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  • 1.
    Abor, Joshua Yindenaba
    et al.
    Centre for Global Finance, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom; University of Stellenbosch Business School, South Africa.
    Abugre, James Atambilla
    Department of Finance, University of Ghana Business School, Ghana; Ministry of Finance, Ghana.
    Donkor, George Nana Agyekum
    ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, Lomé, Togo.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    The future of the oil and gas industry in emerging and developing countries2023Inngår i: Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: Emerging and developing country perspectives / [ed] Joshua Yindenaba Abor; Amin Karimu, Routledge, 2023, s. 280-293Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil and gas are important natural resources and have propelled economic growth and increased the global competitiveness between producing nations in global trade and resulted in the associated advantages to domestic economies. This chapter examines the future of the oil and gas industry in emerging and developing countries. It discusses the exploration of oil and gas and how the environment is being impacted by the activities. The chapter looks at the role of market players along the value chain of the oil and gas sector. It then examines how the world is being transitioned to renewable energy use through an analysis of demand trends and challenges confronting the oil and gas industry. It makes the case that despite the immeasurable contributions of the oil and gas sector to the development of the global economy, there have been systemic shifts in their demand in recent times. High cost of capital requirements in oil and gas production, climate change effects and global warming, deprivations and community conflicts, and technological advancements account for these shifts in the demand trends of oil and gas.

  • 2.
    Abor, Joshua Yindenaba
    et al.
    Centre for Global Finance, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom; University of Stellenbosch Business School, South Africa.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Introduction to sustainability management in the oil and gas industry2023Inngår i: Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: emerging and developing country perspectives / [ed] Joshua Yindenaba Abor; Amin Karimu, Routledge, 2023, s. 3-11Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The world, since the industrial revolution, has relied significantly on oil and gas (O&G) resources to fuel, especially for its industrial and transportation activities. The major consuming block for oil before 2012 was always the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, which are more industrialised relative to countries in the non-OECD block. In most emerging and developing countries (EDCs), when O&G resources are discovered, they are often quick to extract these resources with the aim of rapidly growing the economy, reducing poverty, and gaining some political capital without a careful management plan. Despite the transition to low carbon economy being underway along with the associated increased interest in renewable energy sources globally, especially among policymakers and investors in developed countries, demand for O&G resources will continue to surge due to growing demand from EDCs such as China, India, South Africa, and Brazil.

  • 3.
    Abor, Joshua Yindenaba
    et al.
    Centre for Global Finance, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom; University of Stellenbosch Business School, South Africa.
    Karimu, AminUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: emerging and developing country perspectives2023Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oil and gas industry is a complex sector with significant reach in terms of providing the energy needs of the global economy and the security, environmental and development consequences thereof. In particular, the sector is extremely important for the economic growth of emerging markets and developing countries. Furthermore, the life span of oil and gas resources is finite, with high health and safety risks and substantial environmental costs that require careful management and sustainability practices to ensure optimal extraction and utilisation of these resources. This book examines the challenges and opportunities in the oil and gas industry, in the context of emerging markets and developing economies. It provides comprehensive coverage of the management and sustainability practices of the sector, the environmental impact and sustainability of resources as well as the businesses that operate in the sector across the entire value chain. It addresses the current discourse on topics such as the Sustainable Development Goals, the Green Economy, the Paris Agreement and Glasgow Climate Pact and concludes with a chapter on the future of the oil and gas industry. The discussions around energy and energy transitions in particular continue to gain momentum and the book provides a wide-reaching and up-to-date overview of the industry. The book introduces readers to the concepts and formal models of analysis in the oil and gas sector and will serve as a useful resource for students, scholars and researchers in operations, marketing, procurement and supply chain management, project management, health and safety management, environmental economics, natural resource economics, development finance, and development studies. Researchers and practitioners working in these areas will also find the book a useful reference material.

  • 4. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 512-525Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 5.
    Acheampong, George
    et al.
    Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Ghana Business School, Ghana.
    Ackah, Ishmael
    Public Utilities Regulatory Commission, Ghana.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    The business of oil refining in Africa2023Inngår i: Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: emerging and developing country perspectives / [ed] Joshua Yindenaba Abor; Amin Karimu, Routledge, 2023, s. 30-47Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth, quest for value addition via industrialisation, and increasing demand for personal vehicles in emerging and developing regions such as Africa are leading to growth in demand for refined oil products and creating revenue generation potentials for the refining industry, despite the increasing environmental concerns. This chapter discusses key factors that determine the siting of a refinery, the input-output of a refinery, the refining margins, health and safety issues of the industry, and the trends in the refining business. It thus highlights the constraints and opportunities in Africa’s oil refining industry.

  • 6.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, s. 248-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Ahenkan, Albert
    et al.
    Department of Public Administration and Health Services Management, University of Ghana Business School, Ghana.
    Cudjoe, Mawuena A.
    Department of Accounting, University of Ghana Business School, Ghana.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Abekah-Nkrumah, Gordon
    Department of Public Administration and Health Services Management, University of Ghana Business School, Ghana.
    Environmental and sustainability management in the oil and gas industry2023Inngår i: Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: emerging and developing country perspectives / [ed] Joshua Yindenaba Abor; Amin Karimu, Routledge, 2023, s. 223-239Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry in emerging and developing countries has become essential to the sustainable development discourse because of the growing interest regarding the compatibility of the industry to a sustainable future. This chapter examines the management of environmental and sustainability issues in oil and gas industry in developing countries. The chapter comprises five sections. The first section presents the introduction and overview of the oil and gas industry in Africa. The second section presents sustainability challenges of the industry. The third section discusses environmental governance, ethics, and management of environmental impacts. The fourth section discusses how environmental impacts of the oil and gas industry are being managed and the regulatory framework for pollution prevention. The fifth section highlights corporate environmentalism in industry, the efforts to reduce pollution, and the greening of the sector. The chapter reveals that although the oil and gas sector has improved the economies of most developing countries over the years, the oil and gas sector activities have had significant environmental impacts. The chapter notes that several pressures from regulators and individuals force firms to behave ethically. What has helped mitigate the effect of the activities of the industry is the sense of duty towards the environment.

