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  • 1. BADER, P
    et al.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    JONSSON, BG
    WOOD-INHABITING FUNGI AND SUBSTRATUM DECLINE IN SELECTIVELY LOGGED BOREAL SPRUCE FORESTS1995In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 355-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eleven Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. forests in the boreal zone of Sweden were studied to investigate the effects of selective cuttings on wood-inhabiting fungi from the families Polyporaceae, Hymenochaetaceae and Corticiaceae (Basidiomycota). The II sites constitute a gradient from extensively logged to semi-natural forests. Old selective leggings that occurred about 100 years ago have significantly decreased the availability of large and highly decayed logs. Based on fruit bodies, both the total species number as well as the number of threatened species decreased with increasing degree of cutting. Some of the occurring wood-inhabiting fungi are commonly accepted as indicator species of forests with old-growth conditions. These species showed pronounced preferences for well decayed and large logs. They were also more frequent in the less affected sites and became rarer with increasing degree of cutting; they therefore seem to be good indicators of forests less affected by logging.

  • 2. Berglund, Håkan
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Erratum: Nested plant and fungal communities; the importance of area and habitat quality in maximizing species capture in boreal old-growth forests (Biological Conservation 112:3 (319-328) DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(02)00329-4)2004In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 117, no 5, p. 563-565Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Slow recovery of bryophyte assemblages in middle-aged boreal forests regrown after clear-cutting2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 101-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear-cutting followed by even-aged forestry is transforming forests around the globe. There is growing concern that considerable parts of the native forest biodiversity will not be able to re-colonize these new stands before the next clear-cutting. The development of species assemblages during the full forestry rotation period must be understood in order to assess the need for management adaptations and to get a basis for their design. Knowledge is accumulating from studies of permanent plots before and shortly after clear-cutting, but for later stages only comparative studies have been published (space-for-time substitutions). In this study, I combined this comparative approach with direct monitoring of the pace of assemblage recovery in boreal stands regrown after clear-cutting half a century ago (treatment stands). I found little re-colonization in assemblages of mosses and liverworts between an initial survey to a resurvey 15 years later in 0.1-ha permanent plots of upland and stream-side forest. The assemblages of the treatment stands were still significantly different from those in matched old control forests that had never been clear-cut. The treatment stands had significantly fewer species of liverworts and of the substrate-based species subgroup "wood or bark", and the six most negatively affected species were liverworts more or less specialized to this substrate. The only significant recovery recorded over the 15 years was for the "rocks or boulders" subgroup in upland stands, probably related to a shadier and moister climate resulting from canopy development. During the inter-survey period, some of the upland treatment stands were thinned. All disfavored subgroups recovered less in thinned than in not thinned upland stands, most likely as a result of a return to lighter and drier microclimates and direct mechanical disturbance. The incomplete and slow recovery halfway into the forestry rotation period calls for action. Adaptation of thinning for conservation has rarely been implemented in boreal forest management, but has a large potential. To facilitate re-colonization by disfavored liverworts and mosses growing on wood or bark and/or under shaded and moist conditions, I suggest retention of unlogged patches during thinning and addition of coarse deadwood on the ground in these patches. Such measures would also favor re-colonization of other late-successional species.

