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  • 1.
    Billmayer, Jakob
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pettersson, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Remote teaching to ensure equal access to education in rural schools2020In: Education in the North, ISSN 0424-5512, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An impending challenge in today’s school is to ensure that all students have access to an equal education, which should in turn improve social and economic conditions for both individual and society (Lundahl, 2016). The equality aspect is especially accentuated in rural areas which, unlike metropolitan regions, often have significant difficulties related to long distances between schools, lack of qualified teachers and problems filling the classroom due to diminishing birthrates. This in turn restricts students' right to an equal education in rural areas (cf. Pettersson, 2017).

    At the same time, digitalization of society is one of the fundamental challenges for the future. The development and broad availability of digital technologies has created new unique opportunities, and pitfalls, for rethinking and reinventing students’ equal access to learning, education and collaboration in the digital age (Collins and Halverson, 2009). Distance and remote teaching are such examples used to ensure equal access to education, not least in rural areas (cf. Hilli, 2020; Pettersson and Olofsson, 2019). Using digital technologies for remote teaching have thereby also, to some extent, changed the way that schools operate and the ways that teaching is being conducted (cf. From, Pettersson and Pettersson, 2020). However, research, networks and collaborations within this area can be said to be scarce not only at a Nordic, but also at an international level (Barbour, 2013; Toppin and Toppin, 2016).

    Based on the lack of research, networks and collaboration for developing remote teaching as a practice, the significance of a symposium was identified. In May 2020, the international research symposium Remote teaching to ensure equal access to education in rural schools was held at Umeå University in Sweden. At the symposium different strategies to systematically and proactively increase access to education at upper secondary school level using digital technologies were discussed. One basic assumption that emerged during the discussions was that the existence of, and access to, new information technologies is necessary but not sufficient. In the discussions it became obvious that it will be of complementary importance who is empowered to design, create, invent and choose to use the technologies that enhance their personal and professional lives.

    The symposium resulted in an open call for a special issue of Education in the North, which resulted in a huge interest not only from the Nordic countries but from researchers all over the world. As can be seen in this special issue, research from Australia, Azerbaijan, Finland, Iceland, Scotland, and Sweden with different focuses on aspects of equal access to education in schools are represented. The great promise of this special issue lies in its potential to provide research of interest to a wide audience, including researchers, practitioners and policymakers in both Nordic and international contexts.

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  • 2. Fischer, Gerhard
    et al.
    Lundin, Johan
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rethinking and reinventing learning, education and collaboration in the digital age: from creating technologies to transforming cultures2020In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The digitalization of society results in challenges and opportunities for learning and education. This paper describes exemplary transformations from current to future practices. It illustrates multi-dimensional aspects of learning which complement and transcend current frameworks of learning focused on schools. While digital technologies are necessary for these transformations, they are not sufficient. The paper briefly illustrates the applicability of the conceptual framework to the COVID-19 pandemic. It concludes that design opportunities and design trade-offs in relation to digital technologies and learning should be explored by envisioning the cultural transformation that are desirable for making learning a part of life.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on the work conducted at the symposium "Rethinking and Reinventing Learning, Education, and Collaboration in the Digital Age-From Creating Technologies to Transforming Cultures" that took place in Engeltofta outside of Gavle, Sweden in September 2019. The symposium invited scholars in collaborative analysis of design opportunities and design trade-offs in relation to digital technologies and learning and explored design strategies for systematically and proactively increasing digital technology's contributions to learning and collaborating. The paper first provides a condensed introduction of a conceptual framework summarizing current practices, their problems and promising alternatives. Multi-dimensional aspects of learning and lifelong learning will be briefly described as promising future alternatives to school learning. Examples of transformative practices are supporting the major argument of the paper that creating new technologies is an important prerequisite to address the fundamental challenge of transforming cultures. The unanticipated but fundamental event of the occurrence of COVID-19 will be briefly described to provide further evidence for the need and the applicability of our conceptual framework for rethinking and reinventing learning, education and collaboration in the digital age.

    Findings: The paper provides a condensed introduction of a conceptual framework summarizing current practices, their problems and promising alternatives. The framework includes multi-dimensional aspects of learning and lifelong learning as a promising future alternative to a focus on school learning.

    Originality/value: This paper describes exemplary transformations from current to future practices. It illustrates multi-dimensional aspects of learning which complement and transcend current frameworks of learning focused on schools.

  • 3.
    Fischer, Gerhard
    et al.
    University of Colorado at Boulder, CO, Boulder, United States.
    Lundin, Johan
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The challenge for the digital age: making learning a part of life2023In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main argument behind this paper is learning in the digital age should not be restricted to creating digital infrastructures for supporting current forms of learning nor taking schools in their current form as God-given, natural entities, but changing current forms of education by developing new frameworks and socio-technical environments for making learning an integral part of life. The authors provide a framework for this argumentation as well as a call-to-action for research on the co-evolution of learning, media, and learning organizations.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper theoretically and argumentatively explores the core assumption that the digitalization of society results in challenges and opportunities for learning and education based on fundamental transformations (Collins and Halverson, 2009; Fischer et al., 2020).

    Findings: The digital age greatly enhances the opportunities and supports the necessity for “making learning a part of life”. But while the growth of technology is certain, the inevitability of any particular future is not. The impact of schooling goes beyond that new information about computers, the Internet, and social media are integrated into the schools of today. The transformation of schools needs to be informed by an understanding of the impact of mindset formation that will determine people's approach to learning for the rest of their lives. The authors’ framework is focused on moving “beyond gift-wrapping” by not only fixing and existing systems but to change them and not only reforming but transforming them.

    Originality/value: It is the authors’ hope that this article will be of interest to many stakeholders (including learners, teachers, curriculum designers, technology experts, parents, and politicians) and provide a foundation for an ongoing debate and informed actions for “Making Learning a Part of Life” in the digital age.

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  • 4.
    Fransson, G.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    Universitetet i Oslo, Norge.
    Förväntningar och realiteter: Om digitala teknologieri spänningsfältet mellan formulerings- och realiseringsarenor2012In: Små skritt eller store sprang?: Om digitale tilstander i skolen / [ed] Trond Eiliv Hauge & Andreas Lund, Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk , 2012, p. 274-293Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Digitalise and capitalise?: Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts2019In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 102-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the practice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capitalise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

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  • 6.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University .
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundin, Johan
    University of Gothenburg .
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Svensson, Lars
    University West, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University .
    On the Swedish national graduate school for digital technologies in education - GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctoral students and supervisors2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings: 11th annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors.

