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  • 1.
    AbdelMageed, Manar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.
    Ali, Haytham
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.
    Ohlsson, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lindmark, Gudrun
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    The Chemokine CXCL16 Is a New Biomarker for Lymph Node Analysis of Colon Cancer Outcome2019In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 20, no 22, article id 5793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    hemokines are important in the development and progression of tumors. We investigated the expression of CXCL14 and CXCL16 in colon cancer. Expression of mRNA was assessed in primary tumors and lymph nodes and CXCL16 mRNA levels were correlated to patient’s survival. Protein expression was investigated by two-color immunofluorescence and immunomorphometry. CXCL14 and CXCL16 mRNA levels and protein expression were significantly higher in colon cancer primary tumors compared to apparently normal colon tissue. Positive cells were tumor cells, as revealed by anti-CEA and anti-EpCAM staining. CXCL16, but not CXCL14, mRNA levels were significantly higher in hematoxylin and eosin positive (H&E(+)) compared to H&E(−) colon cancer lymph nodes or control nodes (P < 0.0001). CXCL16 mRNA was expressed in 5/5 colon cancer cell lines while CXCL14 was expressed significantly in only one. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that colon cancer patients with lymph nodes expressing high or very high levels (7.2 and 11.4 copies/18S rRNA unit, respectively) of CXCL16 mRNA had a decreased mean survival time of 30 and 46 months at the 12-year follow-up (P = 0.04, P = 0.005, respectively). In conclusion, high expression of CXCL16 mRNA in regional lymph nodes of colon cancer patients is a sign of a poor prognosis.

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  • 2.
    AbdelMageed, Manar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Ismail, Hager
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Ohlsson, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lindmark, Gudrun
    Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Clinical significance of stem cell biomarkers epcam, lgr5 and lgr4 mrna levels in lymph nodes of colon cancer patients2022In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in initiation and progression of colon cancer (CC) has been established. In this study, we investigated the utility of measuring mRNA expression levels of CSC markers EpCAM, LGR5 and LGR4 for predicting survival outcome in surgically treated CC patients. Expression levels were determined in 5 CC cell lines, 66 primary CC tumors and 382 regional lymph nodes of 121 CC patients. Prognostic relevance was determined using Kaplan‐Meier survival and Cox regression analyses. CC patients with lymph nodes expressing high levels of EpCAM, LGR5 or LGR4 (higher than a clinical cutoff of 0.07, 0.06 and 2.558 mRNA cop-ies/18S rRNA unit, respectively) had a decreased mean survival time of 32 months for EpCAM and 42 months for both LGR5 and LGR4 at a 12‐year follow‐up (p = 0.022, p = 0.005 and p = 0.011, respec-tively). Additional patients at risk for recurrence were detected when LGR5 was combined with the biomarkers CXCL17 or CEA plus CXCL16. In conclusion, the study underscores LGR5 as a particularly useful prognostic biomarker and illustrates the strength of combining biomarkers detecting different subpopulations of cancer cells and/or cells in the tumor microenvironment for predicting recurrence.

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  • 3.
    Ali, Haytham
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    AbdelMageed, Manar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Olsson, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Israelsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lindmark, Gudrun
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Utility of G protein-coupled receptor 35 expression for predicting outcome in colon cancer2019In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 41, no 6, article id 1010428319858885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The utility of mRNA and protein determinations of G protein-coupled receptor 35, that is, GPR35a (GPR35 V1) and GPR35b (GPR35 V2/3), as indicators of outcome for colon cancer patients after curative surgery was investigated. Expression levels of V1 and V2/3 GPR35, carcinoembryonic antigen and CXCL17 mRNAs were assessed in primary tumours and regional lymph nodes of 121 colon cancer patients (stage I–IV), colon cancer cell lines and control colon epithelial cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 was investigated by two-colour immunohistochemistry and immunomorphometry. GPR35 V2/3 mRNA, but not V1 mRNA, was expressed in colon cancer cell lines, primary colon tumours and control colon epithelial cells. Haematoxylin and eosin positive (H&E(+)), but not H&E(–), lymph nodes expressed high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA (P<0.0001). GPR35b and carcinoembryonic antigen proteins were simultaneously expressed in many colon cancer tumour cells. Kaplan–Meier and hazard ratio analysis revealed that patients with lymph nodes expressing high levels of GPR35 V2/3 mRNA and, in particular, in the group of patients with lymph nodes also expressing carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA, had a short disease-free survival time, 67 months versus 122 months at 12-year follow-up (difference: 55 months, P = 0.001; hazard ratio: 3.6, P = 0.002). In conclusion, high level expression of G protein-coupled receptor 35 V2/3 mRNA in regional lymph nodes of colon cancer patients is a sign of poor prognosis.

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  • 4.
    Ali, Haytham
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Ohlsson, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lindmark, Gudrun
    Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE, Lund, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    The myeloid cell biomarker EMR1 is ectopically expressed in colon cancer2021In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 209-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The microenvironment of colon cancer (CC) is heterogeneous including cells of myeloid lineage affecting tumor growth and metastasis. Two functional subtypes of myeloid cells have been identified; one (M1) is tumor-inhibitory and the other one (M2) is tumor-promoting. Whether the three myeloid markers EMR1, CD206 and CD86 are expressed only in the infiltrating myeloid cells or also in the tumor cells was investigated.

    METHODS: Expression of the myeloid markers was investigated in CC at the mRNA and protein levels in primary tumors and lymph nodes. mRNA expression was also determined in 5 CC cell lines. Protein expression was investigated by two-color immunofluorescence and consecutive-sections-immune-staining combined with morphometry using specific antibodies for the myeloid cell markers and the epithelial cell markers CEACAM5 and EpCAM.

    RESULTS: EMR1 and CD86, but not CD206, mRNA levels were significantly higher in CC primary tumors compared to apparently normal colon tissue (P <  0.0001). EMR1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in both hematoxylin-eosin positive (H&E(+)) and H&E(-) lymph nodes of CC patients compared to control nodes (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively). EMR1 and CD206 mRNAs were expressed in 4/5 and 5/5 CC cell lines, respectively, while CD86 mRNA was not expressed. Immuno-morphometry revealed that about 20% of the tumor cells expressed EMR1 and CD206. Positive cells were tumor cells as revealed by anti-CEACAM5 and anti-EpCAM staining. The number of EMR1, CD206 and CD86 positive cells were significantly increased in CC primary tumors compared to normal colon tissue (P <  0.0001). However, CD206 was also expressed in normal colonocytes. Only EMR1 showed significantly increased numbers of positive tumor cells in H&E(+) nodes compared to H&E(-) nodes (P = 0.001). EMR1 expression in CC tumor cells correlated with CXCL17 expressing tumor cells.

    CONCLUSION: EMR1, like the chemokine CXCL17, is ectopically expressed in colon cancer possibly in the same cancer cells.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Yvonne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
    Graverholt, Gitte
    Arla Foods Ingredients, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Fält, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Formula feeding skews immune cell composition toward adaptive immunity compared to breastfeeding2009In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 183, no 7, p. 4322-4328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ontogeny of the immune system and the effect thereon by type of infant feeding is incompletely understood. We analyzed frequencies and composition of immune cells in blood of breastfed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants at 1.5, 4, and 6 mo of age. Three formulas with the same protein concentration but with varying levels of alpha-lactalbumin and caseinoglycomacropeptide were compared. Twenty-nine exclusively BF infants served as reference, and 17 infants in each formula group completed the study. Whole blood and PBMCs were analyzed by flow cytometry and immunoflow cytometry, respectively. Leukocyte count of BF infants increased with time due to increased frequency of neutrophils. Lymphocyte count was high at 1.5 mo and was unchanged over time, as were the relative proportions of CD4+ alphabetaT cells, CD8+ alphabetaT cells, B cells, NK cells, and gammadeltaT cells. Most CD45R0+CD3+ cells were HLA-DR- and hence memory cells. Compared with breastfeeding, formula feeding resulted in a significant decrease in proportion of NK cells, but a significant increase in naive CD4+ alphabetaT cells and an elevated CD4-to-CD8 ratio, that is, 3.3 in the combined FF groups compared with 2.6 in the BF group. No significant differences were found between the three groups of FF infants. In conclusion, blood cells of lymphoid lineage did not change significantly in frequencies or composition from 1.5 to 6 mo of age in BF infants. In contrast, FF infants displayed an ongoing maturation of adaptive immunity cells and a delayed recruitment of innate immunity cells as compared with BF infants.