  • 4. Gonzalez, Eduardo
    et al.
    Felipe-Lucia, Maria R.
    Bourgeois, Berenger
    Boz, Bruno
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Palmer, Grant
    Sher, Anna A.
    Integrative conservation of riparian zones2017In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 211, p. 20-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian zones are the interface between aquatic and terrestrial systems along inland watercourses. They have a disproportionate ecological role in the landscape considering their narrow extent, which makes them a good example of small natural features (sensu Hunter, 2017-in this issue). Characteristically, riparian zones increase species richness in the landscape and provide key services to society, such as soil fertility, water purification, and recreation. Despite the recognized importance of riparian zones for ecological, economic and social reasons, and the vast amount of scientific literature exploring measures for their conservation, current management is still failing at enabling a proper ecological functioning of these areas. The best practices for conservation of riparian zones have mostly focused on manipulating biotic and physical components (e.g. renaturalizing flow regimes, improving channel mobility, and controlling invasions of exotic ecosystem engineer species). However, these strategies face important technical, socio-economic, and legal constraints that require a more integrative approach for effective conservation. In this paper we summarize the main problems affecting riparian zones and their current management challenges. Following Hunter et al. (2017-in this issue), we review novel approaches to conservation of riparian zones, complementary to manipulating processes that reflect contemporary management and policy. These include (1) investing in environmental education for both local people and technical staff, (2) guaranteeing qualitative and long term inventories and monitoring, (3) establishing legislation and solutions to protect riparian zones, (4) framing economic activities in riparian zones under sustainable management, and (5) planning restoration of riparian zones at multiple and hierarchical spatio-temporal scales.

  • 5. Hedenas, H
    et al.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Epiphytic macrolichens as conservation indicators: successional sequence in Populus tremula stands2000In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Species occurrences at stand level cannot be understood without considering the landscape context: Cyanolichens on aspen in boreal Sweden2008In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Biological Conservation, Vol. 141, p. 710-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge in conservation biology is to understand species’ responses to habitat loss. In Fennoscandia, the ongoing decline in aspen in forests is of particular concern, since aspen is the boreal forest tree species that supports the most host-specific species of cryptogams and invertebrates. In order to predict the potential effects of aspen decline we compared the occurrence of three epiphytic cyanolichens in old-growth stands of the same habitat quality, in four aspen-rich and four aspen-poor landscapes. Collema curtisporum and Collema furfuraceum were, on average, five and six times more frequent, respectively, in the aspen-rich than in the aspen-poor landscapes. Leptogium saturninum was not affected by the abundance of aspen stands at the landscape level. Our data suggests that lichen species with poor dispersal abilities may be more sensitive to habitat loss than more easily dispersed species and that species with broader habitat amplitude may be less sensitive to habitat loss than more specialized species, even if they have inferior dispersal ability. We conclude that (i) predictions of species occurrences at the stand level have to take account of the amount of suitable habitat at the landscape level, and (ii) predicting the responses of individual species based on life-history traits can be crucial, but cannot be based on single traits. Thus our study shows that biological value cannot be assessed on the basis of habitat quality alone and that a landscape perspective is needed for the sustainable management of specialist species.

  • 7.
    Hedenås, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Conservation of epiphytic lichens: Significance of remnant aspen (Populus tremula) trees in clear-cuts2007In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 388-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the boreal forest landscape, aspen has been effectively selected against in favour of conifers. The decrease in aspen is of particular concern since it has more host-specific species associated with it than any other boreal tree species. Recently forest management systems have begun to include green-tree retention in order to maintain structural diversity. We initiated this study in order to investigate whether retained aspen trees provide suitable habitats for epiphytic lichens and, if so, whether this varies according to species characteristics, such as morphology and photobiont. We chose to investigate the abundance and vitality of five species: three foliose cyanobacterial lichens (Collema curtisporum, Collema furfuraceum and Leptogium saturninum) and two crustose green-algal lichens (Biatora epixanthoides and Mycobilimbia carneoalbida). These lichens were examined on aspen within forest stands and on remnant aspen in clear-cuts at eight localities, in northern Sweden. Our results show that the response to exposure following clear-felling differs between species according to their morphology. The two crustose lichens were more abundant in the forest stands compared to the clear-cuts. In the clear-cuts, they mainly occurred on the northern sides of the trunks. Even 24 years after cutting, the three cyanolichens were equally or even more abundant on trees in the clear-cuts than in the forest stands. However, they were mainly found on the northern sides of the remnant aspen. We suggest that remnant aspen trees may function as suitable substrate and as stepping stones for colonisation of new stands, at least for the cyanolichens studied here.

