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  • 1.
    Abramsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Backman, Annica C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Edvardsson, David
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, VIC, Bundoora, Australia.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Use of heart failure medications in older individuals and associations with cognitive impairment2023In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To achieve the best treatment of heart failure, it is important to use all recommended drugs at their target doses. Given that underuse of medications can occur in individuals with cognitive impairment, we investigated the filled prescriptions and target doses of heart failure medication for older individuals with and without cognitive impairment as well as associated factors.

    Methods: The study was based on two separate datasets. The first dataset, which was based on data from questionnaires sent to nursing homes in Sweden, included 405 individuals with heart failure. The data were linked with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the National Patient Register to obtain information regarding filled prescriptions of heart failure medications and heart failure diagnoses among the population. In the second dataset, medical records of individuals aged 75 years or older admitted to a hospital in northern Sweden were reviewed and individuals with heart failure were identified. Target doses of heart failure medications were evaluated in 66 individuals who lived at home.

    Results: Filled prescriptions of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and loop diuretics were significantly more common in individuals without cognitive impairment (OR 1.087; 95% CI 1.026–1.152, p < 0.05) and (OR 1.057; 95% CI 1.017–1.098, p < 0.05), respectively. There were no significant differences between individuals with and without cognitive impairment in terms of achieving target doses for any of the drug classes. A higher age was associated with fewer filled prescriptions and less ability to reach the target doses of beta blockers (OR 0.950; 95% CI 0.918–0.984, p < 0.05) and (OR 0.781; 95% CI 0.645–0.946, p < 0.05), respectively.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that individuals with cognitive impairment are partly undertreated for heart failure in that they had fewer filled prescriptions of important heart medications. Separately, the relatively low proportion of older individuals reaching target doses is an important observation and indicates that treatment of heart failure could be further optimised among older individuals.

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  • 2. Ahman, Hanna B.
    et al.
    Cedervall, Ylva
    Kilander, Lena
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Berglund, Lars
    McKee, Kevin J.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Aberg, Anna Cristina
    Dual-task tests discriminate between dementia, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls: a cross-sectional cohort study2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundDiscrimination between early-stage dementia and other cognitive impairment diagnoses is central to enable appropriate interventions. Previous studies indicate that dual-task testing may be useful in such differentiation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dual-task test outcomes discriminate between groups of individuals with dementia disorder, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls.MethodsA total of 464 individuals (mean age 71years, 47% women) were included in the study, of which 298 were patients undergoing memory assessment and 166 were cognitively healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to the diagnosis received: dementia disorder, mild cognitive impairment, or subjective cognitive impairment. Data collection included participants' demographic characteristics. The patients' cognitive test results and diagnoses were collected from their medical records. Healthy controls underwent the same cognitive tests as the patients. The mobility test Timed Up-and-Go (TUG single-task) and two dual-task tests including TUG (TUGdt) were carried out: TUGdt naming animals and TUGdt months backwards. The outcomes registered were: time scores for TUG single-task and both TUGdt tests, TUGdt costs (relative time difference between TUG single-task and TUGdt), number of different animals named, number of months recited in correct order, number of animals per 10s, and number of months per 10s. Logistic regression models examined associations between TUG outcomes pairwise between groups.ResultsThe TUGdt outcomes "animals/10s" and "months/10s" discriminated significantly (p <0.001) between individuals with an early-stage dementia diagnosis, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. The TUGdt outcome "animals/10s" showed an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval 2.0-5.4) for the groups dementia disorders vs. mild cognitive impairment. TUGdt cost outcomes, however, did not discriminate between any of the groups.ConclusionsThe novel TUGdt outcomes "words per time unit", i.e. "animals/10s" and "months/10s", demonstrate high levels of discrimination between all investigated groups. Thus, the TUGdt tests in the current study could be useful as complementary tools in diagnostic assessments. Future studies will be focused on the predictive value of TUGdt outcomes concerning dementia risk for individuals with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive impairment.

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  • 3.
    Axenhus, Michael
    et al.
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Theme Inflammation and Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Schedin-Weiss, Sophia
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Tjernberg, Lars
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Wimo, Anders
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; The primary care of Hudiksvall-Nordanstig, the Region of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Theme Inflammation and Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Bucht, Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Theme Inflammation and Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Changes in dementia diagnoses in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused large disruptions to healthcare systems. Refocus on COVID-19 related care might have contributed to indirect effects on other healthcare areas. Care focused on acute conditions have been negatively affected although research into the effects on chronic and care intensive patient groups such as patients with dementia diseases is lacking. In this study we evaluated dementia diagnosis trends in Sweden during 2015–2020 according to International Classification of Disease version 10 coding of common dementia diseases.

    Methods: Regional and national statistics in the form of International Classification of Disease version 10 coding, COVID-19 incidence, mortality data, and population census data were collected from the National Institute of Health and Welfare. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify trends of dementia diagnosis during 2015–2020. Correlation test was performed between COVID-19 incidence, mortality rates, and dementia coding.

    Results: Dementia diagnosis incidence has been declining since 2015 and further decline was noted in many regions in Sweden during 2020. As COVID-19 incidence increased, fewer cases of dementia were diagnosed, a decrease that differentially impacted women and those who were advanced in age.

    Conclusions: Dementia diagnosis incidence in Sweden has been on a decline since 2015. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a further larger decline in dementia diagnosis incidence during 2020. COVID-19 incidence, but not mortality, was associated with decrease in dementia diagnosis incidence. There might be a large number of undiagnosed patients with dementia and healthcare reforms should be enacted to address this. Women and elderly are particularly vulnerable groups.

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  • 4.
    Backman, Annica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. NVS, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. NVS, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Characteristics of nursing home units with high versus low levels of person-centred care in relation to leadership, staff- resident- and facility factors: findings from SWENIS, a cross-sectional study in Sweden2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The context of care consists of factors that determines the extent to which staff can offer person-centred care. However, few studies have investigated factors that can explain variation in levels of person-centred care among nursing home units. The aim of this study was to explore factors characterizing nursing home units with high and low degree of person-centred care, with focus on leadership, staff, resident and facility factors.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data from residents, staff, and managers in 172 randomly selected nursing homes in Sweden were collected in 2014. Activities of Daily Living Index, Gottfries' cognitive scale, Person-centred Care Assessment Tool together with demographic information and estimations of leadership engagement was used. Independent samples t-test and Chi2 test were conducted.

    Results: Highly person-centred units were characterised by leaders engaging in staff knowledge, professional development, team support and care quality. In highly person-centred units' staff also received supervision of a nurse to a larger extent. Highly person-centred units were also characterised as dementia specific units, units with fewer beds and with a larger proportion of enrolled nurses. No differences in degree of person-centred care were seen between public or private providers.

    Conclusions: This study provides guidance for practitioners when designing, developing and adapting person-centred units in aged care contexts. Managers and leaders have an important role to promote the movement towards a person-centred practice of care, by supporting their staff in daily care, and engaging in staff knowledge and professional development. Targeting and adjusting environmental factors, such as provide small and dementia adapted environments to match the residents' personal preferences and capacity are also important when striving towards person-centredness.

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  • 5.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Björk, Sabine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Web-based exercise versus supervised exercise for decreasing visceral adipose tissue in older adults with central obesity: a randomized controlled trial2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increases with age. While supervised exercise (SE) may be an effective approach, web-based exercise (WE) have other advantages such as being more readily accessible. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of WE on VAT, body composition and cardiometabolic risk markers in centrally obese older adults and compared the effects of WE to SE. We also explored the feasibility of WE.

    METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial conducted in Umeå, Sweden during January 2018 - November 2018, N = 77, 70-year-old men and women with central obesity (> 1 kg VAT for women, > 2 kg for men) were randomized to an intervention group (n = 38) and a wait-list control group (n = 39). The intervention group received 10 weeks of SE while the wait-list control group lived as usual. Following a 10-week wash-out-period, the wait-list control group received 10 weeks of WE. The primary outcome was changes in VAT. Secondary outcomes included changes in fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), blood lipids, fasting blood glucose. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of WE defined as adherence and participant experiences.

    RESULTS: WE had no significant effect on VAT (P = 0.5), although it decreased FM by 450 g (95% confidence interval [CI], 37 to 836, P < 0.05). The adherence to WE was 85% and 87-97% of the participants rated aspects of the WE intervention > 4 on a scale of 1-5. Comparing SE to WE, there was no significant difference in decrease of VAT (Cohen's δ effect size [ES], 0.5, 95% CI, - 24 to 223, P = 0.11), although SE decreased FM by 619 g (ES, 0.5, 95% CI, 22 to 1215, P < 0.05) compared to WE.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ten weeks of vigorous WE is insufficient to decrease VAT in centrally obese older adults, but sufficient to decrease FM while preserving LBM. The high adherence and positive experiences of the WE intervention implies that it could serve as an alternative exercise strategy for older adults with central obesity, with increased availability for a larger population.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03450655), retrospectively registered February 28, 2018.

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  • 6.
    Berggren, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Stenvall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Englund, Undis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Co-morbidities, complications and causes of death among people with femoral neck fracture: a three-year follow-up study2016In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 16, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The poor outcome after a hip fracture is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of co-morbidities, complications and causes of death and to investigate factors that are able to predict mortality in old people with femoral neck fracture. Methods: Data was obtained from a randomized, controlled trial with a 3-year follow-up at Umea University Hospital, Sweden, which included 199 consecutive patients with femoral neck fracture, aged >= 70 years. The participants were assessed during hospitalization and in their homes 4, 12 and 36 months after surgery. Medical records and death certificates were analysed. Results: Multivariate analysis revealed that cancer, dependence in P-ADL (Personal Activities of Daily Living), cardiovascular disease, dementia at baseline or pulmonary emboli or cardiac failure during hospitalization were all independent predictors of 3-year mortality. Seventy-nine out of 199 participants (40 %) died within 3 years. Cardiovascular events (24 %), dementia (23 %), hip-fracture (19 %) and cancer (13 %) were the most common primary causes of death. In total, 136 participants suffered at least one urinary tract infection; 114 suffered 542 falls and 37 sustained 56 new fractures, including 13 hip fractures, during follow-up. Conclusion: Old people with femoral neck fracture have multiple co-morbidities and suffer numerous complications. Thus randomized intervention studies should focus on prevention of complications that might be avoidable such as infections, heart diseases, falls and fractures.

