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  • 1.
    Berg, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    "CITYBLÅA": En studie om avsteg från polisens angelägenhetsgrader2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study reveals awareness among police officers in Stockholm City regarding intentional deviations from current legislation. The findings suggest that officers make these deviations to perform their duties more efficiently, yet the traffic environment poses challenges. The study does not establish clear correlations in terms of factors influencing deviations. Regarding the call for legislative review, a significant majority of officers express a desire for change. They feel constrained by existing laws concerning their tasks and the unique traffic conditions in Stockholm City, indicating a perceived lack of alignment between legislation and operational needs. The study prompts the question of whether this phenomenon is specific to Stockholm City or extends nationally. Future research covering multiple police areas in Sweden would provide valuable insights. 

  • 2.
    Brandén, Jennie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Burman, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stoor, Jon Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Våld mot samiska kvinnor2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten presenterar vi resultat från forskningsprojektet ”Våld mot samiska kvinnor” som 2021-2024 genomförts av forskargruppen Lávvuo vid Umeå Universitet, på uppdrag av Sámediggi (Sametinget i Sverige).

    Rapporten består av en kvantitativ och en kvalitativ del, samt fem åtgärdsförslag riktade till Sveriges regering.

    De kvantitativa resultaten i korthet

    Den kvantitativa delen av rapporten baseras på enkätundersökningen Samisk hälsa på lika villkor som genomfördes 2021. Resultaten har jämförts med Sveriges befolkning genom den nationella enkäten Sexuell och reproduktiv hälsa genomförd 2017. 

    Det övergripande mönstret är att kvinnor är betydligt mer utsatta för våld än män, samt att samiska kvinnor 2021 uppger en högre våldsutsatthet än kvinnor i Sverige 2017, för de flesta typer av våld.

    • Över hälften av de samiska kvinnorna har utsatts för sexuellt våld (55,5 procent), sju av tio har utsatts för psykiskt våld (68,5 procent) och nästan var tredje för fysiskt våld (27,9 procent).
    • En större andel samiska kvinnor än kvinnor i Sverige i stort uppger utsatthet för de grövsta formerna av sexuellt våld, såsom våldtäktsförsök (14,1 jämfört med 10,6 procent) och våldtäkt (10,3 jämfört med 7,0 procent).
    • En större andel samiska kvinnor än kvinnor i Sverige i stort uppger utsatthet för psykiskt våld, både sammantaget (68,5 jämfört med 50,9 procent) och vad gäller alla de former av psykiskt våld som undersöktes.
    • Även när det gällde fysiskt våld rapporterade samiska kvinnor (27,9 procent) en högre utsatthet jämfört med kvinnor i Sverige (22,0 procent).
    • Samiska kvinnors utsatthet för våld varierar med både ålder och geografi. Överlag var utsattheten högst bland kvinnor yngre än 45 år. Geografiskt var utsattheten för sexuellt och fysiskt våld högre bland samiska kvinnor i mellersta och södra Sverige, med undantag av Stockholmsområdet. För psykiskt våld hade samiska kvinnor i Jämtland Härjedalen en högre utsatthet.
    • Det finns flera starka samband mellan olika typer av våldsutsatthet och psykisk och fysisk ohälsa. Upprepad våldsutsatthet (fler än en gång) är förenat med ännu högre risk för ohälsa, särskilt psykisk ohälsa. Starkast är detta samband när det gäller stress och självmordstankar.
    • När det gäller diskriminering och rasism uppger en betydande andel av samer i Sverige att de utsatts någon gång i livet. Liksom för andra former av våld i denna undersökning visar analysen att en högre andel samiska kvinnor (44,5 procent) utsatts jämfört med samiska män (37,0 procent).
    • HBTQ-samer är mer våldsutsatta än andra samer. Detta gäller sexuellt våld (64,6 jämfört med 30,9 procent), psykiskt våld (81,7 jämfört med 58,4 procent) och fysiskt våld (43,8 jämfört med 25,5 procent).

    De kvalitativa resultaten i korthet

    Den kvalitativa delen baseras på intervjuer med professionella som arbetar inom samhällets stödstrukturer för våldsutsatta i olika delar av den svenska delen av Sápmi.

