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  • 1.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 2.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Creating online community: challenges and solutions2018In: Online course management: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications, IGI Global, 2018, p. 368-387Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenges in creating a collaborative environment for online learning are great. This chapter describes some practical examples of community building in online learning contexts and discusses the effects of such activities. It draws its data from six years of online courses in English at Mid Sweden University, where the author was employed from 2003-2009 and worked with development and implementation of their Internet course program.

  • 3.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender stereotypes and the apology in a small state: Uncovering Creole male stereotypes in the Seychelles using digital matched-guise methodology2020In: Small States & Territories Journal, E-ISSN 2616-8006, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research in the Seychelles speaks of a "growing crisis of masculinity", manifested in statistics such as a ten-year life expectancy difference in favour of women, alarmingly high levels of substance abuse amongst younger men, and underachievement of boys in schools. According to the authors, males are generally disempowered by stereotypical views of males as "irresponsible", "unreliable" and "secondary to women". Similar gender patterns have been observed in other ex-slavery Creole cultures such as the small states in the Caribbean, and some scholars argue that these structures have historical origins dating back to slavery. In this study, we seek to explore aspects of Seychellois stereotypes of masculinity through so-called matched-guise experiments. Through digital manipulations of voice quality, we produce identity-warped male and female versions of the same monologue recording – a short apology. We then asked respondents to listen to the recordings and respond to the same in a short online questionnaire, where we ask questions relating to their impressions of the apology and the speaker. Dimensions here include honesty-dishonesty; politenessimpoliteness; weakness-strength; and reliability-unreliability. Differences in results of responses to male and female versions of the apology give strong indications that Seychellois stereotypically view males as dishonest, unreliable, lazy and careless. We discuss potential origins and consequences of such constructions, and propose awareness-raising measures for how these destructive historically produced scripts of gender can be rewritten. 

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  • 4.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Raising language awareness using digital media: methods for revealing linguistic stereotyping2016In: Research methods for creating and curating data in the digital humanities / [ed] Matt Hayler and Gabrielle Griffin, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 158-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether we are aware of it or not, language is at the heart of the mechanisms leading to stereotyping and inequality. It is one of the major factors that we evaluate when we meet others, and it has long been demonstrated that individuals are judged in terms of intellect and other character traits on the basis of their language output (e.g. Cavallaro & Chin 2009). We also adapt our own language to fit underlying norms and preconceived social stereotypes when we communicate with others. In this way, we help to shape individuals through the way we treat them linguistically, and social identity expressed through language is consequently something that is renegotiated during every meeting between humans (Crawford 1995). An awareness of such mechanisms is especially important for teachers.

    In most language courses aimed at student teachers of various levels, students are given a theoretical overview of research on aspects related to identity (gender, ethnicity, social class etc.) and language. But however well intended, there is a real danger that research focussed on identifying differences also strengthens stereotypes. Further, there is a risk that such theoretical knowledge remains just that; creating the link between so-called factual knowledge – for example, theoretical frameworks and previous studies – and internalized knowledge, applicable in our everyday lives, is especially challenging. This is particularly true in the domain of language, where metalinguistic knowledge ideally should be translated into professional language practice, a key skill for anyone working with human interaction.

    The Chapter explores  preliminary experiments conducted in 2011 where we were able to use digital media in order manipulate identity variables such as gender, and describes the aim of the current project - to further develop and explore experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about conceived identity-related phenomena in language, and to systematically test the effects of these methods. The project thereby combines the fields of sociolinguistics, social psychology and digital humanities in an innovative way with the objective to produce tested methods for exposing and combatting linguistic stereotyping. 

  • 5.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Wang, Airong
    Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China.
    Participating on more equal terms?: power, gender, and participation in a virtual world learning scenario2019In: Emerging technologies in virtual learning environments / [ed] Kim Becnel, IGI Global, 2019, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the potential effects of unequal power relations on participation in a group of student teachers and invited professionals in two collaborative workshops in Second Life. The basic research enquiry addresses whether the relative anonymity afforded by virtual world environments has an effect on established power structures, thereby empowering relatively powerless language learners to more active participation than would be the case in more traditional learning set-ups. The data includes recordings, group reflections, and individual questionnaires. Participation was examined from the aspects of floor space, turn length, and utterance functions, and complemented with student reflections. The results show that the differences of floor space and turn length between the invited professionals and the students were small. The invited professionals did more conversational management than the students, while the students performed more supportive speech acts. No major gender differences in participation were found. There was, however, considerable individual variation.

