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  • 1.
    Barry, Daved
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Caccamo, Marta
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ots, Mart
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Alterities and Innovation: Conjectures from Haute Cuisine2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial activity as a source of meaning in life2021Ingår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, we ask why and how some women start or grow a business after initiating divorce, while others will not. Grounded on an in-depth study of 24 women who experienced divorce in a patriarchal society, we develop a framework that identifies two pathways. The first pathway is followed by those women who felt trapped in their marriage and engaged in entrepreneurial activities as part of an overall process of self-discovery and self-development that enabled them to search for and find new sources of meanings, while the second pathway is followed by those women who felt discontent with their marriage, remarried but did not engage in entrepreneurship. Our emergent theoretical framework explains the importance of entrepreneurship to attain eudaimonic well-being following an adversity, thereby expanding the scope of entrepreneurship research.

  • 3.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    From entrapment to enraptured: Eudaimonic well-being through entrepreneurial activityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    I can do more than a man! The legitimacy route of female-led family ventures in Bahrain2019Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2019: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Babson College Entrepreneurship Research Conference (BCERC), Wellesley, MA: Babson College , 2019, s. 385-390Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bahrain, like the rest of the Gulf States, is characterized as a patriarchal society that has witnessed an increase of female-led family ventures that is new firms founded by a woman and involving other family members. Our study focuses on how these ventures build legitimacy, which is an essential element of their survival and growth. Drawing on the literature on legitimacy as a perception, we analyze longitudinal data gathered from life-story interviews with the owners of three female-ledf amily ventures in Bahrain as well as the ventures’ social media feeds and conversations and media archives. Our emerging model describes legitimacy formation of female-led family ventures as amulti-level, two-way social process which starts at the individual level and involves interactionswith other actors including family members - to gain what we have identified as market and royalvalidity. 

  • 5.
    Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership - CeFEO, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership - CeFEO, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Centre for Family Entrepreneurship and Ownership - CeFEO, Jönköping, Sweden.
    “The royal award goes to…”: Legitimacy processes for female-led family ventures2021Ingår i: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikel-id 100358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A notable phenomenon in the Gulf States, and in Bahrain in particular, is the increasing number of female-led family ventures. This phenomenon is surprising because women are reported to face many legitimacy challenges when establishing a family business in an Arab society, in which social and economic decisions are male-dominated. Thus, we explore how female-led family ventures gain legitimacy in an Arab society. We employ a multiple case-study approach to investigate three longitudinal cases. We develop a process model of legitimacy formation for female-led family ventures. The legitimacy formation consists of three main phases: individual legitimacy, market validity and royal validity. Our model suggests that meritocracy carves out and informs most decisions and activities throughout the phases of the legitimacy formation. Additionally, we identify four different interconnecting forces (family/business spillover, large voices, bargaining power and influence on family norms) that, if present, accelerate the legitimacy formation. Our analysis also suggests that there are interactions and reciprocal relationships among the founders and the people with whom they interact that can both influence and be influenced by the process of legitimacy formation.

  • 6. Hashim, Sumaya
    et al.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Towards the good life: entrepreneurship following divorce2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Jenkins, Anna S.
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The changing role of different learning methods during the entrepreneurship process: A conceptual framework2008Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research: Proceedings of the Twenty-Eight Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference / [ed] Andrew Zacharakis et al., Babson College , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet
    et al.
    Norland Research Institute, Norway.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth, IHH, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mynttinen, Sinikka
    Aalto University School of Economics, Small Business Centre, Finland.
    Samuelsen, Roar
    Norland Research Institute, Norway.
    Sæmundsson, Rögnvaldur
    Department of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Virtanen, Markku
    Aalto University School of Economics, Small Business Centre, Finland.
    Wiklund, Johan
    ESOL (Entrepreneurship, Strategy, Organization, Leadership), IHH, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    EXPLORE – EXPeriencing LOcal food REsources in the Nordic countries2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The food, experience and tourism industries have increasingly become more important as stimulus for growth and development in the economies of rural regions. High quality restaurants and food experiences are well recognized as important for tourists. Increasingly, as leading restaurants serve local products, focusing their menus on regional specialities, they need to access locally produced food of excellent quality. The report present case studies of 11 rural high quality restaurants in Finland, Iceland, Sweden and Norway. Rural high quality restaurants contribute to the upgrading of local food and experience production systems in terms of product quality and the range of products and services offered. Locally produced food form a competitive advantage for the restaurants. The restaurants contribution to wealth creation is mainly found in their contributions to the cluster of local experience producers. The restaurants in our study are all part of networks and as such they play important role for the regions they are settled in. Many local niche food producers have low or non-existing profit. The restaurants have contributed to them by showing other business model strategies than volume growth: that they can become a part of the experience industry and are able to build in profit in their produce this way. The policy should not only encourage restaurant and food producers to co-operate but to regard the whole experience production chain (galleries, shops etc). Measures assuring more training for the suppliers or more cooperation in networks between suppliers and restaurants could lead to improvement and more consistent quality of the supplies. 

  • 9.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet
    et al.
    Norland Research Institute, Norway.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mynttinen, Sinikka
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Samuelsen, Roar
    Norland Research Institute, Norway.
    Sæmundsson, Rögnvaldur
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Virtanen, Markku
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lokal mat i Norden: Resultat från forskningsprojektet ”Exploring Local Food Resources in the Nordic Countries”2010Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta forskningsprojekt har undersökt betydelsen av högklassiga restauranger för landsbygdsutveckling. Näringslivet på den nordiska landsbygden präglas i växande grad av livsmedelsproduktion, rekreationsindustri och turism. Förekomsten av högklassiga restauranger och möjligheten att få en matupplevelse kopplat till besök av en viss platsär en viktig faktor för utvecklingen av turism utanför storstadsregionerna. En viktig del av en sådan matupplevelse är just dess koppling till en specifik plats med sina lokala specialiteter. Av den anledningen får det lokala och regionala köket ett allt större utrymme på gourmetrestaurangernas menyer och tillgången till lokala råvaror och småskaligt förädlade livsmedel blir i detta sammanhang en kritisk punkt för många restauranger.