  • 8.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). STATEC Research (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies).
    Environment versus Jobs: An Industry-level Analysis of Sweden2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether the environment and employment compete with each other in Swedish manufacturing industry. The effect of a marginal increase in environmental expenditure and environmental investment costs on sector-level demand for labor (employment) was studied using a detailed firm-level panel dataset for the period 2001–2008. The results showed that the sign and magnitude of the net employment effects ultimately depend on the aggregate sector-level output demand elasticity. If the output demand is inelastic, these costs induce small net improvements in employment, while a more elastic output demand suggests negative, but in most sectors relatively small, net effects on demand for labor. Hence, the results did not generally indicate a substantial trade-off between jobs and the environment. The general policy recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that, in the absence of empirically estimated output demand elasticities, a careful attitude regarding national environmental initiatives for sectors exposed to world market competition should be adopted.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). STATEC Research (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies), House of Entrepreneurship, 14, rue Erasme, Kirchberg, Luxembourg.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economics, Sweden.
    Is industrial energy inefficiency transient or persistent? Evidence from Swedish manufacturing2022Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 309, artikkel-id 118324Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy inefficiency in production implies that the same level of goods and services could be produced using less energy. The potential energy inefficiency of a firm may be linked to long-term structural rigidities in the production process and/or systematic shortcomings in management (persistent inefficiency), or associated with temporary issues like misallocation of resources (transient inefficiency). Eliminating or mitigating different inefficiencies may require different policy measures. Studies measuring industrial energy inefficiency have mostly focused on overall inefficiencies and have paid little attention to distinctions between the types. The aim of this study was to assess whether energy inefficiency is transient and/or persistent in the Swedish manufacturing industry. I used a firm-level panel dataset covering fourteen industrial sectors from 1997 to 2008 and estimated a stochastic energy demand frontier model. The model included a four-component error term separating persistent and transient inefficiency from unobserved heterogeneity and random noise. I found that both transient and persistent energy inefficiencies exist in most sectors of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Overall, persistent energy inefficiency was larger than transient, but varied considerably in different manufacturing sectors. The results suggest that, generally, energy inefficiencies in the Swedish manufacturing industry were related to structural rigidities connected to technology and/or management practices.

  • 10.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The Rebound Effect in Swedish Heavy Industry2018Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, s. 140-148Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of the rebound effect for fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden: pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for 2000–2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that neither fuel nor electricity rebound effects fully offset the potential energy and emission savings. Among the determinants, we find CO2 intensity and fuel/electricity share to be useful indicators for identifying firms with higher or lower rebound effect within each sector.