  • 6.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vu, Mai Trang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Computer assisted language learning in language education: an overview of theories, methods, and current practices2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren & Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, 1, p. 43-60Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zelime, Justin
    University of Seychelles.
    “I used to like writing in Kreol but now I only use English”: an exploratory study of language attitudes and examination performance among primary and secondary school pupils in the Seychelles2015In: Island Studies, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a colonial legacy, numerous nations have been struggling to find the role of indigenous languages in officialdom. In many such contexts, the ex-colonial language/s (often English) still represent the path to economic success and prestige, while local vernaculars are low in status and confined to less formal domains. In this respect, Creole languages have traditionally been particularly stigmatised.

    In the following article, we will examine pupils’ (year one to nine) language attitudes towards the three national languages in the Seychelles – the mother tongue Kreol Seselwa, and the two ex-colonial languages English and French – in two schools, and explore how these attitudes compare with the general performance in the national examinations. The results show that pupils in primary school are positive towards Kreol in all four literacy skill domains, and that these positive attitudes are mirrored in the P6 national examinations. In contrast, there is a clear change in attitudes towards writing and reading in Kreol, once pupils enter the secondary level; secondary school pupils do not seem to favour Kreol as a written medium. We are also able to show that the positive attitudes pupils in primary and secondary schools also hold towards English are not reflected in exam results. English together with Mathematics are the two subjects with the lowest national average grades in the P6 examinations. Finally, our results indicate that girls hold more favourable attitudes towards all the key literacy skills in all the languages investigated, and that these attitudes are reflected in the performance in the national examinations; girls outscore boys in all the language subjects and the poor performance of boys, especially in written English, is of concern. We argue that the positive attitudes and results in Kreol in primary school should be built on in order to increase general literacy in all language subjects, and that extending the role of Kreol as an academic subject into secondary levels may help in this pursuit and raise literacy levels as well as the general status of the language. Further the findings have greater implications for language-in-education policies in post-colonial contexts, some of which are discussed below. 

  • 8.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zelime, Justin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Towards a framework for investigating Language-in-education policies in second-language medium of instruction contexts2014In: Island Studies, ISSN 1694-2582, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have shown that Second Language (L2) Medium of Instruction (MoI) policies in Africa are linked to educational inequity, substandard teaching practice, low literacy skills and poor overall academic performance. In the light of this background, this paper proposes a framework for making more thorough enquiries into questions related to L2 as MoI, L2 writing and academic success. The framework uses the Seychelles, a small island nation in the Indian Ocean, as its point of departure. Here the L1, Seychelles Creole, is used as MoI during the first two years of education and is then abruptly replaced by English – a practice model typical in the region. Given that primary six and secondary five national exams indicate that many learners have limited literacy skills in English, it is reasonable to postulate that current policies may contribute to educational inequity, especially given that the present-day system relies heavily on written examinations.

    Taking its vantage point from a Social Practice (Street, 1984) model of literacy (Purcell-Gates, Perry & Briseño, 2011), the proposed framework approaches the “problem” from several perspectives such as curriculum questions related to L2 and L1 literacy and how/whether these live up to practical student needs; the learner perspective and how external factors may affect learners’ prerequisites to acquire adequate L2 literacy skills; teaching aspects that may affect learning; the role of L1 literacy in L2 literacy development, and sociolinguistic factors such as the status of the languages in question in society. An eclectic approach is proposed in order to shed more light on the effects of L2 MoI in the Seychelles, with the ultimate aim to provide a more informed foundation for future educational policy making. The proposed framework is highly relevant for all post-colonial contexts where L2s are used as MoIs.