    • Intervjustudien visar att våld mot samiska kvinnor är en fråga som behöver förstås i relation till den bredare politiska och historiska, koloniala, och könade kontext som våldet utspelar sig i.
    • Frågan om våld mot samiska kvinnor osynliggörs och beskrivs som svår att adressera – både i det samiska samhället och i majoritetssamhället.
    • Kunskapen om det samiska samhället är låg inom samhällets stödstrukturer. Deltagare beskrev att samiska perspektiv saknas i styrdokument kring mäns våld mot kvinnor och i befintlig terminologi. Detta gör att förhållanden i det samiska samhället som kan påverka den våldsutsattas situation negligeras i mötet med samiska klienter, patienter och brukare som utsätts för våld.
    • Frågan om våld mot samiska kvinnor beskrevs som ”känslig” och ”laddad”. Sammantaget framträder ett stigma kring frågan och en oro för att ”göra fel” eller bidra till fördomar och rasism mot samer, både i det samiska samhället och majoritetssamhället.
    • Problemet med våld mot samiska kvinnor beskrevs som svår att adressera inom en redan marginaliserad samisk kontext, där värnandet av samiska kollektiva rättigheter har prioriterats.
    • Det finns en rad särskilda förhållanden knutna till det samiska samhället som är viktiga att ha kunskap om och vara lyhörd för i mötet med våldsutsatta samiska personer och i arbetet för att motverka våld mot samiska kvinnor.
    • Närheten och lokalkännedomen i mindre samhällen beskrevs som styrkor, men samtidigt lyftes utmaningar såsom bristande anonymitet, resurser, kompetens och insatser. Svårigheten att vara anonym och långa geografiska avstånd till samhällets stöd beskrevs som extra påtagligt i det samiska samhället. Stark samhörighet i det samiska samhället beskrevs som positivt men också potentiellt problematiskt när det gäller den utsattas situation.
    • Bristande tillit till myndigheter bland samer är en potentiell barriär för att nå och stötta våldsutsatta samiska kvinnor. Den bristande tilliten relaterades till både historiska och samtida erfarenheter av okunskap, förtryck, rasism och diskriminering.
    • Deltagare beskrev ojämställdhet och tystnad kring våld mot kvinnor i det samiska samhället, och att våld mot kvinnor ofta hanteras internt. Tystnaden knöts till en lojalitet med samiska män, ett ideal att samiska kvinnor ska vara starka och klara sig själva, samt en vilja att skydda familjen och det samiska kollektivet.
    • Ett centralt hinder för utsatta kvinnor att lämna en våldsam relation beskrevs vara rädslan för att uppbrottet skulle innebära förlust av deras samiska sammanhang. Ens samiska identitet beskrevs till exempel som nära knuten till platsen och markerna och därmed som svår att upprätthålla vid flytt till en annan ort för att söka skydd.

    Åtgärdsförslag till Sveriges regering

    Baserat på de utvecklingsbehov som identifierats genom detta forskningsprojekt utmynnar rapporten i fem åtgärdsförslag riktade till den svenska regeringen.

    1. Uppdra åt Sametinget att följa upp och samordna arbetet för att motverka våld mot samiska kvinnor.
    2. Utforma en nationell policy för att motverka våld mot samiska kvinnor.
    3. Utveckla stödstrukturer för våldsutsatta samiska kvinnor och flickor.
    4. Genomför kortsiktiga utbildningsinsatser.
    5. Säkra långsiktig kunskapsproduktion och kompetenshöjning.
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  • 3.
    Brodin Danell, Jenny-Ann
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Jarl, Josefina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    What is the problem represented to be in the Swedish police authority: a policy analysis2024In: Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, ISSN 1752-4512, E-ISSN 1752-4520, Vol. 18, article id paae041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Sweden has witnessed a rise in criminal activity, notably in organized crime, gang violence, and incidents like shootings and explosions. This trend has sparked considerable political and media debates, in Sweden and internationally. This paper analyses how the Swedish police authority comprehend the situation discursively. How do they define their role and mission in society? What problems do they identify? What goals and strategies do they propose, and what values are attached to these? This is illustrated by policy documents and website materials from the police authority. The results show three main problematizations: crime and crime fighting, working within the police organization, and relations between the police and citizens. Key findings are that the police authority represents crimes and the role of the police in different ways depending on what type of crime discussed, and that they connect various aspects of police work to non-repressive values, such as trust and safety.

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  • 4.
    Cardós-Alonso, María Carmen
    et al.
    Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA112), Madrid, Spain; Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Inzunza, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Gyllencreutz, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention.
    Espinosa, Salvador
    Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA112), Madrid, Spain.
    Vázquez, Tatiana
    Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA112), Madrid, Spain.
    Fernandez, Maria Aranzazu
    Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA112), Madrid, Spain.
    Blanco, Alberto
    Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA112), Madrid, Spain.
    Cintora-Sanz, Ana María
    Emergency Medical Service of the Community of Madrid (SUMMA112), Madrid, Spain.
    Use of self-efficacy scale in mass casualty incidents during drill exercises2024In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Medical First Responders (MFRs) in the emergency department SUMMA 112 are tasked with handling the initial management of Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) and building response capabilities. Training plays a crucial role in preparing these responders for effective disaster management. Yet, evaluating the impact of such training poses challenges since true competency can only be proven amid a major event. As a substitute gauge for training effectiveness, self-efficacy has been suggested.