  • 11.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The rebound effect in the Swedish heavy industry2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of rebound effect for the two energy types fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden – pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for the period 2000-2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that both fuel and electricity rebound effects do not fully offset the potential for energy and emission savings. Furthermore, we find CO2 intensity and fuel and electricity share as the two main determinants of rebound effect in Swedish heavy industry. Our results seems to imply that it matters both to what extent and where to promote EEI, as the rebound effect varies between sectors as well as between firms within sectors. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. STATEC Research, STATEC (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies), Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economic, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    A dynamic analysis of industrial energy efficiency and the rebound effect: implications for carbon emissions and sustainability2022Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 15, nr 7, artikkel-id 54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) is generally known to be a cost-effective measure for meeting energy, climate, and sustainable growth targets. Unfortunately, behavioral responses to such improvements (called energy rebound effects) may reduce the expected savings in energy and emissions from EEI. Hence, the size of this effect should be considered to help design efficient energy and climate targets. Currently, there are significant differences in approaches for measuring the rebound effect. Here, we used a two-step procedure to measure both short- and long-term energy rebound effects in the Swedish manufacturing industry. In the first step, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure energy efficiency. In the second step, we use the efficiency scores and estimated a derived energy demand equation including rebound effects using a dynamic panel regression model. This approach was applied to a firm-level panel dataset covering 14 sectors in Swedish manufacturing over the period 1997–2008. We showed that, in the short run, partial and statistically significant rebound effects exist within all manufacturing sectors, meaning that the rebound effect decreased the energy and emission savings expected from EEI. The long-term rebound effect was in general smaller than the short-term effect, implying that within each sector, energy and emission savings due to EEI are larger in the long run compared to the short run. Using our estimates of energy efficiency and rebound effect, we further performed a post-estimation analysis to provide a guide to policy makers by identifying sectors where EEI have the most potential to promote sustainable economic growth with the lowest environmental impact.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Amjadi Torshizi, Golnaz
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). STATEC Research.
    Is Industrial Energy Inefficiency Transient or Persistent? Evidence from Swedish Manufacturing2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy inefficiency in production implies that the same level of goods and services could be produced using less energy. The potential energy inefficiency of a firm may be linked to long-term structural rigidities in the production process and/or systematic shortcomings in management (persistent inefficiency), or associated with temporary issues like misallocation of resources (transient inefficiency). Eliminating or mitigating different inefficiencies may require different policy measures. Studies measuring industrial energy inefficiency have mostly focused on overall inefficiencies and have paid little attention to distinctions between the types. The aim of this study was to assess whether energy inefficiency is transient and/or persistent in the Swedish manufacturing industry. I used a firm-level panel dataset covering fourteen industrial sectors from 1997–2008 and estimated a stochastic energy demand frontier model. The model included a four-component error term separating persistent and transient inefficiency from unobserved heterogeneity and random noise. I found that both transient and persistent energy inefficiencies exist in most sectors of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Overall, persistent energy inefficiency was larger than transient, but varied considerably in different manufacturing sectors. The results suggest that, generally, energy inefficiencies in the Swedish manufacturing industry were related to structural rigidities connected to technology and/or management practices.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Amjadi Torshizi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). STATEC Research (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economic.
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    A Dynamic Analysis of Industrial Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) is generally known to be a cost-effective measure for meeting energy, climate and sustainable growth targets. Unfortunately, behavioral responses to such improvements (called energy rebound effects) may reduce the expected savings in energy and emissions from EEI. Hence, the size of this effect should be considered to help set realistic energy and climate targets. Currently there are significant differences in approaches for measuring rebound effect. Here, we used a two-step procedure to measure both short- and long-term energy rebound effects in the Swedish manufacturing industry. In the first step, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to obtain energy efficiency scores. In the second step, we estimated energy rebound effects using a dynamic panel regression model. This approach was applied to a firmlevel panel dataset covering all 14 sectors in the Swedish manufacturing industry over the period 1997–2008. We showed that, in the short run, partial rebound effects exist within most of manufacturing sectors, meaning that the rebound effect decreased, but did not totally offset, the energy and emission savings expected from EEI. The long-term rebound effect was smaller than the shortterm effect, implying that within each sector, energy and emission savings due to EEI are larger in the long run compared to the short run.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Ancev, Tihomir
    et al.
    The School of Economics, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Bostian, Moriah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). The Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, United States.
    Barnhart, Brad
    The Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, United States.
    Productivity-based indicators for nitrogen use efficiency2023Inngår i: Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, ISSN 1068-5502, E-ISSN 2327-8285, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 178-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is often used to evaluate an agricultural system's relative ability to process nitrogen (N) inputs. However, no universal indicator has simultaneously considered both economic and environmental objectives. We develop Luenberger indicators of NUE that incorporate both economic and environmental objectives to examine spatio-temporal changes in NUE, which we apply to the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for the period 2002-2012. We find considerable spatial-temporal variation in NUE, which could be used to inform future agri-environmental policy and conservation targeting decisions in the UMRB. Using this approach could lead to more cost-effective targeting of areas for N reduction in the UMRB.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Angelov, Angel G.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Testing for stochastic dominance: Procedures with four hypothesesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17. Arvaniti, Maria
    et al.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crepin, Anne-Sophie
    Time-consistent renewable resource management with present bias and regime shifts2023Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 207, s. 479-495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the extraction plan of present-biased decision makers managing a renew-able resource stock whose growth is uncertain and which could undergo a rapid and sig-nificant change when stock falls below a threshold. We show that the Markov-Nash equi-librium extraction policy is unique, time consistent, and increasing in resource stock. An increase in the threshold leads to increased resource extraction, rather than the precau-tionary reduction in extraction often observed with exponential discounting. An increase in the degree of present bias also leads to an increase in resource extraction. Our analy-sis suggests that accounting for and appropriately dealing with resource managers' present bias may be important to understand resource use sustainability.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Optimal management of groundwater under uncertainty: a unified approach2017Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 351-377Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-time stochastic models of management of groundwater resources have been extensively used for understanding a number of issues in groundwater management. Most models used suffer from two drawbacks: relatively simplistic treatment of the cost of water extraction, and a lack of important structural results (such as monotonicity of extraction in stock and concavity of the value function), even in simple models. Lack of structural properties impede both practical policy simulation and clarity of understanding of the resulting models and the underlying economics. This paper provides a unifying framework for these models in two directions; first, the usual cost function is extended to encompass cases where marginal cost of pumping depends on the stock and second, the analysis dispenses with assumptions of concavity of the objective function and compactness of the state space, using instead lattice-theoretic methods. With these modifications, a comprehensive investigation of which structural properties can be proved in each of the resulting cases is carried out. It is shown that for some of the richer models more structural properties may be proved than for the simpler model used in the literature. This paper also introduces to the resource economics literature an important method of proving convergence to a stationary distribution which does not require monotonicity in stock of resource. This method is of interest in a variety of renewable resource model settings.

  • 19.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Kriström, Bengt
    SLU Umeå.
    A cross-country analysis of residential electricity demand in 11 OECD-countries2015Inngår i: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 39, s. 68-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide consistent, cross-country estimates of price and income elasticity for households in 11 OECD countries. Using survey data from 2011 on annual consumption of electricity and sample-derived average electricity price, we provide country-specific price elasticity estimates and average income elasticity estimates. For most countries in our sample, we find strong price responsiveness, with elasticities varying (in absolute value) between 0.27 for South Korea and 1.4 for Australia, and higher than 0.5 for most countries. Exploiting the presence of many attitudinal indicators in the dataset, we provide evidence that non-price related factors to affect energy demand; in particular, households' self-reported energy savings behaviour reduces demand between 2 and 4%. In contrast, we find very weak income responsiveness, with income elasticities varying from 0.07 to 0.16 and no evidence for heterogeneity across the countries in our sample. Our results regarding price elasticity are in contrast with those of many existing studies which find low-to-moderate price responsiveness, and adds to a few recent studies indicating more policy space for demand reduction than previously thought.