  • 6.
    Banday, Viqar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Metab-Immune analysis of the non-obese diabetic mouse2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1A diabetes mellitus or T1D is a chronic disease characterized by T cell mediated destruction of the insulin producing β cells in the islets of Langerhans. The classical symptoms include high glucose levels in urine and blood, polyuria, and polydipsia. Complications associated with T1D include blindness, amputations, and end-stage renal disease, and premature death. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, first described in 1980, is widely used as a model organism for T1D. T1D disease in the NOD mouse shares a number of similarities to human T1D including dependence on genetic and environmental factors. More than 30 disease associated gene regions or loci (termed insulin dependent diabetes, or Idd, loci) have been associated with T1D development in NOD. For some of these Idds, the corresponding region in human has been linked to the development of T1D in human.

    T1D, both in humans and mice, is recognized as a T cell mediated disease. However, many studies have shown the importance of both the metabolome and the immune system in the pathogenesis of the disease. Appearance of autoantibodies in the serum of patients is the first sign of pathogenesis. However, molecular and cellular events precede the immune attack on the β-cell immunity. It has been shown that patients who developed T1D have an altered metabolome prior to the appearance of autoantibodies. Although much is known about the pathogenesis of T1D, the contribution of the environment/immune factors triggering the disease is still to be revealed. 

    In the present study both metabolic and immune deviations observed in the NOD mouse was analyzed. Serum metabolome analysis of the NOD mouse revealed striking resemblance to the human metabolic profile, with many metabolites in the TCA cycle significantly different from the non-diabetic control B6 mice. In addition, an increased level of glutamic acid was of the most distinguishing metabolite. A detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed various genes/enzymes to be present in the Idd regions. Compared to B6 mice, many of the genes correlated to the metabolic pathways, showed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which can eventually affect the functionality of the protein. A genetic analysis of the increased glutamic acid revealed several Idd regions to be involved in this phenotype. The regions mapped in the genetic analysis harbor important enzymes and transporters related to glutamic acid. In-vitro islet culture with glutamic acid led to increased beta cell death indicating a toxic role of glutamic acid specifically towards insulin producing beta cells.

    In the analysis of the immune system, B cells from NOD mice, which are known to express high levels of TACI, were stimulated with APRIL, a TACI ligand. This resulted in enhanced plasma cell differentiation accompanied with increased class switching and IgG production. NOD mice have previously been shown to react vigorously to T-dependent antigens upon immunization. In this study we confirmed this as NOD mice showed an enhanced and prolonged immune response to hen egg lysozyme. Thus, serum IgG levels were significantly increased in the NOD mice and were predominantly of the IgG1 subtype. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed increased number of germinal centers in the NOD mice. Transfer of purified B and T cells from NOD to an immune deficient mouse could reproduce the original phenotype as seen in the NOD mice.    

    Collectively, this thesis has analyzed the metabolomics and immune deviations observed in the NOD mice.

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  • 7.
    Banday, Viqar Showkat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Elevated Systemic Glutamic Acid Level in the Non-Obese Diabetic Mouse is Idd Linked and Induces Beta Cell Apoptosis2017In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 150, no 2, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T-cell-mediated disease in the effector stage, the mechanism behind the initial beta cell assault is less understood. Metabolomic differences, including elevated levels of glutamic acid, have been observed in patients with T1D before disease onset, as well as in pre-diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Increased levels of glutamic acid damage both neurons and beta cells, implying that this could contribute to the initial events of T1D pathogenesis. We investigated the underlying genetic factors and consequences of the increased levels of glutamic acid in NOD mice. Serum glutamic acid levels from a (NODxB6) F-2 cohort (n = 182) were measured. By genome-wide and Idd region targeted microsatellite mapping, genetic association was detected for six regions including Idd2, Idd4 and Idd22. In silico analysis of potential enzymes and transporters located in and around the mapped regions that are involved in glutamic acid metabolism consisted of alanine aminotransferase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, alutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamic acid transporters GLAST and EAAC1. Increased EAAC1 protein expression was observed in lysates from livers of NOD mice compared with B6 mice. Functional consequence of the elevated glutamic acid level in NOD mice was tested by culturing NOD. Rag2(-/-) Langerhans' islets with glutamic acid. Induction of apoptosis of the islets was detected upon glutamic acid challenge using TUNEL assay. Our results support the notion that a dysregulated metabolome could contribute to the initiation of T1D. We suggest that targeting of the increased glutamic acid in pre-diabetic patients could be used as a potential therapy.

  • 8.
    Banday, Viqar Showkat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thyagarajan, Radha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    B cell intrinsic defects lead to enhanced immune response in the NOD miceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Banday, Viqar Showkat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thyagarajan, Radha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Contribution of both B cell intrinsic alterations as well as non-hematopoietic derived factors in the enhanced immune response of the NOD mouse2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 86, no 4, p. 252-252Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Banday, Viqar Showkat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thyagarajan, Radha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Contribution of both B-cell intrinsic alterations as well as non-hematopoietic-derived factors in the enhanced immune response of the NOD mouse2017In: Autoimmunity, ISSN 0891-6934, E-ISSN 1607-842X, Vol. 50, no 6, p. 363-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying cellular and molecular mechanism for the development of Type 1 diabetes is still to be fully revealed. We have previously demonstrated that the NOD mouse, a model for Type 1 diabetes, display a prolonged and enhanced immune response to both self and non-self-antigens. The molecular explanation for this defect however, has not been determined. In this study we immunized NOD and C57BL/6 (B6) with the conventional antigen i.e. hen egg lysozyme (HEL) and analyzed B cell activation, germinal center reaction and antibody clearance. Corroborating our previous observations NOD mice responded robustly to a single immunization of HEL. Immunofluorescence analysis of the spleen revealed an increased number of germinal centers in unimmunized NOD compared to B6. However, post immunization germinal center numbers were similar in NOD and B6. NOD mice showed lower response to BCR stimulation with anti-IgM, in particular at lower concentrations of anti-IgM. Antibody clearance in vivo did not differ between the strains. To determine the cell type that is responsible for the prolonged and enhance immune response, we reconstituted NOD-RAGs with cells from primed donors in different combinations. NOD B cells were required to reproduce the phenotype; however the non-lymphoid compartment of NOD origin also played a role. Based on our results we propose that preexisting GCs in the NOD promote the robust response and alteration in the BCR signaling could promote survival of stimulated cells. Overall, this mechanism could in turn also contribute to the activation and maintenance of autoreactive B cells in the NOD mouse.

  • 11.
    Banday, Viqar Showkat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thyagarajan, Radha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Increased expression of TACI on NOD B cells results in germinal centre reaction anomalies, enhanced plasma cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production2016In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 149, no 3, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B cells have an important pathogenic role in the development of type 1 diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. We have previously reported that NOD mice display an increased percentage of TACIhigh-expressing B cells compared with C57BL/6 mice and this trait is linked to chromosomes 1 and 8. In this paper the genetic association of the transmembrane activator, calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) trait was confirmed using double congenic NOD.B6C1/Idd22 mice. TACI ligation by a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) has been shown to influence plasma cell differentiation, immunoglobulin production and isotype switch. Hence, the functional consequence of the up-regulation of TACI on NOD B cells was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. NOD B cells stimulated with APRIL showed an enhanced plasma cell differentiation and class switch to IgG and IgA compared with B cells from C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, flow cytometry analyses revealed that germinal centre B cells in NOD failed to down-regulate TACI. Availability of the TACI ligand B-cell activating factor (BAFF) has been shown to be a limiting factor in the germinal centre reaction. In line with this, upon immunization with 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl hapten-conjugated hen egg lysozyme, NOD mice produced higher titres of low-affinity antibodies compared with C57BL/6 mice. This observation was supported by the detection of increased levels of BAFF in NOD germinal centres after immunization compared with C57BL/6 by immunofluorescence. Our results support the hypothesis that increased TACI expression on NOD B cells contributes to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse.

  • 12. Baptista, Marisa A. P.
    et al.
    Keszei, Marton
    Oliveira, Mariana
    Sunahara, Karen K. S.
    Andersson, John
    Dahlberg, Carin I. M.
    Worth, Austen J.
    Lieden, Agne
    Kuo, I-Chun
    Wallin, Robert P. A.
    Snapper, Scott B.
    Eidsmo, Liv
    Scheynius, Annika
    Karlsson, Mikael C. I.
    Bouma, Gerben
    Burns, Siobhan O.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thrasher, Adrian J.
    Nylén, Susanne
    Westerberg, Lisa S.
    Deletion of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells2016In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 12175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFN gamma-producing CD8(+) T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8(+) T cells at the expense of CD4(+) T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells.