  • 7.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Business Studies, University of Gävle, Sweden .
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Adequate digital competence: a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.

  • 8.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Conditions for implementing ICT in Swedish upper secondary schools : How national strategies for implementation relate to existing local educational practices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation and use of information- and communication technology (ICT) in education are high on the educational agendas of most countries. In principle, all western countries now have a policy or strategy for ICT in K-12 schools. Although countries may have similar economic preconditions, they often implement different ICT policies in school (Austin & Hunter, 2013; Ottestad, 2010).  ICT policies may also have different rationales and are often over-optimistic about ICT options (Convery, 2009; Egea, 2014; Jordan, 2011) and the use of ICT as a tool for teaching and learning in education (Hammond, 2014). Most research on ICT policies seems to focus on issues such as policy rationale or how policy is implemented in schools. However, few studies focus on the existing educational practices in schools as preconditions for ICT implementation. In this paper, the focus is on how policy implementation strategies, as they are understood in the recently proposed Swedish ICT policy, relate to already established educational practices in upper secondary school settings. Specifically, the aim of the paper is to discuss how policy implementation strategies relate to the existing local practices in three upper secondary contexts as preconditions for integration of ICT. We discuss whether the proposed strategies can be understood as supported or not by existing contextual factors as conditions for the policy implementation.

     

    Traditionally, policy has often been viewed as a top-down process, where policy is formulated in one arena and then realized in another (Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). However, policy formation processes are rather more complicated than that and can be understood as processes of interpretation and enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012). Acknowledging these processes of policy formation (Edwards, 2012) is to acknowledge processes of micro-political manoeuvring, power and negotiation in practice, and to relate the policy enactment processes to the existing preconditions, structures and activities of the contexts in which the policy is to be realized. Thus, understanding how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing practices as preconditions in schools may help us to understand what kind of challenges an ICT policy may face and to formulate more realistic expectations for the use of ICT in education.

     

    The kind of analysis that is suggested in this paper may also clarify why the implementation and use of ICT in school is so challenging and why there seems to be a discrepancy between expectations in the policy formulation arena and its use in the realization arena (Olofsson, Lindberg, Hauge, & Fransson, 2011; Tondeur, van Braak and Valcke’s, 2007). It has been suggested that national and political initiatives and governing have little impact on the use of ICT in school (McGarr, 2009). Rather, it has been emphasized that teachers want to see compelling reasons why they and their students should use ICT for teaching and learning (Howard, 2013; Lim, 2015). This might be related to ‘teacher culture’ and a reason why principals have been identified as key persons when implementing ICT. However, different leadership styles have also been found to give different results when it comes to implementing ICT (Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2011). Indeed, different leadership styles seem to fit different educational cultures. Implementing an ICT policy in local schools has been found to be a multifaceted phenomenon rooted in educational culture (Vanderlinde, van Braak, & Dexter 2012). If contextual matter is of importance for implementing ICT, it is therefore of interest to study how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing educational practices in schools.

  • 9.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Mid Sweden University.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Policy Narratives VS. The Actual Use of Digital Technologies. Practices That Never Meets?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often great faith is given to the use of digital technologies to facilitate and transform teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools. Especially prominent are such a belief in various policy papers on a wide international level of supranational organizations such as the United Nations, OECD, or the European Union (Egea, 2014; Scheurmann & Pedro, 2009, Bassi, 201; cf. OECD 2015;) as well as at national levels (eg. Akcaoglu, 2015). Policy documents often mention digital technologies in terms of their ability and potential to improve and transform educational activities. Such statements can both be seen as part of a political rhetoric in order to push for change, as well as a belief that such claims are reasonable.

    Expressions of the reasonable to include digital technology and the use of IT in schools' activities appear in the various trans-national studies that aim to create a picture of the use of digital technologies in various European countries. Several such studies have been conducted in recent years (cf. OECD, 2015; Fredriksson, Gajek & Jedeskog, 2009; Blamire, 2009). Many of these studies have the aim to create a form of benchmarking process on the use of digital technologies in schools. The rhetoric of how digital technology can transform teaching and learning is also stressed by private operators offering services that in a simple way seems to be able to solve schools' problems with the use of digital technology and related applications (see eg. Grimaldi, 2013).

    However, educational contexts are complex and multidimensional. With scarce financial and human resources, teachers and other school staff is to deal with a variety of requirements, goals and expectations that are not always compatible with each other. In addition, a variety of complex relationships and positions as well as norms, traditions and values ​​of what teaching and learning is and should be, and how it ought to take shape. According to Säljö (2010) research focusing the uptake and use of digital technologies in schools are not always clear and seldom indicate success (e.g. Hammond, 2013; Krange & Ludvigsen, 2009). The outcomes are far from straightforward when digital technologies are introduced either in general or in specific subjects or contexts of learning.

    Aim

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss differences in how digital technology is expected to be used for learning in schools in, on one hand, various policy documents and evaluations, and on the other hand, the use that is reported in research. In that sense, evaluations are seen as evaluations-as-policy, rather than 'objectice' search for knowledge.

  • 10.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?2018In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 2155-2177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates what upper secondary school students regard as goodor less good teaching using ICT. 367 Swedish upper secondary students in 2 schoolsresponded to a web-based questionnaire. The students were asked to describe one oftheir teachers who used ‘ICT in a way that made them learn very well, and one whoused ICT in a way that made them learn less well’ and to describe what these teachersdid and why their teaching was understood as good or less good. 18 themes wereidentified, of which 17 were combined into eight overall counterpart themes and onenon-counterpart theme. ‘Clarity’ was the most prominent theme, followed by ‘teachers’‘ICT skills’, ‘uses ICT in a good way’, ‘fun factor’, ‘puts information on the LMS’,‘varies the teaching methods’, ‘demonstrates how to use ICT’ and ‘general pedagogicalskills’. The results show that although the specific focus is on students’ views of theirteachers’ use of ICT, general pedagogical skills are a major focus in the themes.Effectiveness is an explicit theme in terms of ICT adding value to teaching andlearning, while ineffectiveness is an implicit underlying dimension in the themesrelating to less good teaching. It is also evident that the students value the sameteacher’s use of ICT in teaching differently.