    Denna rapport presenterar resultaten från fallstudier av 11 högklassiga restauranger som återfinns på den nordiska landsbygden i Sverige, Finland, Norge och Island. Studien fokuserar på följande frågor:

    • Hur kan högklassiga restauranger på landsbygden bidra till den lokalautvecklingen?

    • Hur bör värdekedjan mellan producenter och konsumenter av högkvalitativ lokalmat förvaltas och hur kan lokala nischprodukter komma till bättre användning idetta värdeskapande?

    • Hur kan nya affärsmodeller inom turism- och upplevelseindustrin, som bygger på lokalt mathantverk, utvecklas?

    Resultaten från fallstudierna i den nordiska länderna visar att högklassiga restauranger på landsbygden bidrar till att utveckla både produktutbudet och produktkvaliteten inom lokala mat- och turistnäringar. Lokalproducerade råvaror av hög kvalitet ger konkurrenskraft till högklassiga restauranger utanför storstadsområdena, vilka i sin turbidrar till att utveckla lokala kluster av olika upplevelsearrangörer. Restauranger är ofta nyckelaktörer i lokala nätverk av producenter inom både livsmedelssektorn och upplevelseindustrin och spelar därför en central roll i att förmedla lokal kultur lokala mattraditioner. Dessa restauranger har också en stor betydelse för värdeskapandet i det lokala mathantverket, dels genom att aktivt bidra till kvalitetshöjande åtgärder  i produktionen, dels genom att utveckla platsbundna produktattribut som kunder har högbetalningsvilja för.

    Dessa frågor är av stor relevans för utformandet av politik för att genomföra visionen om Sverige – det nya matlandet i Europa, vilken lanserades av regeringen hösten 2008. Detta är en vision om en livskraftig landsbygd med växande företag och fler jobb genom god mat och upplevelser. Målsättningen med denna politiska satsning är att fram till år 2020 så ska bl.a. antalet livsmedelsföretag öka med 20 procent, exporten avlivsmedel fördubblas och turism kopplat till mat och måltid ska ge en fördubbling av antalet övernattningar på landsbygden. Resultaten från forskningsprojektet om lokal mat i de nordiska länderna visar att förekomsten av högklassiga restauranger i landsbygdsregionerna är kan vara en viktig förutsättning för att nå dessa mål. Politiken bör därför både inriktas på att utveckla lokalt mathantverk och på att skapa samarbeten mellan olika aktörer inom livsmedels- och upplevelseindustrin. 

  • 10.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Winemakers as storytellers: The role of storying in the transformation of a regional identity2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    et al.
    Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Equador.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Izquierdo, Edgar
    Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Equador.
    Caicedo, Guido
    Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Equador.
    Lasio, Virginia
    Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Equador.
    Value creation in mid-range emerging economies: Exploring SMEs strategies2014Ingår i: 2014 Annual Conference Proceedings, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging markets represent the new source of economic development. Yet, most innovation management research has centered only on newly developed economies such as Brazil, Chile. This manuscript focuses on exploring innovation activities on mid-range emerging markets i.e. Ecuador, Colombia. These types of markets are particularly relevant as have quickly moved from traditional emerging economies but are not considered yet newly developed economies. This paper focuses on the value creation activities at SMEs in the Ecuadorian market. Ecuador is categorized as a mid-range emerging economy as it has a high institutional development but a low infrastructure and market development. The findings of our paper reveal SMEs in mid-range emerging economies design strategies to create value for customers from emerged markets, use alliances to access the necessary material e.g. natural resources, products. Our study contributed to the growing literature on emerging markets and disentangles various strategies use by SMEs to succeed in developed economies.

  • 12.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    An entrepreneurial career as a response to the need for challenge: the case of gourmet chefs2018Ingår i: Seeking challenge in the career / [ed] S. Gayle Baugh; Sherry. E. Sullivan, Charlotte: Information Age Publishing, 2018, s. 49-76Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Chef de cuisine or cuisine de chef? Experiencing multiple social identities in entrepreneurial processes2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Cookbook or improvisational cooking: How and from whom to learn what is essential during entrepreneurship process? A case of rural gourmet restaurant.2009Ingår i: 6th AGSE International Entrepreneurship Research: Exchange Proceedings Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2009 / [ed] L. Murray Gillin, Melbourne: University of Adelaide , 2009, s. 1039-1052Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs are often influenced in their decision making by social context (Taylor & Thorpe,2004). Aiming to be successful, they need to learn how to act proactively in order to bring the product or service to market, how to close deals with suppliers and how to interact with potential customers (Bhave, 1994; Davidsson, 2004). This requires presence of a wide array of skills and knowledge andthus, aware of own deficiencies, entrepreneurs actively use social networks to learn from them. This article suggests that entrepreneurs are more likely to search inspiration and learn from their professional networks, where the cognitive distance is small.

  • 15.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial competence development: triggers, processes & consequences2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation, comprised of the cover story and the four separate but interrelated articles, focuses on exploring the development of entrepreneurial competence. Building on the assumption that purposeful engagement in entrepreneurial action potentially leads to the acquisition of specific entrepreneurial competencies, this thesis investigates the mechanisms facilitating and enabling entrepreneurs’ acquisition of entrepreneurial expertise, and the consequences of this process. As such, it unpacks the entrepreneurial learning process. In particular, building on Bandura’s (1986) social  cognitive theory (SCT), this study explores the role of deeply held beliefs, goal orientation and social networks (role models) in shaping entrepreneurs’ behavior, specifically their ability to create new means-ends frameworks (cf. Sarasvathy, 2001).