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to employ a pre- and post-test assessment of changes in perceived self-efficacy among MFRs following an intervention focused on the initial management of MCI. It also aimed to evaluate a self-efficacy instrument for its validity and reliability in this type of training.

    Method: In this study, we used a pretest (time 1 = T1) – post-test (time 2 = T2) design to evaluate how self-efficacy changed after a training intervention with 201 MFRs in initial MCI management. ANOVA within-subjects and between subjects analyses were used. Results: The findings reveal a noteworthy change in self-efficacy before and after training among the 201 participants. This suggests that the training intervention positively affected participants’ perceived capabilities to handle complex situations like MCI.

    Conclusion: The results allow us to recommend a training program with theory components together with practical workshops and live, large-scale simulation exercises for the training of medical first responders in MCI, as it significantly increases their perception of the level of self-efficacy for developing competencies associated with disaster response.

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  • 5.
    Ekizean, Ara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Askerås, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    UTVÄRDERING AV HOT SPOT-METODEN I LOKALPOLISOMRÅDE SOLLENTUNA2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden learning within the police force is characterized by the transfer of knowledge from experienced, elder colleagues to younger, less experienced peers. The associated risk with thislearning approach is that police officers may execute tasks without a fundamentalunderstanding or knowledge of their purpose. This qualitative study examines theimplementation of hot spot-policing in an area flagged as a risk zone called Tureberg in Sollentuna. The study conducted semi structured interviews with seven officers to exploretheir perspectives on hot spot-policing, focusing mainly on their methods, challenged andpotential areas for improvement. Thematic analysis is used to analyze data for findingthemes. Prior research has identified two primary methods related to hot spot policing:traditional policing tactics and problem-oriented interventions. Problem-orientedinterventions offers significant benefits compared to traditional tactics. The officers expressa belief that they lack information about the purpose and theory behind the hot spot-method.This knowledge gap constrains motivation, presenting challenges for officers to sustain theircommitment and make qualitative contributions. Despite their opinions, officers occasionallyemploy methods that are problem-oriented, diverse, and inclusive of the community,although contributions many times lean towards traditional approaches. This studyrecommends that officers are given the opportunity to continue acquiring new and updatedinformation about the method. It also advocates for further ongoing development of policecommunityrelations within hot spot-policing and increased transparency of police officersin the preparatory work, as well as in the subsequent results and analysis of hot spot-policingefforts.

  • 6.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Institution of Police Studies, Södertörn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Police conflict management: a scoping review2024In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police officers frequently interact with the public, and many of these interactions involve some form of conflict. As professionals, and representatives of the state, police officers are expected to handle these conflicts in a professional and just manner to maintain positive relationships with the public. Therefore, solid conflict management skills are necessary for any officer in a democratic society. The present scoping review examines the current state of research on police involved conflicts and conflict management in a police context. Results indicate that a majority of the studies have been conducted in the USA and that many of these studies focus on use of force rather than effective conflict management strategies and methods. The study further indicates a number of methodological difficulties in researching this important area of policing, including difficulties in obtaining data as well as a lack of unified definitions of concepts and methods.

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  • 7.
    Ericsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öman Ekervhén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychological constructs in police investigative interview training2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As Swedish law enforcement embraces interviewing techniques that rely on psychological concepts and interpersonal skills, the teaching of these main ideas needs to be a central part of police education. This presentation willdiscuss how concepts familiar in psychology are understood and taught within Swedish police education today. Usingmaterials from the Swedish police authority, teaching resources, and the scientific literature, this presentation aimsto show how police education is adopting psychological perspectives and how psychological research and educationcan benefit in training police. We will also present future studies to further develop and incorporate psychologicalperspectives in educating law enforcement.

