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  • 1.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Neural evidence for non-conscious working memory2018In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 3217-3228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have found that non-consciously perceived information can be retained for several seconds, a feat that has been attributed to non-conscious working memory processes. However, these studies have mainly relied on subjective measures of visual experience, and the neural processes responsible for non-conscious short-term retention remains unclear. Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious in a delayed match-to-sample task together with fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of non-conscious short-term (5-15 s) retention. The participants' behavioral performance was at chance level when they reported no visual experience of the sample stimulus. Critically, multivariate pattern analyses of BOLD signal during the delay phase could classify presence versus absence of sample stimuli based on signal patterns in frontal cortex, and its spatial position based on signal patterns in occipital cortex. In addition, univariate analyses revealed increased BOLD signal change in prefrontal regions during memory recognition. Thus, our findings demonstrate short-term maintenance of information presented non-consciously, defined by chance performance behaviorally. This non-consciously retained information seems to rely on persistent neural activity in frontal and occipital cortex, and may engage further cognitive control processes during memory recognition.

  • 2. de Boer, Lieke
    et al.
    Garzón, Benjamín
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Guitart-Masip, Marc
    Corticostriatal White Matter Integrity and Dopamine D1 Receptor Availability Predict Age Differences in Prefrontal Value Signaling during Reward Learning2020In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 5270-5280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Probabilistic reward learning reflects the ability to adapt choices based on probabilistic feedback. The dopaminergically innervated corticostriatal circuit in the brain plays an important role in supporting successful probabilistic reward learning. Several components of the corticostriatal circuit deteriorate with age, as it does probabilistic reward learning. We showed previously that D1 receptor availability in NAcc predicts the strength of anticipatory value signaling in vmPFC, a neural correlate of probabilistic learning that is attenuated in older participants and predicts probabilistic reward learning performance. We investigated how white matter integrity in the pathway between nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) relates to the strength of anticipatory value signaling in vmPFC in younger and older participants. We found that in a sample of 22 old and 23 young participants, fractional anisotropy in the pathway between NAcc and vmPFC predicted the strength of value signaling in vmPFC independently from D1 receptor availability in NAcc. These findings provide tentative evidence that integrity in the dopaminergic and white matter pathways of corticostriatal circuitry supports the expression of value signaling in vmPFC which supports reward learning, however, the limited sample size calls for independent replication. These and future findings could add to the improved understanding of how corticostriatal integrity contributes to reward learning ability.

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  • 3.
    Dunås, Tora
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Multimodal Image Analysis of Apparent Brain Age Identifies Physical Fitness as Predictor of Brain Maintenance2021In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 3393-3407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining a youthful brain structure and function throughout life may be the single most important determinant ofsuccessful cognitive aging. In this study, we addressed heterogeneity in brain aging by making image-based brain agepredictions and relating the brain age prediction gap (BAPG) to cognitive change in aging. Structural, functional, anddiffusion MRI scans from 351 participants were used to train and evaluate 5 single-modal and 4 multimodal predictionmodels, based on 7 regression methods. The models were compared on mean absolute error and whether they were relatedto physical fitness and cognitive ability, measured both currently and longitudinally, as well as study attrition and years ofeducation. Multimodal prediction models performed at a similar level as single-modal models, and the choice of regressionmethod did not significantly affect the results. Correlation with the BAPG was found for current physical fitness, currentcognitive ability, and study attrition. Correlations were also found for retrospective physical fitness, measured 10 years priorto imaging, and slope for cognitive ability during a period of 15 years. The results suggest that maintaining a high physicalfitness throughout life contributes to brain maintenance and preserved cognitive ability.

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  • 4.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund Åhlström, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Similar frontal and distinct posterior cortical regions mediate visual and auditory perceptual awareness2007In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 760-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity in ventral visual cortex is a consistent neural correlate of visual consciousness. However, activity in this area seems insufficient to produce awareness without additional involvement of frontoparietal regions. To test the generality of the frontoparietal response, neural correlates of auditory awareness were investigated in a paradigm that previously has revealed frontoparietal activity during conscious visual perception. A within-experiment comparison showed that frontal regions were related to both visual and auditory awareness, whereas parietal activity was correlated with visual awareness and superior temporal activity with auditory awareness. These results indicate that frontal regions interact with specific posterior regions to produce awareness in different sensory modalities.