    The research included in this dissertation provides insight into the complexity of entrepreneurial competence development by connecting multiple theoretical perspectives, utilizing two different qualitative datasets situated in the context of gourmet restaurateurs and abductively building theory by developing explanations of the phenomenon of interest.

    This is one of the first attempts to open the ‘black box’ of entrepreneurial learning by simultaneously incorporating the contextual variables and the cognitive properties and practices of entrepreneurs in exploring their learning process. By combining SCT with entrepreneurship theory, the thesis develops an integrating model of entrepreneurial competence development that explains the relation between the preferred learning mode, action-control beliefs, the perceived role identity and role models. The findings suggest that attainment of entrepreneurial competence, and ultimately expertise, is facilitated by changes in action-control beliefs; and by the development of entrepreneurial identity. The findings also suggest that the role model’s perceived function changes depending on the entrepreneur’s goal orientation. Thus, one of the most important implications of the study is the idea that entrepreneurs need to become agents of their own development.

    Overall, this dissertation provides an explanation of the mechanisms of entrepreneurial competence development by suggesting that changing action-control beliefs and the formation of entrepreneurial identity are crucial in the development of entrepreneurial competence. In addition, access to role models and learning goal orientation facilitate this process.

  • 16.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Learning from networks: what to learn and from whom during the entrepreneurial process2010Ingår i: Social capital and developmental trends in rural areas / [ed] Hans Westlund; Kiyoshi Kobayashi, Jönköping: Research Unit for Rural Entrepreneurship and Growth (RUREG); Jönköping International Business School , 2010, s. 27-39Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded in social context entrepreneurs seldom act alone (Granovetter, 1985). Exploiting opportunities requires entrepreneurs to act proactively bringing the product or service to market, closing deals with suppliers, interacting with potential customers and doing first sales (Davidsson, 2005; Bhave, 1994). This necessitates presence of different skills, wide array of knowledge and thus, aware of own deficiencies, entrepreneurs actively use their social networks, sometimes relying on their strong ties, sometimes favouring weak ties. This article suggests that not only spatial and relational distance but also cognitive distance between the ties will influence entrepreneur’s decision to whom and for what kind of help to turn when developing the business.

  • 17.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Jönköping, Sweden.
    Motherhood as a springboard for women's entrepreneurial action2018Ingår i: A research agenda for women and entrepreneurship: identity through aspirations, behaviors and confidence / [ed] Patricia G. Greene; Candida G. Brush, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, s. 187-206Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mumpreneurship: Does motherhood influence women’s entrepreneurial self-efficacy?2016Ingår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of entrepreneurial self-efficacy for entrepreneurial action is well established. Extant research asserts that motivation of female entrepreneurs differs from male entrepreneurs, women are less confident than men, and, they show lower willingness to start a business. Despite these findings, the number of women entrepreneurs in general and mumpreneurs in particular is raising worldwide. To understand the phenomenon better, I explore two research questions: 1) why are women particularly prone to become entrepreneurs after becoming mothers? and 2) can motherhood be considered a springboard for women’s entrepreneurial action? To address these questions, I build on Bandura’s social learning theory and its assertion that mastery experience provides the strongest stimulus for action; and theorize that giving birth and raising a child will have a positive effect on woman’s confidence in general and entrepreneurial self-efficacy in particular. More specifically, by analyzing the type of skills and abilities that are required from parents when raising children, the type of problems encountered, and the type of experiences parents go through in this process, this paper illustrates their similarity to the entrepreneurship context. Consequently, this paper argues that motherhood can act as a springboard for women’s confidence to start and run a new venture. As such, there are two important implications of the argument developed. First, motherhood is a source of rich experiences and skills. Second, women entrepreneurs are not a homogeneous group and for policy makers to provide effective policy tools for the respective subgroups further clustering is required.

  • 19.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Narrating entrepreneurial identities of gourmet chefs2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of identity is of central importance to understanding how individuals make sense of their lives and how they enact environment to be able to achieve their goals. One of the basic assumptions underlying the extant research is the stability of the motives over time. Yet, life goals and motivations driving human action can change over time, and this has an impact on identity construction. Consequently, this study explores how entrepreneurs narrate these changes when constructing their entrepreneurial identities. We analyze the narratives of seven celebrity restaurateurs by examining how they construct and tell their stories over time. We identify three different types of narratives that are being used to explain the initial career decision: dream follower; serendipitous craftsman and forced opportunist. Interestingly, these narratives do not translate into three narratives of entrepreneurial identity.We add to current research on identity, illustrating how identity narratives change over time, moving from a focus on belonging to a focus on satisfying the need for distinctiveness. We suggest that there is a link between role identity and the need for belonging as well as between social identity and the need for uniqueness. More specifically, we found that while the early narratives focused on the role identity, establishing oneself as a chef, the later narratives are richer in elements of social identity, presenting more of a whole person rather than a person in role. Finally, we identify how achievement motivation influences the emphasis on either the need for belonging or need for distinctiveness.  

  • 20.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Omvandlingen från småbarnsmamma till företagare: utformningen av välfärdssystem har konsekvenser för social stratifiering och för kvinnors livsbanor2023Ingår i: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, E-ISSN 2002-0287, nr 1, s. 42-45Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Opportunity development process: linking level of uncertainty with dominant sources of learning behaviour2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    ESADE Business School, Spain.
    'The apple doesn't fall far from the tree': the entrepreneurial university as nurturer of entrepreneurial values2014Ingår i: Handbook on the Entrepreneurial University / [ed] Allan Fayolle; Dana T. Redford, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, s. 209-224Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The Essence of Entrepreneurial Learning2010Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurshop Conference: Proceedings 2010, Babson College , 2010, artikel-id 11Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic: Learning is often assumed to be inherent in the entrepreneurship process (Corbett, 2005). Sarasvathy (2001) argued that entrepreneurs are entrepreneurial because they act effectually. Entrepreneurial learning can thus be conceptualized as development of effectual logic. Entrepreneurs use both causation and effectuation logic; however, expert entrepreneurs are more likely to act effectually and/or adapt their dominant logic to the nature  of the task while novice entrepreneurs use predominantly causal  logic (Sarasvathy, 1998; Gustavsson, 2004). Perceived control motivates individuals to engage in action.

