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  • 1.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Experiences and emotions among private forest owners versus public interests: why ownership matters2018Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 79, s. 801-811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a qualitative approach and considering the case of Sweden, the aim of the paper is to investigate and analyse how private forest owners' experiences and emotions related to their private forest ownership manifest themselves in their relationship to public use of their forests and public planning for recreation and biodiversity on their land. The study incorporates and elaborates upon a conceptual framework related to the dimensions of property rights, feelings of ownership, and sense of place in its analysis of the private forest ownership context. Fifty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest owners owning land in two geographically different areas. The results demonstrate the important role of the 'social contract' of rights and responsibilities, which are associated with the concept of property rights, and are embedded in the relationship between private ownership and the Swedish custom of the Right of Public Access to nature in the broad acceptance of public use of private forestland. The forest owners' relationships with public planning are diverse and complex, illustrating the various dimensions of private forest ownership, the heterogeneous forest owner corps, and the different geographical contexts. The dimensions of ownership feelings and sense of place, and the interplay between them, are shown to contribute to enhanced sentiments linked to forest ownership, expressed in ambivalence or lack of conviction about public planning. An important point of resistance to public interests is owners' identity as stewards or long-term custodians of their particular forestland. The article ends with a set of recommendations for public policy and planning processes regarding public interests related to private forest ownership.

  • 2.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Funding ecological restoration policy in practice: patterns of short-termism and regional biases2016Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, s. 439-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With continuous degradation of ecosystems combined with the recognition of human dependence on functioning ecosystems, global interest in ecological restoration (ER) has intensified. From being merely a nature conservation measure, it is today advanced as a way to improve ecosystem functions, mitigate biodiversity loss and climate change, as well as renew human–nature relationships. However, ER is a contested and diversified term used in research, policy and practice. Substantive public funding is allocated towards this end worldwide, but little is known about its concrete purpose and coverage, as well as what decides its allocation. With inspiration from environmental funding literature we analyze the case of Sweden to provide the first national overview of public ER funding. The understudied political context of ER is thus addressed but also regional variation in funding allocation. A database of all national government funding programs between 1995 and 2011 that included projects and sub-programs aiming at practical ER measures was created. Results show that ER activities counted for 11% (130 million USD) of the total government nature conservation funding. Water environments were highly prioritized, which can be explained by economic and recreational motives behind ER. The ER funding was unevenly distributed geographically, not related to either environmental need or population size, but rather to regional administrative capacity. It was also found to be small scale and short term, and hence part of a general trend of "project proliferation" of public administration which runs contrary to ecosystem based management. As ER is not yet a long-term investment in Sweden, commonly seen as an environmental lead state, we expect even less and more short-term ER funding in other countries.

  • 3. Danely, Brian
    et al.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    At the limit of volunteerism?: Swedish family forest owners and two policy strategies to increase forest biodiversity2021Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 105, artikel-id 105403Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is not on track to meet its own national 2020 environmental goals for sustainable forests. Due to the deliberate design of Swedish forest policy, private forest owners’ voluntary forest and biodiversity protection efforts are required to help close the policy gap. Using survey data from Swedish family forest owners, this paper outlines how forest owner attitudes reveal challenges and opportunities for two general strategies to increasing forest and biodiversity protection. The first strategy is attempting to institute changes within status quo Swedish forest policy by relying on family forest owners to make such changes voluntarily. The second strategy is encouraging management changes by using policy reforms. Our qualitative results suggest that Swedish forest policy is close to the limit of what can be accomplished with volunteerism alone and likely requires policy reforms to close its forest and biodiversity protection gap on family-owned forests.