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  • 7.
    Björk, Sabine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Juthberg, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Wimo, Anders
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet; Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology.
    Winblad, Bengt
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University.
    Exploring the prevalence and variance of cognitive impairment, pain, neuropsychiatric symptoms and ADL dependency among persons living in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study2016In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 16, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier studies in nursing homes show a high prevalence of cognitive impairment, dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), pain, and neuropsychiatric symptoms among residents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of the above among residents in a nationally representative sample of Swedish nursing homes, and to investigate whether pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms differ in relation to gender, cognitive function, ADL-capacity, type of nursing-home unit and length of stay. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 188 randomly selected nursing homes were collected. A total of 4831 residents were assessed for cognitive and ADL function, pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. Results: The results show the following: the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 67 %, 56 % of residents were ADL-dependent, 48 % exhibited pain and 92 % exhibited neuropsychiatric symptoms. The prevalence of pain did not differ significantly between male and female residents, but pain was more prevalent among cognitively impaired and ADL-dependent residents. Pain prevalence was not significantly different between residents in special care units for people with dementia (SCU) and general units, or between shorter-and longer-stay residents. Furthermore, the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms did not differ significantly between male and female residents, between ADL capacities or in relation to length of stay. However, residents with cognitive impairment and residents in SCUs had a significantly higher prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms than residents without cognitive impairment and residents in general units. Conclusions: The prevalence rates ascertained in this study could contribute to a greater understanding of the needs of nursing-home residents, and may provide nursing home staff and managers with trustworthy assessment scales and benchmark values for further quality assessment purposes, clinical development work and initiating future nursing assessments.

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  • 8.
    Burman, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Obesity may increase survival, regardless of nutritional status: a Swedish cohort study in nursing homes2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate the associations between the body mass index (BMI), Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) scores, and 2-year mortality.

    Methods: A nationwide cohort study using data from a national quality register of older (age ≥ 65 years) nursing home residents (N = 47,686). Individuals were categorized according to BMI as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (class I, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2; class II, 35.0-39.9 kg/m2; class III, ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Participants' nutritional status were categorized as good (MNA-SF score 12-14), at risk of malnutrition (MNA-SF score 8-11), or malnutrition (MNA-SF score 0-7). Associations with mortality were analysed using Cox proportional-hazards models.

    Results: At baseline, 16.0% had obesity, and 14.6% were malnourished. During 2 years of follow-up, 23,335 (48.9%) individuals died. Compared with normal-weight individuals, mortality was greater among underweight individuals [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-1.69] and lesser among individuals with class I (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.60-0.66), class II (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.56-0.68), and class III (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.94) obesity. Compared with individuals with good nutritional status, mortality was increased for those with malnutrition (HR 2.98,95% CI 2.87-3.10). Lower mortality among obese individuals was also seen in subgroups defined according to MNA-SF scores.

    Conclusions: Among older nursing home residents, obesity, including severe obesity, was associated with lower 2-year mortality. Higher BMIs were associated with better survival, regardless of nutritional status according to MNA-SF.

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  • 9.
    Bölenius, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia; Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Older adults' experiences of self-determination when needing homecare services—an interview study2023In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-determination has been shown to be an important factor in mental health and wellbeing, but from the homecare recipients' point of view, autonomy and self-determination is not fully integrated into homecare services. The aim of this study was to explore older adults’ experiences of self-determination when needing homecare services.

    Methods: In 2018, a qualitative descriptive study was conducted and a convenience sample of 15 older adults from 3 homecare service facilities were invited to participate in individual interviews. Data were analysed using qualitative content analyse.

    Results: The theme Transitioning from self-determination as independence towards self-determination as shared decision-making emerged through the older adults' narratives. This ‘transition’ is one in which older adult’s understanding of self-determination and self-esteem was transitioning towards the acceptance of shared decision-making. The person's inner strength and willingness to make decisions was promoting to enact and preserve independence. Accepting one's dependence on others and being in a positive atmosphere were described as promoting self-determination and shared decision-making, and vice versa. The above overarching theme permeated all subthemes, which included: mobilising inner strength to enact independence; accepting increasing dependence on others; and being influenced by the atmosphere.

    Conclusions: The study contributes increased understanding of older adults' experiences of self-determination. The results can act as a guide when planning future person-centred care interventions in the context of homecare services and help improve homecare services' ability to meet the needs of older adults. To summarise, older adults' reflections on their own self-determination highlighted relationships with other people as important for shared decision-making, which could help preserve older adults’ autonomy and self-esteem.

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  • 10.
    Bölenius, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Division of Caring Sciences, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University.
    Effects and meanings of a person-centred and health-promoting intervention in home care services: a study protocol of a non-randomised controlled trial2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The literature indicates that current home care service are largely task oriented with limited focus on the involvement of the older people themselves, and studies show that lack of involvement might reduce older people's quality of life. Person-centred care has been shown to improve the satisfaction with care and quality of life in older people cared for in hospitals and nursing homes, with limited published evidence about the effects and meanings of person-centred interventions in home care services for older people. This study protocol outlines a study aiming to evaluate such effects and meanings of a person-centred and health-promoting intervention in home aged care services. Methods/design: The study will take the form of a non-randomised controlled trial with a before/after approach. It will include 270 older people >65 years receiving home care services, 270 relatives and 65 staff, as well as a matched control group of equal size. All participants will be recruited from a municipality in northern Sweden. The intervention is based on the theoretical concepts of person-centredness and health-promotion, and builds on the four pedagogical phases of: theory apprehension, experimental learning, operationalization, and clinical supervision. Outcome assessments will focus on: a) health and quality of life (primary outcomes), thriving and satisfaction with care for older people; b) caregiver strain, informal caregiving engagement and relatives' satisfaction with care: c) job satisfaction and stress of conscience among care staff (secondary outcomes). Evaluation will be conducted by means of self-reported questionnaires and qualitative research interviews. Discussion: Person-centred home care services have the potential to improve the recurrently reported sub-standard experiences of home care services, and the results can point the way to establishing a more person-centred and health-promoting model for home care services for older people.

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  • 11.
    Bölenius, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Division of Caring Sciences, Depart Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia..
    Perceptions of self-determination and quality of life among Swedish home care recipients - across-sectional study2019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, article id 142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is acknowledged that preservation of self-determination is very important in order for older adults to experience good quality of life, but to what degree and in what areas people receiving help from home care service experience self-determination is unknown. Few studies have examined the perception of self-determination in relation to quality of life among older adults living at home with help from home care services. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore perceptions of self-determination among older adults living at home with the support of home care services, and to test whether older adults who perceive a higher degree of self-determination also feel they have a better quality of life.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in one municipality in northern Sweden. A total of 134 older adults (≥ 65 years) were included. Data were collected by means of a survey including questionnaires about background characteristics, self-determination, and health-related quality of life. Descriptive statistics regarding background characteristics for groups with high and low self-determination respectively were presented and the differences between the groups were analyzed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test.

    Results: Our main finding shows that the majority of older adults with support from home care services experience self-determination in the dimensions use of time, and self-care. However, a wide variation was found in self-reported self-determination in all dimensions. Results also show that the group with higher self-reported self-determination also reported a greater degree of experienced quality of life in comparison with the group with lower self-reported self-determination.

    Conclusions: In line with earlier research, our results found a positive relation between self-determination and quality of life. The results are relevant for the care of older adults and indicate a need of further research. The results presented in this paper could serve as a guide when planning for improved self-determination among older adults in home care service.

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  • 12.
    Edvardsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. College of Science, Health and Engineering, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Level 4 Austin Tower, PO Box 5555, Heidelberg 3084, VIC, Australia..
    Sjögren, Karin
    College of Science, Health and Engineering, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Level 4 Austin Tower, PO Box 5555, Heidelberg 3084, VIC, Australia..
    Lood, Qarin
    College of Science, Health and Engineering, School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Level 4 Austin Tower, PO Box 5555, Heidelberg 3084, VIC, Australia..
    Bergland, Adel
    Kirkevold, Marit
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Division of Caring Sciences, Depart Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    A person-centred and thriving-promoting intervention in nursing homes - study protocol for the U-Age nursing home multi-centre, non-equivalent controlled group before-after trial2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The literature suggests that person-centred care can contribute to quality of life and wellbeing of nursing home residents, relatives and staff. However, there is sparse research evidence on how person-centred care can be operationalised and implemented in practice, and the extent to which it may promote wellbeing and satisfaction. Therefore, the U-Age nursing home study was initiated to deepen the understanding of how to integrate person-centred care into daily practice and to explore the effects and meanings of this.

    Methods: The study aims to evaluate effects and meanings of a person-centred and thriving-promoting intervention in nursing homes through a multi-centre, non-equivalent controlled group before-after trial design. Three nursing homes across three international sites have been allocated to a person-centred and thriving-promoting intervention group, and three nursing homes have been allocated to an inert control group. Staff at intervention sites will participate in a 12-month interactive educational programme that operationalises thriving-promoting and person-centred care three dimensions: 1) Doing a little extra, 2) Developing a caring environment, and 3) Assessing and meeting highly prioritised psychosocial needs. A pedagogical framework will guide the intervention. The primary study endpoints are; residents’ thriving, relatives’ satisfaction with care and staff job satisfaction. Secondary endpoints are; resident, relative and staff experiences of the caring environment, relatives’ experience of visiting their relative and the nursing home, as well as staff stress of conscience and perceived person-centredness of care. Data on study endpoints will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a six-month follow up. Interviews will be conducted with relatives and staff to explore experiences and meanings of the intervention.

    Discussion: The study is expected to provide evidence that can inform further research, policy and practice development on if and how person-centred care may improve wellbeing, thriving and satisfaction for people who reside in, visit or work in nursing homes. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data will illuminate the operationalisation, effects and meaning of person-centred and thriving-promoting care.

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  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Clinical Neuroscience.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Constipation and laxative use among people living in nursing homes in 2007 and 20132019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Constipation is a common condition among older people, particularly among people living in nursing homes, and the use of drugs such as opioids is one of many factors that contribute to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of constipation and the use of laxatives between 2007 and 2013, to analyze constipation and laxative use among people who are prescribed opioids, and to identify factors associated with constipation. Methods: In 2007 and 2013, two surveys were performed in the county of Vasterbotten in Northern Sweden, comprising all those living in nursing homes. The Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale was used to collect data regarding laxative, opioid and anticholinergic drug use, functioning in activities of daily living (ADL), cognition and symptoms of constipation. A comparison was made between 2820 people from 2007 and 1902 people from 2013. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation among people living in nursing homes increased from 36% in 2007 to 40% in 2013. After controlling for age, sex, ADL, cognitive impairment and use of opioid and anticholinergic drugs, this difference was found to be statistically significant. When controlled for demographic changes, there was a statistically significant difference in the regular use of laxatives between the respective years, from 46% in 2007 to 59% in 2013. People prescribed opioids and anticholinergic drugs were at increased risk of constipation, while people with a higher ADL score were at decreased risk. Further, among people prescribed opioids and rated as constipated, 35% in 2007 and 20% in 2013 were not prescribed laxatives for regular use, a difference that was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation increased between 2007 and 2013. Although there was a decrease between the years, there were still a number of people being prescribed with opioids and rated as constipated who were not treated with laxatives. This study therefore indicates that constipation remains a significant problem among people in nursing homes and also indicates that those prescribed opioids could benefit from an increased awareness of the risk of constipation and treatment, if required.