    Individuals often reason from their identity to explain their behavior and in that sense the social identity offers a linkage between their identity and their action. In particular, it has been argued that individual exhibit either professional or managerial identity. How these preferences influence the self-regulatory processes and the prevailing logic has not been researched in entrepreneurship process so far. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework illustrating the factors determining the process of development of effectual logic.

    Method: This paper adopts agency perspective and social identity theory to develop a framework for understanding the development of effectual logic. Agency builds the fundamental element of personal control (Bandura, 2001), while social identity is defined and bounded by membership in social groups (Tajfel, 1974). Thus, by focusing  on both  the  individual elements inherent in the self-regulatory mechanism as well as on the social aspects and expectations of the chosen role a better understanding of the development process is created.

    Results/Implications: By drawing specific attention to both the role perceived control and social role identity  I illustrate their importance to the entrepreneurship process and to individuals who manage this process. Insofar, the paper contributes to the entrepreneurship by extending understanding of effectual logic; as well as contributes to more contextualized view of learning process through linking both the individual and social facets. A new definition is proposed.

  • 24.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The role of action-control beliefs in developing entrepreneurial decision-making expertise2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The role of action-control beliefs in developing entrepreneurial expertise2018Ingår i: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 222-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to theorize on the mechanisms underlying the development of entrepreneurial expertise. While prior studies have identified differences between the behavior of novice and expert entrepreneurs, the mechanisms that cause these differences have not received sufficient attention.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper systematically reviews the extant literature on entrepreneurial expertise and builds the conceptual framework by employing an action-control belief framework to propose mechanisms underlying the development of expert behavior.

    Findings

    This paper argues that differences in behavior between novice and expert entrepreneurs stem from self-perceptions of their ability to act. More specifically, stronger action-control beliefs encourage entrepreneurs to create new interpretations of the world over time; develop and use strategies that allow them to rely on perceived control over means and ends, their perceived capacity, and their agency; and hence behave more like experts.

    Practical implications

    This paper suggests that strategy, capacity, and control beliefs are key in individuals’ decisions of whether to engage in entrepreneurial action and that expert entrepreneurs hold stronger beliefs than novices. Positive experiences, particularly those associated with deliberate practice, contribute to developing these beliefs and, more broadly, to entrepreneurial expertise.

    Originality/value

    This paper proposes that the mechanism of transformation from novice to expert behavior can be attributed to positive changes in deeply held beliefs about strategy (i.e. possible means-ends frameworks), capacity (i.e. access to means), and control (i.e. perceived efficacy). Each of the beliefs can develop separately from others and at different pace. In other words, this work explains why novice and expert entrepreneurs behave differently.

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  • 26.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Abebe, Tigist Tesfaye
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    You are well-educated, so why do you want to start a venture? Cultural norms of women's entrepreneurship in Ethiopia2021Ingår i: Women’s entrepreneurship and culture: socio-cultural context, traditional family roles and self-determination / [ed] Ulrike Guelich; Amanda Bullough; Tatiana S. Manolova; Leon Schjoedt, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2021, s. 88-108Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although women entrepreneurs are particularly important in developing country and emerging economy contexts, their activities often are culturally constrained. Many of the constraints imposed are gender-based, that is, they are grounded in social norms and values that see women as subordinate to men and frequently result in women’s limited autonomy and lower access to education and other support mechanisms. To understand the cultural constraints that reduce the attractiveness of entrepreneurship as a career for women, we studied the cases of five educated Ethiopian women entrepreneurs. We identified three constraints: (1) ostracism by family and society for becoming an entrepreneur rather than finding a job; (2) objection to the type of business; and (3) censure for prioritizing business over the role of mother. By providing evidence that legitimization of entrepreneurship as a career is a contextualized process, we contribute to work on entrepreneurship generally and women’s entrepreneurship in particular.

  • 27.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Fix the structures, not the women: the case for norm critical entrepreneurship education2023Ingår i: The age of entrepreneurship education research: evolution and future / [ed] Andrew C. Corbett; Louis D. Marino; Gry A. Alsos, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023, s. 51-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors argue that entrepreneurship education (EE) as currently conceived, does little to eradicate gender inequality – rather, its focus on the individual and its neglect of structural impediments and measures tend to reinforce this inequality. The authors discuss why this happens and suggest ways forward. The authors believe the most positive action would be to employ legislation and public policy to change gendered structures and practices which would lead to changes in gendered norms. However, the relationship between norms and structures is mutual. Structural change can only be achieved if existing norms are questioned and this should be the first step toward changing discriminatory structures. The authors argue that in this context EE must include norm critical education. The authors provide some practical examples related to the context of EE.

  • 28.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    How mothers narrate their entrepreneurial endeavours? The case of Swedish mumpreneurs2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mumpreneurship understood as an entrepreneurial activity by women who are mothers is a growing phenomenon worldwide, yet its rise in Sweden is counterintuitive. To understand the circumstances of the participation of mothers in entrepreneurial activities, we use Career Kaleidoscope Model and adopt the narrative perspective and analyze 15 life-stories of Swedish mumpreneurs. Our data show that Swedish mumpreneurs frame their decision to enter entrepreneurship as a choice. The narratives portray them as agents – entrepreneurship results from a reevaluation of one’s own preferences, rather than an adaptation to the role of a mother. Because of the Swedish social welfare system mothers are not pushed into entrepreneurship, yet its design is consequential for their choice to enter into entrepreneurship.

