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  • 1.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Hedberg, G
    Bergström, E
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    High thigh muscle strength but not bone mass in young horseback-riding females1998Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 62, nr 6, s. 497-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate whether the type of weight-bearing loading subjected to the skeleton during horseback-riding was associated with differences in bone mass and muscle strength of the thigh, we investigated bone mass and isokinetic muscle strength in 20 female horse riders (age 17.9 +/- 0.6 years) who were riding 7.0 +/- 3.4 hours/week, and 20 nonactive females (age 17.8 +/- 1.1 years). The groups were matched according to age, weight, and height. Areal bone mineral density was measured in total body, head, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter, the whole dominant and nondominant humerus, and in specific sites in the right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia, and tibia diaphysis using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic concentric and eccentric peak torque of the quadricep and hamstring muscles were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. There were no significant differences in bone mass between the horseback riders and nonactives at any site measured. The horse riders were significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) stronger in concentric hamstrings strength at 90 degrees/second and 225 degrees/second and in eccentric quadricep and hamstring strength at 90 degrees/second. Horseback riding in young females is associated with a high muscle strength of the thigh, but not with a high bone mass.

  • 2.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Pietilä, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis1999Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 450-455Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ongoing prospective study of 14 recreational athletes (12 males and 2 females, mean age 44.2 +/- 7.1 years) with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinosis, we investigated the effect of treatment with heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training. Pain during activity (recorded on a VAS scale) and isokinetic concentric and eccentric calf-muscle strength (peak torque at 90 degrees /second and 225 degrees /second) on the injured and noninjured side were evaluated. In this group of patients, we examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus after 9 months (range 6-14 months) of training. BMD of the injured side (subjected to heavy-loaded eccentric training) was compared with BMD of the noninjured side. Before onset of heavy-loaded eccentric training, all patients had Achilles tendon pain which prohibited running activity, and significantly lower concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured compared with the noninjured side. The training program consisted of 12 weeks of daily, heavy-loaded, eccentric calf-muscle training; thereafter the training was continued for 2-3 days/week. The clinical results were excellent-all 14 patients were back at their preinjury level with full running activity at the 3 month follow-up. The concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque had increased significantly and did not significantly differ from the noninjured side at the 3 and 9 month follow-up. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. There was no significant relationship between BMD of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength. As a comparison group, we used 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females) mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55 years), who were selected for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Their duration of symptoms and severity of disease were the same as in the experimental group. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus preoperatively, but 12 months postoperatively BMD of the calcaneus was 16.4% lower at the injured side compared with the noninjured side. Heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training resulted in a fast recovery in all patients, equaled the side-to-side differences in muscle strength, and was not associated with side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. In this group of middle-aged recreational athletes, BMD of the calcaneus was not related to calf-muscle strength.

  • 3.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Pietilä, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Long-term loading and regional bone mass of the arm in female volleyball players1998Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 303-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we compared the bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the arms of 11 female volleyball players (mean age 22.0 +/- 2.6 years) training for about 8 hours/week, and 11 nonactive females aged 24.6 +/- 3.1 years (mean +/- SD) not participating in regular or organized sport activity. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), BMC was measured in the proximal and distal humerus, and BMD in the distal radius. Isokinetic concentric peak torque (highest value attained during 5 or 10 repetitions) of the rotator muscles of the shoulder and flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. The volleyball players had significantly higher BMC (P < 0.05) at the proximal humerus of the dominant arm compared with the nonactive group, but there were no differences between the groups in BMC of the distal humerus and BMD of the distal radius. In the volleyball players, BMC was significantly higher at the proximal humerus, at the distal humerus, and at the distal radius in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm. In the nonactive group, there were no significant differences in BMC and BMD between the dominant and nondominant arm at any site measured. Except for shoulder internal rotation strength and elbow flexion strength at 90 degrees/second that was higher in the dominant arm in the volleyball players, there were no significant differences in muscle strength of the rotator muscles of the shoulder and flexor and extensor muscles of the elbow between the dominant and nondominant arm in the volleyball players and nonactive controls. In the volleyball players, but not in the nonactive controls, there were several significant relationships between shoulder and elbow strength and BMC at the distal humerus of the dominant and especially the nondominant arm. These results show that young female volleyball players have a higher bone mass in the proximal humerus, distal humerus, and distal radius in the dominant compared with the nondominant arm, and a higher bone mass in the proximal humerus compared with nonactive controls. Muscle strength of the rotator muscles of the shoulder is not related to the higher bone mass in the proximal humerus of the dominant arm. Theoretically, the observed differences in bone mass can be related to the type of loading the skeleton undergoes when playing volleyball.

  • 4.
    Almevall, Ariel
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Division of Nursing and Medical Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Dahlin Almevall, Albin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Öhlin, Jerry
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Zingmark, Karin
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Division of Nursing and Medical Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för fysioterapi.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för diagnostik och intervention.
    Self-rated health in old age, related factors and survival: A 20-Year longitudinal study within the Silver-MONICA cohort2024Ingår i: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 122, artikel-id 105392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) offers insights into the evolving health demographics of an ageing population.

    Aim: To assess change in SRH from old age to very old age and their associations with health and well-being factors, and to investigate the association between SRH and survival.

    Methods: All participants in the MONICA 1999 re-examination born before 1940 (n = 1595) were included in the Silver-MONICA baseline cohort. The Silver-MONICA follow-up started in 2016 included participants in the Silver-MONICA baseline cohort aged 80 years or older. Data on SRH was available for 1561 participants at baseline with 446 of them also participating in the follow-up. The follow-up examination included a wide variety of measurements and tests.

    Findings: Most participants rated their health as "Quite good" (54.5 %) at baseline. Over the study period, 42.6 % had stable SRH, 40.6 % had declined, and 16.8 % had improved. Changes in SRH were at follow-up significantly associated with age, pain, nutrition, cognition, walking aid use, self-paced gait speed, lower extremity strength, independence in activities of daily living, weekly physical exercise, outdoor activity, participation in organized activities, visiting others, morale, and depressive symptoms. SRH at baseline was significantly associated with survival (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates associations between changes in SRH and a multitude of health- and wellbeing-related factors, as well as a relation between survival and SRH, accentuating their relevance within the ageing population.