  • 8.
    Ericsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Öman Ekervhén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Studying rapport and empathy training for investigative interviewing2023In: Abstracts from the First European Conference on Law Enforcement and Public Health, Umea 2023, Umeå University, 2023, p. 36-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial part of the crime investigation process is the investigative interview. Each interview is aninstance of law enforcement and the public meeting to exchange information. Interviews thus carry agreat deal of weight in both the investigation and public relations. Although the main goal ofinterviewing is often to get information related to an investigation, interviews are also anopportunity for law enforcement to offer support, give information, gain trust, and connect withindividuals in the community. Previous research has found that a humane interviewing style thatfocuses on building trust, good communication, and remaining objective while listening to the otherperson’s account has advantages such as eliciting more detailed accounts and more truthfulinformation. This style of interviewing has also been shown to be strategically beneficial regardless ofif the interviewee is a suspect, witness, or victim. However, researchers are still debating how toimplement empathy and rapport-building behaviors in interviews. There is a great need for researchon how police officers acquire the core skills needed for good communication, building rapport, andestablishing trust during interviews. The aim of this project is to better understand how humane andempathetic interviewing is implemented in Swedish police education in order to achieve a largeremphasis on building and maintaining rapport, empathy, and emotion regulation. This project willuse both quantitative and qualitative methods to approach the research questions. The goal is tohelp the police both in getting as much information as possible, as well as improve the experiences ofthe interview for both the police and the interviewee. Understanding and implementing a morehumane approach to interviewing could help individual officers de-escalate tense situations andnavigate their own stress responses, as well as help strengthen community trust in policing wheninteracting with interviewees.

  • 9.
    Gheorghiu, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Gustavii, Noomi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    NEOBANKER: EN UTMANING FÖR BROTTSUTREDANDEMYNDIGHETER?2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, neobanks have established themselves as new financial actors to meetcustomer demand for more efficient banking management by offering a mix of traditionaland innovative services without always holding a full banking license in all countries theyoperate in. Prior research on neobanks is limited but indicates that neobanks run the risk ofbeing used in financial crimes such as money laundering and terrorism financing. This studyaddresses a research gap by examining how law enforcement agencies interact withneobanks regarding the provision of information related to financial crime. A qualitativemethod is used, with semi-structured interviews with officials at criminal investigationauthorities. The empirical evidence is analyzed by identifying themes and then applying acustom analysis model for interpretation to achieve understandings of how formal andinformal institutions and legitimacy influence authorities and neobanks. The study showsthat information gathering from neobanks is lacking in criminal investigations, that theinternal routines of the criminal investigation authorities are unclear, and that internationalcooperation should be developed. Moreover, neobanks intend to collaborate with criminalinvestigation authorities but there are identified risks which may affect neobanks deficienciesto report suspicious transactions. The conclusion is that information retrieval on financialcrime related to neobanks should be improved. Mainly by developing legislation to includeneobanks alongside traditional banks, clarifying and streamlining procedures for crossborderinvestigations, increasing international cooperation between countries, and carryingout internal training efforts to increase knowledge within authorities. The study alsoconcludes an important signal value to investigate economic crimes related to neobanks.

  • 10.
    Govik, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Poliser och ny lagstiftning: En kvalitativ studie om kännedom och kompetens2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study delves into two key facets of police engagement with new legislation: how officers become aware about new laws and how they develop the competence to apply them. The motivation behind this research is to identify potential gaps in knowledge transfer and competency necessary for the application of new legal frameworks.

    The study was conducted using semi-structured interviews and involved seven interviewees from the Swedish Police Authority. Officers contend with a deluge of information from various channels, leading to challenges in prioritizing crucial data, such as new legislation, amid the deluge. Official channels like internal platforms and emails serve as primary information sources, but unofficial channels like news media and personal contacts hold comparable importance.

    Mastering legislation goes beyond textual comprehension, emphasizing the translation of legal requisites into practical knowledge. The integration of practical knowledge and intent equips officers to effectively implement new laws. Collaborative interpretation among officers fosters the transition of individual knowledge into shared organizational expertise. While acknowledging the responsibility of individual officers to stay updated, supervisors play a pivotal role in encouraging and mandating continuous professional development.

    Notably, while prior research emphasizes knowledge transfer from senior to junior officers, this study underscores the significance of specialized colleagues versed in legislation, irrespective of their tenure, for practical application.