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  • 11.
    Gu, Limin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Ola J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Understanding Swedish Educational Policy Developments in the Field of Digital Education2021In: What Works in Nordic School Policies?: Mapping Approaches to Evidence, Social Technologies and Transnational Influences / [ed] John Benedicto Krejsler & Lejf Moos, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 213-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes and analyzes Swedish educational policy related to technology and digital education over the past decades with a focus on how the relation between learning and information technology, as well as digitalization and its impact on other aspects of school development and management have been argued for and how it has been proposed to influence school practice. The analysis is based on a review of eight selected educational policy documents that relate to the framework of phases of Swedish educational reforms suggested by Sundberg. The result reveals that although there are some overlaps and recurring themes in the politics over time, connections between the rationale behind the political arguments and the reform timeframes are obvious. During its early years, digital education adopted a clear centralized and top-down strategy with extensive government investments without taking into account the local needs and conditions. Later, in line with decentralization and marketization of education, the performance turn, and the adoption of accountability as a governing model, more demands have been placed on local responsibility and self-regulating regarding digitalization in school. At the same time, research-based evidence and international comparison have been used as a basis to justify further development of digital education.

  • 12.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap. (HEALTH).
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap. (HEALTH).
    Technology-mediated supervision of undergraduate students’ dissertations2013In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 1382-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, technology-mediated participation has increased in tertiary education, which has led to changing conditions for its delivery. However, one part has proven more resistant to change, technology-mediated or not: the supervision ofstudents’ undergraduate dissertation work. This article presents a study that analyses technological applications to mediate supervision of students’ undergraduate dissertation work. It is shown that students in general find such mediated participation helpful for supervision, both one-to-one and collaboratively. Mediation by technologies and collaborative forms for the supervision of students’ undergraduate dissertation are, therefore, suggested as productive ways to enhance students’ learning.

  • 13.
    Karakoyun, Ferit
    et al.
    Dicle University, Turkey.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pre-service teachers' perceptions of social media – A qualitative survey study in Turkey and Sweden2021In: Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, ISSN 2618-6586, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 334-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service teachers' perceptions of social media. The phenomenology approach, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. The participants of the study included 201 pre-service teachers studying at two state universities, one in Turkey and the other in Sweden, in the spring term of the 2018-2019 academic year. In the study, metaphors were used to reveal pre-service teachers' perceptions of social media. The pre-service teachers were asked to fill in the following query: 'Social Media is like ……… because ………'. The collected qualitative data were analyzed by using content analysis method. The findings indicated that the pre-service teachers from both countries perceived social media mostly as a tool for communication and access to information and that a very few of them associated social media with education. In addition, it was found that pre-service teachers from Turkey had more negative perceptions of social media compared to those from Sweden. The pre-service teachers from Turkey who had negative perceptions associated social media mostly with addiction.

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  • 14.
    Karakoyun, Ferit
    et al.
    Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Preservice teachers’ views about the twenty-first century skills: A qualitative survey study in Turkey and Sweden2020In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 2353-2369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the views of preservice teachers from Turkey and Sweden about twenty-first century skills. The participants of the study were 197 preservice teachers from universities in Turkey and Sweden. In the study, the views of preservice teachers about twenty-first century skills were investigated with an open-ended questionnaire, and the collected qualitative data were analysed using a content analysis method. The findings indicate that within the context of daily life, the preservice teachers from both countries associated twenty-first century skills mostly with technology, digital citizenship, communication, and information literacy. Within the context of education, a great majority of the preservice teachers from Turkey associated twenty-first century skills with information literacy and technology, while those from Sweden associated twenty-first century skills mostly with technology, distance learning and communication. In addition, it was seen that among the skills considered by the preservice teachers from both countries to be necessary for their careers and for their future students, they all put most emphasis on digital literacy. However, as the second most frequent skills, the preservice teachers from Turkey emphasized critical thinking and problem solving skills, while the preservice teachers from Sweden mentioned communication skills and information literacy.

  • 15.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Teachers professional development and ICT: A comparison of four Swedish cases2011In: UFV Research Review, ISSN 1715-9849, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the design of a multiple-case study on Technology Enhanced Teacher Professional Development (TETPD) is presented, as well as the selection of cases and theoretical framework for analyzing TETPD. The aim of the article is to discuss four Swedish cases of teacher professional development with technology and media selected on these premises. The significance and possibilities of the cases to describe how programs of professional development work in terms of enhancing the use of ICT for teaching and learning are then discussed. 

  • 16.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Editorial - Recent trends in the digitalization of the Nordic K-12 schools2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sustaining a professional dimension in the use of educational technology in European higher educational practices2012In: Educational Technology, ISSN 0013-1962, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Contrasting views: student and teacher perceptions on ICT in education2016In: The proceedings of the International Conference on Information Communication Technologies in Education 2016, 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of upper secondary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. Data for the study are interviews with teachers and students that are part of a Swedish fouryear project concerned with the advanced use of ICT in education. The results show that teachers use ICT for several different purposes, and that students expressed an extensive use of ICT. Data reveals a difference between students’ in- and out-of-school use ofICT, out of school they rely more on their smartphones than they do in school.

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  • 19.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Faculty of Education and Business Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Same but different?: An examination of Swedish upper secondary school teachers' and students' views and use of ICT in education2017In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 122-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine Swedish upper secondary school teachers’ and students’views and use of ICT in education.Design/methodology/approach – In total, 25 individual teachers and 39 students in small focus groupswere interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed using NVivo11. The analysis was conductedin three steps: with each individual teacher, the student groups and the cohort of teachers and students.A comparative analysis was also conducted.Findings – The teachers’ views and use of ICT are diverse. Teachers and students identify similar challengeswhen using ICT in education, e.g. time and subject, the shortcomings of a school’s learning managementsystem (LMS) and teachers’ digital competence. Students report an extensive out-of-school use ofsmartphones and an extensive in-school use of laptops and LMS.Research limitations/implications – The relatively small number of teachers and students in threeschools make generalisations difficult. The examination of teachers’ and students’ views and use in the samecontext reveals new knowledge.Practical implications – The study may influence teachers’ use of ICT in education, based on a betterunderstanding of students’ use.Social implications – The study may lead to a better understanding of teachers’ and students’ differentperspectives and a more enhanced and sustainable in-school use of ICT.Originality/value – The originality is that teachers’ and students’ views and use of ICT in education areexamined at the same time. The paper contributes new knowledge about how teachers and studentsconceptualise and use ICT in upper secondary school practices.