  • 29.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Paths to entrepreneurship: Life stories of Swedish mumpreneurs2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    The narratives of choice: Contextualizing mumpreneurship in Sweden2018Ingår i: Frontiers of entrepreneurship research: Proceedings 2018, Babson College , 2018, s. 189-189Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic: Mumpreneurship understood as an entrepreneurial activity by women who are mothers, (Jean &Forbes, 2012) is a growing phenomenon worldwide, yet its rise in Sweden is counterintuitive. In Sweden, entrepreneurship is not the most natural choice for parents with small children, given thatfamily-friendly policies make it much easier for a parent to combine family and paid employmentthan elsewhere (Alsos et al., 2010; Klyver, Nielsen & Evald, 2013).

    Methods: To understand the circumstances of the participation of mothers in entrepreneurial activities, we adopt the context (Welter et al., 2014) and practice (Bourdieau, 1986) lenses and narratively analyze 15 life-stories of Swedish mumpreneurs focusing on how they narrate the decision to become mumpreneur and their choice of business. Our data shows that Swedish mumpreneurs frame their decision to enter entrepreneurship as a choice that is influenced by the opportunity to reflect during maternity leave on their life goals and where they are right now.

    Results and Implications: The narratives portray these women as agents – entrepreneurship is seen as a result of and response to a reevaluation of one’s own preferences, rather than an adaptation to the role ofa mother. Motherhood and the maternity leave act as a trigger in the sense that it breaks the behavior pattern by allowing women to think about what is important in life. It gives an occasion to search for the self and for taking “me time”. We conclude that the Swedish social welfare systemis not pushing women into entrepreneurship; women who enter rather purposefully postpone the decision until their last child. The extant literature’s predominant motive of combining work and family due to lack of alternative solutions does not feature. The design of the welfare system is thus consequential for women’s choice to enter into entrepreneurship

  • 31.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, HLK, Livslångt lärande/Encell.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Timeout: the role of family-friendly policies in business start-up among mothers2023Ingår i: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 1169-1199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores why an increasing number of Swedish mothers are becoming entrepreneurs; this choice appears counterintuitive given the prevailing social welfare system prioritizes the rights of employed women. Using an interpretative stance, we analyzed the life stories of 18 Swedish mothers who created new ventures while caring for young children. The value of the time afforded by parental leave policies was identified as vital to the business creation process. Hence, we argue that time is a critical entrepreneurship-relevant resource; this is illustrated by the positive effect of the Swedish welfare system upon entrepreneurship entry and the timing of this decision.

  • 32.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Naldi, Lucia
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Timeout: the role of social welfare in entrepreneurship among mothers2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of research on women entrepreneurship has been focused on individual-level factors that serve to keep women out of achievement-oriented domains like entrepreneurship or limit their access to resources they need to grow their business (Brush and Jennings, 2013). This is while institutional-level contributors to gender-level inequality have often been overlooked. This is problematic because systematic or institutional factors can have a profound influence on individual-level psychological processes (Konig and Muller, 1986). The purpose of this symposium is to highlight the unrecognized institutional-level factor that influence woman entrepreneurship in either positive or negative ways.

  • 33.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Arenius, Pia
    RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.
    You are what you eat! Identity construction among established and new players in the plant-based food market2020Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2020: Interactive Papers, 2020, s. 171-171Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal Topic: The plant-based food is a new growing phenomenon. The number of successful plant-based businesses is growing around the world (Fox, 2017). The supply of vegan and vegetarian restaurants and the variety of plant-based alternatives in the supermarkets are increasing. Plant-based meat substitutes are said to become the world’s most important future technology (Schmidt, 2016). This unprecedented growth creates new opportunities for both established companies and new entrants.

    Taking external enabler perspective, we explore the who, when and how engages in pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities emerged from this trend in the food industry. More specifically, we focus on the following still remaining questions: Who engages in plant-based innovation and entrepreneurship? Are those businesses different from those traditional food businesses and if so how? What is special about veganism that it triggers individuals to engage in plant-based food innovation and entrepreneurship? How do entrepreneurs construct identities for their businesses and how do they construct convincing stories to attract new customers to their plant-based offering?

    Method: To understand how and why entrepreneurs construct their identities in a particular way, we conduct a longitudinal exploratory study with 10 purposefully sampled entrepreneurs. More specifically, we interview owner-managers of five new and five incumbent firms in the food sector. We perform narrative analysis (McAdams, 2001). By analyzing characters, plot, setting and themes and how they interact we identify the sense-making mechanism that drives entrepreneurs into engagement with innovation and the role of external enablers in this process.

    Results and Implications: Our findings suggest that while the entry of new entrants is driven by their beliefs about veganism and willingness to solve current customer pains, the established players enter as a response to the new trend rather than resulting from understanding who they are and what they stand for. Storying becomes a key process of identity construction and reconstruction. Additionally, we show how existing businesses construct and re-construct their identities to reflect the introduction of a new type of offering. We add to the discussion on industry incumbents and new entrants’ modes of entry into new market categories by showing that the paths differ.