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  • 11.
    Granängen, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Våldsutsatthet, riskuppfattning och förtroendet för Polisen: En mixad metod-studie ur ett ungdomsperspektiv2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Violence continues to shape Swedish society, leading to vulnerability and concern, especially affecting young people, with injuries, anxiety, and life-limiting aspects as consequences. Based on this issue, the study aims to interdisciplinarily examine exposure to violence, risk perception regarding violence, and trust, with a specific focus on what influences trust in the Police. This can hopefully contribute to a deeper understanding of the area and hopefully lead to more effective trust- and security building police work. The study applies a mixed-method approach, combining quantitative surveys with qualitative semi-structured interviews, with the data material analyzed through cross-tabulation analysis and qualitative content analysis. The total data set consists of 766 respondents (survey) and 7 informants (interviews). The results generally suggest that exposure is relatively frequent, both regarding physical- and sexual violence, with a noteworthy high exposure to physical violence against women. Regarding risk perception the concern is widespread, where primarily the concern for the vulnerability of other individuals is prominent. There is also a notable relationship between actual exposure to violence and higher anxiety. Regarding trust in the Police, it is generally high, where many feel a considerable degree of trust in the work of the Police. Overall, the study indicates several associations and factors that influence exposure, risk perception, and trust to varying degrees. The study's most prominent findings applies to trust, where both actual exposure to violence and high anxiety tend to negatively affect trust. Furthermore, the police's treatment, engagement, and effectiveness are considered additional factors that influence trust. With regard to this, the study's results suggest that minor negative events can affect young people's trust, making police treatment significant for trust- and security building work and for maintaining a high level of trust.

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    Granängen, C. (2024). Våldsutsatthet, riskuppfattning och förtroendet för Polisen.
  • 12.
    Hansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Borglund, Erik A. M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work. Department of Communication, Quality Management and Information Systems, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Situation awareness in tactical police interventions2024In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In extreme situations, the police have limited time to react when a threat or a situation arises suddenly. Situation awareness has been identified as a key factor for success in how tactical decisions are made. This helps the police to perform secure and legally correct interventions and decisions. We collected the primary data from 21 interviews with police officers, supplemented by literature and documents. We analyzed the relationship between tactical methods and situation awareness. The purpose of the article is to explore the relationship between police tactics and police officers’ work with situation awareness. Situation awareness has been studied through the lens of the Swedish police general tactical explanation model. We discuss how the general tactical explanation model provides the conditions for the police officers’ explanations to achieve situation awareness. We conclude that if the general tactical explanation model is applied during tactical interventions there are better possibilities to achieve situation awareness.

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  • 13.
    Heimdahl, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Uppföljning av situationellt brottsförebyggande arbete: Polisområde Stockholm Nord2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the follow-up of situational crime prevention is conducted in police district Stockholm Nord within the Police Region Stockholm. The method of the study is a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with the function operational coordinator which is the function who has the command authority on the operational command level. Six interviews were conducted with one representative from six out of seven existing local police districts in police district Stockholm Nord. After the interviews were conducted and all the data collected, a thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The results showed that the follow-up on crime prevention within police district Nord was regularly conducted, even on a daily basis with each shift reporting their own follow-ups. The method used to conduct the follow-up is with an application the Swedish Police Authority developed on its own named Chatt, an application that makes it possible for the user to complete the follow-up on their mobile telephone instead of using a computer at the police station. The results also show that, despite that the follow-ups are conducted on a regular basis, the data collected isn’t analyzed and evaluated enough to be used optimally as help for the operational coordinator to prioritize the exclusive resources that is police officers today in Stockholm. One of the main conclusions is therefore that the Swedish Police Authority needs to strengthen its capability to analyze and evaluate the situational crime prevention being conducted within the local police districts to make sure to use its resources in the best possible way.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Snabbare lagföring i praktiken: Yttre polispersonals upplevelser - en intervjustudie2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current political and legal discourse in the Swedish society is how we should fight gang- and organized crime in the best way. In 2019 the current government therefore proposed a 34-point program (34-punkts programmet) proposing four focus areas to combat the problem. One tool in that toolbox is expedited prosecution (snabbare lagföring) which was introduced to streamline the process of prosecuting volume crime. The method started as a trial in Stockholm in 2018, but since 2023 has been implemented as a permanent method within the entire Police Authority as part of the program against gang crime and organized crime. The aim to understand how police officers on patrol experience the method and in the theory part, to describe how implementation theory and crime prevention in the form of deterrence are the basis. The essay has a qualitative approach where material has been collected through interviews with 8 police officers on patrol where, after transcribing, the material has been analyzed through thematic analysis. The result shows that there is no consensus in the experience of why the method was implemented, but that all respondents generally have a positive experience of the method. Furthermore, the Police Authority needs to systematically collect suggestions of improvement and further on, evaluate the method to move towards evidence-based policing.

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  • 15.
    Lindfors, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Övertidsarbete i polisregion väst: Hur påverkas medarbetare när det finns obegränsade möjligheter till övertidsarbete.2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between overtime work and stress.How are employees affected when they work a lot of overtime? Are employees negativelyaffected when staffing shortages are solved with overtime work? And how does the individualemployee feel when there is a risk of being ordered to work against their will due to staffingshortages? The study is delimited to one police region of the Swedish police authority. Thepaper has been conducted as a qualitative interview study and has been carried out with asemi-structured interview guide. The study concluded that it is possible to work a lot ofovertime without the employee experiencing any form of stress. The informants in the studyhave worked up to 500 overtime hours over an 11-month period. It was also not possible todemonstrate any negative stress due to staffing shortages which are solved with overtime.Nor did the risk of being assigned to involuntary overtime cause the informants to experienceany form of negative stress at work.