  • 8. Johansson, Victor
    et al.
    Wikström, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. CJEW Ecology and Environmental Consultancy, Åkervägen 30, SE-943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Time-lagged lichen extinction in retained buffer strips 16.5 years after clear-cutting2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 225, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tree retention on clear-cuts is a relatively new measure in forestry aimed at lifeboating' forest species during young seral periods. However, the effectiveness of tree retention for maintaining biodiversity for more than a few years is still poorly known. We investigated lichen persistence in retained buffer strips along small streams after clear-cutting of the surrounding forest, and compared with clear-cuts and un-cut references. Specifically, we compared richness and frequency of red-listed/signal species, calicioids and pendulous species before clear cutting with 2.5 years and 16.5 years after clear-cutting, and also analysed their colonization-extinction dynamics over time. The results show that the richness of red-listed/signal species and calicioids in buffer strips had declined significantly after 16.5 years, but not after 2.5 years, while frequency displayed a significant difference already after 2.5 years. The richness of pendulous lichens remained relatively stable over time, but the frequency had declined significantly after 16.5 years. In clear-cuts all groups declined more than in buffer-strips (-2-3.5 times more) and the main decline had occurred already after 2.5 years. References remained stable over time. The colonization-extinctions dynamics reflected the richness declines, with high early extinction in clear cuts and lower but late extinction in buffer-strips, and low (re)colonization. We conclude that retained buffer strips cannot maintain lichen richness over time due to time-lagged extinction, but they are clearly more effective than clear-cuts. Wider buffer strips could potentially reduce tree mortality and decrease lichen extinction. The large amounts of standing dead wood makes buffer strips potential future colonization targets.

  • 9.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Department of Entomology, P.O. Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Entomology, P.O. Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Hans
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Swedish Species Information Centre, P.O. Box 7007, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ehnström, Bengt
    Stationsområdet 224, SE-780 53 Nås, Sweden.
    Nordén, Björn
    Botanical Institute, Systematic Botany, Göteborg University, P.O. Box 461, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Stokland, Jogeir N.
    Norwegian Institute of Land Inventory, P.O. Box 115, 1431 Ås, Norway.
    Cost-effectiveness of silvicultural measures to increase substrate availability for red-listed wood-living organisms in Norway spruce forests2006In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 127, no 4, p. 443-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important that measures to maintain biodiversity are taken in a way that is cost-effective for the landowner. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of silvicultural measures that aim at increasing the substrate availability for red-listed (species that are threatened, near threatened or where species probably are threatened but data is deficient) saproxylic (wood-inhabiting) organisms. We modelled stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in three regions of Sweden by using computer simulations and a database with substrate requirements of saproxylic beetles and cryptogams on the Swedish Red-List. Conclusions concerning cost-effectiveness of silvicultural measures depend on the extinction thresholds of the species they are intended to conserve; measures that generate only small amounts of coarse woody debris (CWD) may provide too little substrate to be useful for species with high extinction thresholds. In northern Sweden, forestland is relatively inexpensive, so a cost-effective strategy to increase the amount of spruce CWD was to set aside more forests as reserves. In central and southern Sweden, more emphasis should instead be given to increasing the amount of CWD in the managed forest. The regulations by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) could be made more cost-effective by prescribing creation of more high stumps and retention of larger amounts of naturally dying trees. Large-sized CWD, CWD from slow-growing trees, and CWD in late decay stages are substrate types that were particularly rare in managed forest in relation to unmanaged forests. Manual soil scarification and retention of living trees are measures that can increase the proportion of these underrepresented CWD types.