  • 9.
    Ivanov, Sergej
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Enever, Janet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Researching language-in-education policies: evidence from the Seychelles, Russia and the European Union2015In: Språkdidaktik: researching language teaching and learning / [ed] Eva Lindgren and Janet Enever, Umeå: Department of Language Studies, Umeå University , 2015, p. 85-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    “Oh It Was a Woman! Had I Known I Would Have Reacted Otherwise!”: Developing Digital Methods to Switch Identity-Related Properties in Order to Reveal Linguistic Stereotyping2019In: Virtual Sites as Learning Spaces: Critical Issues on Languaging Research in Changing Eduscapes / [ed] Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Giulia Messina Dahlberg, Ylva Lindberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 207-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the methodological processes involved in the project Raising Awareness using Virtual Experiencing (RAVE), funded by the Swedish Research council. The aim of the project is to develop experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about stereotyping and language. A key feature of the method consists of updated matched-guise techniques, whereby the same recording is digitally manipulated to alter the voice quality of a speaker to sound “male” or “female”, for example. These versions of the recording are then used as input stimuli for a response phase aimed at illustrating how we as listeners react differently to a person, and what is being said, depending on the perceived identity of the speaker. This chapter then illustrates how results are used as a starting point for discussions with respondents (student groups) on issues related to stereotyping and language, with the aim to raise awareness and self-reflection.

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  • 11.
    Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.(Soris).
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.(Soris).
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Strömberg, Satish
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    "That’s not Proper English!": Using Cross-cultural Matched-guise Experiments to Raise Teacher/Teacher-trainees' Awareness of Attitudes Surrounding Inner and Outer Circle English Accents2020In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, Vol. 3, p. 109-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a structural perspective, some English accents (be they native or foreign) carry higher status than others, which in turn may decide whether you get a job or not, for example. So how do language teachers approach this enigma, and how does this approach differ depending on the cultural context you are operating in? These are some of the questions addressed in this article. The study is based on a matched-guise experiment conducted in Sweden and the Seychelles, a small island nation outside the east coast of Africa, where respondents (active teachers and teacher trainees) were asked to evaluate the same oral presentations on various criteria such as grammar, pronunciation, structure etc. Half of the respondents listened to a version that was presented in Received Pronunciation (RP), while the other half evaluated the same monologue presented by the same person, but in an Indian English (IE) accent. Note, that careful attention was paid to aspects such as pacing, pauses etc. using ‘Karaoke technique”. Our results indicate that the responses from the two respondent groups differ significantly, with the Seychelles group being far more negative towards IE than the Swedish group. We try to explain these results in the light of subsequent debriefing discussions with the respondent groups, and we also reflect over the benefits and drawbacks of this type of exercise for raising sociolinguistic awareness among teacher trainees and active teachers. The study is part of a larger project (funded by the Wallenberg foundation) that approaches the challenge of increasing sociolinguistic awareness regarding language and stereotyping, and highlighting cross-cultural aspects of this phenomenon.

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  • 12.
    Zelime, justin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Conflicting ideologies: When the ideological Meets the Perceived and Operational: A Study of primary teachers' attitudes, perceptions and practice of Seychelles Creole (Kreol Seselwa) and English as mediums of instruction in the Seychelles Primary Schools2018In: Norsk og internasjonal lærerutdanningsforskning: Hvor er vi? Hvor vil vi gå? Hva skal vi gjøre nå? / [ed] Kari Smith, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget, 2018, p. 129-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on Zelime & Deutschmann, 2016, where we examined language ideologies/directives in the Ideological and Formal domains of the curriculum in a multilingual postcolonial context – the Seychelles. Our overall conclusion from this work was that there was a clear mismatch between the roles that different languages were ascribed in these two domains. In this paper we look at manifestations of the Ideological and Formal curricula in the Perceived and Operational domains of the curriculum, more specifically, the language beliefs, attitudes and classroom practices of primary school teachers. We base our findings on questionnaire answers from 142 respondents in 22 primary schools, coupled with classroom observations and teacher interviews. The Seychelles has a fairly typical postcolonial language-in-education system and follows a transitional model of medium of instruction (hereafter MoI). In this system children are taught in Kreol Seselwa (hereafter K.S.), the mother tongue of the vast majority, during the first two years of schooling after which it is replaced by English. Officially, K.S. retains its role as a “support language”, but in reality, controversies surround this practice. Our results indicate that while K.S. plays a central role in the everyday lives of the teachers, they are surprisingly negative to its role in education. The majority want to see it removed altogether and replaced by an English-only model. At the same time most teachers also acknowledge the importance of K.S. as a support language. Using a framework of postcolonial theory, we try to explain this inconsistency.

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