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  • 14.
    Gwatidzo, Shingai Douglas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Research Centre for Gender, Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, Newcastle NSW 2305, New South Wales, Australia.
    Diabetes mellitus medication use and catastrophic healthcare expenditure among adults aged 50+ years in China and India: results from the WHO study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Expenditure on medications for highly prevalent chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in financial impoverishment. People in developing countries and in low socioeconomic status groups are particularly vulnerable. China and India currently hold the world's two largest DM populations. Both countries are ageing and undergoing rapid economic development, urbanisation and social change. This paper assesses the determinants of DM medication use and catastrophic expenditure on medications in older adults with DM in China and India.

    METHODS: Using national standardised data collected from adults aged 50 years and above with DM (self-reported) in China (N = 773) and India (N = 463), multivariable logistic regression describes: 1) association between respondents' socio-demographic and health behavioural characteristics and the dependent variable, DM medication use, and 2) association between DM medication use (independent variable) and household catastrophic expenditure on medications (dependent variable) (China: N = 630; India: N = 439). The data source is the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 (2007-2010).

    RESULTS: Prevalence of DM medication use was 87% in China and 71% in India. Multivariable analysis indicates that people reporting lifestyle modification were more likely to use DM medications in China (OR = 6.22) and India (OR = 8.45). Women were more likely to use DM medications in China (OR = 1.56). Respondents in poorer wealth quintiles in China were more likely to use DM medications whereas the reverse was true in India. Almost 17% of people with DM in China experienced catastrophic healthcare expenditure on medications compared with 7% in India. Diabetes medication use was not a statistically significant predictor of catastrophic healthcare expenditure on medications in either country, although the odds were 33% higher among DM medications users in China (OR = 1.33).

    CONCLUSIONS: The country comparison reflects major public policy differences underpinned by divergent political and ideological frameworks. The DM epidemic poses huge public health challenges for China and India. Ensuring equitable and affordable access to medications for DM is fundamental for healthy ageing cohorts, and is consistent with the global agenda for universal healthcare coverage.

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  • 15. Hoang, Van Minh
    et al.
    Dao, Lan Huong
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Multilevel analysis of covariation in socioeconomic predictors of physical functioning and psychological well-being among older people in rural Vietnam2010In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 10, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There remains a lack of research on co-variation of multiple health outcomes and their socio-economic co-patterning, especially among the elderly. This papers aims to 1) examine the effects of different socio-economic factors on physical functioning and psychological well-being among older adults in a rural community in northern Vietnam; and 2) investigate the extent to which the two outcomes variables co-vary within individuals.

    Methods We analyzed the data from the WHO/INDEPTH study on global ageing and adult health conducted on 8535 people aged 50 years old and over in Bavi district of Vietnam in 2006. A multivariate response model was constructed to answer our research questions. The model treats the individual as a level two unit and the multiple measurements observed within an individual as a level one unit.

    Results Lower physical functioning and psychological well-being were found in 1) women; 2) older people; 3) people with lower education level; 4) people who were currently single; 5) respondents from poorer household; and 6) mountainous dwellers compared to that in those of other category(ies) of the same variable. Socioeconomic factors accounted for about 24% and 7% of variation in physical functioning and psychological well-being scores, respectively. The adjusted correlation coefficient (0.35) indicates that physical functioning and psychological well-being did not strongly co-vary.

    Conclusions The present study shows that there exist problems of inequality in health among older adults in the study setting. This finding highlights the importance of analyzing multiple dimensions of health status simultaneously in inequality investigations.

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    Multilevel analysis of covariation in socioeconomic predictors of physical functioning and psychological well-being among older people in rural Vietnam
  • 16.
    Hoi, Le Van
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Thang, Pham
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Elderly care in daily living in rural Vietnam: Need and its socioeconomic determinants2011In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, no 11, p. 81-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The proportion of older people is increasing rapidly in Vietnam. The majority of the elderly live in rural areas. Their health status is generally improving but this is less pronounced among the most vulnerable groups. The movement of young people for employment and the impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study aims to assess the daily care needs and their socioeconomic determinants among older people in a rural setting.

    Methods

    In 2007, people aged 60 years and older, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance System (DSS). They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess needed support in activities of daily living (ADLs). Individuals were interviewed about the presence of chronic illnesses that had been diagnosed by a physician. Participant socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeat census. The repeat census used a repeat of the same survey methods and questions as the original FilaBavi DSS. Distributions of study participants by socioeconomic group, supports needed, levels of support received, types of caregivers, and the ADL index were described. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify socioeconomic determinants of the ADL index.

    Results

    The majority of older people do not need of support for each specific ADL item. Dependence in instrumental or intellectual ADLs was more common than for basic ADLs. People who need total help were less common than those who need some help in most ADLs. Over three-fifths of those who need help receive enough support in all ADL dimensions. Children and grandchildren are the main caregivers. Age group, sex, educational level, marital status, household membership, working status, household size, living arrangement, residential area, household wealth, poverty status, and chronic illnesses were determinants of daily care needs in old age.

    Conclusions

    Although majority of older people who needed help received enough support in daily care, the need of care is more demanded in disadvantaged groups. Future community-based, long-term elderly care should focus on instrumental and intellectual ADLs among the general population of older people, and on basic ADLs among those with chronic illnesses. Socioeconomic determinants of care needs should be addressed in future interventions.

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  • 17.
    Hägglund, Patricia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Oropharyngeal dysphagia and associated factors among individuals living in nursing homes in northern Sweden in 2007 and 20132022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swallowing difficulties in the oral cavity or pharynx (i.e., oropharyngeal dysphagia) are a common problem in the aging population, which may result in severe consequences, such as malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and mortality. Identifying oropharyngeal dysphagia and its associated factors is essential for establishing better healthcare policies in nursing homes. In this study, we aimed to describe the oropharyngeal dysphagia prevalence among nursing home residents, and to investigate the association between dysphagia and potentially related factors in a large survey of nursing home residents in Sweden, including individuals with various degrees of cognitive impairment. A secondary aim was to compare findings between years on oropharyngeal dysphagia and its associated factors.

    Methods: This study is based on two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2007 and 2013, including 4,995 individuals living in nursing homes in the Region of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data were collected from caregivers’ reports regarding swallowing ability, nutritional status, chewing ability, and other baseline characteristics, such as cognitive function and activity of daily living (ADL). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models to calculate the odds of the association between oropharyngeal dysphagia and associated factors.

    Results: Oropharyngeal dysphagia was reported in 14.9% (95% CI: 13.9–16.0) of the nursing home residents. An adjusted model revealed that oropharyngeal dysphagia was associated by severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12) and ADL independence (OR: 0.81 95% CI: 1.82–2.66) among nursing home residents. We also identified the following as independently associated factors of dysphagia: reduced nutritional status (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.49–2.27), artificial nutrition (OR: 6.33, 95% CI: 2.73–14.71), and clinical signs of aspiration (OR: 10.89, 95% CI: 8.40–14.12).

    Conclusions: Oropharyngeal dysphagia was reported among approximately 15% nursing home residents and was associated with cognitive impairment and ADL capability. Furthermore, reduced nutritional status and artificial nutrition were also associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Implementing routine protocols in nursing homes may help detect oropharyngeal dysphagia and manage oropharyngeal dysphagia among residents.

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  • 18.
    Hägglund, Patricia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Olai, Lena
    Ståhlnacke, Katri
    Persenius, Mona
    Hagg, Mary
    Andersson, Maria
    Koistinen, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Study protocol for the SOFIA project: Swallowing function, Oral health, and Food Intake in old Age: a descriptive study with a cluster randomized trial2017In: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Extensive studies have shown that older people are negatively impacted by impaired eating and nutrition. The abilities to eat, enjoy food, and participate in social activities associated with meals are important aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and recovery after illness. This project aims to (i) describe and analyze relationships between oral health and oral HRQoL, swallowing ability, eating ability, and nutritional risk among older individuals admitted to short-term care; (ii) compare the perceptions that older individuals and staff report on care quality related to oral hygiene and eating; and (iii) study the feasibility and effects of a training program for people with impaired swallowing (i.e., dysphagia).

    Methods/Design: This project consists of two parts, which will be performed in five Swedish counties. It will include approximately 400 older individuals and 200 healthcare professionals. Part 1 is a cross-sectional, descriptive study of older people admitted to short-term care. Subjects will be assessed by trained professionals regarding oral health status, oral HRQoL, eating and nutritional risk, and swallowing ability. Swallowing ability will be measured with a teaspoon test and a swallowing capacity test (SCT). Furthermore, subjects and staff will complete a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of care quality.

    Part 2 is a cluster randomized intervention trial with controls. Older participants with dysphagia (i.e., SCT <10 ml/s, measured in part 1) will be recruited consecutively to either the intervention or control group, depending on where they were admitted for short-term care. At baseline, all subjects will be assessed for oral health status, oral HRQoL, eating and nutritional risk, swallowing ability, and swallowing-related QoL. Then, the intervention group will receive 5 weeks of training with an oral screen for neuromuscular training focused on orofacial and pharyngeal muscles. After completing the intervention, and at six months post-intervention, all assessments will be repeated in both study groups.

    Discussion: The results will make important contributions to rehabilitation knowledge, including approaches for improving swallowing function, oral health, and food intake and for improving the quality of oral care for older people.

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  • 19.
    Häggqvist, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stenvall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    "The balancing act". Licensed practical nurse experiences of falls and fall prevention: a qualitative study2012In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 12, p. 62-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Falls are common in old age and may have serious consequences. There are many strategies to predict and prevent falls from occurring in long-term care and hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe licensed practical nurse experiences of predicting and preventing further falls when working with patients who had experienced a fall-related fracture. Licensed practical nurses are the main caretakers that work most closely with the patients.