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  • 20.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sahlin, Susanne
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    A decade later: twelve teachers' retrospective views on a national programme for teachers' professional development and ICT2014In: Adult and continuing education: concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications, IGI Global, 2014, p. 1781-1790Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, an increased impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the society at large has lead teachers to engage in professional development activities related to the use of ICT. Even though this development has been prominent for more than two decades, its long term effects seem complex to determine. This paper is based on interviews with twelve Swedish teachers who participated in a national program for promoting school development and use of ICT in 2000-2001. The program was aligned with the pedagogical approaches set out in the national Swedish curriculum, such as a shift from teaching to learning and giving pupils more responsibility, introducing interdisciplinary approaches to teaching in teams, and a problem based pupils-oriented pedagogy. The analysis of the interviews show that teachers still feel a high degree of appreciation for the program, and that they share a relative agreement of the importance of the program for their teaching with ICT in the last decade. The general intentions of the program to be more concerned with school development and pedagogy rather than technology and ICT seem also to be present today as a long term effect.

  • 21.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    et al.
    Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet.
    Sahlin, Susanne
    Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet.
    A decade later: Twelve Teachers´retrospective views on a national programme for teachers´ professional development and ICT2012In: International Journal of Cyber Ethics in Education, ISSN 2155-6903, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, an increased impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the society at large has lead teachers to engage in professional development activities related to the use of ICT. Even though this development has been prominent for more than two decades, its long term effects seem complex to determine. This paper is based on interviews with twelve Swedish teachers who participated in a national program for promoting school development and use of ICT in 2000-2001. The program was aligned with the pedagogical approaches set out in the national Swedish curriculum, such as a shift from teaching to learning and giving pupils more responsibility, introducing interdisciplinary approaches to teaching in teams, and a problem based pupils-oriented pedagogy. The analysis of the interviews show that teachers still feel a high degree of appreciation for the program, and that they share a relative agreement of the importance of the program for their teaching with ICT in the last decade. The general intentions of the program to be more concerned with school development and pedagogy rather than technology and ICT seem also to be present today as a long term effect.

  • 22.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sahlin, Susanne
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bridging school-subjects and distances in upper secondary schools2011In: Campus-Wide Information Systems, ISSN 1065-0741, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 144-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report how Swedish upper secondary schools involved in a European Union-financed collaborative project intertwined aspects of subject integration and international collaboration with the use of ICT. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology used is a case study in which aspects of subject integration and international collaborative ambitions are intertwined with the use of ICT. Data consist of interviews with participants, texts concerning the project, the participating school, and the Swedish upper secondary schools system. Findings: Teachers and students have worked towards the objectives in the project and in the national curricula, and the case shows how difficult and how many barriers there are to overcome. Even though the curricula seem difficult to coordinate, students appear to have learnt more about the European perspective, as well as about themselves, through the approach. The teacher describes student motivation as high - authenticity and real people to collaborate with support the students' experience of a holistic education, which applies to real life. The teacher tried to change the role towards providing students with structure and advice, monitoring their progress, and assessing their accomplishments, but reported to be struggling with the teacher role. Originality/value: The paper demonstrates originality and value by providing important insight into the use of ICT in upper secondary schools for the purpose of collaboration and at the same time working towards joint curricular themes. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 23.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Holmgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lundberg, Petter
    Region Västerbotten.
    Pettersson, Gerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pettersson, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rudolfsson, Linda
    Region Västerbotten.
    Thomson, Tobias
    Region Västerbotten.
    Researching school practices with a complementary and symmetrical approach: the case of remote teaching in the rural north of Sweden2020In: Education in the North, ISSN 0424-5512, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 235-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This feature describes an ongoing research project on remote teaching in the rural north of Sweden. Remote teaching is a form of teaching in which the teacher and students are separated in space but not in time, and students are accompanied by a designated supervisor at their location. The project is conducted within the framework of the national initiative Development, Learning, Research (DLR) to try out sustainable collaboration models between academia and school practice. At Umeå University, this relation has been described as complementary and symmetrical: complementary in the sense that each part brings unique competencies into the work, and symmetrical in the sense that each part is valued as equal in the work, which allows for a dimension of development work into the research approach. The feature elaborates on opportunities and challenges in conducting complementary and symmetrical research, seeking to promote knowledge built on collaboration between academia and school practice.

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  • 24.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Managing IT on a municipality level: on the role of strategists in developing digital competence2018In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings, 2018, p. 9016-9020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the digitalization of K-12 schools has been ongoing for more than 30 years. Several larger governmental initiatives targeting issues such as the one-to-one classroom and teachers’ development of digital competence have been carried out, but the outcomes have not been as positive as hoped for. In the research literature, there is growing evidence of the importance of long-term and well-anchored strategies, such as functioning information and communication technology (ICT) plans, as well as calls for a system approach to understanding the leadership needed for the digitalization of K-12 schools. There is also research highlighting the importance of applying multilevel analysis for understanding ICT implementation and educational change. In autumn 2017, the Swedish government suggested one such strategy for the digitalization of Swedish schools. One interesting aspect in the strategy is the aim indicating that students, teachers, and school leaders, as well as other staff members working in the schools, should develop what is called “adequate digital competence.” Departing from data gathered within a 4-year longitudinal Swedish research project investigating the advanced use of information technology (IT) in upper secondary schools, this paper focuses on educational IT strategists/managers that work on a municipality level and their role in the process of developing digital competence in schools. Through semi-structured interviews, three educational IT strategists working in three different Swedish municipalities provided their views about their work description, their functions as strategists/managers, and their understanding of digital competence. The first analysis shows clear variations regarding, for example, how the strategists formulate their own role in the ongoing digitalization of the school, as well as under which conditions they can carry out their work.