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  • 4.
    de Boon, Auvikki
    et al.
    School for Agriculture, Policy, and Development, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Rose, David Christian
    School for Agriculture, Policy, and Development, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Perceived legitimacy of agricultural transitions and implications for governance. Lessons learned from England’s post-Brexit agricultural transition2022Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 116, artikel-id 106067Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a global need for a transition towards more sustainable forms of agriculture. In order for such a transition to be socially sustainable, its input (problem and goal formulation), output (policy instruments), and throughput (processes) need to be perceived as legitimate. However, we currently know relatively little on how to legitimize normatively shaped transition processes and their outcomes. We aim to address this knowledge gap by examining how the governance of agricultural transitions can be shaped to improve the perceived legitimacy of the transition. Through a combined lens of normative and sociological approaches to legitimacy we investigate the English post-Brexit agricultural transition as a crucial case-study. Building on a policy analysis and semi-structured interviews we find that in order to create perceived legitimacy of agricultural transitions, both in the English case and for agricultural transitions generally, clarity and diversity in design is essential. In addition, in order to take account of the normative and political nature of agricultural transitions, our study highlights the importance of a broad problem formulation, a diverse mix of instruments, and a process that is transparent and includes stakeholders in a meaningful and equal way. We conclude that a combined lens of normative and sociological legitimacy forms a useful framework for future research to critically evaluate the normative and power dimensions of transition processes. In addition, it can support governments in their efforts to develop policies for agricultural sustainability transitions that will be accepted by society.

  • 5. Dressel, S.
    et al.
    Ericsson, G.
    Johansson, M.
    Kalen, C.
    Pfeffer, S. E.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Evaluating the outcomes of collaborative wildlife governance: The role of social-ecological system context and collaboration dynamics2020Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 99, artikel-id 105028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The acknowledgement of uncertainty and complexity in social-ecological systems has increased the implementation of collaborative governance regimes for environmental issues. The performance of these new regimes to deliver favourable social and ecological outcomes must therefore be evaluated. We focus on the case of Swedish wildlife governance, which has a tradition of using collaborative elements. In relation to moose (Alces alces), these collaborative aspects were recently formalized in an amended policy. We aim to assess some aspects of this new regime's performance with respect to intermediate ecological outcomes (i.e. quota fulfilment). We use path analysis to test the causal effects of system context and collaboration dynamics on governance outcomes. Collaboration dynamics were assessed using a web-based survey sent to all stakeholders in Moose Management Groups (response rate = 82 %). Our originally specified model yielded a good fit (SRMR of .030 and robust TLI of .996) and explained 20 % of the variation in outcomes. Context variables revealed significant direct effects on collaboration dynamics and outcomes. Larger Moose Management Areas and fluctuations in forage availability required more time investment from actors, while high land use diversity and density of other ungulate species negatively affected moose quota fulfilment. Moose Management Groups that invested more time and perceived to have a good knowledge base achieved better quota fulfilment. Collaboration dynamics thus had a positive direct effect on outcomes. From a policy perspective, our results raise questions regarding institutional fit because context factors had significant negative effects on collaboration dynamics and the outcomes of the collaborative process.

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  • 6.
    Mackay, Heather
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Mapping and characterising the urban agricultural landscape of two intermediate-sized Ghanaian cities2018Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 70, s. 182-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending beyond previous research biases towards large cities or analyses based largely on one type of urban agriculture (UA) (such as market gardening, or home gardening), this research aimed to investigate all forms of UA within two intermediate-sized Ghanaian cities (Techiman and Tamale). Where was being farmed? For whom, and why? The paper considers how findings compare to Ghana’s larger cities, and possible implications for theory and for planning. Methods included remote sensing, field mapping, interviews and a 1000-household per city questionnaire. The most common reason for farming was food supplementation. This was often via staple foods, particularly maize, rather than the leafy vegetables common in larger cities’ market gardening. Farming was predominantly via home gardening, particularly for the better off. The larger city of Tamale also sustained organised irrigated-vegetable market gardens.

    Findings suggest a picture not dissimilar to Ghana’s larger cities but with greater prevalence of home gardening, and a dominance of staple foods rather than perishable or high value crops. A compelling finding, which has received less attention in the literature, is the extent of, and roles played by, what this study refers to as ‘institutional land. Both Ghanaian Ministry of Food and Agriculture’s policy framing, and market crisis theorising, of the drivers and role of UA were not found to be an accurate reflection of Techiman and Tamale’s UA. Rather than being a localised survival activity of the poor or marginalised, of recent migrants, or of predominantly women, these cities contained a large scale and diverse spatiality of UA mainly for non-poor and non-migrants’ supplementation of their staple food larder. Results emphasise the context-specific nature of a city’s urban agriculture, and underline the need for researchers and UA advocates to be specific about the form of UA under the microscope when making claims for ‘an urban agriculture’.

