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  • 1.
    Frykholm, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Simonsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Levik Sandström, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention. Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Applicability of a supramaximal high-intensity interval training program for older adults previously not engaged in regular exercise: analyses of secondary outcomes from the Umeå HIT Study2024In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 73, article id 102647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis of secondary outcomes investigated the applicability of supramaximal high-intensity interval training (HIT) with individually prescribed external intensity performed on stationary bicycles. Sixty-eight participants with a median (min; max) age of 69 (66; 79), at the time not engaged in regular exercise were randomized to 25 twice-weekly sessions of supramaximal HIT (20-min session with 10 × 6-s intervals) or moderate-intensity training (MIT, 40-min session with 3 × 8-min intervals). The primary aim was outcomes on applicability regarding; adherence to prescribed external interval intensity, participant reported positive and negative events, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE 6–20), and affective state (Feeling Scale, FS -5–5). A secondary aim was to investigate change in exercise-related self-efficacy (Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale) and motivation (Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2). Total adherence to the prescribed external interval intensity was [median (min; max)] 89 % (56; 100 %) in supramaximal HIT, and 100 % (95; 100 %) in MIT. The supramaximal HIT group reported 60 % of the positive (112 of 186) and 36 % of the negative (52 of 146) events. At the end of the training period, the median (min; max) session RPE was 15 (12; 17) for supramaximal HIT and 14 (9; 15) for MIT. As for FS, the median last within-session rating was 3 (−1; 5) for supramaximal HIT and 3 (1; 5) for MIT. Exercise-related motivation increased (mean difference in Relative Autonomy Index score = 1.54, 95 % CI [0.69; 2.40]), while self-efficacy did not change (mean difference = 0.55, 95 % CI [-0.75; 1.82]), regardless of group. This study provide support for supramaximal HIT in supervised group settings for older adults.

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  • 2.
    Simonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonasson Stiernman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dopamine d2/3-receptor availability and its association with autonomous motivation to exercise in older adults: an exploratory [11c]-raclopride study2022In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 16, article id 997131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autonomous motivation to exercise occurs when the activity is voluntary and with a perceived inherent satisfaction from the activity itself. It has been suggested that autonomous motivation is related to striatal dopamine D2/3-receptor (D2/3R) availability within the brain. In this study, we hypothesized that D2/3R availability in three striatal regions (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) would be positively associated with self-reported autonomous motivation to exercise. We also examined this relationship with additional exploratory analyses across a set of a priori extrastriatal regions of interest (ROI).

    Methods: Our sample comprised 49 older adults (28 females) between 64 and 78 years of age. The D2/3R availability was quantified from positron emission tomography using the non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]-raclopride ligand. The exercise-related autonomous motivation was assessed with the Swedish version of the Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2.

    Results: No significant associations were observed between self-reported autonomous motivation to exercise and D2/3R availability within the striatum (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen) using semi-partial correlations controlling for ROI volume on D2/3R availability. For exploratory analyses, positive associations were observed for the superior (r = 0.289, p = 0.023) and middle frontal gyrus (r = 0.330, p = 0.011), but not for the inferior frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or anterior insular cortex.

    Conclusion: This study could not confirm the suggested link between striatal D2/3R availability and subjective autonomous motivation to exercise among older adults. The exploratory findings, however, propose that frontal brain regions may be involved in the intrinsic regulation of exercise-related behaviors, though this has to be confirmed by future studies using a more suitable ligand and objective measures of physical activity levels.

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  • 3.
    Simonsson, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Levik Sandström, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Effects of controlled supramaximal high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness and global cognitive function in older adults: the Umeå hit study-a randomized controlled trial2023In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 78, no 9, p. 1581-1590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of regulated and controlled supramaximal high-intensity interval training (HIT) adapted for older adults, compared to moderate-intensity training (MIT), on cardiorespiratory fitness; cognitive, cardiovascular, and muscular function; and quality of life.

    METHODS: Sixty-eight nonexercising older adults (66-79 years, 44% males) were randomized to 3 months of twice-weekly HIT (20-minute session including 10 × 6-second intervals) or MIT (40-minute session including 3 × 8-minute intervals) on stationary bicycles in an ordinary gym setting. Individualized target intensity was watt controlled with a standardized pedaling cadence and individual adjustment of the resistance load. Primary outcomes were cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o2peak) and global cognitive function (unit-weighted composite).

    RESULTS: V̇o2peak increased significantly (mean 1.38 mL/kg/min, 95% CI [0.77, 1.98]), with no between-group difference (mean difference 0.05 [-1.17, 1.25]). Global cognition did not improve (0.02 [-0.05, 0.09]), nor differed between groups (0.11 [-0.03, 0.24]). Significant between-group differences in change were observed for working memory (0.32 [0.01, 0.64]), and maximal isometric knee extensor muscle strength (0.07 N·m/kg [0.003, 0.137]), both in favor of HIT. Irrespective of the group, there was a negative change in episodic memory (-0.15 [-0.28, -0.02]), a positive change in visuospatial ability (0.26 [0.08, 0.44]), and a decrease in systolic (-2.09 mmHg [-3.54, -0.64]) and diastolic (-1.27 mmHg [-2.31, -0.25]) blood pressure.

    CONCLUSIONS: In nonexercising older adults, 3 months of watt-controlled supramaximal HIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular function to a similar extent as MIT, despite half the training time. In favor of HIT, there was an improvement in muscular function and a potential domain-specific effect on working memory.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03765385.

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