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  • 13.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CEA-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), apically expressed on human colonic M cells, are potential receptors for microbial adhesion.2004In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 83-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the human gut mucosa, specialized M cells deliver intact foreign macromolecules and commensal bacteria from the lumen to organized mucosal lymphoid tissues triggering immune responses. M cells are also major sites of adhesion and invasion for enteric pathogens. The molecular features of M cell apical surfaces that promote microbial normal attachment are still largely unknown. We have demonstrated previously that in the human colonic epithelium, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CEA-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) are integral components of the apical glycocalyx which participate in epithelial-microbial interactions. In this study, based on the reactivity of specific monoclonal antibodies and on immunoelectron microscopy, we show that M cells of human colonic solitary lymphoid follicles express CEA and CEACAM1 on the apical surface. Recently these highly glycosylated molecules have been characterized as protein receptors for different bacteria. This leads us to propose a role for CEA and CEACAM1 in the adherence of enteric bacteria to the apical membrane of colonic M cells. We also hypothesize that, unlike colonic enterocytes, M cells lack the defense mechanism that eliminates CEA and CEACAM1 upon microbial binding and which is based on vesiculation of microvillus plasma membrane.

  • 14.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Lipids are a constitutive component of cytolytic granules.2000In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 167-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytolytic granules are specific organelles of activated cytotoxic lymphocytes mediating storage and regulated excretion of lytic molecules for killing of target cells. A variety of the other granule components may also participate in granule-mediated cytotoxicity. In this study, the subcellular localization of lipids in the granules of human decidual CD56+ natural killer-like cells was determined by staining with malachite green aldehyde and imidazole-buffered osmium tetroxide. Lipids were shown, for the first time, to be a constitutive component of cytolytic granules. Lipids formed an additional structural microdomain, located between the granule-limiting membrane and the granule core. Images of the granules on serial sections suggested that intragranular lipids wrap the core. We speculate that granule lipids participate in packing of lytic molecules inside the granules, in autocrine signaling ending granule secretion, and in the killing process.

  • 15. Baranov, Vladimir
    et al.
    Yeung, Moorix Mo-Wai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Expression of carcinoembryonic antigen and nonspecific cross-reacting 50-kDa antigen in human normal and cancerous colon mucosa: comparative ultrastructural study with monoclonal antibodies1994In: Cancer Research, ISSN 0008-5472, E-ISSN 1538-7445, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 3305-3314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The precise localization of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and non-specific cross-reacting 50-kDa antigen (NCA 50) in normal colon mucosa and colon adenocarcinoma was investigated by using an indirect immunoperoxidase electron microscopic technique with specific monoclonal antibodies. In normal adult colon both antigens were localized to microvesicles and filaments of the "fuzzy coat" on the apical surface of the epithelial cells. In addition, NCA 50 was found in the narrow spaces between adjoining microvilli. Mature columnar cells at the free luminal surface contained most of the antigen positive material. CEA and NCA 50 were also detected as intracellular components of goblet cells. In multilayered tumor glands, the cell surface expression of the antigens was dependent on the position of the tumor cell in the gland. The neoplastic cells showed either a predominant apical labeling or a positive staining of almost the entire cell surface. Some of the neoplastic cells contained CEA in so-called "intracellular lumina." In contrast to normal colon epithelial cells most tumor cells synthesized NCA 50 actively. In normal colonic mucosa, unlike in cancerous tissue, CEA and NCA 50 appear to be released via vesicles formed from the microvillous membrane of mature columnar cells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that CEA and NCA play a role in the nonspecific defense against microorganisms in the large intestine.

  • 16. Barrera, Daniel Iván
    et al.
    Matheus, Luisa Marina
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Arbeláez, Luis Fernando
    Proteolytic hydrolysis and purification of the LRP/alfa-2-macroglobulin receptor domain from alpha-macroglobulins.2007In: Protein Expression and Purification, ISSN 1046-5928, E-ISSN 1096-0279, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 112-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new, easier and efficient purification method, using Sephacryl and DEAE-Sephacel, of the C-terminal fragment of two alpha-macroglobulins, alpha(2)-M and PZP, is presented. Two larger peptides were identified for each protein as the C-terminal fragment, with molecular weights of approximately 30 kDa and the N-terminal sequences were determined to be SSTQDTV for alpha(2)-M and VALHLS for PZP. The smaller peptides with molecular weights of 18 kDa correspond to a shorter C-terminal sequence of these proteins, and they were determined to be EEFPFA for alpha(2)-M and ALKVQTV for PZP, with no interfering sequences detected. The results confirmed the discriminatory capacity of the purification procedure and the purity of the fragments. This new methodology facilitates biological studies of alpha-macroglobulins, and will enable elucidation of the role the C-terminal region may exert to eliminate alpha-macroglobulin-proteinases complexes from the circulation by the LRP/receptor.

  • 17. Bas, A
    et al.
    Forsberg, G
    Hammarström, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, M-L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Utility of the housekeeping genes 18S rRNA, beta-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase for normalization in real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene expression in human T lymphocytes.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 566-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accuracy of 18S rRNA, beta-actin mRNA and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA as indicators of cell number when used for normalization in gene expression analysis of T lymphocytes at different activation stages was investigated. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression level of 18S rRNA, beta-actin mRNA, GAPDH mRNA and mRNA for six cytokines in carefully counted samples of resting human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), intestinal lymphocytes and PBMCs subjected to polyclonal T-cell activation. The 18S rRNA level in activated and resting PBMCs and intestinal lymphocytes was essentially the same, while the levels of beta-actin and GAPDH mRNAs fluctuated markedly upon activation. When isolated gammadeltaTCR(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) subpopulations were studied, 18S rRNA levels remained unchanged after 21 h of activation but increased slightly after 96 h. In contrast, there was a 30-70-fold increase of GAPDH mRNA/cell in these cell populations upon activation. Cytokine analysis revealed that only normalization to 18S rRNA gave a result that satisfactorily reflected their mRNA expression levels per cell. In conclusion, 18S rRNA was the most stable housekeeping gene and hence superior for normalization in comparative analyses of mRNA expression levels in human T lymphocytes.

  • 18.
    Bas, A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Forsberg, G
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sjöberg, Veronika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Aberrant extrathymic T cell receptor gene rearrangement in the small intestinal mucosa: a risk factor for coeliac disease?2009In: Gut, ISSN 0017-5749, E-ISSN 1468-3288, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 189-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease is a small intestine enteropathy caused by permanent intolerance to wheat gluten. Gluten intake by patients with coeliac disease provokes a strong reaction by intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), which normalises on a gluten-free diet. AIM: To investigate whether impaired extrathymic T cell maturation and/or secondary T cell receptor (TCR) gene recombination in IELs are features of coeliac disease which could contribute to the failure of establishing tolerance to gluten.

    METHODS: Expression levels of the four splice-forms of recombination activating gene-1 (RAG1) mRNA and preT alpha-chain (preTalpha) mRNA were determined in IEL-subsets of children with coeliac disease and controls. Frequencies of RAG1 expressing IELs were determined by immunomorphometry.

    RESULTS: In controls, the RAG1-1A/2 splice-form selectively expressed outside the thymus, was dominant and expressed in both mature (TCR(+)) and immature (CD2(+)CD7(+)TCR(-)) IELs ( approximately 8 mRNA copies/18S rRNA U). PreTalpha was expressed almost exclusively in CD2(+)CD7(+)TCR(-) IELs ( approximately 40 mRNA copies/18S rRNA U). By contrast, RAG1 and preTalpha mRNA levels were low in patients with coeliac disease compared to controls, both with active disease and with inactive, symptom-free disease on a gluten-free diet (p values <0.01 for mature and <0.05 for immature IELs). Similarly, the frequencies of RAG1+ IELs were significantly lower in patients with coeliac disease compared to controls (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with coeliac disease appear to have an impaired capacity for extrathymic TCR gene rearrangement. This is an inherent feature, which probably plays a pivotal role in the failure to efficiently downregulate the T cell response to gluten.

  • 19. Bas, Anna
    et al.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Extrathymic TCR gene rearrangement in human small intestine: identification of new splice forms of recombination activating gene-1 mRNA with selective tissue expression.2003In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 171, no 7, p. 3359-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) exons were identified in the human gene for the lymphocyte-specific endonuclease recombination activating gene-1 (RAG1) required for the somatic recombination yielding functional Ag receptors. These 5'UTR exons were used in three different splice forms by jejunal lymphocytes of the T cell lineage. RAG1 mRNA containing the previously described 5'UTR exon was not expressed in these cells. Conversely, one of the new 5'UTR exons was not expressed in thymus. The new RAG1 mRNA splice forms were all expressed in immature T cells (CD2(+)CD7(+)CD3(-)). This cell population also expressed high levels of mRNA for the pre-T alpha-chain. In situ hybridization demonstrated jejunal cells expressing the new splice forms of RAG1 mRNA, both intraepithelially and in lamina propria. Pre-T alpha-chain mRNA-expressing cells were detected at the same sites. These results strongly suggest ongoing TCR gene rearrangement in human small intestinal mucosa, yielding T cells specially adapted for this environment. This seems to be achieved by two parallel processes, extrathymic T cell development and peripheral Ag-driven TCR editing.