  • 7.
    Manzhynski, Siarhei
    et al.
    Belarusian State Technological University, Department of Economics and Plant Management, Belarus.
    Siniak, Nikolai
    Belarusian State Technological University.
    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.
    Źróbek, Sabina
    University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn.
    Sustainability performance in the Baltic Sea region2016Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, s. 489-498Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of sustainable development issues requires the engagement of all stakeholders in decision-making processes, as well as developing tactics and strategies. The complexity of this task increases on regional and international levels, where a huge amount of interests intersect or even contradict each other. To develop proper policy measures towards sustainability, it is essential to use appropriate performance assessment. Regardless of the existence of some macro estimation methods, vast gaps in practical use still remain. In this paper, a set of methods for assessing the sustainability performance of countries is outlined and discussed. The main advantages and weaknesses of the prevalent approaches are considered. Using available statistical data from open sources, sustainability performance assessment in countries within the Baltic Sea Region in the years 2005–2010 is carried out according to different methods and discussed, thus obtaining the profile of sustainability performance for countries in the Baltic Sea Region. The results of the calculations may be used for sharing with communities, detecting sustainability gaps in the countries’ economies, substantiating national and regional sustainable development strategies, and analyzing the investment attractiveness of the given region.

  • 8.
    Manzhynski, Siarhei
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Źróbek, Sabina
    Batura, Olga
    Zysk, Elżbieta
    Why the market value of residential premises and the costs of its purchase differ: the examples of Belarus and Poland2018Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 71, s. 530-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate features of transaction costs (fees and taxes) regarding real estate deals and to analyze transaction costs in the real estate market in emerging and established economies in order to research the link between the extent of market development and transaction costs. The authors’ methodological approach to estimation of transaction costs consists of qualitative and quantitative stages and is based on descriptive, normative and statistical information, which allows estimation and comparison of transaction costs as well as their structure and sources of occurrence by types. The two cases were chosen for practical implementation of the method: a transition economy of Belarus and a relatively established market economy of Poland. In order to measure transaction costs, the authors use the example of a residential property in order to provide a comparable basis for further analysis. Application of the method to the most prevalent pattern of real estate deals shows sufficient comparability of transaction costs (ca. 2.5%) and a slight difference (ca. 4%) caused by the absence of transaction tax in Belarus.

  • 9.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia. Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Adaptive capacity of legal and policy frameworks for biodiversity protection considering climate change2013Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 34, s. 213-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection of biodiversity under conditions of climate change is likely to place large requirements on existing frameworks for biodiversity protection at both EU and national level. While these systems are not perfectly adapted today, the inclusion of climate change concerns will require revision and addition of new issues, such as species migration corridors and buffers, as well as proactive strategies in areas that may not be protected today. Biodiversity in forest is particularly important as forest range over large areas that include also other land uses; this holds particularly true for the large forested areas in northern Europe. Illustrating complexities regarding biodiversity protection, this study reviews the applicable legal framework related to biodiversity in forests on EU and national level in Sweden, one of the countries with the largest forest areas in the EU. Mainly drawing on a policy and legal study, the paper concludes that adapting the legislative and policy system to a future with large uncertainties in terms of extent of change poses a problem for what are largely reactive systems in particular in terms of legislation.