  • 25.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hansson, Anneli
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Developing awareness of digital competence and skills through dialogue: a methodological reflection2017In: INTED2017 Proceedings: 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference March 6th-8th, 2017, Valencia, Spain / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2017, p. 5679-5686Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Great expectations have been placed on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to change and improve education (OECD, 2010). In research (Olofsson et al, 2015) as well as in evaluations (Wastiau et al, 2013; OECD, 2015) the pictures seem to be of expectations not yet realised. To be able to change practice one key issue is teachers’ professional development (TPD) (Vrasidas, 2015). TPD has often been conducted as courses or programs (Helleve, 2010). In several cases there has been emphases made on teachers´ collegial learning, for instance in learning communities of different kinds (Lindberg & Olofsson, 2010). This paper investigates another way of stimulating TPD in the area of ICT in education by drawing on the works of Sannino (2011) and Engeström et al, (1996) among others.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to present the interview model used for interviewing teachers concerning ICT in education as model also for teachers´ professional development in the area of ICT. Further to present some early results and discuss the limit and possible strengths of this model.

    Method: Based on Sannino (2016) this paper establish a space for development within the frames of group-wise interview sessions and double stimulation. In the sessions the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) model (Mishra & Koehler, 2009) was introduced as a specific tool for discussion. The model combines knowledge in three different domains, establishing seven different kinds of knowledge understood as crucial in understanding the role and possibilities of ICT in education. Departing from the model in the interviews the teachers developed ideas of how ICT can be seen as a possible tool within their subject area. By interviewing teachers in groups where the common denominator is the school subject they teach, the interviews took the form of a collegial conversation with the subject, pedagogy, technology and its interrelated parts as the core.

    Participants: Participating in the interviews were seven different groups of teachers from three different upper secondary schools. These schools take part in a four year research project on ICT in education and they have all in some way distinguished themselves as successful in this area. In all 21 teachers representing four different subject areas participated in the interviews.

    Theoretical perspective: The cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 2015) was used for analysis. Focus was on how the teachers understand the object of the activity, where the activity is seen as teaching with ICT. With the TPACK model as framework for the interviews, the teachers moved from content through pedagogy to technology in the interviews, making the object of the activity of teaching with ICT a question of negotiating its meanings.

    Preliminary results: The teachers moved from viewing their core competence as content-oriented towards an understanding of their competences and skills as partly dependent on pedagogy and the ICT tools they used. In each subject, the object of the activity of teaching with ICT differs according to the subject-specific logics that the teachers seem to hold. Digital competence and skills were expressed differently by different groups, but for each group their competence and skills in this area were more and more elaborated and expressed throughout the interviews and the TPACK framework guided the teachers towards mutual collective understanding and individual growth.

  • 26.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Karakoyun, Ferit
    Dicle University.
    Teacher education students’ view on 21st century skills2018In: EDULEARN18 Proceedings, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2018, p. 9028-9032Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with teacher education students’ views on 21st century skills. Today, western societies are becoming more and more reliant on digital technologies as digital technology is present in many aspects of everyday life. As these technologies become ubiquitous, the skills to use them and to function in a highly digitalized society are becoming important. One way to label the skills required is 21st-century skills. However, no matter what the label, the responsibility to make sure that present and future citizens have the digital skills they need falls to schools in general and teachers in particular. This paper presents a study on teacher education students views on 21st century skills, as a way to further the understanding of how these skills become part of the work in schools.  Data for this paper come from a questionnaire consisting of six open questions presented to student teachers (n=81). The questions concerned the students’ views on the 21st century skills they use in their everyday life and their views on 21st century skills in relation to their teacher education, their future work as teachers, and their future students. An early analysis shows variation in the way student teachers view their own 21st century skills and their future school students’ skills. A conclusion that can be drawn is that student teachers seem to give voice to the complexities in including 21st century skills in their future teaching. 

  • 27.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    et al.
    Department of Education, Mid-Sweden University, Härnösand, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stödberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Signs for learning to perform in a digital environment2010In: Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 1449-3098, E-ISSN 1449-5554, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 996-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about learning to perform in a digital environment with specific focus on online higher education. In the article, an online higher educational setting is analysed from a hermeneutical approach, using the learning sequence model suggested by Selander (2008) as a theoretical frame. The institutional framing, used as an empirical example, is a Swedish online higher education course. Based on the course presentation in the course study guide, the course curricula, and the course evaluation, the setting for this article is considered as a case (Stake, 1995; Yin, 2003). The analysis of the setting and course design, in terms of objectives and aims, assessment, and social software used in the course, is focused on the signs as design for learning and on the performative aspects of these intentions. In the final section some issues and questions in relation to designing for learning in online higher education are raised.

  • 28.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A study of the use of digital technology and its conditions with a view to understanding what 'adequate digital competence' may mean in a national policy initiative2020In: Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), ISSN 0305-5698, E-ISSN 1465-3400, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 727-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, adequate digital competence has been put in the spotlight due to the Swedish 2017 national strategy for the digitalisation of the K-12 school system. Based on both policy and practice, the aim is to explore teachers' enacted digital competence in three upper secondary schools in Sweden and thereby provide an empirical account of what the notion 'adequate' means in practice. The data consists of interviews with teachers and classroom observations. At an aggregated analytical level, the results are presented as four narrative sub-case descriptions. It is concluded that teachers' adequate digital competence is flexible in meaning, determined by local contextual conditions and enacted in activities and decisions that are based on the teachers' own value frameworks. The understanding of 'adequate' in this study does not appear to be clarified in the formulations used in the national strategy.