  • 20. Bazarian, Jeffrey J
    et al.
    Zemlan, Frank P
    Mookerjee, Sohug
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Serum S-100B and cleaved-tau are poor predictors of long-term outcome after mild traumatic brain injury.2006In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 759-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of serum S-100B and C-tau levels to long-term outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective study of 35 mild TBI subjects presenting to the emergency department. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Six hour serum S-100B and C-tau levels compared to 3-month Rivermead Post Concussion Questionnaire (RPCQ) scores and post-concussive syndrome (PCS). MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The linear correlation between marker levels and RPCQ scores was weak (S-100B: r = 0.071, C-tau: r = -0.21). There was no statistically significant correlation between marker levels and 3-month PCS (S-100B: AUC = 0.589, 95%CI. 038, 0.80; C-tau: AUC = 0.634, 95%CI 0.43, 0.84). The sensitivity of these markers ranged from 43.8-56.3% and the specificity from 35.7-71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Initial serum S-100B and C-tau levels appear to be poor predictors of 3-month outcome after mild TBI.

  • 21.
    Bitar, Aziz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Vibrio cholerae derived outer membrane vesicles modulate the inflammatory response of human intestinal epithelial cells by inducing microRNA-146a2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 7212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The small intestinal epithelium of Vibrio cholerae infected patients expresses the immunomodulatory microRNAs miR-146a and miR-155 at acute stage of disease. V. cholerae release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that serve as vehicles for translocation of virulence factors including V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC). The aim was to investigate whether OMVs, with and/or without VCC-cargo could be responsible for induction of microRNAs in intestinal epithelial cells and thereby contribute to immunomodulation. Polarized tight monolayers of T84 cells were challenged with OMVs of wildtype and a VCC deletion mutant of the non-O1/non-O139 (NOVC) V. cholerae strain V:5/04 and with soluble VCC. OMVs, with and without VCC-cargo, caused significantly increased levels of miR-146a. Increase was seen already after 2 hours challenge with OMVs and persisted after 12 hours. Challenge with soluble VCC caused significant increases in interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), CCL20, IL-1β, and IRAK2 mRNA levels while challenge with OMVs did not cause increases in expression levels of any of these mRNAs. These results suggest that V. cholerae bacteria release OMVs that induce miR-146a in order to pave the way for colonization by reducing the strength of an epithelial innate immune defence reaction and also preventing inflammation in the mucosa that factors like VCC can evoke.

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  • 22.
    Bitar, Aziz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    De, Rituparna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Melgar, Silvia
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Rahman, Arman
    Qadri, Firdausi
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Shirin, Tahmina
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Induction of immunomodulatory miR-146a and miR-155 in small intestinal epithelium of Vibrio cholerae infected patients at acute stage of cholera2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 0173817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential immunomodulatory role of microRNAs in small intestine of patients with acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection was investigated. Duodenal biopsies were obtained from study-participants at the acute (day 2) and convalescent (day 21) stages of disease, and from healthy individuals. Levels of miR-146a, miR-155 and miR-375 and target gene (IRAK1, TRAF6, CARD10) and 11 cytokine mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. The cellular source of microRNAs in biopsies was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The ability of V. cholerae bacteria and their secreted products to cause changes in microRNA- and mRNA levels in polarized tight monolayers of intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. miR-146a and miR-155 were expressed at significantly elevated levels at acute stage of V. cholerae infection and declined to normal at convalescent stage (P<0.009 versus controls; P = 0.03 versus convalescent stage, pairwise). Both microRNAs were mainly expressed in the epithelium. Only marginal down-regulation of target genes IRAK1 and CARD10 was seen and a weak cytokine-profile was identified in the acute infected mucosa. No elevation of microRNA levels was seen in ETEC infection. Challenge of tight monolayers with the wild type V. cholerae O1 strain C6706 and clinical isolates from two study-participants, caused significant increase in miR-155 and miR-146a by the strain C6706 (P<0.01). One clinical isolate caused reduction in IRAK1 levels (P<0.05) and none of the strains induced inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, secreted factors from these strains caused markedly increased levels of IL-8, IL-1β, and CARD10 (P<0.001), without inducing microRNA expression. Thus, miR-146a and miR-155 are expressed in the duodenal epithelium at the acute stage of cholera. The inducer is probably the V. cholerae bacterium. By inducing microRNAs the bacterium can limit the innate immune response of the host, including inflammation evoked by its own secreted factors, thereby decreasing the risk of being eliminated.

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  • 23. Bjerner, J
    et al.
    Lebedin, Y
    Bellanger, L
    Kuroki, M
    Shively, J E
    Varaas, T
    Nustad, K
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Børmer, O P
    Protein epitopes in carcinoembryonic antigen. Report of the ISOBM TD8 workshop.2002In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 249-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To characterize antigenic sites in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) further and to investigate whether there are differences between colon tumor CEA and meconium CEA (NCA-2) that can be detected by anti-CEA monoclonal antibodies (MAb), 19 new anti-CEA MAb were analyzed with respect to specificity, epitope reactivity and affinity. Their reactivities were compared with 10 anti-CEA MAb with known CEA-domain binding specificity that have previously been classified into five nonoverlapping epitope groups, GOLD 1-5. Cross-inhibition assays with antigen-coated microtiter plates and immunoradiometric assays were performed in almost all combinations of MAbs, using conventionally purified CEA (domain structure: N-A1B1-A2B2-A3B3-C) from liver metastasis of colorectal carcinomas, recombinant CEA, meconium CEA (NCA-2), truncated forms of CEA and NCA (CEACAM6) as the antigens. The affinity of the MAbs for CEA was also determined. The new MAbs were generally of high affinity and suitable for immunoassays. Three new MAbs were assigned to GOLD epitope group 5 (N-domain binding), 3 MAbs to group 4 (A1B1 domain), 1 to group 3 (A3B3 domain), 3 to group 2 (A2B2 domain) and 3 to group 1 (also the A3B3 domain). Three MAbs formed a separate group related to group 4, they were classified as GOLD 4' (A1B1 domain binding). The remaining 3 MAbs appear to represent new subspecificities with some relationship to GOLD groups 1, 2 or 4, respectively. Five MAbs, all belonging to epitope group 1 and 3, reacted strongly with tumor CEA but only weakly or not at all with meconium CEA, demonstrating that the two products of the CEA gene differ from each other, probably due to different posttranslational modifications.

  • 24.
    Björk, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Immunosuppressive mechanisms in endometriosis: a focus on the role of exosomes2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. It has been suggested that the aberrant immunological mechanisms that cause dysfunction of immune cells and mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. There is substantial evidence of downregulated NK cell cytotoxicity and changes in inflammatory mediators such as cytokines in endometriosis. This research aimed to elucidate the immunosuppressive mechanisms in endometriosis, focusing on NK cells, the role of cytokines, and exosomes derived from endometriotic tissue.

    Cytokines are small peptides/proteins used for intercellular communication, and regulate immune-effector functions in health and disease. In Paper I, real-time RT-qPCR and a set of primers and probes for 11 cytokines were used defining cytotoxic Th1, humoral Th2, regulatory Tr1/Th3, and inflammatory cytokine profiles. Cytokine mRNA expression in endometriotic tissue was compared with endometrium, and systemically with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from women with endometriosis and healthy controls. In addition, immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies was performed to investigate T-regulatory cells in endometriotic lesions. A downregulation of mRNA for cytokines that mediate cytotoxicity and antibody response was found in the endometriotic lesions. At the same time, there was an upregulation of inflammatory and T-regulatory cytokines in the endometriotic lesions, suggesting enhanced local inflammation and priming of an adaptive regulatory response. Consistent with these findings, T-­regulatory cells were abundant in the endometriotic lesions. These findings suggest that the ectopic implantation seen in endometriosis may be a consequence of increased inflammation and priming of adaptive T regulatory cells, resulting in impaired cytotoxicity and enhanced immune suppression. 

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin; they are produced by most cells in the body, convey intercellular communication and participate in both normal and pathological processes. Paper II show that endometriotic lesions produce high amounts of exosomes. The exosomes expressed on their surfaces the NKG2D ligands MICA/B and ULBP1-3 and the proapoptotic molecules FasL and TRAIL. These molecules are known as immunosuppressive signatures. Functional experiments were performed to show that these exosomes can downregulate the main activating NK receptor NKG2D on CTL and NK cells, reduce the killing ability of PBMC from healthy donors, and induce apoptosis of activated lymphocytes through the FasL/Fas pathway. The production and secretion of exosomes from the endometriotic tissue may be further enhanced by the vigorous local inflammation at ectopic sites. The results show that endometriotic lesions secrete immunosuppressive exosomes that inhibit cytotoxicity and promote apoptosis of activated immune cells. The exosomes form a “protective shield” around the endometriotic tissue thus promoting their survival.