  • 10.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Östlund, Lars
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Linking forest history and conservation efforts: effects of logging on forest structure and diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi2010In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 143, no 7, p. 1803-1811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the northern hemisphere old forests with high abundance of dead wood are rare features in most landscapes today, and the loss of dead wood constitutes a serious threat to the existence of many species. This study, using field surveys and dendrochronology, examines the relationship between wood-inhabiting fungi and past forest utilisation along a gradient of early logging activity. Data were collected in three late-successional Scots pine forests in northern Sweden. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) was then used to assess differences in species composition among the forests. Our results show that minor forest logging (22–26 cut stumps ha−1) carried out a century ago may have continuing effects on forest characteristics, including dead wood dynamics and the wood-inhabiting fungal community – especially the abundance of red-listed species. The most important effects are lower numbers of logs in early and intermediate stages of decomposition. Additionally, numbers of species (including red-listed species) can be high in forests that have been subject to low levels of logging. Overall, the high species numbers recorded in this study (n = 60–87) show that old, low-productivity pine forests harbour a considerable fraction of the total diversity of Basidiomycetes in northern Fennoscandian boreal forests. We conclude that the formation of a framework linking forest history and environmental data is vital for understanding the ecology and formulating goals for future management of these forests.

  • 11. Karlsson, Jens
    et al.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Human attitudes towards wolves, a matter of distance2007In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 137, no 4, p. 610-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that distance is an important factor affecting attitudes towards wolves, i.e. people living far from wolf territories have more positive attitudes towards wolf conservation than those living within or close to wolf territories. We used multiple regression (an ordered probit model) with both socio-economic variables and information about the respondents' distance to the nearest wolf territory. We found that favourable attitudes towards wolf conservation were positively associated with distance to the nearest wolf territory. The variable distance to the nearest wolf territory affected attitudes just as much as the variables of membership of nature conservation organisations, being a hunter, owning livestock, or owning a hunting dog. This was true even on the micro-level, i.e. people living in wolf territories had a more negative attitude towards conservation of wolves than people living just outside. Furthermore, we suggest that attitudes towards wolves are more likely a result of indirect experience than direct experience of wolf presence. Our findings are important when interpreting studies of human attitudes towards conservation of controversial species in general and large carnivores in particular, and should be used when designing future surveys of human attitudes towards conservation and management initiatives.

  • 12.
    Lee, Janice Ser Huay
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Rist, Lucy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Obidzinski, Krystof
    Center for International Forestry Research, Jalan CIFOR, Indonesia.
    Ghazoul, Jaboury
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Koh, Lian Pin
    Department of Environmental Sciences, Zurich, Switzerland.
    No farmer left behind in sustainable biofuel production2011In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 2512-2516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal concerns about the social and environmental impacts of biofuel production are driving producers to adopt better management practices. Existing certification schemes for sustainable biofuel production are, however, biased towards industrial-scale producers that have the financial capital and economies of scale to meet sustainability and certification objectives. Smallholder farmers in developing countries, by contrast, often lack the means and capacity to do so. Some of the challenges faced by smallholders include high certification costs, insufficient institutional capacity, inadequate financial and social incentives, poor group organization and lack of external support. Drawing lessons from existing certification programs, we argue that proponents of sustainable practices and standards must fully appreciate the complex realities of smallholder production systems. We provide policy recommendations for ensuring that no farmer is left behind in the quest to increase sustainable biofuel production.

  • 13. Norstedt, G
    et al.
    Bader, P
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Polypores as indicators of conservation value in Corsican pine forests2001In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 347-354Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Addition of coarse woody debris: the early fungal succession on Picea abies logs in managed forests and reserves2011In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 144, no 3, p. 1100-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern forestry practices have decreased the abundance of coarse woody debris (CWD), and as a result many species that depend on dead wood are now threatened. This implies a need to develop forestry practices that maintain biodiversity. We examined the conservation value of experimental spruce logs (control logs, logs placed in natural shade, and cut tree tops) for wood-inhabiting fungi in two forest stands, one nature reserve and one mature managed forest, in each of seven forest areas in northern Sweden. Here we report the initial findings of the experiment that was established in winter 2001–2002 and data were collected in 2002, 2003 and 2006. A pre-inventory of the local species composition in 2002 revealed a higher per area species richness, including red-listed species, in reserves than in managed forests. Ordination analyses of the experimental logs showed a significant effect of area, while not of stand type in 2003. ANOVA analysis showed no significant effect of stand type on species richness and abundance. In 2006, the species assemblage started to differentiate between the two stand types and forest age, forest site type (moisture), and distance to forest reserves, all explained part of the variation, whereas the amount of CWD, and species composition at the start of the experiment only showed a marginal effect.

