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  • 1.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Alanko, Tommi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Decat, Gilbert
    Flemish Institute of Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium.
    Falsaperla, Rosaria
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy.
    Gryz, Krzysztof
    Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland.
    Hietanen, Maila
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Karpowicz, Jolanta
    Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Poland.
    Rossi, Paolo
    National Institute of Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy.
    Sandström, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields. A review of open questions on exposure assessment techniques2009In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 3-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Directive 2004/40/EC on occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), based on the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, was to be implemented in the Member States of the European Union by 2008. Because of some unexpected problems the deadline was postponed until 2012. This paper reviews some of the problems identified and presents some suggestions for possible solutions based on the authors' experience in assessing occupational exposure to EMF. Among the topics discussed are movement in static magnetic fields, ways to time average extreme low frequency signals, the difference between emission and exposure standards, and ways of dealing with those issues.

  • 2. Hocking, Bruce
    et al.
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Guidance note: Risk management of workers with medical electronic devices and metallic implants in electromagnetic fields.2008In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical electronic devices and metallic implants are found in an increasing number of workers. Industrialapplications requiring intense electromagnetic fields (EMF) are growing and the potential risk of injuriousinteractions arising from EMF affecting devices or implants needs to be managed. Potential interactionsinclude electromagnetic interference, displacement, and electrostimulation or heating of adjacent tissue,depending on the device or implant and the frequency of the fields. A guidance note, which uses a riskmanagement framework, has been developed to give generic advice in (a) risk identification—implementingprocedures to identify workers with implants and to characterise EMF exposure within a workplace; (b) riskassessment—integrating the characteristics of devices, the anatomical localisation of implants, occupationalhygiene data, and application of basic physics principles; and (c) risk control—advising the worker andemployer regarding safety and any necessary changes to work practices, while observing privacy.

  • 3. Jacobs, Melissa
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jacobus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. North West Univ, WorkWell Res Unit, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Stress, coping and safety compliance in a multinational gold mining company2017In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 152-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of work stress, consisting of role stressors and job insecurity, with safety compliance at work. A secondary objective was to test for the possible moderating effect of individual employees' coping behaviour between experienced work stress and job insecurity, and their safety compliance. A cross-sectional survey design was used (n=771). An electronic survey, with a biographical questionnaire and scales on role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, job insecurity, coping and safety compliance at work, was administered. The results indicated that specific aspects of work stress, notably role conflict, role ambiguity and quantitative job insecurity, and of coping, namely an avoidance style and changing the situation, were important in understanding safety compliance. A moderating effect of avoidance coping was also found.

  • 4.
    Lindberg, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Winternet, Boden, Sweden.
    Oksa, Juha
    Gavhed, Desiree
    Self-rated physical loads of work tasks among firefighters2014In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study sought to identify firefighters' rated physical demands for the most frequently occuring work tasks and to determine if the ratings differed between full-time and part-time firefighters to help create a basis for the development of physical employment tests for firefighters.

    Methods: An extensive questionnaire was completed by 125 and 68 firefighters in 2000 and 2010, respectively. The data were analysed with the Mann-Whitney U test and binominal test and ranked on the basis of the responses in each category.

    Results: Significant differences were seen between the full-time and part-time firefighters. The work tasks rated as the most physically strenous in terms of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, work posture and body control by most responders were smoke diving upstairs (carrying a hose), victim rescue in different ways, carrying a stretcher over terrain and pulling a hose.

    Conclusions: Physically strenous work tasks should be included in the end-point performance variables used to select physical performance tests for firefighters. The part-time firefighters with no experience in several of the work tasks suggests that work-related exercises are important if both groups of firefighters are expected to do similar work.

  • 5.
    Mild, Kjell Hansson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Friberg, Stefan
    Frankel, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wilen, Jonna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Exposure to the magnetic field from an induction loop pad for a hearing aid system2017In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 143-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a case study we have measured the magnetic field from an induction loop pad designed for hearing aid assistance. The magnitude of the field was high, although well below international guidelines. We recorded values up to 70% of the recommended standard in some instances. However, in view of the many reports indicating health effects of low-level exposure, we recommend that the precautionary principle is applied when such pads are given to people who might be especially vulnerable, such as children, pregnant women and women on breast cancer medication.

  • 6. Mollerlokken, Ole Jacob
    et al.
    Stavang, Helen
    Hansson Mild, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Staff exposure to pulsed magnetic fields during depression treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation2017In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 139-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Transcranial magnetic stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS/rTMS) are currently used in research and treatments of diseases of the central nervous system, such as recurring depression. Strong electric pulses are used to produce strong pulsed magnetic fields that are directed to the patient's cerebral cortex where the fields induce electric pulses. The pulses may be causing unnecessary exposure of the staff. Method. The MagVenture TMS/rTMS system was investigated, without patient presence, through measurements of magnetic field pulses at varying distances from the emitting coil and different power settings (94-127A/s). Results. Fourteen measurements were done which displayed exposures exceeding the given guidelines up until a distance of 40 cm from the transmitting coil. Discussion. The study shows that the exposure of staff in this type of treatment may exceed the given guidelines for occupational exposure, thus confirming previous findings. This necessitates good routines in information and treatment procedures to avoid this exposure.

  • 7.
    Pettersson, Hans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Graff, Pål
    Department of Work Environment Chemistry, National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway.
    Fornander, Louise
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Jessica
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Björ, Bodil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Introducing a new design of digital tool to increase vibration risk assessments: challenges with education-based interventions2022In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1705-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether introducing a digital risk assessment tool, the Swedish National Vibration Database, would increase the number of risk assessments on hand–arm and whole-body vibration. Employer and safety representatives from companies where vibration exposure is common were invited.

    Methods: Of the 2953 invited companies, 1916 were selected for educational intervention and the remaining 1037 companies served as a control group with no intervention. For the educational intervention, participating companies were further divided into two groups (group A, n = 26; group B, n = 47) that both received information regarding risk assessment, but group B was also informed about the digital tool. Both groups answered a questionnaire on risk assessment before the intervention and at the follow-up, 6 months later; the control group received the same questionnaire but no education (group C, n = 22).

    Results: Of the invited companies, only 2% chose to participate and 7% at follow-up. Seventy-eight percent of the participants had made some kind of risk assessment of vibration at follow-up.

    Conclusion: Due to the low participation rate among invited companies, this study is not able to draw any conclusions on whether the digital tool can be used to increase the number of risk assessments.

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  • 8.
    Sandström, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Enviromental Medicine.
    Electromagnetic fields in offices.2006In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 137-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of electric and electronic equipment in our offices, our daily exposure to electromagnetic fields has become increasingly complex due to the great variety of the frequency content of the fields. Today focus has shifted from monitors as the dominating sources of electromagnetic fields to other electronic equipment, cabling, nearby substations, power lines and stray currents in buildings. In the last 5 years wireless communication has become common in our offices. These devices use radio frequency waves to communicate and are therefore sources of radio frequency fields in our offices. To a certain degree, they all add to the complicated issue of the extensive field frequencies found in offices. The exposure of office workers is generally considered to be low and not in conflict with the existing guidelines, but if a precaution approach is applied there are a number of measures that can be taken to reduce the electromagnetic fields in offices in order to obtain a good electrical environment.

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