    NK cells are cytotoxic cells of the innate immune system. Human NK cells can be divided into two subsets: CD56+bright and CD56+dim. The CD56+dim subset is more naturally cytotoxic, whereas the CD56+bright subset produces more cytokines, but has low natural cytotoxicity. The majority (>90%) of circulating NK cells are CD56+dim, whereas very few (0-10 %) are CD56+bright. In Paper III a higher amount of CD56+bright cells in serum was observed in one third of endometriosis patients compared to healthy controls. The amount of these cells was normalized after treatment with surgery, with or without medical treatment. Untreated patients had a lower expression of NKG2D receptors on their NK cells and CTLs compared to treated patients and healthy controls, which could be due to endometriotic exosomes carrying the NKG2D ligands that downregulate the receptor. Thus, surgery might have a beneficial effect on cytotoxic NK-cell function in endometriosis.

    Endometriosis is considered a benign disease; however it has many features in common with tumors, and shares multiple microenvironmental hallmarks with cancer, including angiogenesis, immune dysregulation, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis. Paper II shows that endometriotic tissue secretes immunosuppressive exosomes. In Paper IV, exosomes in the peripheral blood of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients, and the impairment of the NKG2D receptor-ligand system in vivo before and after surgery, were studied. The serum exosomes isolated from the EOC patients carried the NKG2D ligands MICA/B and ULBP1-3. In functional experiments, the EOC exosomes downregulated the expression of the NKG2D receptor, and subdued NKG2D-­mediated cytotoxicity in NK cells from healthy donors in a similar manner to the endometriotic exosomes studied in Paper II. In Paper IV, surgery of the primary EOC tumor had a beneficial effect, alleviating the exosome-mediated suppression of NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, exosome-mediated immunosuppression is revealed as a common mechanism of action for immune escape in endometriosis and cancer. 

    The results presented in this thesis provide novel and important insights into the function of the immune system in endometriosis, and give new explanations for why ectopic endometrial tissue persists and proliferates outside the uterine cavity. Furthermore, the immunosuppression in the microenvironment of endometriosis, which has many similarities with the local tumor microenvironment (TME), was investigated with a focus on the role of endometriotic exosomes. Taken together, this thesis contributes to understanding of the pathogenesis of endometriosis, and might be useful in identifying biomarkers for endometriosis and developing new immuno­modulatory therapies.

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  • 25.
    Björk, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology/Örnsköldsvik Hospital, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Nagaev, Ivan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Ottander, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Endometriotic tissue-derived exosomes downregulate NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and promote apoptosis: mechanisms for survival of endometriotic tissue at ectopic sites2024Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Endometriosis, affecting 10% of women, is defined as implantation, survival, and growth of endometriumlike/endometriotic tissue outside the uterine cavity, causing inflammation, infertility, pain andsusceptibility to ovarian cancer. Despite extensive studies, its etiology and pathogenesis are poorlyunderstood and largely unknown. The prevailing view is that the immune system of endometriosispatients fails to clear ectopically disseminated endometrium from retrograde menstruation. Exosomes aresmall extracellular vesicles that exhibit immunomodulatory properties. We studied the role ofendometriotic tissue-secreted exosomes in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Two exosome-mediatedmechanisms known to impair the immune response were investigated: 1) downregulation of NKG2Dmediatedcytotoxicity and 2) FasL- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis of activated immune cells. We showedthat secreted endometriotic exosomes isolated from supernatants of short-term explant cultures carry theNKG2D ligands MICA/B and ULBP1-3; and the proapoptotic molecules FasL and TRAIL on theirsurface, i.e. signature molecules of exosome-mediated immune suppression. Acting as decoys, theseexosomes downregulate the NKG2D receptor, impair NKG2D-mediated cytotoxicity and induce apoptosisof activated PBMC and Jurkat cells through the FasL- and TRAIL pathway. The secreted endometrioticexosomes create an immunosuppressive gradient at the ectopic site, forming a “protective shield” aroundthe endometriotic lesions. This gradient guards the endometriotic lesions against clearance by a cytotoxicattack and creates immunologic privilege by induction of apoptosis in activated immune cells. Takentogether, our results provide a plausible, exosome-based mechanistic explanation for the immunedysfunction and the compromised immune surveillance in endometriosis and contribute with novelinsights into the pathogenesis of this enigmatic disease.

  • 26.
    Björk, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology/Örnsköldsvik Hospital, Örnsköldsvik, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention.
    Nagaeva, Olga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Ottander, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Enhanced CD56 expression and increased numbers of CD56+bright cells in the peripheral blood of untreated endometriosis patientsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Endometriosis is characterized by ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue and impaired immuneresponses such as the cytotoxic function of NK cells. NK cells can be divided into two subpopulations where theCD56+bright cells produce more cytokines and have low natural cytotoxicity compared to CD56+dim cells. Themajority (>90%) of circulating NK cells are CD56+dim whereas very few (0-10 %) are CD56+bright.

    Method of Study: Using flow cytometry, NK cell subpopulations were analyzed in peripheral blood from 21individuals with endometriosis and 12 healthy controls. Furthermore, the NKG2D receptor expression on PBMCswas analyzed in untreated and treated endometriosis patients and controls.

    Results: We found an increased level of CD56+bright cells in 8 of 21 endometriosis patients. After surgery andhormonal treatment, the levels were normalized to that of controls. In a new cohort, the NKG2D receptorexpression on PBMCs was analyzed, with a lower expression in untreated patients compared to controls andpatients treated by surgery and hormones.

    Conclusions: Our findings of a dominant CD56+bright NK cell subpopulation in peripheral blood, anddownregulated levels of the NKG2D receptor on PBMCs, may explain the impaired cytotoxic immune functioncausing the persistence of ectopic endometrium in untreated endometriosis patients.

  • 27.
    Blom, Kim
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marking, Ulrika
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Havervall, Sebastian
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norin, Nina Greilert
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gordon, Max
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    García, Marina
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tecleab, Teghesti
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Christ, Wanda
    Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Phillipson, Mia
    Department of Medical Cell Biology and SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Department of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SciLifeLab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mangsbo, Sara
    Department of Pharmacy and SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hober, Sophia
    Department of Protein Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SciLifeLab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åberg, Mikael
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry and SciLifeLab, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Klingström, Jonas
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thålin, Charlotte
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Immune responses after omicron infection in triple-vaccinated health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection2022In: The Lancet - Infectious diseases, ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 943-945Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Höglund, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Eriksson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Ruuth, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Jacobsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lundgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Inhibition of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein abolishes insensitivity to interferon-α in a resistant variant of the human U937 cell line2011In: Apoptosis (London), ISSN 1360-8185, E-ISSN 1573-675X, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 783-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type I interferons constitute a family of pleiotropic cytokines that have a key role in both adaptive and innate immunity. The interferon signalling pathways mediate transcriptional regulation of hundreds of genes, which result in mRNA degradation, decreased protein synthesis, cell cycle inhibition and induction of apoptosis. To elucidate regulatory networks important for interferon induced cell death, we generated interferon resistant U937 cells by selection in progressively increasing concentrations of interferon-α (IFN-α). The results show that IFN-α activates the death receptor signalling pathway and that IFN resistance was associated with cross-resistance to several death receptor ligands in a manner similar to previously described Fas resistant U937 cell lines. Increased expression of the long splice variant of the cellular FLICE-like inhibitor protein (cFLIP-L) was associated with the resistance to death receptor and IFN-α stimulation. Accordingly, inhibition of cFLIP-L expression with cycloheximide or through cFLIP short harpin RNA interference restored sensitivity to Fas and/or IFN-α. Thus, we now show that selection for interferon resistance can generate cells with increased expression of cFLIP, which protects the cells from both IFN-α and death receptor mediated apoptosis.

  • 29.
    Brink, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Ärlestig, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    B-Regulatory-, CD19(+)CD20(+) CD24(high)CD38(high) -Cells Are Functionally Impaired In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and Healthy First Degree Relatives Compared With Controls2013In: Arthritis and Rheumatism, ISSN 0004-3591, E-ISSN 1529-0131, Vol. 65, no Special issue, Supplement 10, p. S393-S394, Meeting Abstract: 917Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Brink, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Alexeyenko, Andrey
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Protein Profiling and Network Enrichment Analysis in Individuals Before and After the Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis2019In: Arthritis & Rheumatology, ISSN 2326-5191, E-ISSN 2326-5205, Vol. 71Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Brink, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Alexeyenko, Andrey
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Protein profiling and network enrichment analysis in individuals before and after the onset of rheumatoid arthritis2019In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Antibodies and upregulated cytokines and chemokines predate the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symptoms. We aimed to identify the pathways related to the early processes leading to RA development, as well as potential novel biomarkers, using multiple protein analyses.