    The early successional fungal community was dominated by two functional groups, humus-decayers and white-rot species, both characterized by a rapid, early colonization and fruit-body formation on the competition-free new substrate. A similar positive response to the new substrate was also observed for the mycorrhizal species in 2006. The high frequency and early appearance of humus-decayers and mycorrhizal species that do not primarily depend upon CWD for their nutrition suggest that their formation of fruiting bodies is limited by substrate availability. Thus some mycorrhizal fungi are apparently rare due to lack of suitable substrate for fruit-body formation.

    Evidence of dispersal-limitation was observed in 2006. Fomitopsis pinicola, an early colonizer in boreal forests, playing a key role for other wood-inhabiting organisms, colonized significantly more logs in the reserve stands compared with the managed stands. Our data demonstrate that lack of CWD strongly affects both species that depend upon wood for nutrition and species that depend upon wood for fruit-body formation. Thus some species may show an apparent rarity due to lack of suitable substrate. We conclude that creation of CWD appears to be a useful method to maintain or restore fungal diversity in boreal coniferous forests.

  • 15.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Independent Researcher, 20 Den Bank Close, Sheffield S10 5PA, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    The European palaeoecological record of Swedish red-listed beetles2021In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 260, article id 109203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent global changes have triggered a biodiversity crisis. However, climate fluctuations have always influenced biodiversity and humans have affected species distributions since prehistoric times. Conservation palaeobiology is a developing field that aims to understand the long-term dynamics of such interactions by studying the geohistorical records in a conservation perspective. Case studies exist for vertebrates and plants, but insects have largely been overlooked so far. Here, we analysed the current red-listed beetle species (Coleoptera) in Sweden and investigated their occurrence and representation in the European Quaternary fossil record. Fossil data currently exist for one third of the Swedish red-listed beetle species. All the red-list conservation classes are represented in the fossil record, which may allow for comparative studies. We found significantly different representations in the fossil records among taxonomic groups and ecological traits, which may depend on the fossil depositional and sampling environments and variation in how difficult species are to identify. Species that are today associated with modern urban environments were mostly found in Quaternary sites with archaeological human settlements, reflecting early human-driven environmental change. Combining modern and fossil insect species data for biodiversity conservation needs to be undertaken with care, and attention paid to biases in both modern and palaeo-data. Nevertheless, this approach opens new opportunities for conservation biology by providing a long-term perspective on biodiversity change.

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  • 16.
    Ström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Botaniska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Dynesius, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Different long-term and short-term responses of land snails to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests.2009In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, p. 1580-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of clear-cutting on biodiversity have mainly been studied in the short-term, although knowledge of longer term effects are often more important for managers of forest biodiversity. We assessed relatively long-term effects of clear-cutting on litter dwelling land snails, a group with slow active dispersal and considered to be intolerant to microclimate changes. In a pair wise design we compared snail abundance, species density, and species composition between 13 old seminatural stream-side stands and 13 matched young stands developed 40–60 years after clear-cutting. Using a standardized semi-quantitative method, we identified all snail specimens in a 1.5 l subsample of a pooled litter sample collected from small patches within a 20 × 5 m plot in each stream-side stand. From the young stands a mean of 135 shells and 9.5 species was extracted which was significantly higher than the 58.1 shells and 6.9 species found in old forests. Only two of the 16 species encountered showed a stronger affinity to old than to young forests. In short-term studies of boreal stream-side forests land snail abundance is reduced by clear-cutting. Our results indicate that this decline is transient for most species and within a few decades replaced by an increase. We suggest that local survival in moist stream-side refugia makes the land snails able to benefit from the higher pH and more abundant non-conifer litter in young than in old boreal forests. Our results highlight the importance of longer term studies as a basis for management guidelines for biodiversity conservation.

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