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  • 29.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    From, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stödberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Holmgren, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogical digital competence for police teachers in relation to distance-based police education2017In: INTED2017 Proceedings: 11th International Technology, Education and Development Conference March 6th-8th, 2017, Valencia, Spain / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, I. Candel Torres, The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2017, p. 4219-4227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In the last ten years higher education in Sweden has undergone major changes related to two specific parallel processes. First a process of digitalization, secondly an academisation process of what has previously been regarded as mainly vocational programmes for professions being delivered by other institutions than the universities. Examples of these are police education (Sjöberg, 2016) and fire-fighter training (Holmgren, 2015). The competence of the educators responsible for such programmes as well as the particular educational context for providing the courses are being re-defined. Central in this paper is the concept of Pedagogical Digital Competence (PDC) (Hall & From, 2013). PDC relates to the ability of teachers to plan and conduct, and continuously evaluate and revise, Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-supported training, based on theory, current research and proven experience in practice. PDC includes both practical (know-how) and conceptual (know-why) knowledge. During fall 2016, intensive organizational preparations as well as training of police teachers took place at the university in question with the purpose of being able to teach police students at a distance in spring of 2017. Important here was a course intended to develop the police educators´ PDC in order to make the move to a distance context and the ability to design distance courses. The course included learning theories and digital tools as well as in-practice training to increase the police teachers’ knowledge and skills in the tools and implement them in their teaching in practice. The attention in this paper is directed towards the PDC needed to be developed by police teachers in the context of the newly re-designed distance-based Swedish police education.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to present a study of the police teachers self-rated abilities according to the model of PDC before and after a professional development course in ICT in education.

    Data and research design: Data consists of 21 police teachers who before and after the course made a self-evaluation of their PDC. The survey used consisted of three background questions and 28 statements with likert-scale answers. The statements corresponded to the police teachers’ self-evaluated knowledge in the domains of the so called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model as it was developed by Mishra & Koehler (2006, 2008). The paper also uses data from the course evaluations.

    Context: The plan for the PDC course was based on course development parallel with the police teachers gaining knowledge in new digital tools. During the course different digital tools were used to provide the teachers with ideas and they had the opportunity to work hands on with digital tools. Each course meeting included guest lectures providing good examples and best practice regarding the use of digital tools in the teaching practice. All in all the course consisted of five meetings.

    Conclusions: Tentative conclusions from the data shows that following the TPACK model the teachers on average was strongest on their content knowledge (CK) followed by their pedagogical knowledge (PK). On average they were weakest on the four knowledge domains related to technology. After they had finished the course their knowledge in these domains had moved and changed so that they now were stronger than before.

  • 30.
    Olofsson, Anders D
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Can OLC in TPD be TEL?2010In: The First Nordic Symposium on Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL): NORDITEL 2010 : book of abstract / [ed] Tessy Cerratto-Pargman, Pirkko Hyvönen, Sanna Järvelä, Marcelo Milrad, Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet , 2010, p. 59-61Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J OlaMid Sweden University.
    Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: enhanced learning and teaching2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Introduction: Moving from theory into practice: on the informed design of educational technologies2014In: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 23, no 3, Special Issue, p. 285-291Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Olofsson, Anders D
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Lärares professionella utveckling på nätet2011In: Mer om nätbaserad utbildning / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 195-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet .
    Moving from theory into practice: on the informed design of educational technologies2014In: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 23, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Olofsson, Anders D
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mid Sweden University.
    On the issue of TPD (Teachers´ Professional Development) in an OLC (Online Learning Community) as TEL (Technology Enhanced Learning).2011In: US-China Education Review, ISSN 2161-623x, Vol. 1, no 7, p. 1016-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is sometimes assumed that teachers in an informed way shall embrace TEL (technology enhanced learning) in their practices. In this article, it is argued that TPD (teachers’ professional development) for this purpose can be a part of their engagement in an OLC (online learning community), and we ask the questions¾How can professional development be understood in relation to TEL? For what contents and in what form can TPD in an OLC have a potential to transform teaching? It is suggested that OLCs have the potential to through TEL make teachers implement technology in their practices to enhance learning and that this is an effective form of TPD, since teachers in an OLC at first hand answer to their own demands or that from colleagues. In this article, we elaborate on the possibilities and limitations of the OLC for TPD in terms of content and form. Six different OLCs for TPD are chosen to serve as examples on the diversity of forms and contents possible to focus.

  • 36.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Preface2012In: Informed design of educational technologies in higher education: enhanced learning and teaching / [ed] Anders D. Olofsson and J. Ola Lindberg, Hearshy, PA, USA: Information Science Reference , 2012, p. xviii-xxixChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle.
    State of the art technology?: Mapping students' talk about information and communication technology in upper secondary schools2017In: ICICTE 2017 Proceedings: The International Conference on InformationCommunication Technologies in Education 2017 / [ed] Linda Morris, Costas Tsolakidis, 2017, p. 285-295Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores upper secondary school students’ talk about how information and communication technology (ICT) can structure and support their everyday activities and time in school. The data consists of 11 group interviews with a total of 46 students. The results show that ICT plays a central role in the students’ schooling, not in terms of “state-of-the-art” but rather as “state-of-the-actual,” for instance in supporting the writing process and for peer-support, digital documentation and storage.

  • 38.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Högskolan i Gävle.
    What Do Upper Secondary School Teachers Want To Know From Educational Research On ICT In Teaching And Learning?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The purpose of this paper is to (a) present and discuss a multi-dimensional context sensitive design in an educational research project focusing on IT in teaching and learning in upper secondary schools, and (b) report what participating teachers want the resource to focus on. 

    The project in focus in this paper is financed by the Swedish Research Council and will run between 2015-2018. The project embraces three levels of stakeholders – students, teachers and school leaders. This paper concerns the teachers and the importance of research projects being firmly based in the teachers' own previous experiences, their questions and expectations on the project. The question posted is how the design of the project potentially can contribute with a long-term effect by providing knowledge and insights of importance when establishing sustainable ecologies of teaching and learning with IT in the schools?

    Over the last 15 years there has been a continuing discussion about ICT in schools (Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015). This both on a policy level (cf. the European Commission, 2008: OECD, 2010) and within the research community (cf. Cox, 2012; Beckman, Bennett and Lockyer, 2014). Promising words on a policy level seem that stand in somewhat contrast to what a rather large body of research in this field reports. For example McGarr (2009) claims a lack of evidence that ICT in school in fact change neither the practice nor the pedagogy. Voogt et al. (2011), claim the necessity of a substantial body of research studies showing that the IT in schools change educational practices and have a positive effect on students' learning experiences. Säljö (2010) that the results of the use of ICT in schools are seldom obvious or successful at a general or a subject-specific level. In Sweden, Håkansson Lindqvist (2015) concludes, the absence of up-to date and research-based strategies for the use of IT in upper secondary schools is noteworthy.