  • 5. Fjell, Anders M.
    et al.
    Sørensen, Øystein
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Bartrés-Faz, David
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Buchmann, Nikolaus
    Demuth, Ilja
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Düzel, Sandra
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Idland, Ane-Victoria
    Kietzmann, Tim C.
    Kievit, Rogier A.
    Kühn, Simone
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Magnussen, Fredrik
    Macià, Didac
    Mowinckel, Athanasia M.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Sexton, Claire E.
    Solé-Padullés, Cristina
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Roe, James M.
    Sederevicius, Donatas
    Suri, Sana
    Vidal-Piñeiro, Didac
    Wagner, Gerd
    Watne, Leiv Otto
    Westerhausen, René
    Zsoldos, Enikő
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Poor Self-Reported Sleep is Related to Regional Cortical Thinning in Aging but not Memory Decline-Results From the Lifebrain Consortium2021In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 1953-1969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether sleep quality and quantity are associated with cortical and memory changes in cognitively healthy participants across the adult lifespan. Associations between self-reported sleep parameters (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and longitudinal cortical change were tested using five samples from the Lifebrain consortium (n = 2205, 4363 MRIs, 18-92 years). In additional analyses, we tested coherence with cell-specific gene expression maps from the Allen Human Brain Atlas, and relations to changes in memory performance. "PSQI # 1 Subjective sleep quality" and "PSQI #5 Sleep disturbances" were related to thinning of the right lateral temporal cortex, with lower quality and more disturbances being associated with faster thinning. The association with "PSQI #5 Sleep disturbances" emerged after 60 years, especially in regions with high expression of genes related to oligodendrocytes and S1 pyramidal neurons. None of the sleep scales were related to a longitudinal change in episodic memory function, suggesting that sleep-related cortical changes were independent of cognitive decline. The relationship to cortical brain change suggests that self-reported sleep parameters are relevant in lifespan studies, but small effect sizes indicate that self-reported sleep is not a good biomarker of general cortical degeneration in healthy older adults.

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  • 6.
    Garzón, Benjamín
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb
    Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, 10-12 Russell Square, London, United Kingdom.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Guitart-Masip, Marc
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, Stockholm, Sweden; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, 10-12 Russell Square, London, United Kingdom.
    Investigating associations of delay discounting with brain structure, working memory, and episodic memory2023In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 1669-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Delay discounting (DD), the preference for smaller and sooner rewards over larger and later ones, is an important behavioural phenomenon for daily functioning of increasing interest within psychopathology. The neurobiological mechanisms behind DD are not well understood and the literature on structural correlates of DD shows inconsistencies.

    Methods: Here we leveraged a large openly available dataset (n = 1196) to investigate associations with memory performance and gray and white matter correlates of DD using linked independent component analysis.

    Results: Greater DD was related to smaller anterior temporal gray matter volume. Associations of DD with total cortical volume, subcortical volumes, markers of white matter microscopic organization, working memory, and episodic memory scores were not significant after controlling for education and income.

    Conclusion: Effects of size comparable to the one we identified would be unlikely to be replicated with sample sizes common in many previous studies in this domain, which may explain the incongruities in the literature. The paucity and small size of the effects detected in our data underscore the importance of using large samples together with methods that accommodate their statistical structure and appropriate control for confounders, as well as the need to devise paradigms with improved task parameter reliability in studies relating brain structure and cognitive abilities with DD.

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  • 7. Guitart-Masip, Marc
    et al.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Garrett, Douglas
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    BOLD Variability is Related to Dopaminergic Neurotransmission and Cognitive Aging2016In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 2074-2083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dopamine (DA) losses are associated with various aging-related cognitive deficits. Typically, higher moment-to-moment brain signal variability in large-scale patterns of voxels in neocortical regions is linked to better cognitive performance and younger adult age, yet the physiological mechanisms regulating brain signal variability are unknown. We explored the relationship among adult age, DA availability, and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability, while younger and older participants performed a spatial working memory (SWM) task. We quantified striatal and extrastriatal DA D1 receptor density with [(11)C]SCH23390 and positron emission tomography in all participants. We found that BOLD variability in a neocortical region was negatively related to age and positively related to SWM performance. In contrast, BOLD variability in subcortical regions and bilateral hippocampus was positively related to age and slower responses, and negatively related to D1 density in caudate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, BOLD variability in neocortical regions was positively associated with task-related disengagement of the default-mode network, a network whose activation needs to be suppressed for efficient SWM processing. Our results show that age-related DA losses contribute to changes in brain signal variability in subcortical regions and suggest a potential mechanism, by which neocortical BOLD variability supports cognitive performance.