    Methods: A qualitative study of focus groups interviews and field observations was done. 15 licensed practical nurses from a rehabilitation ward and an acute ward in a hospital in northern Sweden were interviewed. Content was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result of the licensed practical nurse thoughts and experiences about risk of falling and fall prevention work is represented in one theme, "the balancing act". The theme includes three categories: "the right to decide", "the constant watch", and "the ongoing negotiation" as well as nine subcategories. The analysis showed similarities and differences between rehabilitation and acute wards. At both wards it was a core strategy in the licensed practical nurse work to always be ready and to pay attention to patients' appearance and behavior. At the rehabilitation ward, it was an explicit working task to judge the patients' risk of falling and to be active to prevent falls. At the acute ward, the words "risk of falling" were not used and fall prevention were not discussed; instead the licensed practical nurses used for example "dizzy and pale". The results also indicated differences in components that facilitate workplace learning and knowledge transfer.

    Conclusions: Differences between the wards are most probably rooted in organizational differences. When it is expected by the leadership, licensed practical nurses can express patient risk of falling, share their observations with others, and take actions to prevent falls. The climate and the structure of the ward are essential if licensed practical nurses are to be encouraged to routinely consider risk of falling and implement risk reduction strategies.

  • 20.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    The prevalence of stroke and depression and factors associated with depression in elderly people with and without stroke2016In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 16, article id 174Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have investigated factors associated with depression among elderly people with and without stroke concurrently, using identical settings, procedures and study variables. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of stroke and depression and to compare the factors associated with depression in people with and without stroke. Methods: A postal mail survey was sent to 65-, 70-, 75- and 80-year-olds in northern Sweden and Finland in 2010 (n = 6098). Stroke was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Have you had a stroke?" Depression was defined as answering "yes" to the question "Are you depressed?" or having a Geriatric Depression Scale-4 score >= 2. Dependence in personal activities of daily living was defined as not showering without human assistance. Associations were tested with log-binomial regression. Results: The overall stroke prevalence was 7.0 +/- 0.3 % and increased from 4.7 +/- 0.4 % among 65-year-olds to 11.6 +/- 1.0 % among 80-year-olds (p < 0.001). The overall depression prevalence was 12.8 +/- 0.4 % and increased from 11.0 +/- 0.6 % among 65-year-olds to 18.1 +/- 1.2 % among 80-year-olds (p < 0.001). Depression was more common among people with stroke (Prevalence Ratio 1.77, 95 % Confidence Interval 1.48-2.12). In the non-stroke group, depression was independently associated with diabetes, dependence in instrumental activities of daily living, living alone, not having someone to talk to, poor finances, pain problems and having a life crisis in the preceding year. In the group with stroke, depression was independently associated with dependence in personal activities of daily living and having a life crisis the preceding year. Conclusions: Depression in people without stroke appeared to be independently associated with a broader range of external factors than depression in people with stroke.

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  • 21.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). The Swedish National Graduate School for Competitive Science On Aging and Health (SWEAH), Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hammarberg, Anders
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    "Ageing with an alcohol problem is not what I envision": reclaiming agency in shaping personal ageing trajectory and recovery from alcohol problems2023In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, article id 866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eliciting and understanding older persons’ descriptions of their resources for healthy ageing and the interaction of these resources with alcohol use and alcohol problems can facilitate health promotion. It can also inform clinicians when identifying areas of recovery capital that present risks and strength for older people seeking alcohol treatment. The objective of this study was to illuminate the experiences and perspectives of older persons on ageing, alcohol use, treatment, and recovery from alcohol problems, as well as their understanding of healthy ageing.

    Methods: Eight men and two women, aged 61 to 73 years, with moderate drinking as a treatment goal and treated at an outpatient alcohol clinic in Sweden, participated in semi-structured audio-recorded virtual interviews. A qualitative content analysis examined the transcribed interviews.

    Results: Three themes were identified: “Tipping the balance”, “Staying behind a veil” and “Lifting the vail”. First, participants understood healthy ageing as a personal and multidimensional process that involved actively expanding, maintaining or adjusting to the resources needed to lead an active and meaningful life while preserving autonomy, dignity and independence for as long as possible. Second, most participants viewed moderate alcohol use as a contributor to healthy ageing. They sought treatment when their drinking became unsustainable and an immediate threat to their healthy ageing resources. Stigma, ambivalence and a lack of treatment options, however, contributed to delayed treatment. Third, the participants responded to treatment approaches that elicited their concern, incorporated their expertise and treatment and life goals, appreciated their autonomy and agency, and considered them partners in goal setting and decision making. Reduced drinking helped participants regain their agency and improved their healthy ageing capital which in turn catalyzed continuing recovery.

    Conclusions: Older persons in non-abstinent recovery perceive healthy ageing and alcohol recovery as personal and interacting multidimensional processes involving their agency to improve biopsychosocial functioning. Treatment approaches that recognize older persons’ desire for healthy ageing, incorporate their treatment goals and respect their autonomy are likely to be acceptable and effective.

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  • 22. Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    et al.
    Leung, Angela Yee Man
    Grundberg, Åke
    Bostroem, Anne-Marie
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Kallström, Ana Paula
    Moberg, Cecilia
    Cronfalk, Berit Seiger
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    Konradsen, Hanne
    Care of family caregivers of persons with dementia (CaFCa) through a tailor-made mobile app: study protocol of a complex intervention study2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, family members account for the main source of caregiving of persons with dementia living at home. Providing care to family members with dementia often has negative health consequences for caregivers such as stress, depression and low quality of life. Yet, formal support for family caregivers (FCs) is limited. Telehealth technology has the potential to provide health care and social support to FCs. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of providing support by healthcare professionals (HPs) through a mobile app in reducing stress, depressive symptoms and loneliness, and improving mental health and quality of life of FCs of persons with dementia.

    Methods: Using a pragmatic intervention design, this study will use pre- and post-intervention assessment to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed intervention in a sample of 78 FCs of persons with dementia (PWD). The intervention will be implemented by approximately 5 HPs specialized in dementia care based in the municipalities in Sweden. The main thrust of the intervention is to provide professional support, with help of an interactive mobile app, to family members in their caregiving role for PWDs. Qualitative interviews with HPs and FCs form the groundwork of the development of the mobile app. By using the app on smart phone or tablet, the FC, in groups of 8-10, will communicate with peers and a HP exchanging ideas on how to deal with PWD's behavioral and cognitive changes and get support. They will also be able to discuss stressful events and access mindfulness exercises focused on themselves. Quantitative data will be collected before and at three time points after the 8-week intervention to assess changes in the health outcomes of the FCs. In-depth interviews will be conducted after the intervention to capture the experiences of FCs and HPs regarding the ease of use and acceptability of the app.

    Discussion: This tailor-made mobile app has the high potential to be a practical platform for supporting FCs to alleviate stress and improve mental health irrespective of distance to the nearest health care or social service center.

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  • 23.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Stenvall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Older adults' perspectives on rehabilitation and recovery one year after a hip fracture – a qualitative study2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In order to improve quality of care and recovery after hip fracture we need to include the perspectives of the individual older adults when evaluating different rehabilitation interventions. The aim of this study was therefore to explore older adults’ experiences of their rehabilitation after a hip fracture and of the recovery process during the 12 months following the fracture. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 older adults (70–91 years of age) who had participated in a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effects of early discharge followed by geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation compared to in-hospital care according to a multifactorial rehabilitation program. Ten participants from each group were interviewed shortly after the one-year follow-up when the study was completed. Data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis resulted in four themes: Moving towards recovery with the help of others; Getting to know a new me; Striving for independence despite obstacles; and Adapting to an altered but acceptable life. The participants emphasised the importance of having access to rehabilitation that was provided by skilled staff, and support from family members and friends for well-being and recovery. They experienced a change in their self-image but strove for independence despite struggling with complications and functional limitations and used adaptive strategies to find contentment in their lives. Conclusions: Rehabilitation interventions provided by competent health care professionals, as well as support from family members and friends, were emphasised as crucial for satisfactory recovery. Participants’ experiences further highlight the importance of targeting both physical and psychological impacts after a hip fracture. To improve recovery, rehabilitation providers should customise future interventions to suit each individual´s wishes and needs and provide rehabilitation in various settings throughout the recovery process. Trial registration: The trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials Ltd, ICRCTN 15738119. Date of registration 16/06/2008, retrospectively registered.

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  • 24.
    Koistinen, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Ståhlnacke, Katri
    Dental Research Department, Postgraduate Dental Education Center, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olai, Lena
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    School of Health and Welfare, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University Health Care Research Center, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Older people’s experiences of oral health and assisted daily oral care in short-term facilities2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older people’s oral health has improved, and many retain their natural teeth throughout their life. However, their daily oral care can be more difficult because of compromised general health and the reduced capacity for self-care that often comes with old age. More knowledge is needed about how older people view their oral health and oral care. The aim of this study was to describe how older people in short-term care experience their oral health and daily oral care.

    Method: A descriptive, qualitative study was performed through interviews with 14 older people (74–95 years) recruited from short-term care units in two Swedish regions. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis.

    Results: The findings are described in one main category, three categories and nine sub-categories. The main category was Adapting to a changed oral condition while striving to retain independence. The first category, Wanting to manage daily oral care independently, contained three subcategories: Having always brushed my teeth without help, Being satisfied with my mouth and teeth, and Having to accept help if necessary. The second category, Acceptance of changes in oral condition, had three subcategories: Difficulty in chewing and swallowing, Difficulty with tooth brushing, and Not considering a dentist visit to be worth the cost. The third category, Barriers to receiving assistance from staff, had three subcategories: Staff lacking the time to help, Not wanting to be a burden, and Lack of confidence in staff’s knowledge.

    Conclusions: The participants were generally satisfied with their oral health despite an expressed need for dental treatment. Daily oral care was something they wanted to manage themselves, and they had a strong desire to stay independent for as long as possible. Closer collaboration between dental and health care staff is necessary in order to implement clinical practice guidelines for oral health care and increase nursing staff’s attention towards older peoples’ oral health.

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  • 25.
    Lestari, Septi K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute ofMedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Changes in the provision of instrumental support by older adults in nine European countries during 2004-2015: a panel data analysis2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing support to others has been shown to be beneficial to older adults. As people age, their health and social relationships change. These changes may also relate to changes in social support provision. We examined the trajectory of instrumental support provision by older people in three European regions throughout 11 years of follow-up. We then examined the extent to which age at baseline, sex, and region (representing welfare state regime) influenced the variations in the trajectory.

    Methods: Data collected from 8354 respondents who had completed at least waves 1 and 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was analysed. Instrumental support provision was determined from asking a single question regarding whether the respondent provided help personally for people outside their household. Region, sex, and age at baseline were the main predictors tested. We used growth modelling to address the aims of this study.