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  • 5.
    Bailey, Leslie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Engström, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection results in generalized bone loss in mice2008Ingår i: Microbes and infection, ISSN 1286-4579, E-ISSN 1769-714X, Vol. 10, nr 10-11, s. 1175-1181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Bailey, Leslie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Gylfe, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Sundin, Charlotta
    Muschiol, Sandra
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
    Lugert, Raimond
    Waldenström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Wolf-Watz, Hans
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Small molecule inhibitors of type III secretion in Yersinia block the Chlamydia pneumoniae infection cycle2007Ingår i: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 581, nr 4, s. 587-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracellular parasitism by Chlamydiales is a complex process involving transmission of metabolically inactive particles that differentiate, replicate, and re-differentiate within the host cell. A type three secretion system (T3SS) has been implicated in this process. We have here identified small molecules of a chemical class of acylated hydrazones of salicylaldehydes that specifically blocks the T3SS of Chlamydia. These compounds also affect the developmental cycle showing that the T3SS has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia. Our results suggest a previously unexplored avenue for development of novel anti-chlamydial drugs.

  • 7.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Antonsson, Oskar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosenqvist, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Association of dog ownership with accelerometer-measured physical activity and daily steps in 70-year-old individuals: a population-based cross-sectional study2021Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, nr 1, artikel-id 2313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dog ownership (DO) has been associated with higher levels of self-reported walking and physical activity. However, compared to device-based measures, self-reported measures of physical activity may suffer from bias due to recall and social desirability. They are also incapable of quantifying light-intensity physical activity (LPA) and step volume, both of which may have important health benefits, especially for older adults. In this study, we investigated the association of DO with accelerometer-measured physical activity of different intensities and daily steps in 70-year-old individuals.

    Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study including 1406 participants aged 70 years [54.1% female] who participated in a health survey in Umeå, Sweden between February 2017–November 2019. All participants self-reported DO [yes/no]. Daily averages of LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), and steps per day [steps/d] were measured for 1 week using hip-mounted Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Associations were investigated using linear- and logistic regression models, adjusted for sociodemographic and health-related factors, date of examination, and accelerometer wear time.

    Results: The prevalence of DO was 14.1% [N = 199]. After adjustment for all covariates, DO was associated with 19.2 more minutes/d of LPA [95% CI, 8.8–29.6], 11.4 more minutes/d of MVPA [95% CI, 8.0–14.9] and 1738 more steps/d [95% CI, 1326–2149]. DO was also associated with twice the odds of meeting the physical activity recommendations [OR, 2.07, 95% CI, 1.48–2.90]. Exploratory interaction analyses showed that the association between DO and steps/d was stronger [Pinteraction = 0.030] in female [β = 2165, 95% CI, 1585–2744] than in male [β =1255, 95% CI, 664–1845], with a similar trend for MVPA [Pinteraction = 0.082].

    Conclusions: In this study of community-dwelling 70-year-old individuals, DO was associated with higher levels of daily LPA, MVPA, and steps. With the limitation of the observational design of the study, these findings add knowledge regarding the beneficial role that DO may play for promoting physical activity in the older population. In turn, these findings could support the development and evaluation of targeted interventions seeking to promote dog-friendly environments and facilitate dog walking in the community.

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  • 8.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Medical Unit Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Excess Mortality After COVID-19 in Swedish Long-Term Care Facilities2021Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 1574-1580.e8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare 30-day mortality in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents with and without COVID-19 and to investigate the impact of 31 potential risk factors for mortality in COVID-19 cases.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Setting and Participants: All residents of LTCFs registered in Senior Alert, a Swedish national database of health examinations in older adults, during 2019-2020.

    Methods: We selected residents with confirmed COVID-19 until September 15, 2020, along with time-dependent propensity score–matched controls without COVID-19. Exposures were COVID-19, age, sex, comorbidities, medications, and other patient characteristics. The outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality.

    Results: A total of 3731 residents (median age 87 years, 64.5% female) with COVID-19 were matched to 3731 controls without COVID-19. Thirty-day mortality was 39.9% in COVID-19 cases and 5.7% in controls [relative risk 7.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.10-8.14]. In COVID-19 cases, the odds ratio (OR) for 30-day mortality was 2.44 (95% CI 1.57-3.81) in cases aged 80-84 years, 2.99 (95% CI 1.93-4.65) in cases aged 85-89 years, and 3.28 (95% CI 2.11-5.10) in cases aged ≥90 years, as compared with cases aged <70 years. Other risk factors for mortality among COVID-19 cases included male sex (OR, 2.60, 95% CI 2.22-3.05), neuropsychological conditions (OR, 2.18; 95% CI 1.76-2.71), impaired walking ability (OR, 1.45, 95% CI 1.17-1.78), urinary and bowel incontinence (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.22-1.85), diabetes (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.11-1.68) and previous pneumonia (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.32-1.85). Nutritional factors, cardiovascular diseases, and antihypertensive medications were not significantly associated with mortality.

    Conclusions and Implications: In Swedish LTCFs, COVID-19 was associated with a large excess in mortality after controlling for an extensive number of risk factors. Beyond older age and male sex, several prevalent clinical risk factors independently contributed to higher mortality. These findings suggest that reducing transmission of COVID-19 in LTCFs will likely prevent a considerable number of deaths.

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  • 9.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Björk, Sabine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Dinsmore, John
    Trinity Centre for Practice and Healthcare Innovation, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Digital exercise interventions for improving measures of central obesity: a systematic review2020Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 593-605Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We aimed to systematically review the potential benefits of digital exercise interventions for improving measures of central obesity including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and anthropometric surrogates for VAT in overweight or centrally obese adults aged 18 or over.

    Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in three databases up until March 2020 (PROSPERO registration nr CRD42019126764).

    Results: N = 5 studies including 438 participants (age 48–80) with body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 met the eligibility criteria and were included. The duration of the interventions ranged from 8 to 24 weeks. No study measured the primary outcome VAT, although in N = 4 studies, waist circumference (WC) decreased by between 1.3 and 5.6 cm in the intervention groups.

    Conclusions: This systematic review shows that there is no evidence for the effects of digital exercise on VAT, although digital exercise may decrease WC. These findings highlight the need for additional randomized controlled trials to confirm the findings with respect to WC, and to further investigate the effects of digital exercise on VAT. Together, this may have important implications for reducing the burden of physical inactivity and obesity.

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  • 10.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Björk, Sabine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Web-based exercise versus supervised exercise for decreasing visceral adipose tissue in older adults with central obesity: a randomized controlled trial2020Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increases with age. While supervised exercise (SE) may be an effective approach, web-based exercise (WE) have other advantages such as being more readily accessible. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of WE on VAT, body composition and cardiometabolic risk markers in centrally obese older adults and compared the effects of WE to SE. We also explored the feasibility of WE.

    METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial conducted in Umeå, Sweden during January 2018 - November 2018, N = 77, 70-year-old men and women with central obesity (> 1 kg VAT for women, > 2 kg for men) were randomized to an intervention group (n = 38) and a wait-list control group (n = 39). The intervention group received 10 weeks of SE while the wait-list control group lived as usual. Following a 10-week wash-out-period, the wait-list control group received 10 weeks of WE. The primary outcome was changes in VAT. Secondary outcomes included changes in fat mass (FM), lean body mass (LBM), blood lipids, fasting blood glucose. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of WE defined as adherence and participant experiences.

    RESULTS: WE had no significant effect on VAT (P = 0.5), although it decreased FM by 450 g (95% confidence interval [CI], 37 to 836, P < 0.05). The adherence to WE was 85% and 87-97% of the participants rated aspects of the WE intervention > 4 on a scale of 1-5. Comparing SE to WE, there was no significant difference in decrease of VAT (Cohen's δ effect size [ES], 0.5, 95% CI, - 24 to 223, P = 0.11), although SE decreased FM by 619 g (ES, 0.5, 95% CI, 22 to 1215, P < 0.05) compared to WE.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ten weeks of vigorous WE is insufficient to decrease VAT in centrally obese older adults, but sufficient to decrease FM while preserving LBM. The high adherence and positive experiences of the WE intervention implies that it could serve as an alternative exercise strategy for older adults with central obesity, with increased availability for a larger population.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03450655), retrospectively registered February 28, 2018.

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  • 11.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Ioannidis, John P.
    Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, Stanford, United States; Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, Stanford, United States.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Center for Alzheimer Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Medical Unit Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Time-varying risk of death after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Swedish long-term care facility residents: a matched cohort study2022Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, nr 11, artikel-id e066258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities is associated with higher mortality after the acute phase of infection, and to estimate survival in uninfected residents.

    DESIGN: Extended follow-up of a previous, propensity score-matched, retrospective cohort study based on the Swedish Senior Alert register.

    SETTING: LTC facilities in Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: n=3604 LTC residents with documented SARS-CoV-2 until 15 September 2020 matched to 3604 uninfected controls using time-dependent propensity scores on age, sex, health status, comorbidities, prescription medications, geographical region and Senior Alert registration time. In a secondary analysis (n=3731 in each group), geographical region and Senior Alert registration time were not matched for in order to increase the follow-up time in controls and allow for an estimation of median survival.

    PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause mortality until 24 October 2020, tracked using the National Cause of Death Register.

    RESULTS: Median age was 87 years and 65% were women. Excess mortality peaked at 5 days after documented SARS-CoV-2-infection (HR 21.5, 95% CI 15.9 to 29.2), after which excess mortality decreased. From the second month onwards, mortality rate became lower in infected residents than controls. The HR for death during days 61-210 of follow-up was 0.76 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.93). The median survival of uninfected controls was 1.6 years, which was much lower than the national life expectancy in Sweden at age 87 (5.05 years in men, 6.07 years in women).

    CONCLUSIONS: The risk of death after SARS-CoV-2 infection in LTC residents peaked after 5 days and decreased after 2 months, probably because the frailest residents died during the acute phase, leaving healthier residents remaining. The limited life expectancy in this population suggests that LTC resident status should be accounted for when estimating years of life lost due to COVID-19.

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  • 12.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Sörlén, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. Department of Sport Science, School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Effects of interval training on quality of life and cardiometabolic risk markers in older adults: a randomized controlled trial2019Ingår i: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 14, s. 1589-1599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore the effects of 10 weeks of progressive vigorous interval training as a single intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiometabolic risk markers in centrally obese 70-year-old individuals.

    Participants and methods: A randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT03450655) including seventy-seven community-dwelling 70-year-old men and women with central obesity defined as > 1 kg visceral adipose tissue for women and > 2 kg for men. Participants randomized to the intervention group were offered a 10-week progressive vigorous interval training program performed three times per week. Control subjects were asked to maintain their daily living and routines throughout the trial. All participants in both groups had received tailored lifestyle recommendations focused on diet and physical activity at one occasion within 12 months prior to trial initiation. Prespecified outcome measures included: changes in HRQoL using the Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36), blood pressure; resting heart rate (HR) and blood lipids. All analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis.

    Results: The intervention resulted in significant effects on the SF-36 mental component summary (MCS) score and the mental health (MH) subscale (P< 0.05 for both), when compared to the control group. Specifically, the intervention group increased their MCS score by 6.3 points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.3–12.3) and their MH score by 6.0 points (95% CI = 1.7–10.4) compared to the control group. Moreover, significant effects were seen on resting HR, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05 for all).

    Conclusion: It was shown that 10 weeks of vigorous interval training as a single intervention was sufficient to improve mental aspects of HRQoL in older individuals with central obesity, which is a critical aspect of healthy ageing. Positive effects were seen also on cardiometabolic risk markers.

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  • 13.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sörlén, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Effects of Interval Training on Visceral Adipose Tissue in Centrally Obese 70-Year-Old Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial2019Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 67, nr 8, s. 1625-1631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 10 weeks of progressive vigorous-intensity interval training as a single intervention on body composition among 70-year-old individuals with central obesity.

    DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration No. NCT03450655).

    SETTING: Community-dwelling 70-year-old men and women living in the Umeå municipality in Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven 70-year-old men and women with central obesity (greater than 1 kg visceral adipose tissue [VAT] for women and greater than 2 kg VAT for men).

    INTERVENTION: Participants allocated to the intervention group were offered a 10-week progressive concurrent exercise program performed three times per week. All participants in both groups had received tailored lifestyle recommendations focused on diet and physical activity at one occasion within 12 months prior to trial initiation.

    MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was changes in VAT, and secondary outcomes included changes in total fat mass (FM), total lean body mass (LBM), and body mass index.

    RESULTS: Comparing the groups, there were no significant differences in decrease of VAT mass (P = .10), although the intervention group significantly decreased FM by 716 g (P = .01) and gained LBM by 508 g (P = .03), compared to the control group. Furthermore, the effects of the training were significantly greater in the male subcohort (P < .05 for interaction), with positive effects also on VAT and FM, where men in the intervention group decreased VAT by 175 g (P < .05) and FM by 1364 g (P = .004), compared to the male controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present trial demonstrates that 10 weeks of progressive vigorous interval training is sufficient to significantly decrease FM in older adults with central obesity, with positive effects also on LBM.