  • 16.
    Lorindin, Amed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Lögn, lögner och lögnare: En litteraturstudie om metoder för att avslöja lögner i polisiära förhör2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the possibilities for detection of deception in police interrogations with focus on the detection methods through verbal-, non-verbal-, and paralinguistic indicators. The research for the study was based on forensic psychological research combined with the social psychological theory, Interpersonal Deception Theory, shortened as IDT. The literature study was able to identify reliable methods for lie detection in the light of IDT. The results showed that verbal indicators are more reliable to detect lies compared to non-verbal indicators and paralinguistic indicators. Verbal indicators include, but are not limited to, inconsistencies, vague descriptions and the use of passive expressions when speaking. Non-verbal indicators, which are for example body language and mimicry, show value but are also more susceptible to manipulation and are sensitive to the variability in contexts, which in turn fundamentally reduces their practical effectiveness. Paralinguistic indicators which include, but are not limited to, different changes in tone, speech rate and pauses give adequate reliability. They have a reduced effect by the factor for the need of knowledge of the speaker’s normal behavior. Limited knowledge about the speaker’s time to prepare for the police interrogation also reduces its effectiveness. The results from the forensic psychology were in line with IDT’s propositions and strategies. This study highlights the importance of lie detection training based on scientific methods, and ethical considerations in applying these methods to ensure objectivity and justice throughout the justice system.

  • 17.
    Nilzén, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Förhör med psykiskt sjuka: Utredande polisers upplevelser och erfarenheter2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological vulnerabilities are more common in people subjected to police interventions and interviews than in the background population. Such vulnerabilities have the capacity to intervene with the demands of police interrogations resulting in less or poorer information achieved from the interview. According to the theory of procedural justice the characteristics of the authorities’ interactions with the public shape the latter’s view of the authorities and their willingness to cooperate with, for instance, police and obey the law.This study examined the views and experiences of Swedish police officers on interrogating suspects with known or suspected psychiatric illness or psychological vulnerability. Results showed that police officers perceived such vulnerabilities as a challenge to holding interrogations of good quality and a significant perceived shortage of knowledge and training as to how to address those challenges. Furthermore, respondents proved to have a rather narrow definition as to what they perceived to be psychiatric illness or psychological vulnerability and stress the importance of, to the greatest possible extent, treating all subjects equally. Some informants also described a role conflict between the objective and focused role of a police investigator and that of a professional meeting vulnerable suspects in need of special regard, treatment and care. The study implicates a need to further develop police interrogation training and supervision, perhaps in concert with psychiatric professionals. The procedural justice theory provides a rational for how such improvements could potentially improve the target population’s interactions with the police and even reduce actual crime rates.

  • 18.
    Pettersson, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Kontinental eller anglosaxisk polistradition efter självständighet?: En komparativ studie mellan Litauen och Ungern i ljuset av de europeiska polistraditionerna2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union consists of 27 countries with different history and cultural context. As the police are a part of the public administration, it is natural that national differences affect the organizations and tasks of the European police forces. Meanwhile, the growing international criminality and the need for international peace-building operations calls for more cooperation. It is reasonable to believe that an enhanced understanding of the differences within the union is important to increase the ability to cooperate. The study aims to raise the knowledge about policing in post-communist countries in the European Union by studying the police in Lithuania and Hungary. The study is based on the conventional theory about the decentralized and service-oriented Anglo-Saxon and the centralized security-oriented Continental policing traditions and on the theory about the police being protective, repressive, or predatory. The study explains differences in policing considering fundamental contextual constructions within the countries. It is based on written sources, such as laws regarding police work, previous research, and statistics about the level of corruption. The main finding is that in both countries (slightly more in Lithuania) since independence there has been an ambition to become more decentralized and service-oriented (following the Anglo-Saxon tradition). Still, at the same time, there has been a tendency towards centralism (following the continental tradition). This is more visible in times of internal disturbances but also seems connected with a lack of resources.