    Results: The northern European region (Sweden and Denmark) had the highest odds ratio of instrumental support provision. The likelihood of being involved in providing instrumental support decreased by 8% annually (OR: 0.916, 95%CI: 0.893,0.940) over the 11 years of follow-up. Older respondents were less likely to provide instrumental support and their trajectories declined faster than those of the younger respondents. Sex difference in instrumental support provision was more apparent among younger-older people in the southern European region.

    Conclusions: Older European adults are an important source of instrumental support, especially for their families. The probability of instrumental support provision by European older adults declines over time. Age, sex, and welfare state regime predict this trajectory.

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  • 26.
    Lilja-Lund, Otto
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Maripuu, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Kockum, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Lindam, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Laurell, Katarina
    Department of Medical Sciences, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Longitudinal neuropsychological trajectories in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a population–based study2023In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a progressive syndrome affecting gait, incontinence, and cognition in a significant number of older adults. Still, prospective studies on early development of symptoms are scarce.

    Aim: To investigate how neuropsychological functions develop before and in already diagnosed iNPH over a two-year period in a population-based material.

    Method: A sample of 104 participants (median [IQR] 75 [72–80] years old) from the general population underwent CT-imaging and clinical assessment at baseline and follow-up. We used the iNPH symptom scale covering four domains (Neuropsychology, Gait, Balance, Incontinence) and additional tests of executive functions. Morphological signs were rated with the iNPH Radscale. Non-parametric statistics with Bonferroni corrections and a significance-level of p < 0.05 were used.

    Results: Median (IQR) time to follow-up was 25 (23–26) months. Effect size (ES) for individuals who developed iNPH (n = 8) showed a large (ES r = -0.55) decline in the Gait domain and on the Radscale (ES r = -0.60), with a medium deterioration in declarative memory (ES r = -0.37). Those having iNPH at baseline (n = 12) performed worse on one executive sub-function i.e., shifting (p = 0.045).

    Conclusion: Besides deterioration in gait and radiology, our results suggest that a neuropsychological trajectory for those developing iNPH includes a reduction in declarative memory. Executive dysfunction was limited to those already having iNPH at baseline. These findings could suggest that memory impairments are included in the early development of iNPH.

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  • 27.
    Lindbo, Agnes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Dysphoric symptoms in relation to other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, among elderly in nursing homes2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common and varied in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between BPSD and dysphoric symptoms at different levels of cognitive impairment.

    METHODS: Assessments of 4397 elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Sweden were performed. Data on cognitive function and BPSD were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The relationships between dysphoria and eight BPSD factors were plotted against cognitive function to investigate how dysphoria affects BPSD throughout the dementia disease.

    RESULTS: Overall, dysphoric symptoms were most prevalent in persons with moderate cognitive impairment. However, moderate to severe dysphoric symptoms showed no clear variation with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, aggressive behavior, verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior, hallucinatory symptoms and wandering behavior were more common with concurrent dysphoria regardless of cognitive function. In contrast, passiveness was more common with concurrent dysphoria in mild cognitive impairment but not in moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

    CONCLUSIONS: BPSD, including aggressive behavior and hallucinations, were more common with concurrent dysphoric symptoms, providing insight into behavioral and psychological symptoms among individuals with cognitive impairment. Apathy was more commonly associated with concurrent dysphoria at early stages of cognitive decline but not at later stages, indicating that apathy and dysphoria represent separate syndromes among elderly patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

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  • 28.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy. School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    A focus groups study of staff team experiences of providing interdisciplinary rehabilitation for people with dementia and their caregivers: a co-creative journey2023In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization claims that rehabilitation is important to meet the needs of persons with dementia. Rehabilitation programmes, however, are not routinely available. Person-centred, multidimensional, and interdisciplinary rehabilitation can increase the opportunities for older adults with dementia and their informal primary caregivers to continue to live an active life and participate in society. To our knowledge, staff team experiences of such rehabilitation programmes, involving older adults with dementia and their informal caregivers has not been previously explored.

    Methods: The aim of this qualitative focus group study was to explore the experiences of a comprehensive staff team providing person-centred multidimensional, interdisciplinary rehabilitation to community-dwelling older adults with dementia, including education and support for informal primary caregivers. The 13 staff team members comprised 10 professions who, during a 16-week intervention period, provided individualised interventions while involving the rehabilitation participants. After the rehabilitation period the staff team members were divided in two focus groups who met on three occasions each (in total six focus groups) and discussed their experiences. The Grounded Theory method was used for data collection and analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in four categories: Achieving involvement in rehabilitation is challenging, Considering various realities by acting as a link, Offering time and continuity create added value, and Creating a holistic view through knowledge exchange, and the core category: Refining a co-creative process towards making a difference. The core category resembles the collaboration that the staff had within their teams, which included participants with dementia and caregivers, and with the goal that the intervention should make a difference for the participants. This was conducted with flexibility in a collaborative and creative process.

    Conclusions: The staff team perceived that by working in comprehensive teams they could provide individualised rehabilitation in creative collaboration with the participants through interaction, knowledge exchange, time and continuity, coordination and flexibility, and a holistic view. Challenges to overcome were the involvement of the person with dementia in goal setting and the mediating role of the staff team members. The staff pointed out that by refinement they could achieve well-functioning, competence-enhancing and timesaving teamwork.

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  • 29.
    Lood, Qarin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sjögren, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Bergland, Adel
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kirkevold, Marit
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Effects of a staff education programme about person-centred care and promotion of thriving on relatives' satisfaction with quality of care in nursing homes: a multi-centre, non-equivalent controlled before-after trial2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background As part of a nursing home intervention study, the aim of this paper was 1) to evaluate the effects of a staff education programme about person-centred care and promotion of thriving on relatives' satisfaction with quality of care and their perceptions of the person-centredness of the environment, and 2) to outline factors of importance to explain the variance in relatives' satisfaction with quality of care. Relatives are often referred to as vital for the operationalisation of person-centredness in nursing homes, representing an important source of information for care planning and quality of care assessments. However, the evidence for effects of person-centredness in nursing homes on relatives' experiences is sparse and little is known on what could explain their satisfaction with the quality of care. Methods A multi-centre, non-equivalent controlled group before-after design with study sites in Australia, Norway and Sweden. Staff in the intervention group participated in a 14-month education on person-centredness, person-centred care, thriving and caring environment. Staff in the control group received a one-hour lecture before the intervention period. Data were collected at baseline, after the intervention and six months after the end of the intervention, and analysed using descriptive statistics, a generalised linear model and hierarchical multiple regression. Results In general, relatives from both the intervention and control nursing homes were satisfied with the quality of care, and no statistically significant overall between-group-effects of the intervention were revealed on satisfaction with quality of care or perceptions of the person-centredness of environment. A person-centred environment in terms of safety and hospitality were identified as factors of prominent importance for the relatives' satisfaction with the quality of care. Conclusion The findings of this paper provide a foundation for future research in terms of intervention design in nursing home contexts. Staff availability, approachability, competence and communication with relatives may be important factors to consider to improve quality of care from the perspective of relatives, but more research both with and for relatives to people living in nursing homes is necessary to identify the keys to success.

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  • 30.
    Lämås, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Bölenius, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Effects of a person-centred and health-promoting intervention in home care services – a non-randomized controlled trial2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Home care recipients have reported little self-determination and opportunity to influence their own care. Person-centred care focusing on involvement has improved the quality of life of older adults in health care and nursing homes; however, knowledge about the effects of person-centred interventions in aged care at home is sparse. The aim of this study was to study the effects of a person-centred and health-promoting intervention, compared with usual care, on health-related quality of life, thriving and self-determination among older adults, and on job satisfaction, stress of conscience and level of person-centred care among care staff.

    Methods: This is a non-randomized controlled trial with a before/after design. Participants from five home care districts in one municipality in northern Sweden were recruited to an intervention or control group. We evaluated health-related quality of life, thriving and self-determination among older home care recipients, and job satisfaction, person-centred care and stress of conscience among care staff. Evaluation was performed by questionnaires and responses were analysed using parametric and non-parametric statistical analyses.

    Results: Eighty-one older adults and 48 staff were included in the study. A clinically moderate and statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups was found in thriving and negative emotions among older adults. The intervention contributed to maintaining high thriving levels, in contrast to decreased thriving in the control group (intervention: + 1, control: − 4, p 0.026, CI: − 10. 766, − 0.717). However, the intervention group rated an increase in negative emotions, while the control group was unchanged (intervention: − 7 control: + − 0, p 0.048, CI: − 17.435, − 0.098). No significant effects were found among staff.

    Conclusions: The intervention contributed to maintaining high levels of thriving in contrast to low levels found in the control group, and it seems reasonable to consider the intervention focus on staff as more person-centred and health-promoting. The finding that the intervention group had increase in negative emotions is difficult to interpret, and warrants further exploration. Even though the results are sparse, the challenges discussed may be of importance for future studies in the context of HCS.

    Trial registration: NCT02846246. Date of registration: 27 July 2016.

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  • 31.
    Martinsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Strang, Peter
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; R & D department, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Jonas
    Palliative Care Unit, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; R & D department, Stockholms Sjukhem Foundation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dying from COVID-19 in nursing homes-sex differences in symptom occurrence2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a disease with diverse presentation. Several studies have shown different occurrence of symptoms for women and men, but no studies have been found examining sex differences in clinical presentation for nursing home residents dying from COVID-19.

    The objective of this study was to describe sex and age differences and the impact of a dementia diagnosis on symptom occurrence during the last week in life for persons dying from COVID-19 in nursing homes.

    Methods: This is a population-based retrospective study based on data from the Swedish Register of Palliative Care. A total of 1994 residents aged 65 or older who died from COVID-19 in nursing homes were identified. The impact of sex, age and a dementia diagnosis on six different symptoms was analysed using chi2-test and multivariate logistic regression.

    Results: Residents dying from COVID-19 were more often men (p <.002). Men more often had dyspnoea and death rattles (p <.001). Nausea was more common in women (p <.001). No sex differences in the occurrence of pain, anxiety or confusion were seen. Dyspnoea and nausea were less commonly reported in residents with dementia (p <.001).

    Conclusions: We found sex differences in symptom presentation for fatal COVID-19 in nursing home settings which remained after adjusting for age. Residents with a dementia diagnosis had fewer symptoms reported before death compared to those without dementia.

    Clinical presentation of fatal COVID-19 differs between women and men in nursing homes. Residents with fatal COVID-19 present with more unspecific and less prominent symptoms when also suffering from dementia.