  • 20.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Determinants of the Price-Premium for Green Energy: Evidence from an OECD Cross-Section2016Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 173-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from a survey of households in 11 OECD countries, this paper investigates the determinants of preferences for a completely green residential electricity system. Three important questions are addressed: (i) how much are households willing to pay to use only renewable energy? (ii) does willingness-to-pay (WTP) vary significantly across household groups and countries? and (iii) what drives the decision to enter the (hypothetical) market for green energy and, given entry, what drives the level of WTP? The analysis here differs from previous studies on green energy in two ways: first, data and analyses are comparable across countries and second, a comprehensive attempt is made to understand 0 WTP, and to accommodate-using a censored quantile regression (CQR) framework-unobserved heterogeneity. The survey data indicate a low WTP, at 11-12 % of current electric bill. This study also addresses a key question: how important is income for understanding WTP, relative to more "attitudinal" determinants? The effect of income overall appears ambiguous, with Tobit-like models indicating that income is not significant while the CQR indicates that income exerts a significant effect near the center of the distribution of WTP. Across all frameworks used, a key determinant of WTP appears to be environmental attitudes, particularly membership in an environmental organization.

  • 21.
    Belyaev, Yuri K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kriström, B.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Analysis of contingent valuation data with self-selected rounded WTP-intervals collected by two-steps sampling plans2013Inngår i: Multivariate Statistics: Theory and Applications / [ed] Tonu Kollo, World Scientific, 2013, s. 48-60Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkley, CA, USA.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Spindell Berck, Cyndi
    Attorney and Public Policy Analyst, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Green regulations in California and Sweden2011Inngår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, E-ISSN 1939-0467, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 49-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    California and Sweden are both leaders in green regulations and actions. In both there is a substantial political base for environmental regulation, yet the path to regulation in these two political entities is quite different. California emphasizes command and control regulations while Sweden makes heavy use of taxes. We show that both underlying economic factors and the constraints of the larger systems in which these economies are embedded contribute to their choice of control methods.

  • 23.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Ducoing, Cristián
    Ranestad, Kristin
    Different drivers behind corporate environmental policies: the case of the Swedish and Chilean copper industry2021Inngår i: Natural resources and divergence: a comparison of Andean and Nordic trajectories / [ed] Cristián Ducoing, José Peres-Cajías, Palgrave Macmillan , 2021, s. 279-303Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter represents a comparative study of the emergence of environmental policies in the Chilean and Swedish copper industry. The chapter identifies a number of key factors which helps to explain dissimilar characteristics of actions to protect the environment in both countries as well as the timing for these actions. One key difference identified—besides obvious factors such as income levels, political systems and dependency of foreign direct investments—concerns the very drivers behind the greening of the industry. While governmental regulation developing from the 1960s represented the primary driver behind the green transformation of Swedish copper industry, it took until the 1990s before the Chilean copper companies started to adopt their first environmental policies ahead of regulation, and called for the Chilean government to act. We suggest that this happened as globalisation took hold from the early 1990s, and foreign companies operating in Chile demanded environmental standards that harmonised with those in the Western world, at the same time as the Chilean industry needed to enhance an environmental reputation in the global market. Thus, while the Swedish industry was much driven by national regulation to invest in cleaner technologies, it was the pressure from globalisation that drove the Chilean industry to clean up their acts.

  • 24. Björk, Lisa
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Danley, Brian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Waldo, Staffan
    Samhällsekonomisk analys till stöd för en ekosystembaserad fiskförvaltning2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25. Blomquist, Johan
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Stage, Jesper
    Waldo, Staffan
    Samhällsekonomiska begrepp i yrkes- och fritidsfiske2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fisk är en gemensam resurs som bidrar med värden till samhället både genom sin roll i ekosystemen och i form av livsmedel och rekreationsmöjligheter via yrkes- och fritidsfisket. Utan kontroll och regleringar finns risk att nyttjandet inte blir hållbart från ett samhälleligt och ekologiskt perspektiv. Inom fiskförvaltningen, och då yrkes- och fritidsfisket konkurrerar om samma resurs, krävs ofta att myndigheter gör avväganden vad gäller hur fiskresursen ska fördelas. Olika typer av samhällsekonomiska analyser och indikatorer kan spela en viktig roll som besluts- och faktaunderlag i sådana överväganden.

    Samtidigt är yrkes- och fritidsfiske till sina naturer olika verksamheter; yrkesfiske är en bransch som är tydligt definierad i den ekonomiska statistiken, medan fritidsfiske är en aktivitet som människor utövar på sin fritid. Denna skillnad i hur de olika fiskena ser ut och utövas gör att ekonomiska jämförelser blir komplicerade, och när olika samhällsekonomiska indikatorer används i jämförelser mellan fiskena är det nödvändigt att säkerställa att dessa indikatorer faktiskt är jämförbara.

    I denna rapport diskuteras några av de viktigaste indikatorerna som används i jämförelser mellan olika fisken. Dessa indikatorer låter sig sorteras i två olika grupper, dels indikatorer som syftar till att mäta olika aspekter av ekonomisk aktivitet och dels indikatorer som syftar till att mäta olika aspekter av samhällsekonomiska värden. Aktivitetsindikatorerna bygger på nationalräkenskapssystemet och hit hör indikatorer som förädlingsvärde, sysselsättning, vinst, omsättning och multiplikatoreffekter. Värdeindikatorerna bygger på nationalekonomisk välfärdsteori och hit hör indikatorer som samhällsekonomiskt nettobidrag, producentöverskott och konsumentöverskott. I rapporten diskuteras dels vilka av dessa indikatorer som alls är meningsfulla att jämföra med motsvarande indikatorer i andra fisken, dels vad som krävs för att åstadkomma jämförbara indikatorer för olika fisken. Det finns en rad aktivitetsbaserade indikatorer som kan vara av intresse, beroende på vilket eller vilka mål som fiskepolitiken har på en viss plats, medan det däremot egentligen bara finns en värdeindikator, nämligen det samhällsekonomiska nettobidraget, som är intressant på egen hand.