  • 8. Habib, Reza
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Neural Correlates of Availability and Accessibility in Memory2008In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 1720-1726Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure to remember can be due to not having information available in memory or to an inability to access information that is available. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain responses during encoding and successive cued recall and associative recognition tests of paired associates. Items were classified into 3 categories based on performance on the 2 retrieval tests: 1) successfully remembered (both recalled and recognized), 2) inaccessible (not recalled but later recognized), and 3) forgotten (neither recalled nor recognized). During cued recall, availability in memory was signaled in a network of regions including bilateral medial temporal lobe, left middle temporal cortex, and the parietal cortex. Memory access resulted in heightened activity in these regions as well as in left inferior frontal cortex. Encoding-related activity in hippocampus and inferior temporal cortex predicted subsequent availability and left inferior frontal activity predicted subsequent access. These results suggest that failure to access information that is available in memory may reflect weaker memory representations.

  • 9. Hedden, Trey
    et al.
    Schultz, Aaron P
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Mormino, Elizabeth C
    Johnson, Keith A
    Sperling, Reisa A
    Buckner, Randy L
    Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition2016In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1388-1400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health.

  • 10. Iurilli, Giuliano
    et al.
    Benfenati, Fabio
    Medini, Paolo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Loss of Visually Driven Synaptic Responses in Layer 4 Regular-Spiking Neurons of Rat Visual Cortex in Absence of Competing Inputs2012In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 2171-2181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monocular deprivation (MD) during development shifts the ocular preference of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons by depressing closed-eye responses and potentiating open-eye responses. As these 2 processes are temporally and mechanistically distinct, we tested whether loss of responsiveness occurs also in absence of competing inputs. We thus compared the effects of long-term MD in layer 4 regular-spiking pyramidal neurons (L4Ns) of binocular and monocular V1 (bV1 and mV1) with whole-cell recordings. In bV1, input depression was larger than potentiation, and the ocular dominance shift was larger for spike outputs. MD-but not retinal inactivation with tetrodotoxin-caused a comparable loss of synaptic and spike responsiveness in mV1, which is innervated only by the deprived eye. Conversely, brief MD depressed synaptic responses only in bV1. MD-driven depression in mV1 was accompanied by a proportional reduction of visual thalamic inputs, as assessed upon pharmacological silencing of intracortical transmission. Finally, sub- and suprathreshold responsiveness was similarly degraded in L4Ns of bV1 upon complete deprivation of patterned vision through a binocular deprivation period of comparable length. Thus, loss of synaptic inputs from the deprived eye occurs also in absence of competition in the main thalamorecipient lamina, albeit at a slower pace.

  • 11. Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    et al.
    Garzon, Benjamin
    Sitnikov, Rouslan
    Heiland, Carmel
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Persson, Jonas
    Backman, Lars
    Higher Striatal Iron Concentration is Linked to Frontostriatal Underactivation and Poorer Memory in Normal Aging2017In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 3427-3436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes. Higher striatal iron concentration was linked to underrecruitment of frontostriatal regions regardless of age and striatal volume, the iron-activity association in right putamen being primarily driven by the older adults. In older age, higher striatal iron was related to poorer memory. Altered astrocytic functions could account for the link between brain iron and brain activity, as astrocytes are involved in iron buffering, neurovascular coupling, and synaptic activity. Our preliminary findings, which need to be replicated in a larger sample, suggest a potential frontostriatal target for intervention to counteract negative effects of iron accumulation on brain function and cognition.

  • 12.
    Lindgren, Lenita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, UIT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Longitudinal Evidence for Smaller Hippocampus Volume as a Vulnerability Factor for Perceived Stress2016In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 3527-3533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hippocampal volume has been found to be smaller in individuals with stress-related disorders, but it remains unclear whether smaller volume is a consequence of stress or rather a vulnerability factor. Here, we examined this issue by relating stress levels to hippocampal volumes in healthy participants examined every 5 years in a longitudinal population-based study. Based on scores of 25- to 60-year-old participants on the perceived stress questionnaire, we defined moderately to high (n = 35) and low (n = 76) stress groups. The groups were re-examined after 5 years (at the 6th study wave). Historical data on subjective stress were available up to 10 years prior to Wave 5. At the first MRI session, the moderately to high stress group had a significantly smaller hippocampal volume, as measured by FreeSurfer (version 5.3), compared with the low-stress group. At follow-up, group differences in stress levels and hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In retrospective analyses of subjective stress, the observed group difference in stress was found to be stable. The long-term stability of group differences in perceived stress and hippocampal volume suggests that a small hippocampal volume may be a vulnerability factor for stress-related disorders.