    Methods: A case-control study was conducted within the Biobank of northern Sweden. The plasma samples from 118 pre-symptomatic individuals (207 samples; median predating time 4.1 years), 79 early RA patients, and 74 matched controls were analyzed. The levels of 122 unique proteins with an acknowledged relationship to autoimmunity were analyzed using 153 antibodies and a bead-based multiplex system (FlexMap3D; Luminex Corp.). The data were analyzed using multifactorial linear regression model, random forest, and network enrichment analysis (NEA) based on the 10 most significantly differentially expressed proteins for each two-by-two group comparison, using the MSigDB collection of hallmarks.

    Results: There was a high agreement between the different statistical methods to identify the most significant proteins. The adipogenesis and interferon alpha response hallmarks differentiated pre-symptomatic individuals from controls. These two hallmarks included proteins involved in innate immunity. Between pre-symptomatic individuals and RA patients, three hallmarks were identified as follows: apical junction, epithelial mesenchymal transition, and TGF-beta signaling, including proteins suggestive of cell interaction, remodulation, and fibrosis. The adipogenesis and heme metabolism hallmarks differentiated RA patients from controls.

    Conclusions: We confirm the importance of interferon alpha signaling and lipids in the early phases of RA development. Network enrichment analysis provides a tool for a deeper understanding of molecules involved at different phases of the disease progression.

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  • 32.
    Brink, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Ärlestig, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    B Regulatory Cells are Functionally Impaired in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and in Their First-Degree Relatives Compared with Controls2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 450-450Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Brink, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Ärlestig, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    B-regulatory cells are functionally impaired in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and in their first degree relativesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Cagigi, Alberto
    et al.
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yu, Meng
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österberg, Björn
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Julia
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falck-Jones, Sara
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vangeti, Sindhu
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åhlberg, Eric
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Azizmohammadi, Lida
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Warnqvist, Anna
    Unit of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falck-Jones, Ryan
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gubisch, Pia C.
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ödemis, Mert
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghafoor, Farangies
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eisele, Mona
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lenart, Klara
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bell, Max
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Niclas
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Albert, Jan
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Laboratory, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sälde, Jörgen
    Närakut SLSO, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettie, Deleah D.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States; Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States.
    Murphy, Michael P.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States; Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States.
    Carter, Lauren
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States; Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States.
    King, Neil P.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States; Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States.
    Ols, Sebastian
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Forsell, Mattias N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Färnert, Anna
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loré, Karin
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Smed-Sörensen, Anna
    Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Airway antibodies emerge according to COVID-19 severity and wane rapidly but reappear after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination2021In: JCI Insight, ISSN 2379-3708, Vol. 6, no 22, article id e151463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the presence and durability of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the airways is required to provide insights into the ability of individuals to neutralize the virus locally and prevent viral spread. Here, we longitudinally assessed both systemic and airway immune responses upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in a clinically well-characterized cohort of 147 infected individuals representing the full spectrum of COVID-19 severity, from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. In addition, we evaluated how SARS-CoV-2 vaccination influenced the antibody responses in a subset of these individuals during convalescence as compared with naive individuals. Not only systemic but also airway antibody responses correlated with the degree of COVID-19 disease severity. However, although systemic IgG levels were durable for up to 8 months, airway IgG and IgA declined significantly within 3 months. After vaccination, there was an increase in both systemic and airway antibodies, in particular IgG, often exceeding the levels found during acute disease. In contrast, naive individuals showed low airway antibodies after vaccination. In the former COVID-19 patients, airway antibody levels were significantly elevated after the boost vaccination, highlighting the importance of prime and boost vaccinations for previously infected individuals to obtain optimal mucosal protection.

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  • 35. Colucci, Francesco
    et al.
    Simpson, Elizabeth
    McLaren, Anne
    Hayakawa, Satoshi
    Andersson, Elisabet
    Mincheva-Nilsson, Lucia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    "A Japanese gentleman of the Samurai tradition": Takeshi Matsunaga 1945-2003.2003In: Immunogenetics, ISSN 0093-7711, E-ISSN 1432-1211, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 515-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Damoiseaux, Jan
    et al.
    Heijnen, Ingmar
    Van Campenhout, Christel
    Eriksson, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Fabien, Nicole
    Herold, Manfred
    van der Molen, Renate G.
    Egner, William
    Patel, Dina
    Plaza-Lopez, Aresio
    Radice, Antonella
    Rego de Sousa, Marie Jose
    Viander, Markku
    Shoenfeld, Yehuda
    An international survey on anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) testing in daily clinical practice2018In: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, ISSN 1434-6621, E-ISSN 1437-4331, Vol. 56, no 10, p. 1759-1770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Detection of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) is important for the diagnosis of the ANCA-associated vasculitides (AAV). For AAV, especially ANCA directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) are most relevant. ANCA with less well-defined specificities may, however, also be detected in other inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions.

    Methods: A questionnaire, initiated by the European Autoimmunity Standardisation Initiative (EASI), was used to gather information on methods and testing algorithms used for ANCA in clinical laboratories of 12 European countries (EASI survey).

    Results: Four hundred and twenty-nine responses were included in the EASI survey analysis which revealed differences within countries and between countries. Laboratories overall were poor in adherence to international consensus on ANCA testing. Substantial variation was observed with respect to the use of ANCA indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) in the algorithm, application of distinct methods for MPO- and PR3-ANCA, the daily availability of new ANCA results, and interpretation of test results.

    Conclusions: Awareness of these differences may stimulate further harmonization and standardization of ANCA testing. This may be promoted by an update of the international ANCA consensus and the introduction of international standards.

  • 37.
    Do, Lan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Granåsen, Gabriel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hellman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Geijer, Mats
    Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, United States; Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, United States; Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Baraliakos, Xenofon
    Department of Biochemistry, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    Witte, Torsten
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Medical University Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Rheumatology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anti-CD74 IgA autoantibodies in radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a longitudinal Swedish study2021In: Rheumatology, ISSN 1462-0324, E-ISSN 1462-0332, Vol. 60, no 9, p. 4085-4093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Antibodies against anti-CD74 are related to axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). The objectives were (i) to study IgA anti-CD74 in radiographic (r)-axSpA patients in the Backbone cohort and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of anti-CD74, (ii) to study the fluctuation of IgA anti-CD74 levels in prospectively collected samples, and (iii) to explore the relation between IgA anti-CD74 and radiographic spinal changes.

    METHODS: IgA anti-CD74 was analysed by ELISA in 155 patients with r-axSpA and age- and sex-matched controls. BASDAI, ASDAS, BASFI and BASMI were assessed and spinal radiographs were scored for r-axSpA-related changes with mSASSS. Previously donated samples, before inclusion in the Backbone study, were identified in the Medical Biobank of Northern Sweden.

    RESULTS: A total of 155 patients comprising 69% men and 31% women, age [mean (s.d.)] 55.5 (11.4) years and 152 (98.1%) HLA-B27 positive, were included. The plasma level of IgA anti-CD74 was significantly higher in the patients [median (interquartile range), 12.9 (7.9-17.9) U/ml] compared with controls [10.9 (7.2-14.6) U/ml, P = 0.003]. IgA anti-CD74 was above the cut-off level of 20 U/ml in 36/155 (23.2%) patients and in 15/151 (9.9%) controls (P = 0.002). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed ≥1 syndesmophyte associated with IgA anti-CD74 (odds ratio 5.64; 95% CI: 1.02, 35.58; P = 0.048) adjusted for hsCRP, smoking, BMI, sex and age. No distinct pattern of IgA anti-CD74 over time was revealed.

    CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of IgA anti-CD74 were increased in r-axSpA and independently associated with radiographic spinal changes, which suggests that IgA anti-CD74 could play a role in the pathogenies of r-axSpA.

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  • 38.
    Ekici, Rifat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    B cells in Type 1 diabetes: studies on cell surface antibody binding2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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  • 39.
    Ekici, Rifat
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sundström, Mia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Thay, Bernard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Oral Microbiology.
    Lejon, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Enhanced capture of extramembranous IgM and IgG on B cells in the NOD mouse: implications for immune complex trapping2009In: International Immunology, ISSN 0953-8178, E-ISSN 1460-2377, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 533-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Binding of various antibody isotypes to B cells through either FcgammaRs or complement receptors has been attributed to play several roles, e.g. in immune complex (IC) transportation and regulation of B cell receptor signaling. We have revealed a novel B cell intrinsic receptor for IgM and IgG which is present in C57BL/6 (B6) mice and is more abundant in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. As a consequence, the level of extramembranous IgG monomers and IgM pentamers on peripheral blood B cells from NOD mice was significantly higher compared with B6 mice. The effect of this aberration was that all B cells in peripheral blood of (NOD.IgH(a) x B6(IgH(b)))F(1) mice carried both IgM allotypes on their surface. In addition, analysis of IC binding using IgG- or IgM-opsonized bacterial particles revealed a higher degree of binding in NOD mice compared with B6. We hypothesize that this novel Ig-binding receptor is part of the normal immune system function. The aberrant function in the NOD mouse could contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes by altering normal B cell functions such as activation, IC transportation and B cell homeostasis.