    En viktig slutsats i rapporten är att det bör utvecklas satelliträkenskaper för fritidsfiske som är konsistenta med dagens satelliträkenskaper för turism mer allmänt, och att fritidsfiskebaserat företagande bör definieras och mätas på samma sätt som turismbaserat företagande mäts i satelliträkenskaper för turism och inkludera all försäljning av varor och tjänster som används för fritidsfiske. Detta skulle innebära en bredare definition av fritidsfiskebaserat företagande än dagens, som fokuserar på företag som huvudsakligen säljer till just fritidsfiske, men skulle säkerställa att aktivitetsbaserade indikatorer – både för yrkesfiske och för fritidsfiske – skulle mätas på jämförbara sätt och i enlighet med internationella nationalräkenskapsstandarder.

    En annan viktig slutsats i rapporten är att när indikatorer för olika fisken används i jämförelser mellan dessa är det angeläget att indikatorerna mäts på samma geografiska skala. De flesta aktivitetsbaserade indikatorer blir mycket olika beroende på vilken skala de mäts på, och att exempelvis jämföra en indikator som mätts på kommunal nivå för ett fiske med en i övrigt likvärdig indikator som mätts på nationell nivå för ett annat fiske kommer att leda tanken fel.

    I många situationer där det är önskvärt att jämföra olika fisken kommer det att behövas mer detaljerad datainsamling eller mer detaljerad analys än vad som idag görs systematiskt. I rapporten diskuteras några utvecklingsmöjligheter för framtida datainsamling och framtida analysarbete inom fiskeområdet.

    Slutligen är det viktigt att betona att även om det går att peka ut några indikatorer som mer informativa än andra, går det inte att entydigt peka ut en enda indikator som alltid är att föredra. Vilka indikatorer som beslutsfattare fokuserar på när fisken på en viss plats och av en viss art ska jämföras måste knytas till vilka fördelnings- och regionalpolitiska mål som ses som angelägna på den platsen. Samhällsekonomiska indikatorer bör ses som beslutsunderlag i dessa överväganden och om de är korrekt utformade och mätta kan de vara mycket användbara beslutsunderlag, men vilka fördelnings- och regionalpolitiska mål som är angelägna att nå för ett visst fiske måste beslutas utifrån andra kriterier.

  • 26. Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mattsson, Leif
    Ericsson, Göran
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, CERE, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Moose Hunting Values in Sweden Now and Two Decades Ago: The Swedish Hunters Revisited2011Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 515-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on two national contingent valuation studies dealing with the extent and economic values of hunting in Sweden. The first valuation study was conducted in 1987 and the second in 2006. Both the game resource and the hunter community have undergone changes in the two decades covered by the surveys. An important purpose of the latter survey was to repeat relevant parts of the former one, which created a rare opportunity to compare valuations covering a very long time span. Moose hunting value and its determinants were compared between the two studies, showing that significant changes have taken place. Our analysis suggests caution in using results from old contingent valuation studies for e.g. benefits transfer exercises.

  • 27.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    John Rawls i klimatekonomiska analyser2018Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 5, s. 86-89Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    [Ledare] Naturskydd på anbud2019Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 1s. 3-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Resource Economics: An Economic Approach to Natural Resource and Environmental Policy2012Inngår i: Marine Resource Economics, ISSN 0738-1360, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 105-106Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Öregrund, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Carlén, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Bergström, Ulf
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Benefits and costs of two temporary no-take zones2020Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 117, artikkel-id 103883Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary no-take zones (NTZs) are increasingly introduced in Sweden as a fisheries management tool to restore populations of specific target species. This paper presents a cost-benefit analysis of two real case temporary NTZs closed during a 5–6 year period in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, using scenario analysis to account for uncertainty in both the biological and economic effects. A sensitivity analysis was added for certain key parameters. The results of the cost-benefit analyses for the two NTZs are positive in all scenarios relating to the most realistic case of no opportunity costs, i.e., assuming that all fishing activity could be relocated to adjacent areas without cost during the closed period. As an extreme case comparison, full opportunity costs were included, assuming that no fishing activity could be relocated to other areas during the closed period. One of the NTZs then exhibited a negative net result for most scenarios. For the other area the net result was positive even when the maximum opportunity costs of temporary lost fishing opportunities were included, largely depending on the strong positive change in the value of commercial fishing. By demonstrating potential costs and benefits of using temporary no-take zones in fisheries management this study may contribute to policy making, as well as to creating acceptance from stakeholder groups that incur short-term costs from closing areas to fishing.