  • 13. Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Köhncke, Ylva
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Guitart-Masip, Marc
    Salami, Alireza
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Latent-profile analysis reveals behavioral and brain correlates of dopamine-cognition associations2018In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 3894-3907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that associations between the neurotransmitter dopamine and cognition are nonmonotonic and open to modulation by various other factors. The functional implications of a given level of dopamine may therefore differ from person to person. By applying latent-profile analysis to a large (n = 181) sample of adults aged 64-68 years, we probabilistically identified 3 subgroups that explain the multivariate associations between dopamine D2/3R availability (probed with C-11-raclopride-PET, in cortical, striatal, and hippocampal regions) and cognitive performance (episodic memory, working memory, and perceptual speed). Generally, greater receptor availability was associated with better cognitive performance. However, we discovered a subgroup of individuals for which high availability, particularly in striatum, was associated with poor performance, especially for working memory. Relative to the rest of the sample, this subgroup also had lower education, higher body-mass index, and lower resting-state connectivity between caudate nucleus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that a smaller subset of individuals induces a multivariate non-linear association between dopamine D2/3R availability and cognitive performance in this group of older adults, and discuss potential reasons for these differences that await further empirical scrutiny.

  • 14.
    Ness, Hedda T.
    et al.
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Folvik, Line
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Sneve, Markus H.
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Vidal-Piñeiro, Didac
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Raud, Liisa
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Geier, Oliver M.
    Department of Diagnostic Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Research Group for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Reduced Hippocampal-Striatal Interactions during Formation of Durable Episodic Memories in Aging2022In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 2358-2372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding of durable episodic memories requires cross-talk between the hippocampus and multiple brain regions. Changes in these hippocampal interactions could contribute to age-related declines in the ability to form memories that can be retrieved after extended time intervals. Here we tested whether hippocampal-neocortical- and subcortical functional connectivity (FC) observed during encoding of durable episodic memories differed between younger and older adults. About 48 younger (20-38 years; 25 females) and 43 older (60-80 years; 25 females) adults were scanned with fMRI while performing an associative memory encoding task. Source memory was tested ~20 min and ~6 days postencoding. Associations recalled after 20 min but later forgotten were classified as transient, whereas memories retained after long delays were classified as durable. Results demonstrated that older adults showed a reduced ability to form durable memories and reduced hippocampal-caudate FC during encoding of durable memories. There was also a positive relationship between hippocampal-caudate FC and higher memory performance among the older adults. No reliable age group differences in durable memory-encoding activity or hippocampal-neocortical connectivity were observed. These results support the classic theory of striatal alterations as one cause of cognitive decline in aging and highlight that age-related changes in episodic memory extend beyond hippocampal-neocortical connections.

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  • 15.
    Nordin, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Distinct and Common Large-Scale Networks of the Hippocampal Long Axis in Older Age: Links to Episodic Memory and Dopamine D2 Receptor Availability2021In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 3435-3450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hippocampal longitudinal axis has been linked to dissociated functional networks relevant to episodic memory. However, the organization of axis-dependent networks and their relation to episodic memory in aging remains less explored. Moreover, age-related deterioration of the dopamine (DA) system, affecting memory and functional network properties, might constitute a source of reduced specificity of hippocampal networks in aging. Here, we characterized axis-dependent large-scale hippocampal resting-state networks, their relevance to episodic memory, and links to DA in older individuals (n = 170, 64-68 years). Partial least squares identified 2 dissociated networks differentially connected to the anterior and posterior hippocampus. These overlapped with anterior-temporal/posterior-medial networks in young adults, indicating preserved organization of axis-dependent connectivity in old age. However, axis-specific networks were overall unrelated to memory and hippocampal DA D2 receptor availability (D2DR) measured with [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography. Further analyses identified a memory-related network modulated by hippocampal D2DR, equally connected to anterior-posterior regions. This network included medial frontal, posterior parietal, and striatal areas. The results add to the current understanding of large-scale hippocampal connectivity in aging, demonstrating axis-dependent connectivity with dissociated anterior and posterior networks, as well as a primary role in episodic memory of connectivity shared by regions along the hippocampalaxis.

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  • 16.
    Noroozian, Maryam
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Tehran, Iran.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Persson, Jonas
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Center for Lifespan Developmental Research (LEADER), Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Aging Research Center (ARC), Stockholm University, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Hippocampal and motor regions contribute to memory benefits after enacted encoding: cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence2023In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 3080-3097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neurobiological underpinnings of action-related episodic memory and how enactment contributes to efficient memory encoding are not well understood. We examine whether individual differences in level (n = 338) and 5-year change (n = 248) in the ability to benefit from motor involvement during memory encoding are related to gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity, and dopamine-regulating genes in a population-based cohort (age range = 25-80 years). A latent profile analysis identified 2 groups with similar performance on verbal encoding but with marked differences in the ability to benefit from motor involvement during memory encoding. Impaired ability to benefit from enactment was paired with smaller HC, parahippocampal, and putamen volume along with lower WM microstructure in the fornix. Individuals with reduced ability to benefit from encoding enactment over 5 years were characterized by reduced HC and motor cortex GM volume along with reduced WM microstructure in several WM tracts. Moreover, the proportion of catechol-O-methyltransferase-Val-carriers differed significantly between classes identified from the latent-profile analysis. These results provide converging evidence that individuals with low or declining ability to benefit from motor involvement during memory encoding are characterized by low and reduced GM volume in regions critical for memory and motor functions along with altered WM microstructure.