  • 40.
    El-Sayed, Ashraf S. A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science,Zagazig University, Egypt.
    Shindia, Ahmed A.
    Abou Zeid, Azza A.
    Yassin, Amany M.
    Sitohy, Mahmoud Z.
    Sitohy, Basel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Aspergillus nidulans thermostable arginine deiminase-Dextran conjugates with enhanced molecular stability, proteolytic resistance, pharmacokinetic properties and anticancer activity2019In: Enzyme and microbial technology, ISSN 0141-0229, E-ISSN 1879-0909, Vol. 131, article id 109432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential anticancer activity of arginine deiminase (ADI) via deimination of L-arginine into citrulline has been extensively verified against various arginine-auxotrophic tumors, however, the higher antigenicity, structural instability and in vivo proteolysis are the major challenges that limit this enzyme from further clinical implementation. Since, this clinically applied enzyme was derived from Mycobacterium spp, thus, searching for ADI from eukaryotic microbes "especially thermophilic fungi" could have a novel biochemical conformational and catalytic properties. Aspergillus nidulans ADI was purified with 5.3 folds, with molecular subunit structure 48 kDa and entire molecular mass 120 kDa, ensuring its homotrimeric identity. The peptide fingerprinting analysis revealing the domain Glu(95)-Gly(96)-Gly(97) as the conserved active site of A. nidulans ADI, with higher proximity to Mycobacterium ADI Glade IV. In an endeavor to fortify the structural stability and anticancer activity of A. nidulans ADI, the enzyme was chemically modified with dextran. The optimal activity of Dextran-ADI conjugates was determined at 0.08:20 M ratio of ADI: Dextran, with an overall increase to ADI molecular subunit mass to (similar to)100 kDa. ADI was conjugated with dextran via the a-amino groups interaction of surface lysine residues of ADI. The resistance of Dextran-ADI conjugate to proteolysis had been increased by 2.5 folds to proteinase K and trypsin, suggesting the shielding of > 50% of ADI surface proteolytic recognition sites. The native and Dextran-ADI conjugates have the same optimum reaction temperature (37 degrees C), reaction pH and pH stability (7.0-8.0) with dependency on K+ ions as a cofactor. Dextran-ADI conjugates exhibited a higher thermal stability by (similar to) 2 folds for all the tested temperatures, ensuring the acquired structural and catalytic stability upon dextran conjugation. Dextran conjugation slightly protect the reactive amino and thiols groups of surface amino acids of ADI from amino acids suicide inhibitors. The affinity of ADI was increased by 5.3 folds to free L-arginine with a dramatic reduction in citrullination of peptidylarginine residues upon dextran conjugation. The anticancer activity of ADI to breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG-2) and colon (HCTB, HT29, DLD1 and LS174 T) cancer cell lines was increased by 1.7 folds with dextran conjugation in vitro. Pharmacokinetically, the half-life time of ADI was increased by 1.7 folds upon dextran conjugation, in vivo. From the biochemical and hematological parameters, ADIs had no signs of toxicity to the experimental animals. In addition to the dramatic reduction of L-arginine in serum, citrulline level was increased by 2.5 folds upon dextran conjugation of ADI. This is first report exploring thermostable ADI from thermophilic A. nidulans with robust structural stability, catalytic efficiency and proteolytic resistance.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Experimental radioimmunotherapy and effector mechanisms2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Radioimmunotherapy is becoming important as a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of tumour diseases. Lately monoclonal antibodies tagged with radionuclides have demonstrated encouraging results in treatment of hematological malignancies. The progress in treatment of solid tumours using radioimmunotherapy, however, has been slow. New strategies to improve the treatment response need to be evaluated. Such new strategies include the combination of radioimmunotherapy with other treatment modalities but also elucidation and exploration of the death effector mechanisms involved in tumour eradication.

    As the combination of radioimmunotherapy and radiotherapy provides several potential synergistic effects, we started out by optimising a treatment schedule to detect benefits combining these treatment modalities. An anti-cytokeratin antibody labelled with 125I administered before, after, or simultaneously with radiotherapy, indicated that the highest dose to the tumour was delivered when radiotherapy was given prior to the antibody administration. The optimised treatment schedule was then applied therapeutically in an experimental study on HeLa Hep2 tumour bearing nude mice given radiotherapy prior to administration of 131I-labelled monoclonal antibodies. Combining these treatment regimes enhanced the effect of either of the treatment modalities given alone, and a significant reduction in tumour volumes could be demonstrated. This treatment caused a dramatic change in tumour morphology, with increased amounts of connective tissue, giant cells and cysts. Furthermore cellular alterations like heterogeneity of nuclear and cytoplasmic size and shape were observed, and at least a fraction of the tumour cells presented some characteristics of apoptosis.

    The induced sequential events in Hela Hep2 cells exposed to 2.5-10 Gy of ionizing radiation were studied further, with special emphasis on cell cycle arrest, mitotic aberrations and finally cell death. Following radiation HeLa Hep2 cells initiated a transient G2/M arrest trying to repair cellular damage. This arrest was followed by a sequence of disturbed mitoses with anaphase bridges, lagging chromosomal material, hyperamplification of centrosomes and multipolar mitotic spindles. These mitotic disturbances produced multinuclear polyploid cells and cells with multiple micronuclei, cells that were destined to die via mitotic catastrophes and delayed apoptosis.

    Induction of apoptosis in HeLa Hep2 cells following radiation doses and dose-rates equivalent to those delivered at radioimmunotherapy was concurrently studied in vitro. Significant induction of apoptosis was obtained and found to be induced relatively slowly, peaking 72-168 hours post irradiation. Caspases from the intrinsic pathway as well as the extrinsic pathway were found to be activated in response to ionizing radiation. Furthermore caspase-2, which has recently been acknowledged for its role as an initiator caspase was found to be activated following radiation and seems to play an important role in this delayed apoptosis.

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  • 42.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lindgren, Theres
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Löfroth, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Iodine-131 induces mitotic catastrophes and activates apoptotic pathways in HeLa Hep2 cells2008In: Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, ISSN 1084-9785, E-ISSN 1557-8852, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 541-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iodine-131 (131I) has been used both in unconjugated form and conjugated to antibody derivates (i.e., radioimmunotherapy; RIT) to treat malignant diseases. The mechanisms by which 131I-irradiation causes growth retardation are, however, inadequately understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the sequential molecular and cellular events that initiate cell death in HeLa Hep2 cells exposed to 131I. In this paper, HeLa Hep2 cells were found to display a transient G2-M arrest following irradiation, but then reentered the cell cycle still containing unrepaired cellular damage. An increase of multipolar mitotic spindles, as well as a significant increase in centrosome numbers from 8.8% +/- 1.9% in controls to 54.7% +/- 2.2% in irradiated cells, was observed (p < 0.0001). A subsequent failure of cytokinesis caused the cells to progress into mitotic catastrophe. This was accompanied by the formation of giant cells with multiple nuclei, multilobulated nuclei, and an increased frequency of polyploidy cells. A fraction of the cells also displayed apoptotic features, including the activation of initiator caspases-2, -8, -9, and effector caspase-3, as well as cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a cell-death substrate for active caspase-3. These findings demonstrate that mitotic catastrophes and the activation of a delayed type of apoptosis might be important mechanisms involved in cell death following the RIT of solid tumors with -emitting radionuclides, such as 131I.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Löfroth, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Apoptotic signalling in HeLa Hep2 cells following 5 Gy of cobalt-60 gamma radiation2009In: Anticancer Research, ISSN 0250-7005, E-ISSN 1791-7530, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 4361-4366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The apoptotic signalling pathways involved in the delayed type of apoptosis occurring in HeLa Hep2 cells following radiation were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HeLa Hep2 cells were exposed to 5 Gy of cobalt-60 radiation. The activation of caspase-2, caspase-8, caspase-9 and effector caspase-3 was investigated by caspase assay plates and Western blots. Cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was analysed on Western blots. HeLa Hep2 cells were irradiated with or without preincubation with inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide, CHX) and caspases, followed by TUNEL staining and caspase assay plate evaluation. RESULTS: Initiator caspases-2, -8, -9, and effector caspase-3, were found to be activated and PARP cleaved following irradiation. CHX completely inhibited the caspase activation and the associated apoptosis. Pretreatment with caspase-2 inhibitor indicated that caspase-2 was involved in the execution of the apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Activation of the apoptotic signalling pathways following irradiation of HeLa Hep2 cells includes components from the intrinsic as well as the extrinsic pathways and seems to require de novo protein synthesis.