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  • 19.
    Sadikovic, Mladen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    POLISKULTUR BLAND GRÄNSPOLISER: En kvalitativ studie med deduktiv utgångspunkt2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Police culture is a widely discussed topic in Police Science, yet loosely defined concept. Several studies have been made on the topic, yet there is still a lot a lot of questions to be answered. Police culture has been identified as a composition of several informal and structural elements that form and shape police officers social and behavioral perception, including suspicion, authority, cynicism towards the the department, politics and society, solidarity among police officers, loyalty towards each other, occupational identity and autonomy. This culture is thought to be shared among officers working in the line of duty, creating a strong bond towards each other, making policing a call rather than a job. Could this strong bond of blue also be a wall against the society, making officers lonely? Is police culture the answer on the question what makes a cop, a cop? In this study focus will be on the Swedish Border Police, making the study the first ever made in Swedish context.

                                                                          

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  • 20.
    Sjöberg, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Simulation exercises in police education, why and how? A teacher's perspective2024In: International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2197-8638, E-ISSN 2197-8646, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 460-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: This study is about the teaching method of simulation exercises and is set in a police education context. Simulation exercises are a central part of Swedish police education, and therefore it is of interest to explore how they are used, and for what purpose, by investigating police teachers' perceptions of this teaching and learning method. Police teachers are police officers who work as teachers at a police education unit on contracts lasting a few years, but which can be extended, and they usually lack any formal pedagogical training. 

    Approach: In this study, the exploration of the use of simulation exercises was conducted through an inductive approach which included semi-structured interviews with 12 police teachers. The analysis was carried out in several steps. To promote impartiality in the initial data analysis the researcher first stayed close to the data and connection with the findings of previous studies was only considered in the latter stages of this analytic process. 

    Findings: The findings show that the police teachers perceive that the overall purpose of simulation exercises is for students to apply specific content taught in courses, both physical techniques and methods, and more theoretical knowledge, in the fluid context of scenarios relevant to police work. The results also show that the teachers are aware that the purpose of the exercises is stated in the planning documents, but because they inherit the designs from previous teachers, they may not be aware of the underlying details of it or what is to be achieved in the scenario. The findings also demonstrate that the teachers learn the craft of designing and performing simulation exercises and develop their roles as teachers through an informal workplace learning process that involves tacit knowledge developed through working together, and by talking to and observing each other. 

    Conclusion: The paper contributes to the field of simulation exercises in vocational (higher) education in that the findings can provide educated arguments for the need for scholarly discussions on simulation exercises as a pedagogical tool that supports student learning, as well as arguments for why formal pedagogically-oriented continuing education on the design and implementation of simulation exercises where learning is in the foreground may be needed to support police teachers' professional development. 

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  • 21.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wikström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Inzunza, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Attitudes to the importance of empathy in police work: a student perspective2023In: AEA Europe '23. Assessment reform journeys: Intentions, enactment and evaluation: Book of abstracts, 2023, p. 117-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many educational programmes preparing students for professions where human interaction is central, the development of empathic ability is of importance. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes towards the importance of empathy in police work among police students. The intention was also to investigate if attitudes would change over time during education, and whether gender differences could be observed. A modified version of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy was administered to 355 Swedish police students in a mixed method design, including both between- and within-groups comparisons. Attitudes toward the importance of empathy were measured before and after a practical internship. The result showed that the students in general found empathic ability important, but also that they did not change their attitudes over time .The results were conflicting when it came to gender differences. There was no significant result for the between-group sample, but female students reported significantly higher compared to male students in the between-within group. This research is valuable in the discussion on how “soft skills” such as empathic ability can be assessed and developed in students in preparation for professional practice, and can also be useful in educational evaluation and planning.

  • 22.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work. Institutionen för polisiärt arbete, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Risk- och friskfaktorer i arbetsmiljön för poliser i yttre tjänst2024Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Poliser i yttre tjänst har en avgörande roll i att förebygga, förhindra och upptäcka brottslig verksamhet, samt att bevaka den allmänna ordningen och säkerheten. Detta uppdrag är inte begränsat till en specifik plats utan spänner över hela samhället. Det innebär att hela samhället utgör polisernas arbetsmiljö. Denna arbetsmiljö är dock komplex och involverar risker såsom hot och våld. Det gör att poliser i yttre tjänst löper en särskilt hög risk för övergrepp, vilket kan leda till långvariga fysiska och psykiska påverkningar.

    Poliser ställs inför ökande krav, särskilt med tanke på de samhällsutmaningar som finns idag med exempelvis den grova organiserade brottsligheten. En hög andel poliser överväger att lämna yrket och upplever känslor av otillräcklighet. Det indikerar att det finns utmaningar i arbetsmiljön. Det är därför nödvändigt att få en systematisk översikt över risk- och friskfaktorer på individ-, organisations och samhällsnivå för att utveckla effektiva arbetsmiljöstrategier för en hållbar polisorganisation.