  • 17.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Baaré, William F.C.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bartrés-Faz, David
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, and Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Bertram, Lars
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Lübeck Interdisciplinary Platform for Genome Analytics (LIGA), University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; MSB Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin, Germany, and London, UK.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Vitas AS, Science Park, Oslo, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Duezel, Sandra
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; UniDistance Suisse, Brig, Switzerland; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Henson, Richard
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Jensen, Daria E.A.
    5Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Kievit, Rogier A.
    Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Knights, Ethan
    Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Kühn, Simone
    Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin, Germany, and London, UK.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin, Germany, and London, UK.
    Plachti, Anna
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Roe, James M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway,.
    Madsen, Kathrine Skak
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin, Germany, and London, UK.
    Solé-Padullés, Cristina
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, and Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Sommerer, Yasmine
    Lübeck Interdisciplinary Platform for Genome Analytics (LIGA), University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Suri, Sana
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 1Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Zsoldos, Enikő
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 1Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Center for Computational Radiology and Artificial Intelligence, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Center for Computational Radiology and Artificial Intelligence, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Individual differences in brain aging: heterogeneity in cortico-hippocampal but not caudate atrophy rates2023In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 5075-5081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well documented that some brain regions, such as association cortices, caudate, and hippocampus, are particularly prone to age-related atrophy, but it has been hypothesized that there are individual differences in atrophy profiles. Here, we document heterogeneity in regional-atrophy patterns using latent-profile analysis of 1,482 longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging observations. The results supported a 2-group solution reflecting differences in atrophy rates in cortical regions and hippocampus along with comparable caudate atrophy. The higher-atrophy group had the most marked atrophy in hippocampus and also lower episodic memory, and their normal caudate atrophy rate was accompanied by larger baseline volumes. Our findings support and refine models of heterogeneity in brain aging and suggest distinct mechanisms of atrophy in striatal versus hippocampal-cortical systems.

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  • 18. Papenberg, Goran
    et al.
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Lövdén, Martin
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Balance between Transmitter Availability and Dopamine D2 Receptors in Prefrontal Cortex Influences Memory Functioning2020In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 30, p. 989-1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insufficient or excessive dopaminergic tone impairs cognitive performance. We examine whether the balance between transmitter availability and dopamine (DA) D2 receptors (D2DRs) is important for successful memory performance in a large sample of adults (n = 175, 64-68 years). The Catechol-O-Methyltransferase polymorphism served as genetic proxy for endogenous prefrontal DA availability, and D2DRs in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) were measured with [11C]raclopride-PET. Individuals for whom D2DR status matched DA availability showed higher levels of episodic and working-memory performance than individuals with insufficient or excessive DA availability relative to the number of receptors. A similar pattern restricted to episodic memory was observed for D2DRs in caudate. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired during working-memory performance confirmed the importance of a balanced DA system for load-dependent brain activity in dlPFC. Our data suggest that the inverted-U-shaped function relating DA signaling to cognition is modulated by a dynamic association between DA availability and receptor status.

  • 19.
    Pedale, Tiziana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Fontan, Aurelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    CINEICC, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nonconscious information can be identified as task-relevant but not prioritized in working memory2023In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 2287-2301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two critical features of working memory are the identification and appropriate use of task-relevant information while avoiding distraction. Here, in 3 experiments, we explored if these features can be achieved also for nonconscious stimuli. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample task in which task relevance of 2 competing stimuli was indicated by a cue, and continuous flash suppression was used to manipulate the conscious/nonconscious visual experience. Experiment 1 revealed better-than-chance performance with nonconscious stimuli, demonstrating goal-directed use of nonconscious task-relevant information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the cue that defined task relevance must be conscious to allow such goal-directed use. In Experiment 3, multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity revealed that only the target was prioritized and maintained during conscious trials. Conversely, during nonconscious trials, both target and distractor were maintained. However, decoding of task relevance during the probe/test phase demonstrated identification of both target and distractor information. These results show that identification of task-relevant information can operate also on nonconscious material. However, they do not support the prioritization of nonconscious task-relevant information, thus suggesting a mismatch in the attentional mechanisms involved during conscious and nonconscious working memory.