  • 31.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Rationality, fairness and the cost of distrust2012Inngår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 345-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. SLU.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). SLU.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: en konceptuell analys2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande rapport är att på ett övergripande och konceptuellt plan beskriva innebörden av en samhällsekonomisk nytto- och kostnadsanalys, eller samhällsekonomisk bedömning, och hur en sådan kan och bör genomföras för att analysera samhällsnyttan av fiskefria områden. Vidare syftar rapporten till att exemplifiera vilken typ av empiriska data och metoder som finns tillgängliga för en sådan analys med hjälp av den fritidsfiskeundersökning som årligen görs i regi av Hav och Vattenmyndigheten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Center for Environmental and Resource Economics, CERE, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Per
    School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muricho, Deborah
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Mureithi, Stephen
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wredle, Ewa
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gert
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adaptive pastoralists: insights into local and regional patterns in livelihood adaptation choices among pastoralists in Kenya2023Inngår i: Pastoralism, E-ISSN 2041-7136, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pastoralist adaptation strategies have to address multiple, overlapping, and often inter-related processes of socio-ecological change. The present study addresses the need for inter-regional comparative studies that account for different geographic, climate, and socio-economic contexts in order to understand how pastoralists adapt to changes in livelihood conditions. The paper uses data from a unique survey study of pastoralist households in four neighbouring counties in dryland Kenya. Taking our point of departure from an empirically based classification of the livelihood strategies available to pastoralists in the Horn of Africa, the survey offers novel insights into adaptation and fodder management strategies of pastoralist individuals and households. The results show that the use of migration as a strategy is more dependent on the ability to migrate than climate conditions. This is the case in localities where a substantial part of the land is subdivided, the population density is high, and where opportunities for migration are subsequently restricted. Diversification of livelihoods as a strategy is largely defined by opportunity. Intensification through active fodder management is mainly common in areas where there has been a proliferation of managed enclosures. Climate change will test the adaptive capacity of pastoralists in the studied region, and diversification and intensification strategies of both herd composition and livelihoods can be seen as strategies for increased climate resilience.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden, Luleå University of Technology; Luleå, Sweden.
    Sandorf, Erlend
    School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Mureithi, Stephen
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Muricho, Deborah
    Department of Land Resource Management & Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Unravelling the pastoralist paradox – preferences for land tenure security and flexibility in Kenya2023Inngår i: Environment and Development Economics, ISSN 1355-770X, E-ISSN 1469-4395, Vol. 28, s. 242-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment conducted among pastoralists in four different semi-arid counties in Kenya characterized by different land tenure regimes to analyze how pastoralists make tradeoffs between tenure security and grazing flexibility – the so-called pastoralist paradox. Results show that there is one group of respondents who are desperate for change and seem to prefer either group or private title deeds to their current situation. A second, smaller group has strong preferences for the status quo, which could be driven by their relatively short migration distances. Concerning index-based livestock insurance, the basis risk suffered by insured pastoralists due to underprediction is high, but willingness to pay (WTP) for livestock insurance should still be high enough to ensure maximum uptake, leaving current low uptakes hard to explain. The worry about climate change is high but does not translate into increased WTP for more secure tenure or formal livestock insurance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, S-901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zabel, Astrid
    School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Länggasse 85, 3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland.
    Ekvall, Hans
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, S-901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Planning on a Wider Scale – Swedish Forest Owners’ Preferences for Landscape Policy Attributes2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A tax-fund system has been proposed to advance Swedish forest conservation. We present a choice experiment with Swedish private forest owners on preferences for attributes of a taxfund system. Focusing on three aspects: (i) freedom to choose set-asides, (ii) equity issues, and (iii) frequency of nature inventories, we find two groups of forest owners. The first is opposed to interventions that could curtail liberty and oppose frequent nature inventories, while a smaller group would derive positive utility from joint decision-making. A tax-fund system would need to be designed in a participatory manner to reconcile forest owners, forest industry, and conservationists.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zabel, Astrid
    Ekvall, Hans
    Planning on a wider scale: Swedish forest owners' preferences for landscape policy attributes2019Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 104, s. 170-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A tax-fund system has been proposed to advance Swedish forest conservation. We present a choice experiment with Swedish private forest owners on preferences for attributes of a tax-fund system. Focusing on three aspects: (i) freedom to choose set-asides, (ii) equity issues, and (iii) frequency of nature inventories, we find two groups of forest owners. The first is opposed to interventions that could curtail liberty and oppose frequent nature inventories, while a smaller group would derive positive utility from jointly deciding on the location of set-asides with society. Both groups have a preference for changing the current tax-base to soil productivity or timber volume. The tax-base chosen together with the modalities of re-distributing the funds will determine the program's efficiency. The paper concludes that a tax-fund system could indeed be a way forward but would need to be designed in a participatory manner to reconcile forest owners, forest industry representatives, and conservationists.

  • 38. Bostian, A. J. A.
    et al.
    Bostian, Moriah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Laukkanen, Marita
    Simola, Antti
    Assessing the productivity consequences of agri-environmental practices when adoption is endogenous2020Inngår i: Journal of Productivity Analysis, ISSN 0895-562X, E-ISSN 1573-0441, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 141-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the general problem of selection bias, an issue endemic to policy analysis when adoption is voluntary, with an empirical application to environmental policies for agriculture. Many voluntary practices for mitigating the environmental impacts of agriculture provide external benefits while lowering productivity. Policy analysis of the productivity consequences is complicated by the fact that decision makers can choose their own policy levers, an action that ruins any notion of random assignment. We introduce an identification strategy to correct this kind of endogeneity, combining classic methods from stochastic frontier analysis and selection models. Applying it to micro-level data from Finnish grain farms, we find that more efficient producers are more likely to enroll in subsidized practices. And, because those practices tend to reduce yield, frontier analysis without the endogeneity correction greatly understates the productivity loss. In other words, naively basing the frontier estimator on the subset of less-productive farms leads to downward bias in the frontier estimates. In fact, average inefficiency more than doubles after the correction in this case. An outlier investigation suggests that the lowest decile of farms are responsible for most of the selection bias in the uncorrected model.