    Forskargruppens uppdrag av Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap är att sammanställa befintlig forskning som genomförts i Sverige och Europa de senaste tio åren gällande arbetsmiljö för poliser i yttre tjänst. Resultatet kan vara ett stöd i den svenska polismyndighetens arbetsmiljöarbete.

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  • 23.
    Svensson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Återanställning av poliser: Tidigare polisers upplevelser av prioriterade förbättringsområden2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine former police employees’ attitudes towards coming back again to the Swedish Police and seek solutions for what can be done to enhance the chances of successful re-employments. To answer these issues, interviews were made with ten former police employees. Themes were extracted with a thematic analysis from the interview answers and four strategic documents in relation to a multisystemic perspective and intersectional theory framework. By the qualitative method, the observations and thematic analysis, results crystallized to an existing resistance towards coming back, due to lack of new individual challenges in the roles offered within the police, structural barriers for personal development, under-utilization of individual skills within the police work context, in addition to confirmation of former assumed experiences of insufficient salary development. Themes for development were: Efficiency, Coherence, Communication, Learning and Appreciation. These areas are examples of where the Swedish Police Authority can add value through development of the management of resources with implementation and future research. The study introduces a new concept named “boomerang police employee” from the existing “boomerang employee” obtained from research in human resources, specifically put in relation to the police work context to help make the police cultural attitudes more open and socially sustainable.

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  • 24.
    Willborg, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    När gamla brott blir digitala: Det polisiära arbetet med digitala bedrägerier2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med denna ökade digitalisering visar statistik från bland annat Brottsförebyggande rådet och polisen att brotten i IT-miljön ökar, i synnerhet bedrägerier. Dessa bedrägerier är ett samhällsproblem och som behöver bekämpas. 

    Denna studie är en dokumentstudie i polisiärt arbete avseende digitala bedrägerier. Den ser på digitala bedrägeribrott utifrån rutinaktivitetsteorins brottstriangel i syfte att klargöra om de centrala begreppen är aktuella som kriminologisk förklaringsmodell i det proaktiva polisiära arbetet med digitala brott.  

    Studien kommer att se på domar i Hovrätten, specifikt digitala bedrägerier mellan 2020 och 2022, för att söka motiven till varför digitala bedrägerier sker. Det verkar som att bristen av kapabla väktare och lämpliga offer på nätet i hög grad utgör grunden för en motiverad gärningsperson att begå bedrägerier på internet. 

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  • 25.
    Åkesson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Mellan mål och verklighet: Utmaningar i polisens brottsförebyggande arbete med fokus på kunskap och prioriteringar2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than ever the topic of crime prevention is of highest significance, therefore requiring an in-depth exploration of how it is practically implemented and understood with in the local Swedish police agencies. This study aims to explore the current methods used and what kind of knowledge framework they rely upon. Adding in the dimension off how police priorities effect crime prevention. Through qualitive interviews with police chiefs in charge of the community police, this study examine how they look on crime prevention, how evidence-based approaches are applied and the challenges in prioritizing crime prevention in the police organization. This study sheds light on how the Swedish police work with preventing crime, the complexity of implementation of new methods and strategies based on knowledge and evidence and how priorities and recourses play a big part in the everyday practices of crime prevention.

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  • 26.
    Åström, Kevin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Ett vakande öga: Övervakningskamerans roll i polisinsatserna vid Skandinaviens dödligaste terrorattentat2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of CCTV, Close Circuit Television, in the police operations during the deadliest terror attacks in Norway; the 2011 Oslo bombing and subsequent Utøya shooting, Denmark; the 2015 Copenhagen Krudttønen Cultural Centre and Synagogue shootings and Sweden; the 2017 Stockholm truck attack. Specifically, this paper aims to explain in what capacity CCTV has contributed to the police operations during the three attacks, as well as to investigate which problems have been noted with CCTV during the police operations. This study has been conducted through a qualitative content analysis to identify the prominent themes in which CCTV have been described in three after-action reports authored by each country’s national police agency. The study finds that the main contribution of CCTV lies in tracking and identifying a moving perpetrator, capturing pictures and film of the perpetrator which can be shared to police personnel as well as the public and as a whole contributing to further investigative measures. The problems with CCTV described in the reports are mainly that privately owned CCTV-cameras can be hard to locate, that CCTV film takes time to secure and analyze and that the quality of the film can vary greatly. In conclusion, the study suggests that the police forces should install more of their own controllable and actively monitored cameras to allow for more actionable use during terror attacks and other incidents. These cameras should be combined with AI software to further enhance the capability of the cameras and their operators. 

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