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  • 20.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Johanna
    MR Research Center, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    MR Research Center, Karolinska Hospital, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Buckner, Randy L
    Departments of Psychology, Radiology, and Anatomy & Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Washington University, St Louis, MO 63130, USA.
    Structure-function correlates of cognitive decline in aging2006In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 907-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore neural correlates of cognitive decline in aging, we used longitudinal behavioral data to identify two groups of older adults (n = 40) that differed with regard to whether their performance on tests of episodic memory remained stable or declined over a decade. Analysis of structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a heterogeneous set of differences associated with cognitive decline. Manual tracing of hippocampal volume showed significant reduction in those older adults with a declining memory performance as did DTI-measured fractional anisotropy in the anterior corpus callosum. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during incidental episodic encoding revealed increased activation in left prefrontal cortex for both groups and additional right prefrontal activation for the elderly subjects with the greatest decline in memory performance. Moreover, mean DTI measures in the anterior corpus callosum correlated negatively with activation in right prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that cognitive decline is associated with differences in the structure as well as function of the aging brain, and suggest that increased activation is either caused by structural disruption or is a compensatory response to such disruption.

  • 21.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Pudas, Sara
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lind, Johanna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Longitudinal structure-function correlates in elderly reveal MTL dysfunction with cognitive decline2012In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 2297-2304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By integrating behavioral measures and imaging data, previous investigations have explored the relationship between biological markers of aging and cognitive functions. Evidence from functional and structural neuroimaging has revealed that hippocampal volume and activation patterns in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) may predict cognitive performance in old age. Most past demonstrations of age-related differences in brain structure-function were based on cross-sectional comparisons. Here, the relationship between 6-year intraindividual change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and change in memory performance over 2 decades was examined. Correlations between intraindividual change in fMRI signal during episodic encoding and change in memory performance measured outside of scanning were used as an estimate for relating brain-behavior changes. The results revealed a positive relationship between activation change in the hippocampus (HC) and change in memory performance, reflecting reduced hippocampal activation in participants with declining performance. Using a similar analytic approach as for the functional data, we found that individuals with declining performance had reduced HC volume compared with individuals with intact performance. These observations provide a strong link between cognitive change in older adults and MTL structure and function and thus provide insights into brain correlates of individual variability in aging trajectories.

  • 22.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Longitudinal evidence for increased functional response in frontal cortex for older adults with hippocampal atrophy and memory decline2018In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 936-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functional organization of the frontal cortex is dynamic. Age-related increases in frontal functional responses have been shown during various cognitive tasks, but the cross-sectional nature of most past studies makes it unclear whether these increases reflect reorganization or stable individual differences. Here, we followed 130 older individuals' cognitive trajectories over 20-25 years with repeated neuropsychological assessments every 5th year, and identified individuals with stable or declining episodic memory. Both groups displayed significant gray matter atrophy over 2 successive magnetic resonance imaging sessions 4 years apart, but the decline group also had a smaller volume of the right hippocampus. Only individuals with declining memory demonstrated increased prefrontal functional responses during memory encoding and retrieval over the 4-year interval. Regions with increased functional recruitment were located outside, or on the borders of core task-related networks, indicating an expansion of these over time. These longitudinal findings offer novel insight into the mechanisms behind age-associated memory loss, and are consistent with a theoretical model in which hippocampus atrophy, past a critical threshold, induces episodic-memory decline and altered prefrontal functional organization.

  • 23.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sari
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brehmer, Yvonne
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Farde, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Bäckman, Lars
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences & Society, Karolinska Institute, SE-113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dopamine D1 receptor associations within and between dopaminergic pathways in younger and elderly adults: links to cognitive performance2011In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 2023-2032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related dopamine (DA) losses have been extensively demonstrated for the D2 receptor subtype. Comparatively little is known about adult age changes regarding D1 receptors. In this study, we demonstrate marked age-related D1 receptor losses in striatal, limbic, and cortical areas using positron emission tomography and the radioligand [(11)C]SCH23390 in humans. Interregional correlations of binding potential (BP) values were high for areas within DA pathways in younger and elderly adults alike. Furthermore, interregional correlations in D1 BP between DA pathways were uniformly high in younger adults, indicating that D1 receptor densities in striatal, limbic, and cortical areas are not regulated independently, despite dopaminergic innervation from different midbrain areas. For elderly adults, between-pathway correlations of D1 receptor densities were preserved only between mesolimbic and mesocortical areas, whereas striatal BPs were weakly related to those in limbic and neocortical regions. Importantly, weak between-pathway correlations in elderly adults were found only for the slower half of the sample when BP was estimated during a cognitive interference task. These results suggest that D1 receptor densities in different pathways are not regulated independently in younger adults, but segregate in older age, and that this segregation of D1 receptor systems may be related to age-related cognitive slowing.