  • 14.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality in Male Twins with Discordant Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Nationwide Cohort Study2020Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 189, nr 10, s. 1114-1123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether genetic and familial factors influence the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unknown. Two cohorts were formed based on 1,212,295, 18-year-old men that conscripted for military service in Sweden 1972-1996. The first comprised 4,260 twin pairs where twins in each pair had different CRF (≥1 Watt). The second comprised 90,331 non-sibling pairs with different CRF and matched on birth year and year of conscription. Incident CVD and all-cause mortality were identified using national registers. During follow-up (median 32 years), there was no difference in CVD and mortality between fitter twins and less fit twins (246 vs 251 events; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83, 1.20). The risks were similar in twin pairs with ≥60 Watt difference in CRF (HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.57, 1.64). In contrast, in the non-sibling cohort, fitter men had a lower risk of the outcomes than less fit men (4444 vs 5298 events; HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.83, 0.92). The association was stronger in pairs with ≥60 Watt difference in CRF (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.71). These findings indicate that genetic and familial factors influence the association of CRF with CVD and mortality.

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  • 15.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Does exercise prevent major non-communicable diseases and premature mortality?: A critical review based on results from randomized controlled trials2021Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 290, nr 6, s. 1112-1129Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Observational studies show that physical activity is strongly associated with a reduced risk of premature mortality and major non-communicable diseases. We reviewed to which extent these associations have been confirmed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the outcomes of mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and fracture. The results show that exercise does not reduce all-cause mortality and incident CVD in older adults or in people with chronic conditions, based on RCTs comprising ∼50,000 participants. The results also indicate a lack of effect on cardiovascular mortality in people with chronic conditions, based on RCTs comprising ∼11,000 participants. Furthermore, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the effect of exercise on fractures in older adults, based on RCTs comprising ∼40,000 participants. Finally, based on RCTs comprising ∼17,000 participants, exercise reduces T2D incidence in people with prediabetes when combined with dietary modification, although evidence for the individual effect of exercise is lacking. Identified shortcomings of the current evidence include risks of publication bias, lack of high-quality studies in certain high-risk populations, and inconstant evidence with respect to some outcomes. Thus, additional large trials would be of value, especially with fracture as the primary outcome. In conclusion, according to current RCT evidence, exercise can prevent T2D assuming it is combined with dietary intervention. However, the current evidence shows that exercise does not prevent premature mortality or CVD, with inconsistent evidence for fractures.

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  • 16.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Alamäki, Antti
    Condell, Joan
    Tedesco, Salvatore
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Daily step count and incident diabetes in community-dwelling 70-year-olds: a prospective cohort study2020Ingår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikel-id 1830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older adults with diabetes take fewer steps per day than those without diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of daily step count with incident diabetes in community-dwelling 70-year-olds.

    Methods: This prospective cohort study included N = 3055 community-dwelling 70-year-olds (52% women) who participated in a health examination in Umeå, Sweden during 2012–2017, and who were free from diabetes at baseline. Daily step count was measured for 1 week using Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Cases of diabetes were collected from the Swedish National Patient Register. The dose-response association was evaluated graphically using a flexible parametric model, and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox regressions.

    Results: During a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, diabetes was diagnosed in 81 participants. There was an inverse nonlinear dose-response association between daily step count and incident diabetes, with a steep decline in risk of diabetes from a higher daily step count until around 6000 steps/day. From there, the risk decreased at a slower rate until it leveled off at around 8000 steps/day. A threshold of 4500 steps/day was found to best distinguish participants with the lowest risk of diabetes, where those taking ≥ 4500 steps/day, had 59% lower risk of diabetes, compared to those taking fewer steps (HR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.25–0.66). Adjusting for visceral adipose tissue (VAT) attenuated the association (HR, 0.64, 95% CI, 0.38–1.06), which was marginally altered after further adjusting for sedentary time, education and other cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases (HR, 0.58, 95% CI, 0.32–1.05).

    Conclusions: A higher daily step count is associated with lower risk of incident diabetes in community-dwelling 70-year-olds. The greatest benefits occur at the lower end of the activity range, and much earlier than 10,000 steps/day. With the limitation of being an observational study, these findings suggest that promoting even a modest increase in daily step count may help to reduce the risk of diabetes in older adults. Because VAT appears to partly mediate the association, lifestyle interventions targeting diabetes should apart from promoting physical activity also aim to prevent and reduce central obesity.

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  • 17.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with the Risk of Stroke, Myocardial Infarction or All‑Cause Mortality in 70‑Year‑Old Men and Women: A Prospective Cohort Study2020Ingår i: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 339-349Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) with the combined outcome of incident stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) or all-cause mortality in older adults.

    Methods: N = 3343 men and women aged 70 who participated in a health survey between 2012 and 2017 were included. Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers were used to measure light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-intensity PA (MPA) and ST for 1 week. Incident cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in terms of stroke or MI, and all-cause mortality were identified using national registers. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions.

    Results: During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years (0.1–5.6), there were 124 events of CVD or all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders and mediators, every 30-min/day increment in LPA was associated with 11% lower risk of CVD or all-cause mortality (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.97), and every 30-min/day increment in MPA was associated with 36% lower risk (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48–0.84). Every 1-h/day increment in ST increased the risk of the outcomes by 33% (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14–1.56), although there was no significant association among participants who performed ≥ 30 min/day MPA (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.82–1.50, P = 0.034 for interaction). None of the associations were modified by sex (P > 0.4 for all).

    Conclusion: Objectively measured LPA and MPA are each associated with lower risk of stroke, MI or all-cause mortality in 70-year-old individuals, while ST is associated with increased risk. The greatest risk reduction is observed for MPA, which also appears to attenuate some of the increased risks associated with ST.

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  • 18.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, Ui T The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Associations of visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle density with incident stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling 70-year-old individuals: A prospective cohort study2021Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id e020065Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Aging leads to increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced skeletal muscle density. To which extent these are associated with the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality in older adults is unknown.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3294 70-year-old individuals (49.6% women) underwent a health examination in Umeå, Sweden, during 2012 to 2018. VAT and muscle density were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Cases of stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality were collected through national registers. Cox regressions were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs per SD greater VAT and per SD lower muscle density. During a mean follow-up of 3.6 years, there were 108 cases of stroke or MI, and 97 deaths. Greater VAT (adjusted HR [aHR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.09– 2.22), but not lower muscle density (aHR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.97–1.34), was associated with increased risk of stroke or MI. Neither VAT (aHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.65–1.41) nor muscle density (aHR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.92–1.34) was associated with all-cause mortality. The association of VAT with stroke or MI was only significant in men (aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.19– 2.91) but not women (aHR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.25–1.42) (Pinteraction =0.038).

    CONCLUSIONS: With the limitation of being an observational study, these findings suggest that VAT is an important obesity-related predictor of cardiovascular risk in 70-year-old men, and by implication, that decreasing VAT may potentially reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease.