  • 10.
    Sarkki, Simo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för samisk forskning (CeSam). Cultural anthropology, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Heikkinen, Hannu I.
    Herva, Vesa-Pekka
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Myths on local use of natural resources and social equity of land use governance: reindeer herding in Finland2018Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 77, s. 322-331Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature on social equity has focused on procedure, distribution and recognition related to land use governance. We propose novel approach to examine social equity by following ideational turn with an aim to explore globally used and locally persistent myths that (mis)inform governance in practice and effect on the three dimensions of social equity for reindeer herding in northern Finland. We take synthetizing approach and elaborate and employ a comparative cognitive mapping method to classify the reviewed literature according to its linkage to the three dimensions of social equity, and type of relationship (utilizing, questioning, contextualizing) to the examined four myths. The myths of “tragedy of the commons”, “non-human wilderness ideal”, “noble savages”, and “majority will constituting democracy” are persistently used in land use governance mainly because they provide justifications for furthering particular interest. Yet, these myths are also widely questioned due to the problems that their employment produces for reindeer herders. Furthermore, the background assumptions of the myths are often somewhat problematic. We discuss reinterpretation of these myths revolving around 1) a holistic approach, 2) considering non-indigenous local people as noble savages, 3) problems of melding herders as a stakeholder group similar to other groups, 4) steps from majority democracy towards self-governance, 5) whether social equity can be bought, and 6) biocultural diversity. These reinterpretations can inform land use policy and governance also beyond the case study. Therefore, critical view on the explanatory and constitutive powers of myths should be part of the portfolios to achieve social equity.

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  • 11. Simoncini, Riccardo
    et al.
    Ring, Irene
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Albert, Christian
    Kasymov, Ulan
    Arlettaz, Raphael
    Constraints and opportunities for mainstreaming biodiversity and ecosystem services in the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy: Insights from the IPBES assessment for Europe and Central Asia2019Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 88, artikel-id 104099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), being one of the strongest drivers of agricultural land-use practices, has a substantial impact on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Member States. The initial focus of the CAP to increase and intensify agricultural production affected water and land qualities and contributed to the degradation of traditional agricultural landscapes, cultural identities, and erosion of typical farmland biodiversity. Recent CAP reforms have begun to consider biodiversity and ecosystem services, but still fall short of a thorough mainstreaming approach. The objectives of this paper are to point out main findings regarding (i) key shortcomings of the current CAP, and (ii) major opportunities to enhance the mainstreaming of biodiversity and ecosystem services within the CAP. The paper is based on insights generated in the sub-global assessment of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) for Europe and Central Asia11A major part of this contribution is based on an earlier, pre-peer reviewed version of Ring et al. (2018): Ring, I., Sandström, C., Acar, S., Adeishvili, M., Albert, C., Allard, C., Anker, Y., Arlettaz, R., Bela, G., ten Brink, B., Fischer, A., Fürst, C., Galil, B., Hynes, S., Kasymov, U., Marta-Pedroso, C., Mendes, A., Molau, U., Olschewski, R., Pergl, J., & Simoncini, R. (2018): Chapter 6: Options for governance and decision-making across scales and sectors. In: IPBES (2018): The IPBES regional assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services for Europe and Central Asia. Rounsevell, M., Fischer, M., Torre-Marin Rando, A., Mader, A. (eds.). Secretariat of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Bonn, Germany, pp. 661-802.. Our results illustrate the evolution of agricultural policy objectives and instruments applied in the CAP, and their effects on selected ecosystem services and biodiversity. We shed light on key shortcomings of existing policy and provide recommendations for further CAP reforms to achieve more effective biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem services.

  • 12.
    Widmark, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Measuring transaction costs incurred by landowners in multiple land-use situations2013Ingår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 677-684Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a method to measure the transaction costs in situations of multiple land-use, where the actions of one actor have negative effects on the other and vice versa (i.e., where the two actors' usage patterns are interdependent). In situations where more than one agent is using a limited resource, transaction costs arise, which may affect the governance of that resource. For example, in northern Sweden the forestry and reindeer husbandry sectors incur transaction costs during consultations over land-use management. The analysis presented here indicates that the transaction costs incurred by the forestry industry are mainly affected by the number of consultations held, and that the industry's costs could be reduced if more of the reindeer-herding communities drew up formal land-use plans (RBP). The availability of these RBP affected the behaviour of the forestry companies' agents. For example, they were more likely to draw up detailed plans prior to consultations when a RBP was available. The method used to measure and model transaction costs may be useful in other situations involving multiple interdependent actors competing for the use of a common resource, especially in cases involving co-management.

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