  • 24.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Avelar-Pereira, Bárbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Garrett, Douglas D.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lövdén, Martin
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Neurocognitive Profiles of Older Adults with Working-Memory Dysfunction2018In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 2525-2539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ in how they perceive, remember, and think. There is evidence for the existence of distinct subgroups that differ in cognitive performance within the older population. However, it is less clear how individual differences in cognition in old age are linked to differences in brain-based measures. We used latent-profile analysis on n-back working-memory (WM) performance to identify subgroups in a large sample of older adults (n = 181; age = 64-68 years). Our analysis identified one larger normal subgroup with higher performance (n = 113; 63%), and a second smaller subgroup (n = 55; 31%) with lower performance. The low-performing subgroup showed weaker load-dependent BOLD modulation and lower connectivity within the fronto-parietal network (FPN) as well as between FPN and striatum during n-back, along with lower FPN connectivity at rest. This group also exhibited lower FPN structural integrity, lower frontal dopamine D2 binding potential, inferior performance on offline WM tests, and a trend-level genetic predisposition for lower dopamine-system efficiency. By contrast, this group exhibited relatively intact episodic memory and associated brain measures (i.e., hippocampal volume, structural, and functional connectivity within the default-mode network). Collectively, these data provide converging evidence for the existence of a group of older adults with impaired WM functioning characterized by reduced cortico-striatal coupling and aberrant cortico-cortical integrity within FPN.

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  • 25.
    Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, SE-113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Kaboodvand, Neda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, SE-113 30, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Longitudinal Evidence for Dissociation of Anterior and Posterior MTL Resting-State Connectivity in Aging: Links to Perfusion and Memory2016In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 3953-3963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroimaging studies of spontaneous signal fluctuations as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed age-related alterations in the functional architecture of brain networks. One such network is located in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing structural and functional variations along the anterior-posterior axis. Past cross-sectional studies of MTL functional connectivity (FC) have yielded discrepant findings, likely reflecting the fact that specific MTL subregions are differentially affected in aging. Here, using longitudinal resting-state data from 198 participants, we investigated 5-year changes in FC of the anterior and posterior MTL. We found an opposite pattern, such that the degree of FC within the anterior MTL declined after age 60, whereas elevated FC within the posterior MTL was observed along with attenuated posterior MTL-cortical connectivity. A significant negative change-change relation was observed between episodic-memory decline and elevated FC in the posterior MTL. Additional analyses revealed age-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases in posterior MTL at the follow-up session, along with a positive relation of elevated FC and CBF, suggesting that elevated FC is a metabolically demanding alteration. Collectively, our findings indicate that elevated FC in posterior MTL along with increased local perfusion is a sign of brain aging that underlie episodic-memory decline.

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  • 26.
    Soshi, Takahiro
    et al.
    Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    Andersson, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Kawagoe, Toshikazu
    College of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University ,Saitama, Niiza, Japan.
    Nishiguchi, Shu
    Ntt Data Institute of Management Consulting Inc., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamada, Minoru
    Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Otsuka, Yuki
    Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    Nakai, Ryusuke
    Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    Abe, Nobuhito
    Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    Aslah, Adibah
    Department of Human and Environmental Informatics, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, kumamoto, Japan.
    Igasaki, Tomohiko
    Department of Human and Environmental Informatics, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, kumamoto, Japan.
    Sekiyama, Kaoru
    Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
    Prefrontal Plasticity after a 3-Month Exercise Intervention in Older Adults Relates to Enhanced Cognitive Performance2021In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 4501-4517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined exercise intervention effects on older adults' brain structures and function. Brain data were analyzed from 47 healthy adults between 61 and 82 years of age who, in a previous study, showed cognitive improvement following a 3-month intervention. The participants were assigned to a motor exercise intervention group (n = 24), performing exercise training programs for a 12-week period, or a waiting control group (n = 23), abstaining from any exercise program. Structural analysis of the frontal cortex and hippocampus revealed increased gray matter volume and/or thickness in several prefrontal areas in the intervention group and reduced hippocampal gray matter volume in the control group. Importantly, the volume increase in the middle frontal sulcus in the intervention group was associated with a general cognitive improvement after the intervention. Functional analysis showed that the prefrontal functional connectivity during a working memory task differently changed in response to the intervention or waiting in the two groups. The functional connectivity decreased in the intervention group, whereas the corresponding connectivity increased in the control group, which was associated with maintaining cognitive performance. The current longitudinal findings indicate that short-term exercise intervention can induce prefrontal plasticity associated with cognitive performance in older adults.