    Even though significant efforts are done to improve the use of IT in schools, research seems to conclude that a lot of work remains. One might ask why. In this paper we can think of at least three reasons to this. First, and in line with Hayes (2006), research that reports negative results in relation to schools' integration of IT tends to focus on indicators that can be identified in all schools, which means that there is a tendency for the results to be generalised. Further that so far studies have not enough considered the contextual factors that are unique to each school. Second, in line with Tondeur et al. (2009), that in order to understand the integration and use of IT in schools, research studies need to include structural and cultural factors and different levels in their design. Third, Third, implementing ICT must go hand in hand with teachers professional development to gain sustainability. In this, it has been claimed that the outcome of professional development to a great extent are influenced by "teachers subjectivity, which includes perceptions, previous knowledge, and the internalization of the power and influence present in educational policy and socioeconomic realities." (Fore, et.al. 2015, p. 101). This call for to strengthen teachers influence and agency in professional development and implementation as well as in research. 

    In order to capture the emergence and development of teaching and learning with IT the design theoretically draws on notions as task perception, agency, and  enactment as well as the TPACK-framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2008). Most important for this presentation is the notion of task perception, the self-understanding based on deeply held values and beliefs about the purpose with the education and one's own tasks and responsibilities (Kelchtermans, 2009), agency, the way in which individuals "critically shape their response to problematic situations" (Biesta & Tedder, 2006, p. 11), and how these interact in the enactment of ICT.

  • 39.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Faculty of Education and Business Studies University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    What do upper secondary school teachers want to know from research on the use of ICT and how does this inform a research design?2017In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 2897-2914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates what teachers taking part in a longitudinal research project on the use of ICT for teaching and learning in three upper secondary schools in Sweden want to learn more about. At the beginning of the project eighty-four teachers were invited to respond to a questionnaire relating to what teachers wanted to learn more about during their participation in a research project, both for themselves, their colleagues and their students. The questionnaire consisted of Likert-scale and open-ended questions. Sixty teachers responded, thereby yielding a response rate of 71%. In focus in this paper is a qualitative content analysis of the open-ended questions. The analysis revealed six desired areas of learning: (a) technological aspects, (b) how to use ICT for teaching and learning, (c) the Learning Management System (LMS), (d) safety and plagiarism, (e) best practice and (f) collaboration and professional development. The aspects of knowledge addressed in these themes were analysed and discussed in relation to the TPACK model. A conclusion that can be drawn from the analysis is that the teachers inquired different forms of knowledge and that interpretation of ‘technological pedagogical content knowledge’ only emerged in one of the themes. This study then informed the research design in multiple ways, the two most apparent being a survey of students acknowledging teachers’ expressed research interests and the design and implementation of a formative intervention group interview.

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  • 40.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Department of Education, Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Fransson, Göran
    Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    Department of Teacher Education and School Research, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools: a thematic review of research2015In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 103-121Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a review of international research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools. The aim was to provide a credible and clear picture of current research, together with some wellinformed suggestions as to how future research could develop. Two strategies were used: (1) identify themes within current research that indicate important lessons to be learned in relation to the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools, and (2) based on these lessons, identify which knowledge-gaps need to be closed and in the light of this suggest directions for further research. It is concluded that a rather complex and fragmented picture of the uptake and use of digital technologies emerges from the literature review. Three specific suggestions for research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary school are provided: (1) the outcomes of technology use in relation to different levels in the educational system, e.g. arenas of implementation and realization, (2) digital practices that are longitudinal and information-rich and that go beyond existing knowledge, and (3) initiatives for a renewal of theoretical and mmethodological approaches when designing and analyzing studies within the field.

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  • 41.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Department of Education, Mid Sweden University, Härnösand, Sweden.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Blogs and the design of reflective peer-to-peer technology-enhanced learning and formative assessment2011In: Campus-Wide Information Systems, ISSN 1065-0741, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the use of blogs as part of a formative assessment practice, to report how reflective peer-to-peer learning can be designed and provided in online higher education.

    Design/methodology/approach: The research relies on a qualitative approach. The empirical setting comprised an online higher education course in which 23 students were enrolled. All students wrote individual blogs, and the analysis was done using all postings and comments from the blogs. For the analysis the ICE (Ideas, Connections, and Extension) three level classification model was used.

    Findings: The designed blog exercise turned into an informal and formative type of assessment that scaffolds the students' learning, providing a reflective peer-to-peer technology-enhanced learning design.

    Research limitations/implications: The study is limited to one online higher education course. Additional research on educational technology and e-assessment is needed. In particular, research on the informed design of technology-enhanced learning practices characterized by formative e-assessment and the role of the designed use of blogs in the facilitating and enhancement of the students' peer-to-peer learning.

    Practical implications: The paper demonstrates that the design and use of blogs embrace a formative assessment approach that cultivates the students' reflective peer-to-peer learning.

    Originality/value: The paper provides insight into the designed use of blogs in online higher education together with the potential in formative assessment for learning. The ICE three-level classification model provides a dynamic possibility to analyze online higher educational practices.

  • 42.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. anders.d.olofsson@pedag.umu.se.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    University of Oslo.
    GCP5 Multi-Level Evaluations of TEL2014In: Grande Challenges in Technology Enhanced Learning / [ed] Frank Fischer, Fridolin Wild, Rosamund Sutherland & Lena Zirn, London: Springer, 2014, p. 12-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools: a thematic review of research2011In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 207-225Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a review of international research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools. The aim was to provide a credible and clear picture of current research, together with some well-informed suggestions as to how future research could develop. Two strategies were used: (1) identify themes within current research that indicate important lessons to be learned in relation to the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools, and (2) based on these lessons, identify which knowledge-gaps need to be closed and in the light of this suggest directions for further research. It is concluded that a rather complex and fragmented picture of the uptake and use of digital technologies emerges from the literature review. Three specific suggestions for research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary school are provided: (1) the outcomes of technology use in relation to different levels in the educational system, e.g. arenas of implementation and realization, (2) digital practices that are longitudinal and information-rich and that go beyond existing knowledge, and (3) initiatives for a renewal of theoretical and methodological approaches when designing and analyzing studies within the field.