  • 34.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönping, Sweden.
    Berndt, Adele
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Melander, Anders
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Equity (Crowd)funding and wellbeing2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Jönköping University, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Härtel, C.
    The dynamics of wellbeing: life stories of self-employed professionals2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Härtel, Charmine E.J.
    University of Queensland Business School, Australia.
    In search of wellbeing: When is entrepreneurship the answer?2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The decision to become an entrepreneur may be one adaptation strategy individuals enact when they experience low work-related wellbeing. To date we know that the interplay between work-related identification and work-related subjective wellbeing affects individuals work-related choices. However, we possess less knowledge about the nature of this relationship. Extant studies have linked work-related subjective wellbeing (SWB) to identification, yet conceptualization of work-related identification has, like SWB, typically been considered from a static state perspective rather than a dynamic process perspective. Further, researcher imposed definitions have been used rather than seeking individuals self-definitions. Our study seeks to complement existing work by showing that identification is a dynamic process where we explore the relationship between multiple identifications and wellbeing. We empirically investigate the interplaying processes of identification and work-related wellbeing in an in-depth, person-centered, life story approach to the entrepreneurial endeavor. Our sample was purposively selected to include individuals with a strong professional identification while enhancing the variability of challenges faced over time in the entrepreneurial identification process. Our novel sample and life story methodology contribute to illustrating the dynamics of wellbeing over time with a constant identification and dis-identification in moving between aspired and experienced wellbeing; as well as highlighting that wellbeing becomes the antecedent, means and result while entrepreneurship is the believed mechanism to come closer to experienced wellbeing. 

  • 37.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Grichnik, Dietmar
    Institute of Technology Management, University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Brinckmann, Jan
    ESADE Business School, Ramon Llull University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kapsa, Diana
    UBS AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Strategic orientations of nascent entrepreneurs: antecedents of prediction and risk orientation2019Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 859-878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial judgment is crucial for entrepreneurial success. Extant literature argues that prior experience influences entrepreneurial decisions and the identification of attractive decision spaces for entrepreneurial activity is impacted by subjective risk perception and response to this risk. We posit that entrepreneurs develop different preferences for risk and prediction and their decisions reflect these preferences. To understand the strategic orientations of nascent entrepreneurs, using a sample of 262 nascent entrepreneurs, we study the impact of prior experience and the environmental context on the development of two strategic orientations of nascent entrepreneurs: risk orientation, i.e., the extent to which an individual perceives risk as downside loss or an upside opportunity and the prediction orientation, i.e., the extent to which an individual focuses on prediction. In doing so, our study contributes to a better understanding of the strategy formation process among nascent entrepreneurs.

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  • 38.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Härtel, Charmine E.J.
    UQ Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Roan, Amanda
    UQ Business School, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
    A dynamic model of entrepreneurial identification and dis-identification: an emotions perspective2015Ingår i: New ways of studying emotions in organizations / [ed] Charmine E.J. Härtel; Wilfred J. Zerbe; Neal M. Ashkanasy, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, s. 215-239Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite recognition of the centrality of emotions in entrepreneurship, little attention has been given to role of emotions in the development of entrepreneurial identity or enactment of entrepreneurial role. The contribution of the chapter is in the development of a dynamic model of the process leading to identification or dis-identification as an entrepreneur. In this chapter, we develop a dynamic model of the process leading to identification or dis-identification as an entrepreneur. We theorize that the driver behind an individual’s decision to become an entrepreneur, and their significant emotional experiences in the entrepreneurial role, influence the likelihood of following an identification or dis-identification cycle. Specifically, our framework proposes that positive emotions strengthen approach motivation and identification with the role, while negative ones foster avoidance motivation and dis-identification. We argue that contextual embeddedness can prompt transition between these two cycles. Our theorization provides new insights into methods of analyzing the role of emotions in the entrepreneurial process, more specifically in the process of entrepreneurial identity crafting. These insights also can be translated into studying the crafting of any professional identity.

  • 39.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden; Centre for Family Enterprise and Ownership at JIBS, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Entrepreneurial storying: Winepreneurs as crafters of regional identity stories2018Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 282-297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and entrepreneurship are intertwined. In some contexts, the ability to craft a compelling regional identity story may become crucial for enacting entrepreneurial action. Building on an in-depth case study of the recent revival of a Spanish wine region, we analyze the interaction between regional context (i.e. regional identity) and entrepreneurial behavior. We find that to facilitate the creation of conducive conditions for entrepreneurial action, entrepreneurs craft regional identity stories. We show that stories both reflect and possess agency and propose that storying is a process of constructing new identity stories. Specifically, we identify three different types of narratives and observe that the local winepreneurs actively engage in storying—that is, contextualizing the story to their needs.

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  • 40.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    ESADE Business School, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wine makers as cultural entrepreneurs: The tensions in crafting collective identity stories2013Ingår i: Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to craft a compelling collective identity story is central for value creation and appropriation in developing regions. In this process entrepreneurs often experience tensions between their individual and cultural values. Yet, extant literature has not scrutinized the impact of these tensions on entrepreneurial value creation. Building on an in-depth case study of five pioneers who drove the revival of a Spanish wine region, we propose a model that identifies the triggers to emergence of collective identity story and the tensions experienced in this process. We then discuss how the triggers influence the content of the story. Specifically, we suggest that early on entrepreneurs are likely to suppress their own individual values to create feeling of belonging and legitimacy, but with time their individual values begin to shape the content of the story by shifting emphasis to distinctiveness and their entrepreneurial agency.

  • 41.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sæmundsson, Rögnvaldur
    Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Contextualising business model development in Nordic gourmet restaurants2011Ingår i: The handbook of research on entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural development / [ed] Gry Agnete Alsos, Sara Carter; Elisabet Ljunggren; Friederike Welter, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, s. 162-179Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural gourmet restaurants are becoming a vital part of regional development. The growing interest in high quality regional food, and the changing perception of values inherent in food, created possibilities for many enterprising individuals. Through an in-depth case study of four Nordic rural gourmet restaurants, we explore the role of context in the process of business model development. By analyzing the changes in the business model, we find that the development of the business reflects the interaction with the environment. In particular, that the more professionally embedded entrepreneurs are more active in searching their networks for ideas that might help them improve their business and they act more on contingencies, while restaurateurs with lesser professional embeddedness have exhibited less change in their business models and did not engage in extending their networks. Thus, we argue that understanding the context of how experiences as the main arena for value creation are created and sold is important for understanding how entrepreneurs can develop their local story and local identity and become co-producers of regional development.