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  • 19.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Associations of light, moderate to vigorous, and total physical activity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in 4,652 community-dwelling 70-year-olds: A population-based cross-sectional study2021Ingår i: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, ISSN 1063-8652, E-ISSN 1543-267X, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 735-743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this cross-sectional study, the authors investigated the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older adults. Accelerometer-derived light-intensity PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and steps per day were measured in (N = 4,652) 70-year-olds in Umeå, Sweden, during May 2012-November 2019. The MetS was assessed according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The prevalence of MetS was 49.3%. Compared with the reference, the odds ratios for MetS in increasing quartiles of light-intensity PA were 0.91 (0.77-1.09), 0.75 (0.62-0.89), and 0.66 (0.54-0.80). For moderate to vigorous PA, the corresponding odds ratios were 0.79 (0.66-0.94), 0.67 (0.56-0.80), and 0.56 (0.46-0.67). For steps per day, the odds ratios were 0.65 (0.55-0.78), 0.55 (0.46-0.65), and 0.45 (0.36-0.55). In summary, this study shows that greater amounts of PA, regardless of intensity, are associated with lower odds of MetS. With the limitation of being an observational study, these findings may have implications for the prevention of MetS in older adults.

  • 20.
    Berggren, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Englund, Undis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nordstöm, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Stenvall, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Effects of geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation on complications and readmissions after hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial2019Ingår i: Clinical Rehabilitation, ISSN 0269-2155, E-ISSN 1477-0873, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 64-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This pre-planned secondary analysis of geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation, which was initially found to shorten the postoperative length of stay in hospital for older individuals following hip fracture, investigated whether such rehabilitation reduced the numbers of complications, readmissions, and total days spent in hospital after discharge during a 12-month follow-up period compared with conventional geriatric care and rehabilitation.

    Design: Randomized controlled trial.

    Setting: Geriatric department, participants' residential care facilities, and ordinary housing.

    Subjects: Individuals aged ⩾70 years with acute hip fracture (n = 205) were included.

    Intervention: Geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation was individually designed and aimed at early discharge with the intention to prevent, detect, and treat complications after discharge.

    Main measures: Complications, readmissions, and days spent in hospital were registered from patients' digital records and interviews conducted during hospitalization and at 3- and 12-month follow-up visits.

    Results: No significant difference in outcomes was observed. Between discharge and the 12-month follow-up, among participants in the geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation group (n = 106) and control group (n = 93), 57 (53.8%) and 44 (47.3%) had complications (P = 0.443), 46 (43.4%) and 38 (40.9%) fell (P = 0.828), and 38 (35.8%) and 27 (29.0%) were readmitted to hospital (P = 0.383); the median total days spent in hospital were 11.5 and 11.0 (P = 0.353), respectively.

    Conclusion: Geriatric interdisciplinary home rehabilitation for older individuals following hip fracture resulted in similar proportions of complications, readmissions, and total days spent in hospital after discharge compared with conventional geriatric care and rehabilitation.

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  • 21.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Attention in Older Adults: A Normative Study of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Persons Aged 70 Years2015Ingår i: Clinical Neuropsychologist (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section D), ISSN 1385-4046, E-ISSN 1744-4144, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 595-610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Our objective was to present normative data from 70-year-olds on the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA), a computerized measure of attention and response control. Method: 640 participants (330 men and 310 women), all aged 70years, completed the IVA, as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results: Data were stratified by education and gender. Education differences were found in 11 of 22 IVA scales. Minor gender differences were found in six scales for the high-education group, and two scales for the low-education group. Comparisons of healthy participants and participants with stroke, myocardial infarction, or diabetes showed only minor differences. Correlations among IVA scales were strong (all r > .34, p < .001), and those with the widely used Mini-Mental State Examination were weaker (all r < .21, p < .05). Skewed distributions of normative data from primary IVA scales measuring response inhibition (Prudence) and inattention (Vigilance) represent a weakness of this test. Conclusions: This study provides IVA norms for 70-year-olds stratified by education and gender, increasing the usability of this instrument when testing persons near this age. The data presented here show some major differences from original IVA norms, and explanations for these differences are discussed. Explanations include the broad age-range used in the original IVA norms (66-99years of age) and the passage of 15years since the original norms were collected.

  • 22.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Fatigue after traumatic brain injury is linked to altered striato-thalamic-cortical functioning2017Ingår i: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 31, nr 6-7, s. 755-755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental fatigue is a common symptom in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury. Despite its high prevalence, no treatmentis available for this disabling symptom, and the mechanisms underlying fatigue are poorly understood. Some studies have suggested that fatigue in traumatic brain injury and other neurological disorders might reflect dysfunction within striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In the present study, we investigated whether functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) can be used to detect chronic fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI), with emphasis on the striato-thalamic cortical-loops. We included patients who had suffered traumatic brain injury (n = 57, age range 20–64 years) and experienced mental fatigue > 1 year post injury (mean = 8.79 years, SD = 7.35), and age- and sex-matched healthycontrols (n = 27, age range 25–65 years). All participants completed self-assessment scales of fatigue and other symptoms, underwent an extensive neuropsychological test battery and performed a fatiguing 27-minute attention task (the modified Symbol Digit Modalities Test) during fMRI. Accuracy did not differ between groups, but reaction times were slower in the traumatic brain injury group (p < 0.001). Patients showed a greater increase in fatigue than controls from before to after task completion (p < 0.001). Patients showed less fMRI blood oxygen level–dependent activity in several a priori hypothesized regions (family-wise error corrected,p < 0.05), including the bilateral caudate, thalamus and anterior insula. Using the left caudate as a region of interest and testing for sensitivity and specificity, we identified 91% of patients and 81% of controls. As expected, controls showed decreased activation over time in regions of interest—the bilateral caudate and anterior thalamus (p < 0.002, uncorrected)—whereas patients showed no corresponding activity decrease. These results suggest that chronic fatigue after TBI is linked to altered striato-thalamic-cortical functioning. The high precision of fMRI for the detection of fatigue is of great clinical interest, given the lack of objective measures for the diagnosis of fatigue.

  • 23.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Chronic Fatigue in Patients With Previous Traumatic Brain Injury: changes linked to altered Striato-Thalamic-Cortical Functioning2018Ingår i: The journal of head trauma rehabilitation, ISSN 0885-9701, E-ISSN 1550-509X, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 266-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI).

    Setting: Neurorehabilitation clinic.

    Participants: Patients with TBI (n = 57) and self-experienced fatigue more than 1 year postinjury, and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 27).