  • 44.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Löfroth, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Åhlström Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Cell cycle disturbances and mitotic catastrophes in HeLa Hep2 cells following 2.5 to 10 Gy of ionizing radiation.2007In: Clin Cancer Res, ISSN 1078-0432, Vol. 13, no 18 Pt 2, p. 5501s-5508sArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Experimental radioimmunotherapy delivering absorbed doses of 2.5 to 10 Gy has been shown to cause growth retardation of tumors. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the sequential molecular and cellular events occurring in HeLa Hep2 cells exposed to such doses. METHODS: Dose-response curves, activation of cell cycle checkpoints, and mitotic behavior were investigated in HeLa Hep2 cells following 2.5- to 10-Gy irradiation by carrying out 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays, Western blots, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and immunofluorescence stainings. Terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining was used to detect apoptosis. RESULTS: A G2-M arrest was shown by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. p53 and p21 were found to be up-regulated but were not immediately related to the arrest. The G2-M arrest was transient and the cells reentered the cell cycle still containing unrepaired cellular damage. This premature entry caused an increase of anaphase bridges, lagging chromosomal material, and multipolar mitotic spindles as visualized by propidium iodide staining and immunofluorescence staining with alpha-tubulin and gamma-tubulin antibodies. Furthermore, a dose-dependent significant increase in centrosome numbers from 12.6+/-6.6% to 67+/-5.3% was identified as well as a dose-dependent increase of polyploid cells from 2.8+/-1.3% to 17.6+/-2.1% with the highest absorbed dose of 10 Gy. These disturbances caused the cells to progress into mitotic catastrophe and a fraction of these dying cells showed apoptotic features as displayed by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining 5 to 7 days after irradiation. CONCLUSION: An absorbed dose of 2.5 to 10 Gy was shown to force HeLa Hep2 cells into mitotic catastrophe and delayed apoptosis. These might be important cell death mechanisms involved in tumor growth retardation following radioimmunotherapy of solid tumors.

  • 45.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Radiation-induced cell death mechanisms2010In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal when treating malignancies with radiation therapy is to deprive tumor cells of their reproductive potential. One approach to achieve this is by inducing tumor cell apoptosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that induction of apoptosis alone is insufficient to account for the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy. It has become obvious in the last few years that inhibition of the proliferative capacity of malignant cells following irradiation, especially with solid tumors, can occur via alternative cell death modalities or permanent cell cycle arrests, i.e., senescence. In this review, apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe, the two major cell deaths induced by radiation, are described and dissected in terms of activating mechanisms. Furthermore, treatment-induced senescence and its relevance for the outcome of radiotherapy of cancer will be discussed. The importance of p53 for the induction and execution of these different types of cell deaths is highlighted. The efficiency of radiotherapy and radioimmunotherapy has much to gain by understanding the cell death mechanisms that are induced in tumor cells following irradiation. Strategies to use specific inhibitors that will manipulate key molecules in these pathways in combination with radiation might potentiate therapy and enhance tumor cell kill.

  • 46. Erlandsson, Ann
    et al.
    Holm, Patrik
    Jafari, Rozbeh
    Stigbrand, Torgny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Sundström, Birgitta E
    Functional mapping of the anti-idiotypic antibody anti-TS1 scFv using site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis2010In: mAbs, ISSN 1942-0870, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 662-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recombinant antibodies may be engineered to obtain improved functional properties. Functional mapping of the residues in the binding surfaces is of importance for predicting alterations needed to yield the desired properties. In this investigation, 17 single mutation mutant single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) of the anti-idiotypic antibody anti-TS1 were generated in order to functionally map amino acid residues important for the interaction with its idiotype TS1. Residues in anti-TS1 determined to be very important for the interaction were identified, Y32L, K50L, K33H, and Y52H, and they were distributed adjacent to a centrally located hydrophobic area, and contributed extensively to the interaction energy (≥2.5 kcal/mol) in the interaction. Quantitative ELISA assays, BIAcore technologies and three-dimensional surface analysis by modeling were employed to visualize the consequences of the mutations. The expression levels varied between 2 - 1,800 nM as determined by ELISA. All the 17 scFvs displayed higher dissociation rates (60 - 1,300 times) and all but two of them also faster association rates (1.3 - 56 times). The decrease in affinity was determined to be 1.6 - 12,200 times. Two of the mutants displayed almost identical affinity with the wild type anti-TS1, but with a change in both association and dissociation rates. The present investigation demonstrates that it is possible to generate a large panorama of anti-idiotypic antibodies, and single out a few that might be of potential use for future clearing and pre-targeting purposes of idiotypic-anti-idiotypic interactions.

  • 47.
    Fahlgren, A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, S
    Danielsson, A
    Hammarström, M-L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Increased expression of antimicrobial peptides and lysozyme in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis.2003In: Clinical and Experimental Immunology, ISSN 0009-9104, E-ISSN 1365-2249, Vol. 131, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of chronic inflammation on the expression of human alpha-defensins 5 and 6 (HD-5, HD-6), beta-defensins 1 and 2 (hBD-1, hBD-2) and lysozyme in epithelial cells of small and large intestine was investigated. Intestinal specimens from 16 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 14 patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 40 controls with no history of inflammatory bowel disease were studied. mRNA expression levels of the five defence molecules were determined in freshly isolated epithelial cells by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Specific copy standards were used allowing comparison between the expression levels of the different defensins. HD-5 and lysozyme protein expression was also studied by immunohistochemistry. Colonic epithelial cells from patients with UC displayed a significant increase of hBD-2, HD-5, HD-6 and lysozyme mRNA as compared to epithelial cells in controls. Lysozyme mRNA was expressed at very high average copy numbers followed by HD-5, HD-6, hBD-1 and hBD-2 mRNA. HD-5 and lysozyme protein was demonstrated in metaplastic Paneth-like cells in UC colon. There was no correlation between hBD-2 mRNA levels and HD-5 or HD-6 mRNA levels in colon epithelial cells of UC patients. Colonic epithelial cells of Crohn's colitis patients showed increased mRNA levels of HD-5 and lysozyme mRNA whereas ileal epithelial cells of Crohn's patients with ileo-caecal inflammation did not. Chronic inflammation in colon results in induction of hBD-2 and alpha-defensins and increased lysozyme expression. hBD-1 expression levels in colon remain unchanged in colitis. The high antimicrobial activity of epithelial cells in chronic colitis may be a consequence of changes in the epithelial lining, permitting adherence of both pathogenic bacteria and commensals directly to the epithelial cell surface.

  • 48.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
    Frängsmyr, L
    Zoubir, F
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Interferon-gamma tempers the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen family molecules in human colon cells: a possible role in innate mucosal defence.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 628-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)s, i.e. CEA, CEACAM1, CEACAM6 and CEACAM7, are localized to the apical glycocalyx of normal colonic epithelium and have been suggested to play a role in innate immunity. The expression of these molecules in colon carcinoma cells was studied at the mRNA and protein levels after treatment with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-1beta, live bacteria or lipopolysaccharide. The colon carcinoma cell lines LS174T and HT-29 were studied in detail using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoflow cytometry and immunoelectron microscopy. IFN-gamma, but not the other agents, modified expression of CEA, CEACAM1 and CEACAM6. None of the agents upregulated CEACAM7 expression. Two expression patterns were seen. HT-29 cells, which initially showed low quantities of mRNAs and proteins, displayed marked upregulation of both mRNAs and proteins. LS174T cells transcribed stable high levels of mRNA before and after treatment. Additionally, IFN-gamma induced increased cell surface expression of CEA, CEACAM1 and CECAM6. IFN-gamma has two important effects on the expression levels of the CEA family molecules in colon epithelial cells: direct upregulation of CEACAM1 and promotion of cell differentiation resulting in increased expression of CEA and CEACAM6 and decreased expression of CEACAM7.

  • 49.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Baranov, Vladimir
    Frängsmyr, Lars
    Zoubir, Fairouz
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Interferon-γ tempers the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family molecules – a role in innate colonic defence.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 628-641Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hammarström, Sten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Danielsson, Åke
    Hammarström, Marie-Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Immunology/Immunchemistry.
    Increased expression of antimicrobial peptides and lysozyme in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis.2003In: Clinical Experimental Immunology, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 233
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