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  • 32.
    Mendham, Amy E.
    et al.
    SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Research Centre for Health through Physical Activity, Lifestyle and Sport, Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Goedecke, Julia H.
    Research Centre for Health through Physical Activity, Lifestyle and Sport, Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Micklesfield, Lisa K.
    SAMRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; Research Centre for Health through Physical Activity, Lifestyle and Sport, Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Brooks, Naomi E.
    Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Faber, Mieke
    Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Christensen, Dirk L.
    Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gallagher, Iain J.
    Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Myburgh, Kathryn H.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Odunitan-Wayas, Feyisayo A.
    Research Centre for Health through Physical Activity, Lifestyle and Sport, Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Lambert, Estelle V.
    Research Centre for Health through Physical Activity, Lifestyle and Sport, Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Kalula, Sebastiana
    Division of Geriatric Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Hunter, Angus M.
    Health Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Understanding factors associated with sarcopenic obesity in older African women from a low-income setting: a cross-sectional analysis2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High rates of food insecurity, obesity and obesity-related comorbidities in ageing South African (SA) women may amplify the risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of sarcopenic obesity and its diagnostic components [grip strength, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and body mass index (BMI)] in older SA women from a low-income setting.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited black SA women between the ages of 60–85 years (n = 122) from a low-income community. Testing included a fasting blood sample (markers of cardiometabolic risk, HIV), whole body and regional muscle and fat mass (dual-energy absorptiometry x-ray), anthropometry, blood pressure, functional movement tests, current medication use, demographic and health questionnaires, physical activity (PA; accelerometery), household food insecurity access scale, and a one-week quantified food frequency questionnaire. Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) criteria (grip strength and ASM, adjusted for BMI) were used to classify sarcopenia. Participants with sarcopenia alongside a BMI of > 30.0 kg/m2 were classified as having sarcopenic obesity. Prevalence using other criteria (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia and the International Working Group for Sarcopenia) were also explored.

    Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 27.9%, which comprised of sarcopenia without obesity (3.3%) and sarcopenic obesity (24.6%). Other classification criteria showed that sarcopenia ranged from 0.8–14.7%, including 0.8–9.8% without obesity and 0–4.9% with sarcopenic obesity. Using multivariate-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) those with sarcopenic obesity presented with a descriptive profile of higher C-reactive protein, waist circumference, food security and sedentary time than women without sarcopenic obesity (p = 0.046). A similar profile described women with low BMI-adjusted grip strength (p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: The majority of women with sarcopenia were also obese (88%). We show a large discrepancy in the diagnostic criteria and the potential for significantly underestimating the prevalence of sarcopenia if BMI is not adjusted for. The main variables common to women with sarcopenic obesity were higher food security, lower PA and chronic inflammation. Our data highlights the importance of addressing obesity within these low-income communities to ensure the prevention of sarcopenic obesity and that quality of life is maintained with ageing.

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  • 33.
    Månsson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, UK.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Older adults' preferences for, adherence to and experiences of two self-management falls prevention home exercise programmes: a comparison between a digital programme and a paper booklet2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fall prevention exercise programmes are known to be effective, but access to these programmes is not always possible. The use of eHealth solutions might be a way forward to increase access and reach a wider population. In this feasibility study the aim was to explore the choice of programme, adherence, and self-reported experiences comparing two exercise programmes – a digital programme and a paper booklet.

    Methods: A participant preference trial of two self-managed fall prevention exercise interventions. Community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older exercised independently for four months after one introduction meeting. Baseline information was collected at study start, including a short introduction of the exercise programme, a short physical assessment, and completion of questionnaires. During the four months intervention period, participants self-reported their performed exercises in an exercise diary. At a final meeting, questionnaires about their experiences, and post-assessments, were completed. For adherence analyses data from diaries were used and four subgroups for different levels of participation were compared. Exercise maintenance was followed up with a survey 12 months after study start.

    Results: Sixty-seven participants, with mean age 77 ± 4 years were included, 72% were women. Forty-three percent chose the digital programme. Attrition rate was 17% in the digital programme group and 37% in the paper booklet group (p = .078). In both groups 50–59% reported exercise at least 75% of the intervention period. The only significant difference for adherence was in the subgroup that completed ≥75% of exercise duration, the digital programme users exercised more minutes per week (p = .001). Participants in both groups were content with their programme but digital programme users reported a significantly higher (p = .026) degree of being content, and feeling supported by the programme (p = .044). At 12 months follow-up 67% of participants using the digital programme continued to exercise regularly compared with 35% for the paper booklet (p = .036).

    Conclusions: Exercise interventions based on either a digital programme or a paper booklet can be used as a self-managed, independent fall prevention programme. There is a similar adherence in both programmes during a 4-month intervention, but the digital programme seems to facilitate long-term maintenance in regular exercise.

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  • 34.
    Månsson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Pettersson, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Feasibility of performance-based and self-reported outcomes in self-managed falls prevention exercise interventions for independent older adults living in the community2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about associations between performance-based measurements and self-reported scales, nor about ceiling effects or sensitivity to change to evaluate effects in the target population for self-managed exercise interventions. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using performance-based outcomes for gait speed, functional leg strength and balance, and self-reported outcomes of falls-efficacy and functional ability in two self-managed falls prevention exercise interventions for community dwelling older adults.

    METHODS: Independent living, community-dwelling older adults (n = 67) exercised with one of two self-managed falls prevention exercise programmes, a digital programme (DP) or a paper booklet (PB) in a 4-month participant preference trial. Pre- and post-assessments, by blinded assessors, included Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and 30s Chair stand test (30s CST). Participants completed self-reported questionnaires: Activities-specific and Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (Icon-FES), Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument Function Component (LLFDI-FC). In addition, improvement in balance and leg strength was also self-rated at post-assessment. Participants' mean age was 76 ± 4 years and 72% were women.

    RESULTS: Ceiling effects were evident for the balance sub-component of the SPPB, and also indicated for ABC and Icon-FES in this high functioning population. In SPPB, gait speed, 30s CST, and LLFDI-FC, 21-56% of participants did not change their scores beyond the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID). At pre-assessment all performance-based tests correlated significantly with the self-reported scales, however, no such significant correlations were seen with change-scores. Improvement of performance-based functional leg strength with substantial effect sizes and significant correlations with self-reported exercise time was shown. There were no differences in outcomes between the exercise programmes except that DP users reported improved change of leg strength to a higher degree than PB users.

    CONCLUSION: The LLFDI-FC and sit-to-stand tests were feasible and sensitive to change in this specific population. The balance sub-component of SPPB and self-reported measures ABC and Icon-FES indicated ceiling effects and might not be suitable as outcome measures for use in a high functioning older population. Development and evaluation of new outcome measures are needed for self-managed fall-preventive interventions with high functioning community-dwelling older adults.

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  • 35.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Flygare Wallén, Eva
    Ahlström, Gerd
    Mortality patterns and risk among older men and women with intellectual disability: a Swedish national retrospective cohort study2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sweden has closed all institutions and imposed legislation to ensure service and support for individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Understanding mortality among older individuals with ID is essential to inform development of health promotion and disease control strategies. We investigated patterns and risk of mortality among older adults with ID in Sweden.

    METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared older adults aged 55 years and older with ID with a control population. Participants were followed during 2002-2015 or death, and censored if they moved out of Sweden. Individuals with ID were identified from two national registers: one covering all specialist health-care visits (out-patient visits and hospitalisation) and the other covering people accessing social/support services. Individuals with ID (n = 15,289) were matched with a control population by sex, birth year, and year of first hospitalisation/out-patient visit/access to LSS services. Cause-of-death data were recorded using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Cox proportional hazards regression were conducted to assess if overall and cause-specific mortality rate among individuals with ID was higher than in the Swedish population.

    RESULTS: The overall mortality rate among individuals with ID was 2483 per 100,000 people compared with 810 in the control population. Among those who died, more individuals with ID were younger than 75 years and unmarried. Leading causes of death among individuals with ID were circulatory diseases (34%), respiratory diseases (17%) and neoplasms (15%). Leading causes of death in a sub-sample with Down syndrome (DS) were respiratory diseases (37%), circulatory diseases (26%) and mental/behavioural disorders (11%). Epilepsy and pneumonitis were more common among individuals with ID than controls. Alzheimer's disease was common in the control population and individuals with DS, but not among those with ID when DS was excluded. Individuals with ID had a higher overall mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-4.3) and respiratory disease death risk (HR 12.5, 95% CI 10.9-14.2) than controls.

    CONCLUSION: Older adults with ID in Sweden carry a higher mortality risk compared with the general population, mainly attributable to respiratory, nervous and circulatory diseases. Care for this group, particularly during the terminal stage of illness, needs to be tailored based on understanding of their main health problem.

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  • 36.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Global Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Santosa, Ailiana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Global Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Living alone and mortality among older people in Västerbotten County in Sweden: a survey and register-based longitudinal study2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Living alone is increasingly common and has been depicted as an important cause of mortality. We examined the association between living alone and mortality risks among older men and women in northern Sweden, by linking two unique longitudinal datasets.

    METHODS: We used the Linnaeus database, which links several population registers on socioeconomic and health. This register-based study included 22,226 men and 23,390 women aged 50 and 60 years in Västerbotten County who had participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) during 1990-2006, with a total of 445,823 person-years of observation. We conducted Cox-proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of living alone on the mortality that was observed between 1990 and 2015, controlling for socio-demographic factors, chronic disease risk factors and access to social capital.

    RESULTS: Older men and women who lived alone with no children at home were at a significantly higher risk of death compared to married/cohabiting couples with children at home (with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.38, 95% CI of 1.26-1.50 in men and 1.27, 95% CI of 1.13-1.42 in women). Living alone was an even stronger factor than the well-established chronic disease risk factors and a lack of access to social capital.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between living alone and mortality among the older adult population in Sweden was observed. Providing good social support for older people is important in preventing the negative health impact of living alone.

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  • 37.
    Nordell, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Hellström, Karin
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    To see, meet and adapt – an interview study about physiotherapists’ pedagogical approach to dementia2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physiotherapists need to use pedagogical approaches and strategies in their work. However, there is no previous definition of what a pedagogical approach in physiotherapy means neither in general nor specifically to dementia. The purpose of this study was therefore to gain greater insight into physiotherapists’ pedagogical approach to dementia by investigating physiotherapists’ views and working methods in contact with older people with dementia, relatives, and nursing staff in elderly care.

    Methods: This was a qualitative study with an inductive approach. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 15 physiotherapists with experience of working with older people with dementia in elderly care. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The term “pedagogical approach” could sometimes be experienced as “vague” or “hard to grasp”. Our research nonetheless identified one overarching theme To see, meet and adapt which is based on insights from the interviews grouped in to five categories. This theme can be seen as an expression of the physiotherapists’ pedagogical approach in contact with older people with dementia, relatives, and nursing staff. It captures the participants’ desire to always see the person in front of them, meet them where they are and adapt their own way of working accordingly. Creating a trusting relationship was described as important and made it easier for the participants to adapt their working methods. The participants’ adaptations could apply to the way they communicated with people with dementia, and how they organized tutoring/education of relatives and nursing staff to maximize learning. Learning through experience and reflection was described as a key to advancing the pedagogical approach and the participants experienced their own learning as constantly ongoing.

