanol cars half a year before the introduction of the congestion tax, which we refer to as an anticipation effect.

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  • 15. Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2956-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nair, Sujith
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paulose, Hanna
    Department of Human Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Emergence of green business models: the case of algae biofuel for aviation2014In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 65, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergent business models seek to take advantage of new market mechanisms driven by technological changes, particularly those related to the production and delivery of clean or sustainable energy. Such business models often function at the intersection of various industries, with global views, and the resulting systems have distinct social, political, environmental, economic, technological, and business dimensions. Such holistic systems are not only difficult to develop but also require support from a broad range of actors with effective regulations and policies in place, such that the firm functions within a framework that integrates various factors. This study substantiates such a framework by detailing the nascent algae-based bio-fuel industry that caters to the aviation sector while arguing that businesses in the energy industry can emerge as a next-practice platform that drive a sixth wave of innovation. The framework begins with three basic enablers, innovation, flexibility, and sustainability, and explains how value from renewable energy technologies can be created and captured sustainably and innovatively with new market mechanisms implemented by firms with green business models.

  • 17.
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Böök, Herman
    Lindfors, Anders
    Svento, Rauli
    Real-time pricing revisited: Demand flexibility in the presence of micro-generation2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 23, p. 642-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An understanding of household demand response (DR) is important in view of increasingly smart grids in which high shares of renewable supply are being promoted. In addition, an important development in the Nordic market relates to increasing thrust on household solar photo-voltaic (PV) panels. In view of the potential for interaction between dynamic pricing-driven and PV generation-driven load changes, an analysis of the combined effects in relation to the system profile is important, not least because this can affect the nature of benefits to households and to the grid. Using a unique and detailed dataset on household electricity consumption, in combination with simulated solar panel micro-generation data, these aspects are explored here using a demand framework drawn from the previous literature. Our findings indicate that even with low price responsiveness, household response to dynamic pricing can lead to load changes with sizeable benefits. In addition, the introduction of PV panels appear to be beneficial to the electric grid, largely due to the time pattern of winter PV generation. Overall, our findings provide tentative support to the hypothesis that dynamic pricing, by incentivizing households to provide demand response at appropriate times, can aid in integration of renewables.

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