    Main Measures: Self-assessment scales of fatigue, a neuropsychological test battery, and fMRI scanning during performance of a fatiguing 27-minute attention task.

    Results: During testing within the fMRI scanner, patients showed a higher increase in self-reported fatigue than controls from before to after completing the task (P < .001).The patients also showed lower activity in several regions, including bilateral caudate, thalamus, and anterior insula (all P < .05). Furthermore, the patients failed to display decreased activation over time in regions of interest: the bilateral caudate and anterior thalamus (all P < .01). Left caudate activity correctly identified 91% of patients and 81% of controls, resulting in a positive predictive value of 91%.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that chronic fatigue after TBI is associated with altered striato-thalamic-cortical functioning. It would be of interest to study whether fMRI can be used to support the diagnosis of chronic fatigue in future studies.

  • 24.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Medicine.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Pharmaco-fMRI in Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial With the Monoaminergic Stabilizer (-)-OSU61622019Ingår i: The journal of head trauma rehabilitation, ISSN 0885-9701, E-ISSN 1550-509X, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 189-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of monoaminergic stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 on brain activity, as measured by blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in patients in the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury suffering from fatigue.

    SETTING: Neurorehabilitation clinic.

    PARTICIPANTS: Patients with traumatic brain injury received either placebo (n = 24) or active treatment (n = 28). Healthy controls (n = 27) went through fMRI examination at one point and were used in sensitivity analysis on normalization of BOLD response.

    DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled design.

    MAIN MEASURES: Effects on BOLD signal changes from before to after treatment during performance of a fatiguing attention task.

    RESULTS: The fMRI results revealed treatment effects within the right occipitotemporal cortex and the right orbitofrontal cortex. In these regions, the BOLD response was normalized relative to healthy controls at the postintervention fMRI session. No effects were seen in regions in which we previously observed activity differences between patients and healthy controls while performing this fMRI task, such as the striatum.

    CONCLUSION: (-)-OSU6162 treatment had influences on functional brain activity, although the normalized regional BOLD response was observed in regions that were not a priori hypothesized to be sensitive to this particular treatment, and was not accompanied by any effects on in-scanner test performance or on fatigue.

  • 25.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    White matter hyperintensities increases with traumatic brain injury severity: associations to neuropsychological performance and fatigue2020Ingår i: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301X, Vol. 34, nr 3, s. 415-420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared to healthy controls, and to investigate whether there is an association between WMH lesion burden and performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with TBI.

    Methods: A total of 59 patients with TBI and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent thorough neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging. The quantification of WMH lesions was performed using the fully automated Lesion Segmentation Tool.

    Results: WMH lesions were more common in patients with TBI than in healthy controls (p = .032), and increased with higher TBI severity (p = .025). Linear regressions showed that WMH lesions in patients with TBI were not related to performance on any neuropsychological tests (p > .05 for all). However, a negative relationship between number of WMH lesions in patients with TBI and self-assessed fatigue was found (r = - 0.33, p = .026).

    Conclusion: WMH lesions are more common in patients with TBI than in healthy controls, and WMH lesions burden increases with TBI severity. These lesions could not explain decreased cognitive functioning in patients with TBI but did relate to decreased self-assessment of fatigue after TBI.

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  • 26.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    White matter hyperintensities increases with traumatic brain injuryseverity: associations to neuropsychological performance and fatigueManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared to healthy controls, and to investigate whether there is an association between WMH lesion burden and performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with TBI.

    Methods: A total of 59 patients with TBI and 27 age- and gender- matched healthy controls underwent thorough neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging. The quantification of WMH lesions was performed using the fully automated Lesion Segmentation Tool.

    Results: WMH lesions were more common in patients with TBI than in healthy controls (p = 0.032), and increased with higher TBI severity (p = 0.025). Linear regressions showed that WMH lesions in patients with TBI were not related to performance on any neuropsychological tests (p > 0.05 for all). However, a negative relationship between number of WMH lesions in patients with TBI and self-assessed fatigue was found (r = –0.33, p = 0.026).

    Conclusion: WMH lesions are more common in patients with TBI than in healthy controls, and WMH lesions burden increases with TBI severity. However, these lesions do not seem to explain the decreased cognitive functioning or the increased fatigue in patients with TBI.

  • 27.
    Berginström, Nils
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Schuit, Robert
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    The effects of (-)-OSU6162 on chronic fatigue in patients with traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial2017Ingår i: The journal of head trauma rehabilitation, ISSN 0885-9701, E-ISSN 1550-509X, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. E46-E54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the monoaminergic stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 on mental fatigue in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    SETTING: Single-center Neurorehabilitation Clinic.

    DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-four subjects with traumatic brain injury were randomized to treatment (n = 33) and placebo (n = 31).

    MAIN MEASURES: The effects of (-)-OSU6162 at a dose of 15 mg twice a day were evaluated using self-assessment scales and neuropsychological tests measuring mental fatigue.

    RESULTS: No difference between groups was observed on any scale at baseline. At follow-up, both groups showed significant improvement on the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Mental Fatigue Scale (both Ps < .01). Similarly, the performance of both groups increased significantly on many neuropsychological tests. However, no significant between-group difference in changes on these scales was observed before or after adjustment for confounders except for one neuropsychological test favoring the control group. Sensitivity analyses showed significantly greater changes in levels of prolactin and folic acid and heart rate (all Ps < .05) in the treatment group. The mean plasma concentration after 4 weeks of treatment was 0.14 (range, 0.01-0.32) μM, which was lower than expected.

    INTERPRETATION: Treatment with (-)-OSU6162 had no significant effect on mental fatigue in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with placebo.

  • 28.
    Bergman, J
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. School of Sport Sciences, Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway..
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Bisphosphonate use after clinical fracture and risk of new fracture: response to comments by Wu et al.2018Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 2159-2160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 29.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Ballin, Marcel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and subsequent all-cause mortality in Sweden: a nationwide study2021Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 287-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a nationwide, registry-based study to investigate the importance of 34 potential risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, hospitalization (with or without intensive care unit [ICU] admission), and subsequent all-cause mortality. The study population comprised all COVID-19 cases confirmed in Sweden by mid-September 2020 (68,575 non-hospitalized, 2494 ICU hospitalized, and 13,589 non-ICU hospitalized) and 434,081 randomly sampled general-population controls. Older age was the strongest risk factor for hospitalization, although the odds of ICU hospitalization decreased after 60–69 years and, after controlling for other risk factors, the odds of non-ICU hospitalization showed no trend after 40–49 years. Residence in a long-term care facility was associated with non-ICU hospitalization. Male sex and the presence of at least one investigated comorbidity or prescription medication were associated with both ICU and non-ICU hospitalization. Three comorbidities associated with both ICU and non-ICU hospitalization were asthma, hypertension, and Down syndrome. History of cancer was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization, but cancer in the past year was associated with non-ICU hospitalization, after controlling for other risk factors. Cardiovascular disease was weakly associated with non-ICU hospitalization for COVID-19, but not with ICU hospitalization, after adjustment for other risk factors. Excess mortality was observed in both hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 cases. These results confirm that severe COVID-19 is related to age, sex, and comorbidity in general. The study provides new evidence that hypertension, asthma, Down syndrome, and residence in a long-term care facility are associated with severe COVID-19.