    Conclusions: This study provides increased understanding into physiotherapists’ pedagogical approach in contact with older people with dementia, relatives, and nursing staff in elderly care and shows that learning through experience and reflection can contribute to the development of the pedagogical approach. Thus, opportunity for reflection should be accommodated in the physiotherapists’ work. The importance of more pedagogical education for physiotherapists both in bachelor and master level were also highlighted. Increasing mobility and physical activity in older people with dementia is important since physical inactivity and sedentary behavior is common. Future research may be directed at further exploring physiotherapists’ pedagogical approach in tutoring/education of nursing staff, with the aim of increasing physical activity among older people with dementia.

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  • 38.
    Olofsson, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Mukka, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Association of depressive disorders and dementia with mortality among older people with hip fracture2023In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Hip fracture (HF) is a significant cause of mortality among older people. Almost half of the patients with HF have dementia, which increases the mortality risk further. Cognitive impairment is associated with depressive disorders (DDs) and both dementia and DDs are independent risk factors for poor outcome after HF. However, most studies that evaluate mortality risk after HF separate these conditions.

    AIMS: To investigate whether dementia with depressive disorders (DDwD) affects the mortality risk at 12, 24, and 36 months after HF among older people.

    METHODS: Patients with acute HF (n = 404) were included in this retrospective analysis of two randomized controlled trials performed in orthopedic and geriatric departments. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale and cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. A consultant geriatrician made final depressive disorder and dementia diagnoses using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, with support from assessments and medical records. The 12-, 24- and 36-month mortality after HF was analyzed using logistic regression models adjusted for covariates.

    RESULTS: In analyses adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, pre-fracture walking ability, and fracture type, patients with DDwD had increased mortality risks at 12 [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-12.51], 24 (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.71-7.60), and 36 (OR 4.53, 95% CI 2.24-9.14) months. Similar results were obtained for patients with dementia, but not depressive disorders, alone.

    CONCLUSION: DDwD is an important risk factor for increased mortality at 12, 24, and 36 months after HF among older people. Routinely assessments after HF for cognitive- and depressive disorders could identify patients at risk for increased mortality, and enable early interventions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: RCT2: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Register, trial registration number: ISRCTN15738119.

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  • 39. Olsson, Annakarin
    et al.
    Engström, Maria
    Lampic, Claudia
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses--a qualitative intervention study2013In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 13, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses.

    METHODS: Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm.

    CONCLUSIONS: A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a "service" with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur.

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  • 40. Payne, Collin F.
    et al.
    Wade, Alisha
    Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.
    Davies, Justine I.
    Chang, Angela Y.
    Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits University Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Berkman, Lisa F.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Medical Research Council/Wits University Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Witham, Miles D.
    Prevalence and correlates of frailty in an older rural African population: findings from the HAALSI cohort study2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Frailty is a key predictor of death and dependency, yet little is known about frailty in sub-Saharan Africa despite rapid population ageing. We describe the prevalence and correlates of phenotypic frailty using data from the Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of an INDEPTH Community cohort.

    Methods: We analysed data from rural South Africans aged 40 and over. We used low grip strength, slow gait speed, low body mass index, and combinations of self-reported exhaustion, decline in health, low physical activity and high self-reported sedentariness to derive nine variants of a phenotypic frailty score. Each frailty category was compared with self-reported health, subjective wellbeing, impairment in activities of daily living and the presence of multimorbidity. Cox regression analyses were used to compare subsequent all-cause mortality for non-frail (score 0), pre-frail (score 1–2) and frail participants (score 3+).

    Results: Five thousand fifty nine individuals (mean age 61.7 years, 2714 female) were included in the analyses. The nine frailty score variants yielded a range of frailty prevalences (5.4% to 13.2%). For all variants, rates were higher in women than in men, and rose steeply with age. Frailty was associated with worse subjective wellbeing, and worse self-reported health. Both prefrailty and frailty were associated with a higher risk of death during a mean 17 month follow up for all score variants (hazard ratios 1.29 to 2.41 for pre-frail vs non-frail; hazard ratios 2.65 to 8.91 for frail vs non-frail).

    Conclusions: Phenotypic frailty could be measured in this older South African population, and was associated with worse health, wellbeing and earlier death.

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  • 41.
    Pettersson, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    "Managing pieces of a personal puzzle': Older people's experiences of self-management falls prevention exercise guided by a digital program or a booklet2019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise is effective in order to prevent falls in community-dwelling older people. Self-management programs have the potential to increase access and reduce costs related to exercise-based fall prevention. However, information regarding older people's views of participating in such programs is needed to support implementation. The aim of this study was to explore older people's experiences of a self-management fall prevention exercise routine guided either by a digital program (web-based or mobile) or a paper booklet.

    Methods: This qualitative study was part of a feasibility study exploring two completely self-managed exercise interventions in which the participants tailored their own program, guided either by a digital program or a paper booklet. Individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of 28 participants (18 women), mean age 76yrs. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    Results: Self-managing and self-tailoring these exercise programs was experienced as Managing pieces of a personal puzzle'. To independently being able to create a program and manage exercise was described in the categories Finding my own level' and Programming it into my life'. The participants experienced the flexibility and independence provided by completely self-managed exercise as positive and constructive although it required discipline. Furthermore, different needs and preferences when managing their exercise were described, as well as varying sources of motivation for doing the exercise, as highlighted in the category Defining my source of motivation'. The category Evolving my acquired knowledge' captures the participants' views of building their competence and strategies for maintenance of the exercise. It describes a combined process of learning the program and developing reflection, which was more clearly articulated by participants using the digital program.

    Conclusions: This study provides new knowledge regarding experiences, preferences and motivations of older people to engage in home-based self-managed fall prevention exercise. They expressed both a capability and willingness to independently manage their exercise. A digital program seems to have strengthened the feeling of support while creating their own exercise program and tailoring it to their preferences and circumstances, which might therefore create better opportunities for adoption and adherence in the long term.

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  • 42.
    Pohl, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nordin, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Bergström, Ulrica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Community-dwelling older people with an injurious fall are likely to sustain new injurious falls within 5 years: a prospective long-term follow-up study2014In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 120-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Fall-related injuries in older people are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Self-reported fall events in the last year is often used to estimate fall risk in older people. However, it remains to be investigated if the fall frequency and the consequences of the falls have an impact on the risk for subsequent injurious falls in the long term. The objective of this study was to investigate if a history of one single non-injurious fall, at least two non-injurious falls, or at least one injurious fall within 12 months increases the risk of sustaining future injurious falls.

    METHODS: Community-dwelling individuals 75-93 years of age (n = 230) were initially followed prospectively with monthly calendars reporting falls over a period of 12 months. The participants were classified into four groups based on the number and type of falls (0, 1, ≥2 non-injurious falls, and ≥1 injurious fall severe enough to cause a visit to a hospital emergency department). The participants were then followed for several years (mean time 5.0 years ±1.1) regarding injurious falls requiring a visit to the emergency department. The Andersen-Gill method of Cox regression for multiple events was used to estimate the risk of injurious falls.

    RESULTS: During the long-term follow-up period, thirty per cent of the participants suffered from at least one injurious fall. Those with a self-reported history of at least one injurious fall during the initial 12 months follow-up period showed a significantly higher risk for sustaining subsequent injurious falls in the long term (hazard ratio 2.78; 95% CI, 1.40-5.50) compared to those with no falls. No other group showed an increased risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: In community-dwelling people over 75 years of age, a history of at least one self-reported injurious fall severe enough to cause a visit to the emergency department within a period of 12 months implies an increased risk of sustaining future injurious falls. Our results support the recommendations to offer a multifactorial fall-risk assessment coupled with adequate interventions to community-dwelling people over 75 years who present to the ED due to an injurious fall.

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  • 43.
    Rangfast, Iris
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Sönnerstam, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications among old people with major neurocognitive disorder in 2012 and 20172022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased risk of adverse drug reactions due to age-related altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is a challenge when prescribing medications to older people, and especially among older people with major neurocognitive disorder who are particularly sensitive to drug effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of potential inappropriate medications (PIMs) in 2012 and 2017 among old people with major neurocognitive disorder. A secondary aim was to investigate factors associated with PIM use.

    Methods: This register-study was based on the Swedish registry for cognitive/dementia disorders and the Swedish prescribed drug register. Criteria from the National Board of Health and Welfare were used to identify PIMs between 1 July–31 December 2012 and 1 July-–31 December 2017 among people ≥ 65 years. Drug use was defined as one or more filled prescriptions during each timeframe.

    Results: The total use of PIMs declined significantly between 2012 (28.7%) and 2017 (21.7%). All PIMs and PIM groups declined between these years, except for antipsychotic drugs, which increased from 11.6% to 12.3%. The results from the multiple regression model found that PIM use was associated with younger age (OR: 0.97 CI: 0.96–0.97), a lower Mini Mental State Examination score (OR: 0.99 CI: 0.99–1.00), the use of multi-dispensed drugs (OR: 2.05 CI: 1.93–2.18), and compared to Alzheimer’s disease, with the subtypes dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia (OR: 1.57 CI: 1.40–1.75), frontotemporal dementia (OR: 1.29 CI: 1.08–1.54) and vascular dementia (OR: 1.10 CI: 1.03–1.16).

    Conclusions: Overall, the use of PIMs decreased between the years 2012 and 2017. The increase of antipsychotic drugs and the association between PIM use and multi-dispensed drugs warrant concern.