  • 44.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mittuniversitetet, Härnösand.
    Jianli, Jiao
    South China Normal University Guangzhou, China.
    Gu, Limin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Editorial2013In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 595-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen the increased use of digital technologies for educational activities at all levels of the education system (Jopling, 2012). The one-to-one initiative (also called the 1:1 initiative), referring to one digital device per student (Penuel, 2006), is widespread in many parts of the Western world (see, for example, Bebell & O’Dwyer, 2010; Fleischer, 2012), with the Nordic countries being no exception (Kroksmark, 2011; JRC, 2013). On a policy level, digital technologies are said to influence teaching and learning (OECD, 2009) and to embody the potential to both improve and change activities in school settings (European Commission, 2008). This optimistic yet also naïve understanding of digital technologies in schools expressed on the policy level represents a challenge.

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  • 45.
    Olofsson, Anders D
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mid Sweden University.
    Stödberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Shared video media and blogging online: educational technologies for enhancing formative e-assessment?2011In: Campus Wide Information Systems, ISSN 1065-0741, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Purpose - This paper provide an understanding of the students’ meaning-making processes, as they are part of an e-assessment practice via written blog posting upon their own and their co-students performances presented online through shared video media.

    Design/methodology/approach - This research relies on qualitative data to provide an analysis of the students´ use of the educational technology tool called VoiceThread©. This data was provided by collecting Swedish higher education students’ postings and comments in relation to two video clips published in VoiceThread©. The formal learning sequence model by Selander (2008) together with theories on communication and reflection was used in the analysis.

    Findings - The data and the analysis show that shared video media and blogging embrace a potential to facilitate communication and reflection among online higher education students. In addition the design of the course seems to strengthen the use of formative e-assessment.

    Research limitations/implications - The research reported on in this paper should preferable be followed by additional research on educational technology, social software and e-assessment; informed design of practices of formative e-assessment; and the role of formative e-assessment in the facilitating and enhancement of the students´ learning and meaning-making processes.

    Practical implications - This paper provides researched-based ideas of in what way teachers in online higher education can design their courses if wanting to cultivate the students´ communicative and reflective skills.

    Originality/value - The paper demonstrates originality and value by providing an important insight into the use of shared video media and blogging in online higher education. Especially the way it can be designed for within a formative e-assessment course approach. 

  • 46.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    A glimpse of a Nordic model? Policy and practice in the digitalisation of the K-12 school and teacher education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden: Editorial introduction2021In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 311-316Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 47.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    När IT i skolan tar form - en studie av ett avancerat användande av digitala teknologier i svensk gymnasieskola2021In: Resultatdialog 2021, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2021, p. 56-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Resultatdialog 2021
  • 48.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Students' voices about information and communication technology in upper secondary schools2018In: The international journal of information and learning technology, ISSN 2056-4880, E-ISSN 2056-4899, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 82-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore upper secondary school students’ voices on how information and communication technology (ICT) could structure and support their everyday activities and time at school.

    Design/methodology/approach: In all, 11 group interviews were conducted with a total of 46 students from three upper secondary schools. NVivo PRO 11 was used for a qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: The results show that ICT plays a central role in the students’ schooling, not in terms of “state-of-the-art” technology, but rather as “state-of-the-actual”, by for example supporting the writing process and for peer support, digital documentation and storage.

    Research limitations/implications: A relatively small number of students in three schools and three specific programmes make generalisations difficult.

    Practical implications: Students’ perspectives on the “state-of-the-actual” could influence teachers’ use of ICT in education, their professional development activities and the development of an in-school ICT infrastructure.

    Social implications: The study could lead to a better understanding of students’ expectations and use of ICT at school and in everyday life.

    Originality/value: The originality of this paper is the focus on students’ voices about how the basic use and functionality of ICT could structure and support their everyday activities at school.

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  • 49.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fransson, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Swedish upper secondary school teachers' experiences with coping with emergency remote teaching (ERT): emerging pedagogical issues in pandemic times2021In: Education in the North, ISSN 2398-0184, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 85-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a research project on the advanced use of digital technology in Swedish upper secondary schools. The study was aimed at mapping and analysing teachers’ experiences during the first six months of their mandatory emergency remote teaching (ERT) experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 16 teachers at three schools were interviewed from late June until the end of August 2020. The findings from a qualitative thematic analysis showed that ERT was a major positive catalyst or boost for both their profession-based digital competence and their schools’ digitalisation. Moreover, they experienced decreased workloads during the first six months of ERT. However, the teachers found it challenging to be tied to a specific digital platform or digital tool. Other findings revealed that, for teachers, the key to leading well-functioning digital classrooms was to develop personal relationships with their students. In addition, the teachers reported seeing several aspects of their ERT practice that they planned to sustain after the pandemic. From the study, it can be concluded that the teachers’ ERT practice not only included teaching and learning but also made a huge difference in their collegiality. Further research is needed regarding which newly established digitally supported pedagogical practices should be upheld after the pandemic.

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  • 50.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Young Pedersen, Alex
    Centre for Teaching Development and Digital Media, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Arstorp, Ann-Thérèse
    Department of Educational Science, University of Southeastern Norway, Drammen, Norway.
    Dalsgaard, Christian
    Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Einum, Even
    Department of Teacher Education/Department of Education, Norwegian University of Technology and Science/Trondelag County Council, Trondheim, Norway.
    Caviglia, Francesco
    Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Ilomäki, Liisa
    Technology in Education Research Group, Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mäkinen, Marjaana
    Department of Teacher Education, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Häkkinen, Päivi
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Finland, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Willermark, Sara
    Department of Media and Design, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Digital competence across boundaries - beyond a common Nordic model of the digitalisation of K-12 schools?2021In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 317-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores policy related to digital competence and the digitalisation of Nordic K-12 schools. Anchored in some key transnational policies on digital competence, it describes some current Nordic movements in the national policies of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The concept of boundary objects is used as an analytical lens, for understanding digital competence as a plastic and temporal concept that can be used to discuss the multi-dimensional translation of this concept in these Nordic countries. The paper ends with a discussion of the potential to view digital competence as a unifying boundary object that, with its plasticity, temporality and n-dimensionality, can show signs of common Nordic efforts in the K-12 school policy.

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