  • 39.
    Bostian, Moriah B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, USA.
    Barnhart, Bradley L.
    Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, United States.
    Kurkalova, Lyubov A.
    Department of Economics, North Carolina A&T State University, United States.
    Jha, Manoj K.
    Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University, United States.
    Whittaker, Gerald W.
    Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, United States.
    Bilevel optimization of conservation practices for agricultural production2021Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 300, artikkel-id 126874Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty surrounding the sources of nonpoint pollution and producer response to prospective policy incentives complicates the nonpoint policy problem. To explain, neither policy-makers nor producers know the exact effect of current and alternative farming practices on the contributions of specific cropped fields to nutrient pollution. Spatial heterogeneity of the production technology and environmental damage of runoff also precludes the formulation of an analytic solution, so that producer response to prospective policies is unknown a priori to the policy maker. To address the complexity arising from point source uncertainty and spatial heterogeneity, we draw on recent computational advances to reformulate the classic nonpoint source pollution problem as a multi-objective bilevel optimization problem, employing genetic algorithm (GA) solution methods. This computational framework explicitly accounts for the nested nature of farm-level management decisions in response to prospective agri-environmental policy incentives, and spatial heterogeneity of both production and pollution effects. Our application considers the optimal spatial targeting of multiple management practices in the Iowa Raccoon River Watershed, an intensive corn and soybean production region of the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB). Consistent with theory and previous empirical results, we find that combining multiple management practices, versus relying on single or one-size policies, lowers the total cost for a given level of nitrogen reduction. But we also find overall limited potential nitrogen reduction via implementing these practices on working land, suggesting the continued need for land retirement in meeting current nonpoint policy goals for the UMRB. We believe that the main contribution of this study lies in the novelty of the bilevel approach, which explicitly accounts for feedbacks between policy makers and agricultural producers, while the associated GA computational methods allow for better handling of large scale and complex spatial heterogeneity over the agricultural watershed.

  • 40.
    Bostian, Moriah B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, OR, Portland, United States.
    Färe, Rolf
    Department of Economics, Oregon State University, OR, Corvallis, United States; Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, MD, United States.
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, OR, Corvallis, United States.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Prevention or cure? Optimal abatement mix2022Inngår i: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 24, s. 503-531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a model for pollution abatement that distinguishes between prevention and treatment technologies, in order to better understand the optimal mix of abatement measures. Our model separates the production process into two stages, an initial production and prevention stage and a final treatment (or cure) stage. We allow for reallocation of abatement investment across the production stages, in order to improve overall abatement and production and to better understand the tradeoffs between abatement measures. This framework is relevant in practice for numerous industrial production processes, including manufacturing and energy, which employ different abatement measures at different stages of production. In our application to Sweden’s pulp and paper sector, we find the industry could achieve further gains to both production and emissions reductions, beyond those estimated using more common single-stage technology estimation methods, by reallocating abatement investments. These results could be used to improve firm environmental management decisions, and to better target policy incentives to specific forms of abatement.

  • 41.
    Bostian, Moriah B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, OR, Portland, United States.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Production and the environment2022Inngår i: Handbook of production economics / [ed] Ray, S.C., Chambers, R.G., Kumbhakar, S.C., Springer, 2022, s. 1463-1489Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production theory offers a mathematical framework for modeling important relationships between production activities and the environment. These include the generation and valuation of production-related environmental effects, environmental contributions to production processes, and production effects of environmental management practices. In this chapter, we review the seminal and recent empirical work in each of these areas. We anchor our review to multi-input/multi-output production processes, as these make up a large share of environmental applications in the field, and their associated models offer the practitioner considerable flexibility in terms of specification and estimation.

  • 42.
    Bostian, Moriah B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Valuing Ecosystem Services for Agricultural TFP: A Review of Best Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations2022Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 5, artikkel-id 3035Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a brief overview of methods to incorporate ecosystem service values into measures of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP), both in theory and in practice. This includes a review of the academic literature, a summary of related economic index theory, and a comparison of agency guidelines. We consider areas of consensus between the agencies and the research literature, as well as open debates surrounding the implementation of a standardized ecosystem accounting framework to integrate with existing TFP measures. This helps to bridge the gap between theoretical approaches to measurement and valuation in the research literature and their implementation in practice by national accounting agencies. Better connecting theory to practice also serves to highlight common challenges in the field, including questions of definition, scope, and scale for ecosystem services, as well as data collection and dissemination. We end with a summary of recommendations for moving forward.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Environmental investment and firm performance: a network approach2016Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 57, s. 243-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the role of investment in environmental production practices for both environmental performance and energy efficiency over time. We employ a network DEA approach that links successive production technologies through intertemporal investment decisions with a period by period estimation. This allows us to estimate energy efficiency and environmental performance separately, as well as productivity change and its associated decompositions into efficiency change and technology change. Incorporating a network model also allows us to account for both short-term environmental management practices and long-term environmental investments in each of our productivity measures. We apply this framework to a panel of detailed plant-level production data for Swedish manufacturing firms covering the years 2002-2008.

  • 44. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Department of Economics, Oregon State University, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Network Representations of Pollution-Generating Technologies2017Inngår i: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, E-ISSN 1932-1473, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 193-231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We update developments on modeling technology including unintended outputs and show how these can, at least to a large extent, be incorporated in a network model framework. Recently there have been efforts to specify more detailed models which include multiple functions to separately capture intended and unintended products. Yet another recent strand of the recent literature has also explicitly tried to include a material balance condition in the model. We see this general evolution as beginning with what might be called a black box technology, with inputs entering the box, and good and bad outputs exiting the box. The more sophisticated models can be thought of as filling in the black box with the more detailed processes involved with production, prevention and abatement, with production accompanied by undesirable byproducts subject to legal regulations and laws of nature. This can be modeled as a network within the black box.

  • 45. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Weber, William L.
    Time substitution for environmental performance: The case of Swedish manufacturing2018Inngår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 129-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend recent advances in time substitution modeling to a directional distance function framework, in order to examine the environmental performance of firms in Sweden's pulp and paper industry for the years 2002-2008. Our data allow us to estimate the optimal reallocation of environmental investments, expenditures and energy use to simultaneously maximize production output and minimize emissions in the years immediately before and after the implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. We find some evidence of overall productivity decline when considering both emissions and output objectives, due primarily to technological decline, and that cumulative dynamic inefficiency outweighs static inefficiency. A comparison of optimal investment with observed investment indicates that firms could have improved their performance by reallocating environmental investments to early periods and production-oriented investment to later periods.