  • 27. Vidal-Pineiro, Didac
    et al.
    Sneve, Markus H.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Mowinckel, Athanasia M.
    Sederevicius, Donatas
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Maintained Frontal Activity Underlies High Memory Function Over 8 Years in Aging2019In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 3111-3123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is characterized by substantial average decline in memory performance. Yet contradictory explanations have been given for how the brains of high-performing older adults work: either by engagement of compensatory processes such as recruitment of additional networks or by maintaining young adults' patterns of activity. Distinguishing these components requires large experimental samples and longitudinal follow-up. Here, we investigate which features are key to high memory in aging, directly testing these hypotheses by studying a large sample of adult participants (n > 300) with fMRI during an episodic memory experiment where item-context relationships were implicitly encoded. The analyses revealed that low levels of activity in frontal networks-known to be involved in memory encoding-were associated with low memory performance in the older adults only. Importantly, older participants with low memory performance and low frontal activity exhibited a strong longitudinal memory decline in an independent verbal episodic memory task spanning 8 years back (n = 52). These participants were also characterized by lower hippocampal volumes and steeper rates of cortical atrophy. Altogether, maintenance of frontal brain function during encoding seems to be a primary characteristic of preservation of memory function in aging, likely reflecting intact ability to integrate information.

  • 28.
    Vidal-Piñeiro, Didac
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Sneve, Markus H.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Grydeland, Håkon
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Mowinckel, Athanasia M.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Roe, James M.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Sørensen, Øystein
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    The Functional Foundations of Episodic Memory Remain Stable Throughout the Lifespan2021In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 2098-2110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that specific forms of cognition in older age rely largely on late-life specific mechanisms. Here instead, we tested using task-fMRI (n = 540, age 6-82 years) whether the functional foundations of successful episodic memory encoding adhere to a principle of lifespan continuity, shaped by developmental, structural, and evolutionary influences. We clustered regions of the cerebral cortex according to the shape of the lifespan trajectory of memory activity in each region so that regions showing the same pattern were clustered together. The results revealed that lifespan trajectories of memory encoding function showed a continuity through life but no evidence of age-specific mechanisms such as compensatory patterns. Encoding activity was related to general cognitive abilities and variations of grey matter as captured by a multi-modal independent component analysis, variables reflecting core aspects of cognitive and structural change throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, memory encoding activity aligned to fundamental aspects of brain organization, such as large-scale connectivity and evolutionary cortical expansion gradients. Altogether, we provide novel support for a perspective on memory aging in which maintenance and decay of episodic memory in older age needs to be understood from a comprehensive life-long perspective rather than as a late-life phenomenon only.

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  • 29.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    et al.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Wang, Yunpeng
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Mowinckel, Athanasia M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin D, Germany.
    Düzel, Sandra
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Bartrés-Faz, David
    Departament de Medicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Vitas AS, Oslo, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Baaré, William F C
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Johansen, Louise Baruël
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research and Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark.
    Kievit, Rogier A.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Henson, Richard N.
    MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Madsen, Kathrine Skak
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Radiography, Department of Technology, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    R Harris, Jennifer
    Division for Health Data and Digitalisation, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Solé-Padullés, Cristina
    Departament de Medicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Sørensen, Øystein
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Westerhausen, René
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Zsoldos, Enikő
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Nawijn, Laura
    Department of Psychiatry, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam 1081 HJ, Netherlands.
    Lyngstad, Torkild Hovde
    Department of Sociology and Human Geography, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Suri, Sana
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Penninx, Brenda
    Department of Psychiatry, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam 1081 HJ, Netherlands.
    Rogeberg, Ole J.
    Frisch Centre, Oslo, Norway.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin D, Germany.
    Education and Income Show Heterogeneous Relationships to Lifespan Brain and Cognitive Differences Across European and US Cohorts2022In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 839-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher socio-economic status (SES) has been proposed to have facilitating and protective effects on brain and cognition. We ask whether relationships between SES, brain volumes and cognitive ability differ across cohorts, by age and national origin. European and US cohorts covering the lifespan were studied (4-97 years, N = 500 000; 54 000 w/brain imaging). There was substantial heterogeneity across cohorts for all associations. Education was positively related to intracranial (ICV) and total gray matter (GM) volume. Income was related to ICV, but not GM. We did not observe reliable differences in associations as a function of age. SES was more strongly related to brain and cognition in US than European cohorts. Sample representativity varies, and this study cannot identify mechanisms underlying differences in associations across cohorts. Differences in neuroanatomical volumes partially explained SES-cognition relationships. SES was more strongly related to ICV than to GM, implying that SES-cognition relations in adulthood are less likely grounded in neuroprotective effects on GM volume in aging. The relatively stronger SES-ICV associations rather are compatible with SES-brain volume relationships being established early in life, as ICV stabilizes in childhood. The findings underscore that SES has no uniform association with, or impact on, brain and cognition.

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