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  • 44.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Skelton, Dawn A.
    Pohl, Petra
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Melander-Wikman, Anita
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Gender perspectives on views and preferences of older people on exercise to prevent falls: a systematic mixed studies review2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To offer fall prevention exercise programs that attract older people of both sexes there is a need to understand both women's and men's views and preferences regarding these programs. This paper aims to systematically review the literature to explore any underlying gender perspectives or gender interpretations on older people's views or preferences regarding uptake and adherence to exercise to prevent falls. Methods: A review of the literature was carried out using a convergent qualitative design based on systematic searches of seven electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Amed, PsycINFO, Scopus, PEDro, and OTseeker). Two investigators identified eligible studies. Each included article was read by at least two authors independently to extract data into tables. Views and preferences reported were coded and summarized in themes of facilitators and barriers using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Nine hundred and nine unique studies were identified. Twenty five studies met the criteria for inclusion. Only five of these contained a gender analysis of men's and women's views on fall prevention exercises. The results suggests that both women and men see women as more receptive to and in more need of fall prevention messages. The synthesis from all 25 studies identified six themes illustrating facilitators and six themes describing barriers for older people either starting or adhering to fall prevention exercise. The facilitators were: support from professionals or family; social interaction; perceived benefits; a supportive exercise context; feelings of commitment; and having fun. Barriers were: practical issues; concerns about exercise; unawareness; reduced health status; lack of support; and lack of interest. Considerably more women than men were included in the studies. Conclusion: Although there is plenty of information on the facilitators and barriers to falls prevention exercise in older people, there is a distinct lack of studies investigating differences or similarities in older women's and men's views regarding fall prevention exercise. In order to ensure that fall prevention exercise is appealing to both sexes and that the inclusion of both men and women are encouraged, more research is needed to find out whether gender differences exists and whether practitioners need to offer a range of opportunities and support strategies to attract both women and men to falls prevention exercise.

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  • 45. Sipilä, Sarianna
    et al.
    Tirkkonen, Anna
    Hänninen, Tuomo
    Laukkanen, Pia
    Alen, Markku
    Fielding, Roger A.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Kokko, Katja
    Kulmala, Jenni
    Rantanen, Taina
    Sihvonen, Sanna E.
    Sillanpää, Elina
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Törmäkangas, Timo
    Promoting safe walking among older people: the effects of a physical and cognitive training intervention vs. physical training alone on mobility and falls among older community-dwelling men and women (the PASSWORD study): design and methods of a randomized controlled trial2018In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 18, article id 215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Safe and stable walking is a complex process involving the interaction of neuromuscular, sensory and cognitive functions. As physical and cognitive functions deteriorate with ageing, training of both functions may have more beneficial effects on walking and falls prevention than either alone. This article describes the study design, recruitment strategies and interventions of the PASSWORD study investigating whether a combination of physical and cognitive training (PTCT) has greater effects on walking speed, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive functions compared to physical training (PT) alone among 70-85-year-old community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active men and women.

    Methods: Community-dwelling sedentary or at most moderately physically active, men and women living in the city of Jyvaskyla will be recruited and randomized into physical training (PT) and physical and cognitive training (PTCT). The 12-month interventions include supervised training sessions and home exercises. Both groups attend physical training intervention, which follows the current physical activity guidelines. The PTCT group performes also a web-based computer program targeting executive functions. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months thereafter. Falls data are collected during the interventions and the subsequent one-year follow-up. The primary outcome is 10-m walking speed. Secondary outcomes include 6-min walking distance, dual-task cost in walking speed, fall incidence and executive function assessed with color Stroop and Trail Making A and B tests. Explanatory outcomes include e.g. body composition and bone characteristics, physical performance, physical activity, life-space mobility, fall-related self-efficacy, emotional well-being and personality characteristics.

    Discussion: The study is designed to capture the additive and possible synergistic effects of physical and cognitive training. When completed, the study will provide new knowledge on the effects of physical and cognitive training on the prevention of walking limitations and rate of falls in older people. The expected results will be of value in informing strategies designed to promote safe walking among older people and may have a significant health and socio-economic impact.

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  • 46.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Division of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. NVS, Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Backman, Annica C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Exploring person-centred care in relation to resource utilization, resident quality of life and staff job strain: findings from the SWENIS study2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A critical challenge facing elderly care systems throughout the world is to meet the complex care needs of a growing population of older persons. Although person-centred care has been advocated as the "gold standard" and a key component of high-quality care, the significance of care utilisation in person-centred units as well as the impact of person-centred care on resident quality of life and staff job strain in nursing home care has yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore person-centred care and its association to resource use, resident quality of life, and staff job strain.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional national survey.

    METHODS: Data on 4831 residents and 3605 staff were collected by staff working in nursing homes in 35 randomly selected Swedish municipalities in 2014. Descriptive statistics and regression modelling were used to explore associations between person-centred care and resource use, resident quality of life, and staff job strain.

    RESULTS: No association was found between person-centred care and resource use. Person-centred care was positively associated with resident quality of life and was negatively associated with staff perception of job strain.

    CONCLUSION: Person-centred care does not increase resource utilisation in nursing homes, but beneficially impacts resident quality of life and alleviates the care burden in terms job strain among staff.

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  • 47.
    Snellman, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Validity and test–retest reliability of the Swedish version of the Geriatric Depression Scale among very old adults2024In: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) has shown good validity and reliability, but few studies have examined the GDS among very old adults or the Swedish translation.

    Objectives: Evaluate the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of GDS-15 among very old adults.

    Methods: In the Umeå85 + /GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA) study, 387 participants were assessed with both the GDS-15 and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The mean age was 91 years. Concurrent validity between the scales was calculated using Spearman's correlation. We used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V symptom criteria for depression based on MADRS item scores to define depression. We calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) and found an optimal cut-off. A convenience sample with 60 individuals was used to calculate test–retest reliability with Cohen’s kappa and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC).

    Results: Spearman's correlation coefficients between total scores for GDS-15 and MADRS were 0.60. Cronbach's alpha for the whole scale was 0.73. The AUC was 0.90 for distinguishing major depression, and the recommended cut-off of ≥ 5 showed a sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity of 65.8%. The test–retest showed that Cohen’s kappa was substantial (0.71) and the ICC was excellent (0.95).

    Conclusions: The Swedish version of the GDS-15 showed good validity and reliability among very old adults. The generally recommended cut-off of ≥ 5 seems reasonable to use with the Swedish version and among very old adults.

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  • 48.
    Sondell, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Lampinen, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Englund, Undis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Experiences of community-dwelling older people with dementia participating in a person-centred multidimensional interdisciplinary rehabilitation program2021In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is great need for development of feasible rehabilitation for older people with dementia. Increased understanding of this population’s experiences of rehabilitation participation is therefore important. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of community-dwelling older people with dementia participating in a person-centred multidimensional interdisciplinary rehabilitation program.

    Methods: Sixteen older people with dementia were interviewed about their experiences of participation in a person-centred multidimensional interdisciplinary rehabilitation program. The program comprised assessments by a comprehensive team of rehabilitation professionals followed by a rehabilitation period of 16 weeks, including interventions based on individualized rehabilitation goals conducted with the support of the rehabilitation team. The rehabilitation was performed in the participants’ homes, in the community and at an outpatient clinic, including exercise with social interaction in small groups offered twice a week to all participants. The interviews were conducted at the end of the rehabilitation period and analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in one overarching theme: Empowered through participation and togetherness and four sub-themes: Being strengthened through challenges; Gaining insights, motives, and raising concerns about the future; Being seen makes participation worthwhile; and Feelings of togetherness in prosperity and adversity. The participants increased their self-esteem by daring and coping in the rehabilitation. The insights about themselves and their condition motivated them to continue with their prioritized activities, but also raised concerns about how the future would play out. Collaboration in the group and being seen and acknowledged by staff strengthened their own motivation and self-efficacy.

    Conclusion: According to community-dwelling older people with dementia, a person-centred multidimensional interdisciplinary rehabilitation program was experienced as viable and beneficial. The participants seemed empowered through the rehabilitation and expressed mostly positive experiences and perceived improvements. Providers of interdisciplinary rehabilitation programs for this group should consider aspects raised by the participants e.g. the positive experience of being challenged in both exercise and daily activities; the importance of being seen and feeling secure; the benefits and challenges of collaboration with others in the same situation; and the generation of new perspectives of current and future situation.

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  • 49.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Disability and ageing in China and India – decomposing the effects of gender and residence: Results from the WHO study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE)2017In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, article id 197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: China and India are the world's two most populous countries. Although their populations are growing in number and life expectancies are extending they have different trajectories of economic growth, epidemiological transition and social change. Cross-country comparisons can allow national and global insights and provide evidence for policy and decision-making. The aim of this study is to measure and compare disability in men and women, and in urban and rural dwellers in China and India, and assess the extent to which social and other factors contribute to the inequalities.

    METHODS: National samples of adults aged 50 to 79 years in China (n = 11,694) and India (n = 6187) from the World Health Organization (WHO) longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 were analysed. Stratified multiple linear regressions were undertaken to assess disability differences by sex and residence, controlling for other biological and socioeconomic determinants of disability. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition partitioned the two-group inequalities into explained and unexplained components.

    RESULTS: In both countries women and rural residents reported more disability. In India, the gender inequality is attributed to the distribution of the determinants (employment, education and chronic conditions) but in China about half the inequality is attributed to the same. In India, more than half of the urban rural inequality is attributed to the distribution of the determinants (education, household wealth) compared with under 20% in China.

    CONCLUSIONS: Education and employment were important drivers of these measured inequalities. Overall inequalities in disability among older adults in China and India were shaped by gender and residence, suggesting the need for policies that target women and rural residents. There is a need for further research, using both qualitative and quantitative methods, to question and challenge entrenched practices and institutions and grasp the implications of global economic and social changes that are impacting on population health and ageing in China and India.

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  • 50.
    Sönnerstam, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Potentially inappropriate medications in relation to length of nursing home stay among older adults2022In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relation to the length of nursing home stay among older adults.

    Methods: Questionnaire surveys using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment scale were sent out to all nursing homes in Västerbotten county in northern Sweden in 2007 and 2013. In total, 3186 adults (1881 from 2007 and 1305 from 2013) ≥65 years old were included and 71.8% of those had cognitive impairment. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified using drug-specific quality indicators according to Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.

    Results: Potentially inappropriate medications were used by 48.0% of the 2007 study sample and by 28.4% of the 2013 study sample. The prevalence of glibenclamide use 2007 and antipsychotic drug use 2013 increased linearly (β = 0.534E− 3, 95% CI: 0.040E− 3-0.103E− 2, p = 0.034 and β = 0.155E− 2, 95% CI: 0.229E− 3-0.288E− 2, p = 0.022, respectively) with the length of nursing home stay. No significant association was found between the prevalence of propiomazine, codeine, long-acting benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, tramadol or the total use of potentially inappropriate medications and the length of stay in nursing homes in 2007 or 2013. Antipsychotics were the most commonly prescribed of the drug classes investigated and used by 22.6% of the residents 2007 and by 16.0% of the residents 2013.

    Conclusions: These results indicate that treatment with potentially inappropriate medications is common among older adults living in nursing homes, but it seems to be related to the length of nursing home stay only to a smaller extent. Drug treatment should regularly be reviewed and followed-up among nursing home residents regardless of their length of nursing home stay, in order to prevent unnecessary adverse events.

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