  • 46.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Berg, Charlotte
    Samakovlis, Eva
    The economy-wide rebound effect from improved energy efficiency in Swedish industries–A general equilibrium analysis2015Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 83, s. 26-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the rebound effect from increased efficiency in industrial energy use in Sweden. Energy efficiency improvements can have significant micro- and macroeconomic effects that hamper the positive effect on real energy savings. To assess the size of the overall rebound effect in the Swedish economy, we apply a computable general equilibrium model. The results show that the economy-wide rebound effect depends on a number of factors, e.g. the extent of the energy efficiency improvement, how the labour market is modelled as well as whether the increase in energy efficiency is combined with a cost or not. We find that the rebound effect following a five per cent increase in energy efficiency in the Swedish industry lies in the 40-70 per cent range. When energy efficiency is only improved in energy-intensive production, the rebound effect becomes even higher. These findings are in line with the results in the literature.

  • 47.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent report to the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Broberg et al., 2014) consumer behavior and consumer flexibility concerning energy use were analyzed. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, electricity consumption follows a regular pattern over the day, week, and year, which to a large extent reflects household living patterns and climate variations over the year. Second, the average household needs a substantial economic compensation to voluntarily reschedule its electricity use away from peak demand hours. The required compensations were found to be far higher than the economic incentives households face today when exposed to real-time pricing. In addition, it was found that households are more flexible in the use of electricity for heating than in the use of electrical appliances. Finally, households were found to be more flexible during the morning peak hours than during the evening hours. These findings led to the overall conclusion that both the possibilities and incentives are such that we cannot expect any substantial change in energy use patterns from technical reforms that creates incentives for demand response in line with the current price variation on the wholesale market for electricity.

    In the above-mentioned report we also analyzed people’s attitudes towards information dissemination. We concluded that many households do not wish to have their electricity use scrutinized by experts and other households. We found that people, on average, required a compensation to allow such information sharing. Again, new technologies open for various demand response policies, although it does not necessarily imply substantially higher demand flexibility. New technologies need to be combined with consumer interest to be successful in a market economy.

    The overall objective of the current report is to further scrutinize consumer behavior and flexibility. The first part focuses on Swedish households’ choice of electricity supplier contracts. Specifically, we analyze what types of households choose a fixed price contract. 1 The choice of contract implicitly reveals a consumer’s flexibility since a fixed price contract works as an insurance against price variation. So, by studying what type of households chose a fixed price contract we are able to infer on which type of households are relatively inflexible. This part of the analysis is policy relevant since it touches on the question of what to expect from real-time pricing reforms. A central question is whether a household who uses relatively more electricity is more likely to have a fixed price contract. If this is the case, future access to real-time pricing and a greater price variation may not be a guarantee for a substantial increase in demand response as important consumers (from a policy perspective) are more likely to insure against such circumstances. From this perspective the market for price insurances (fixed price contracts) is a market for inflexibility.

    While the analysis above considers the effectiveness of future energy policies to promote demand response, it is also relevant to study the question of how the peak demand problem may develop over time. This question is explicitly addressed in the current report by studying how consumer behavior varies across income levels. The existing literature suggests that electricity consumption is positively related to income, although the income elasticity 2 is fairly small. However, almost all studies concerning income effects have studied aggregate electricity use on monthly or yearly basis. The present study departs from the existing literature by studying how daily household electricity use patterns vary across income levels. This approach is novel since it allows us to analyze how the peak load problem may develop in the future as a result of higher income levels, which is commonly expected.

    By studying the choice of electricity contracts and by estimating hourly income elasticities, the report approach demand flexibility in an indirect way. In the third analysis of the report we address these issues again, although with a somewhat more direct approach. The choice experiment part in Broberg et al. (2014), which focused on the economic incentives needed in order to change people’s energy consumption in a predefined way, is now deepened. The focus is on how socio-economic factors such as e.g. age, gender, education and income may explain preference heterogeneity among the Swedish population. Energy related factors such as living conditions and heating systems are also considered in the analysis. This analysis will inform us about what types of households are inclined to reschedule their energy use when given relatively small economic incentives, and what household’s that are relatively inflexible and thus require large compensations to change their behavior. We also study preference heterogeneity regarding information dissemination in purpose of anonymous peer comparisons.

    In the final part of the report we deepen our analysis of households’ demand for information about their own and others electricity use. Besides creating incentives for demand response, new technologies included in the smart grid concept also make it possible for policy makers to use tailored information to help consumers to use energy more efficiently. A number of studies highlight inefficiencies in the households’ use of energy (see e.g. Broberg and Kazukauskas, 2014). One highlighted reality is that people seem to pay little attention to energy issues. Of course, if people pay little attention to the price of electricity, the effectiveness of policy measures that work through the pricechannel is limited. In this part of the report we address four basic questions of great relevance for energy efficiency policies worldwide. The questions are (1) What knowledge do people have about the marginal cost of electricity use in terms of everyday electrical appliances? (2) Are the cost perceptions biased and in what direction? (3) Do inattention to energy issues play a significant role in this bias? (4) Do households want information that may help them de-bias their perceptions about energy costs and use?

    The report is structured such that section 2 gives a brief background on the issues analyzed in the report. The following sections correspond to the issues outlined in the introduction. Section 7 works to tie the analyses together and conclude our results

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten ”En elmarknad i förändring – Är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?” tittar en forskargrupp vid Centrum för Miljö- och Naturresursekonomi (CERE) vid Handelshögskolan, Umeå Universitet på konsumenternas nuvarande och framtida roll på elmarknaden. Rapporten är beställd av Energimarknadsinspektionen.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The value of lost load in Swedish industry2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Consumer Preferences and Soft Load Control on the Swedish Electricity Market2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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