  • 42.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Welter, Friederike
    Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM), Bonn, Germany; Siegen University, Siegen, Germany.
    From dishwasher to celebrity restaurateur: Narrating entrepreneurial identities2015Ingår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, January 2015 (Meeting Abstract Supplement) 10037, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of identity is of central importance to understanding how individuals make sense of their lives and how they enact environment to be able to achieve their goals. Identity is the internalized self-view that emerges from identification with particular roles and reflects the integration of experiences and events into coherent life trajectory. Identity construction reflects the adjustment towards emerging career aspirations in order to provide fit with the changing life goals. Building on the Optimal Distinctiveness Theory, we analyze narratives of celebrity restaurateurs by examining how they construct and tell their stories over time. The analysis shows that individuals construct their identity by balancing two needs – need for belonging and need for distinctiveness; that self-narratives help construct the desired identities stressing belonging early on and later on highlighting distinctiveness; and that the level of effort put into construction of desired identity depends on the salience and level of identification with the aspired identity. More specifically, we develop a model explaining how motivation and role models influence identity construction over time, i.e. how the source of motivation and the value of being similar or distinctive from others influence the effort put into the construction of identity. Finally, we also discuss how the celebrity aspect contributes to construction of identity.

  • 43.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Welter, Friederike
    Narrating entrepreneurial identities: how achievement motivation influences restaurateurs’ identity construction2018Ingår i: Entrepreneurship, innovation and education: Frontiers in European entrepreneurship research / [ed] Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn and Eddy Laveren, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2018, s. 165-188Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Welter, Friederike
    The Role of Motivation and Role Models in Identity Construction Process: Narratives of Celebrity Restaurateurs2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of identity construction is of central importance to understanding how individuals make sense of their lives and how they enact environment to be able to achieve their goals (Farmer, Yao, & Kung-Mcintyre, 2011). Most of the hitherto literature focuses on the process of construction and re- construction of identity (e.g. Ibarra, 1999) and on the tools individuals use to create and display their identity (e.g. Ibarra & Barbulescu, 2010). Identity construction can be thus conceptualized as the process of internalizing self-views emerging from identification with particular (social) roles and integrating lived experiences and events into coherent life trajectory. More specifically, entrepreneurial identity construction reflects the adjustment towards emerging aspirations of becoming an entrepreneur in order to provide fit with the changing life goals (Thornborrow & Brown, 2009). Hence, individuals’ action towards creating a desirable identity is guided by their motivation and willingness to identify with specific roles and/or people. Even if extant research offers explanation of the identity construction process and the tools in this process (i.e. stories), the understanding of the triggers of this process has not received enough attention.

    As a consequence, to date very little is known about the mechanisms of how and why motivation and role models affect the process of identity formation. While research found that goal orientation influences internal motivation (Dweck, 1999), the role models act as external facilitators of motivation to act (Davidsson & Honig, 2003). Yet, no extant research has explored the mechanisms of identity construction adopting these perspectives simultaneously. Understanding how role models and goal orientation interact, and the effect their interaction can have on learning and formation of entrepreneurial identity is important because if entrepreneurs act based on who they are, who and what they know, then the adopted identity is likely to influence entrepreneurial action and its outcomes.

    We use the Optimal Distinctiveness Theory (ODT), which suggests that individuals are driven simultaneously by the need for belonging and the need for distinctiveness; in order to create a congruent identity they engage in balancing these two needs. This theory is particularly well suited to exploration of the process of entrepreneurial identity construction as it suggests that individuals engage in work to retain the needed balance, and entrepreneurs more than other professions experience conflicts between these two needs (Haynie & Shepherd, 2011). We suggest that both internal goal orientation as well as role models influence whether individuals experience more the need for belonging or the need for distinctiveness; and subsequently the process how they construct their entrepreneurial identity. Furthermore, we suggest that the self-narratives help entrepreneurs construct the desired identities and that the level of effort put into construction of desired identity depends on the salience and level of identification with the identity. More specifically, we develop a model explaining antecedents, i.e. how the source of motivation, role models and the value of being similar or distinctive from others influence the effort put into the construction of identity.

    We explore these relationships in the context of celebrity gourmet restaurateurs. This context is ideally positioned for our purpose, because the celebrity restaurateurs actively engage in narrating their stories and making sense of their success whether in interviews or through their own cookbooks. Additionally, the competition in this sector of the industry is skill based and relationships are characterized by close cognitive proximity expressed by shared norms, values and motives which increases the salience of the researched variables. Finally, gourmet restaurateurs’ dispositions contain characteristics of innovative entrepreneurs, through engaging in constant innovation, whether by developing new products or services or by introducing new revenue streams or production methods.

    Adopting a narrative approach to the analysis of celebrity chefs’ stories and how they construct their identities over time is an excellent way to explore this process. Narratives are self-representations (Goffman, 1959). Individuals, and in particular entrepreneurs, are often motivated to explain their situation to a wider audience. For example, Boje (1991) argued that the content of stories and the meaning of the events may change over time reflecting individuals’ changing perceptions and worldviews. Moreover, Czarniawska (1997) states that individuals often enact stories to make their own actions legitimate and themselves accountable for the actions. Thus, narratives give meaning to the events, actions and objects. We analyze the narratives of the restaurateurs focusing on: orientation (setting and the character), abstract (summarizes the events or incidents of the story), complicating action (evaluative commentary on the events) and resolution/outcomes of the story or conflict) and compare the different elements over time.

    Our analysis shows that framing goals as learning goals is likely to emphasize the need for distinctiveness and thus stress these aspects in the self-narratives, while framing goals as performance goals is likely to result in more need for belonging and thus emphasis on the aspects of the identity that offer similarity to others. Similarly, identification with role models facilitates emphasis on the similar aspects of the identity. Finally, we find that there is also strong relationship between the career stage entrepreneur is in and the dominant role of either need for belonging or need for distinctiveness.

    In general, our findings are important for furthering our understanding of the identity construction process and its antecedents and outcomes. More specifically, we discuss linkages between entrepreneur’s identity construction and his or her search for legitimacy and reputation. We extend the discussion to the relation between self-identity and “Fremdidentitaet”, i.e. the identity displayed towards society. Finally, we elaborate how the celebrity aspect contributes to construction of identity. While we focus on construction of the entrepreneurial identity, we believe that this process is likely to be generalizable to identity construction is general.

  • 45.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    Entrepreneurial learning under uncertainty: exploring the role of self-efficacy and perceived complexity2020Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 32, nr 7-8, s. 606-628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The entrepreneurial learning literature remains underdeveloped and lacks a clear understanding of the learning process. Building on an in-depth case study of four Scandinavian gourmet restauranteurs, we argue that learning to act on entrepreneurial tasks involves opening-up and focusing processes. We propose a process model that specifies how changing perceptions of complexity and self-efficacy influence an individual?s preference for experimentation (opening up) and modelling (focusing) when acquiring new experience. Specifically, in situations perceived as complex, individuals will likely opt for modelling; however, individuals who feel highly self-efficacious will likely rely more on experimentation.

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  • 46.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping University International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping University International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    All about my mother: Factors influencing women’s entrepreneurship2019Ingår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we investigate what factors are the most important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant are important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. However, our findings show that the most important and primary determinant of entrepreneurship by mothers in Sweden is the amount of paternity leave taken by their partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

  • 47.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Gender (in)equality within the household and business start-up among mothers2021Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 56, s. 903-918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data on all businesses started by mothers of young children in Sweden between 2000 and 2014, we explore which factors are associated with entrepreneurship among mothers. We find that being unemployed or being an immigrant is positively associated with business start-up by mothers; however, our findings show that what matters more is the paternity leave taken by the mothers’ partners. These findings suggest that in institutional contexts such as Sweden, gender inequality is not a persistent feature of most households and that women can make career choices by negotiating with their partners who will make use of the parental benefits offered by the government.

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  • 48.
    Naldi, Lucia
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Baù, Massimo
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Ahl, Helene
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Home alone: Gender (in)equality within the household and business start-up among mothers2019Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2019: Proceedings of the thirty-nith annual babson college entrepreneurship research conference, Babson College , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Principal topic: Recent research suggests that contexts characterized by institutional arrangements that supportwork-family balance (e.g. parental leave, flexible work hours, subsidized childcare) are lessconducive to entrepreneurship among women than are other contexts. However, mothers of young children also start businesses in countries with supportive work-family institutions, such as Sweden. Questions, therefore, remain about what factors determine business start-up by mothers of youngchildren in these contexts.

    Extant theory suggests two different predictions that rest on different perspectives on genderin equality. The predominant perspective takes gender inequality within households as given, and assumes the mother to be responsible for child-care even if both parents work. Thus, this perspective predicts that in countries with supportive work-family institutions - such as Sweden - mothers ofyoung children start businesses mainly because they are unemployed or because they have difficulties finding a good job. The other perspective assumes gender equality within households. Itis argued that policies that favor female workforce participation also contribute to more egalitarian relationships at home. Thus, this perspective predicts that in countries such as Sweden, mothers start businesses because fathers assume larger responsibility for childcare, and take parental leave. Since both predictions are compelling and might coexist, it is important to investigate what factors - being unemployed or having a partner who assumes responsibility for childcare - are the most important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers in Sweden.

    Method: We selected our sample by identifying mothers of all children born in Sweden between 2000and 2014. We then collected longitudinal information about them and their partners from Statistics Sweden. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to test what factors explain the likelihood ofmothers of starting a business. We controlled for factors that could affect our results.

    Results and Implications: Our results confirm that being unemployed or being an immigrant are important drivers of entrepreneurship among mothers. However, contrary to the predominant view, the primary determinant of entrepreneurship by mothers in Sweden is the amount of paternity leave taken by their partners. These findings suggest that formal institutions, such as family policies, might have altered informal institutions, such as normative expectations within households, making a nongendered division of parental leave the primary determinant of entrepreneurship among mothers. Our study provides important implications for research on women’s entrepreneurship and workfamily balance.

  • 49.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business school, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brundin, EthelJönköping International Business school, Jönköping, Sweden.Markowska, MagdalenaJönköping International Business school, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Contextualizing entrepreneurship in emerging economies and developing countries2017Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship in emerging economies and developing countries presents us with a unique set of working attitudes, modes of thinking, social practices and processes. This book explores these characteristics’, focusing on the conceptualization of entrepreneurship ‘in-between’. It highlights top-down, bottom-up and hybrid initiatives as well as driving forces for entrepreneurial activities, presenting the diversity, nuances and multiplicity of facets of relevant but unexplored contexts that we need in order to expand our dominant and traditional understandings of entrepreneurship.This book examines entrepreneurship as a contextualized phenomenon from different theoretical and empirical perspectives, gathering a group of researchers with different nationalities, backgrounds and contexts to shed light on how societies with alternative paths of development trigger different entrepreneurial activities and practices. It covers geographical contexts from five continents in a novel and multifaceted analysis.Including case studies, literature reviews and discourse analysis, this book will be a valuable resource for academics and PhD students as well as programme directors in entrepreneurship, development studies and economic geography, and policymakers working with local and regional development and entrepreneurship.

  • 50.
    Ramirez-Pasillas, Marcela
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Brundin, Ethel
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Markowska, Magdalena
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Contextualizing entrepreneurship in-between2017Ingår i: Contextualizing entrepreneurship in emerging economies and developing countries / [ed] Marcela Ramírez Pasillas; Ethel Brundin; Magdalena Markowska, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017, s. 1-17Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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