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  • 30.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT Arctic University of Norway, Postboks 1621, 9509, Alta, Norway..
    Hommel, A.
    Department of Care Sciences, Malmö University, 20506, Malmö, Sweden..
    Kivipelto, M.
    Division of Clinical geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Plan 7, 14183, Huddinge, Sweden. Research and Development Unit, Stockholm Sjukhem, Mariebergsgatan 22, 11219, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Bisphosphonates and mortality: confounding in observational studies?2019Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 30, nr 10, s. 1973-1982Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: Numerous observational studies suggest that bisphosphonates reduce mortality. This study showed that bisphosphonate use is associated with lower mortality within days of treatment, although the association was not significant until the second week. Such an early association is consistent with confounding, although an early treatment effect cannot be ruled out.

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether confounding explains why numerous observational studies show that bisphosphonate use is associated with lower mortality. To this end, we examined how soon after treatment initiation a lower mortality rate can be observed. We hypothesized that, due to confounding, the association would be observed immediately.

    Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of hip fracture patients discharged from Swedish hospitals between 1 July 2006 and 31 December 2015. The data covered 260,574 hip fracture patients and were obtained from the Swedish Hip Fracture Register and national registers. Of the 260,574 patients, 49,765 met all eligibility criteria and 10,178 were pair matched (bisphosphonate users to controls) using time-dependent propensity scores. The matching variables were age, sex, diagnoses, prescription medications, type of hip fracture, type of surgical procedure, known or suspected dementia, and physical functioning status.

    Results: Over a median follow-up of 2.8 years, 2922 of the 10,178 matched patients died. The mortality rate was 7.9 deaths per 100 person-years in bisphosphonate users and 9.4 deaths in controls, which corresponded to a 15% lower mortality rate in bisphosphonate users (hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.79–0.91). The risk of death was lower in bisphosphonate users from day 6 of treatment, although the association was not significant until the second week.

    Conclusion: Bisphosphonate use was associated with lower mortality within days of treatment initiation. This finding is consistent with confounding, although an early treatment effect cannot be ruled out.

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  • 31.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Alendronate use and the risk of nonvertebral fracture during glucocorticoid therapy: a retrospective cohort study2018Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 103, nr 1, s. 306-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Glucocorticoids increase the risk of nonvertebral fracture, but no clinical trial has shown that nonvertebral fractures can be prevented by co-administration of an anti-osteoporotic drug.

    Objective: To estimate the effect of alendronate on the risk of nonvertebral fracture in older adults taking oral glucocorticoids.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study using national Swedish registers.

    Setting: Hospitalized care and ambulatory specialist care.

    Patients: Among adults aged 50 years or older (N=3,347,959), we identified those who initiated oral glucocorticoid therapy from 2006 through 2011 (≥2.5 mg/day of prednisone or equivalent for ≥91 days). The final analysis included 16,890 alendronate users and 16,890 nonusers, who were matched using time-dependent propensity scores.

    Main Outcome Measure: Nonvertebral fracture. This was not pre-specified.

    Results: Over a median follow-up of 14.5 months, the incidence rate of nonvertebral fracture was 2.0 cases per 100 person-years in alendronate users and 2.4 cases in nonusers. This difference corresponded to a 16% lower rate in users (hazard ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.94). For hip fractures specifically, the rate was 34% lower in alendronate users relative to nonusers (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.78). The association of alendronate use with a lower risk of nonvertebral fracture was strongest in patients who received high doses of glucocorticoid.

    Conclusion: Alendronate use was associated with a lower risk of nonvertebral fracture, including hip fracture. Similar, but not statistically significant, associations have been reported in meta-analyses of clinical trials.

  • 32.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Bisphosphonate use after clinical fracture and risk of new fracture2018Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 937-945Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: Among older adults with a previous fracture, treatment for osteoporosis was initially associated with a higher risk of new fracture. However, the relative risk of new fracture decreased over time, a trend that is consistent with a beneficial effect, as treatment for osteoporosis is prescribed to reduce high fracture risks.

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether bisphosphonate use is associated with a lower risk of new fracture after a clinical fracture in older adults.

    Methods: Data were available for 3,329,400 adults in Sweden who were aged ae<yen> 50 years between 2006 and 2011. During this period, 260,353 sustained a clinical fracture and were naïve to bisphosphonates at the time. Those who subsequently received a bisphosphonate were matched to up to three others on sex, year of birth, and type and year of initial fracture. The final cohort comprised 83,104 adults (26.3% bisphosphonate users).

    Results: During the period from initial fracture to initiation of bisphosphonate treatment, the incidence rate of any new clinical fracture was higher in those who later became bisphosphonate users than in those who remained nonusers (175.1 vs. 75.9 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio 2.30, 95% confidence interval 2.19 to 2.41). Similarly, during the first 6 months of treatment, the incidence rate was higher in bisphosphonate users than in nonusers (128.8 vs. 90.2 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.51). However, this difference decreased over time: by months 12 to 18, the incidence rate was similar in users and nonusers (59.3 vs. 55.3 per 1000 person-years; hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.16).

    Conclusions: There was a decrease in the relative risk of new fracture during bisphosphonate treatment, a trend that is consistent with a beneficial treatment effect, as bisphosphonates are prescribed to reduce high fracture risks.

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  • 33.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, UiT Arctic University of Norway, Postboks 1621, 9509, Alta, Norway.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Epidemiology of osteonecrosis among older adults in Sweden2019Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. 965-973Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: This study estimated the incidence of osteonecrosis in a Swedish, nationwide cohort of older adults. Osteonecrosis was approximately 10 times more common than in previous studies. The strongest risk factors were dialysis, hip fracture, osteomyelitis, and organ transplantation, but only hip fractures could have contributed substantially to the disease burden.

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of osteonecrosis in a Swedish, nationwide cohort of older adults and in a large number of risk groups in that cohort.

    Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we included everyone who was aged 50 years or older and who was living in Sweden on 31 December 2005. We used Swedish national databases to collect data about prescription medication use, diagnosed medical conditions, and performed medical and surgical procedures. The study outcome was diagnosis of primary or secondary osteonecrosis at any skeletal site. The strength of risk factors was assessed using age- and sex-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs).

    Results: The study cohort comprised 3,338,463 adults. The 10-year risk of osteonecrosis was 0.4% (n = 13,425), and the incidence rate was 4.7 cases/10000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6 to 4.7 cases). The strongest risk factors for osteonecrosis were hip fracture (SIR, 7.98; 95% CI, 7.69–8.27), solid organ transplantation (SIR, 7.14; 95% CI, 5.59–8.99), dialysis (SIR, 6.65; 95% CI, 5.62–7.81), and osteomyelitis (SIR, 6.43; 95% CI, 5.70–7.23). A history of hip fracture was present in 21.7% of cases of osteonecrosis, but osteomyelitis, dialysis, and solid organ transplantation were present in only 0.5 to 2% of cases.

    Conclusions: Osteonecrosis was approximately 10 times more common than a small number of previous population-based studies have suggested. The strongest risk factors for osteonecrosis were dialysis, hip fracture, osteomyelitis, and solid organ transplantation, but only hip fractures could have contributed substantially to the disease burden.

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  • 34.
    Bergman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sport Sciences, Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Overestimation of the Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials2019Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 34, nr 9, s. 1767-1768Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial2016Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 868-878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia.

    METHODS: Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a non-exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months.

    RESULTS: No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (-1.58, P = 0.001 and -1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (-1.25, P = 0.01 and -1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (-2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (-3.17, P = 0.003 and -3.34, P = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: A 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non-exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms.

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  • 36.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people2014Ingår i: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 9, s. 249-257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs. Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately. Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b=-0.03, P=0.008), but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b=-0.07, P=0.068). No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b=-1.03, P=0.007) and dressing (unstandardized b=-0.70, P=0.035) were associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.

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  • 37.
    Boström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Brännström, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Conradsson, Mia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Antidepressant use and mortality in very old people2016Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 1201-1210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressant treatment may increase the risk of death. The association between antidepressants and mortality has been evaluated in community-dwelling older people, but not in representative samples of very old people, among whom dementia, multimorbidity, and disability are common.

    METHODS: Umeå 85+/GERDA study participants (n = 992) aged 85, 90, and ≥95 years were followed for up to five years. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze mortality risk associated with baseline antidepressant treatment, adjusted for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: Mean age was 89 years; 27% of participants had dementia, 20% had stroke histories, 29% had heart failure, and 16% used antidepressants. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, antidepressant use was associated with a 76% increased mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-2.19). Adding adjustment for Geriatric Depression Scale score, HR was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.29-2.03). The association was not significant when adjusting for additional confounding factors (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.85-1.38). Interaction analyses in the fully adjusted model revealed a significant interaction between sex and antidepressant use (HR: 1.76; 95% CI, 1.05-2.94). Among male and female antidepressant users, the HRs for death were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.47-1.24) and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.97-1.70), respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Among very old people, baseline antidepressant treatment does not seem to be independently associated with increased mortality risk. However, the risk may be different in men and women. This difference and the potential risk of initial treatment require further investigation in future cohort studies of very old people.

  • 38.
    Brännström, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Boström, Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Littbrand, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Psychotropic drug use and mortality in old people with dementia: investigating sex differences2017Ingår i: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, E-ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 18, artikel-id 36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychotropic drugs are common among old people with dementia, and have been associated with increased mortality. Previous studies have not investigated sex differences in this risk. This study was conducted to analyse associations between the use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines and 2-year mortality in old people with dementia, and to investigate sex differences therein.

    Methods: In total, 1037 participants (74% women; mean age, 89 years) with dementia were included from four cohort studies and followed for 2 years. Data were collected through home visits and medical records. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse associations between ongoing baseline drug use and mortality. Multiple possible confounders were evaluated and adjusted for.

    Results: In fully adjusted models including data from the whole population, no association between baseline psychotropic drug use and increased 2-year mortality was seen. Significant sex differences were found in mortality associated with antidepressant use, which was protective in men, but not in women (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–0.92 and HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.87–1.38, respectively). The interaction term for sex was significant in analyses of benzodiazepine use, with a higher mortality risk among men than among women.

    Conclusions: Among old people with dementia, ongoing psychotropic drug use at baseline was not associated with increased mortality in analyses adjusted for multiple confounders. Sex differences in mortality risk associated with antidepressant and benzodiazepine use were seen, highlighting the need for further investigation of the impact of sex.

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  • 39.
    Brännström, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Antipsychotic Drugs and Hip Fracture: Associations Before and After the Initiation of Treatment2020Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 21, nr 11, s. 1636-1642Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the association between antipsychotic drug treatment and hip fracture, before and after the initiation of treatment.

    Design: Nationwide cohort study.

    Setting and Participants: In this study based on several Swedish registers, all individuals age ≥65 years who filled prescriptions for antipsychotic drugs in 2007–2017 were matched 1:1 by sex and age with controls, resulting in a cohort of 255,274 individuals.

    Measures: Associations between antipsychotic drug treatment and hip fracture were investigated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models and flexible parametric survival models for nonproportional hazards, starting 1 year before the first prescription was filled and extending to 1 year thereafter.

    Results: The studied cohort had a mean age of 81.5 (standard deviation, 8.1) years; 152,890 (59.9%) individuals were women. Antipsychotic drug use was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in all studied time frames, before and after the initiation of treatment. The risk was highest 16–30 days before the initiation of treatment (odds ratio 9.09; 95% confidence interval 7.00–11.81). The pattern was consistent in subgroup analyses of users of conventional and atypical antipsychotics, men and women, as well as in younger old and older old participants. The association with hip fracture was not influenced by antipsychotic drug dose.

    Conclusions and Implications: The association between antipsychotic drug use and the risk of hip fracture was observed before the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. This finding suggests that factors other than exposure to antipsychotic drugs are responsible for the increased risk of hip fracture in the treatment group.

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  • 40.
    Brännström, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Association Between Antidepressant Drug Use and Hip Fracture in Older People Before and After Treatment Initiation2019Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 76, nr 2, s. 172-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE: Treatment with antidepressants has been associated with hip fracture. This association could restrict the treatment options, especially in older patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between antidepressant drug treatment and hip fracture starting 1 year before the initiation of treatment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this nationwide cohort study, 204 072 individuals in the Prescribed Drugs Register of Sweden's National Board of Health and Welfare aged 65 years or older who had a prescription of antidepressants filled between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, were matched by birth year and sex to 1 control participant who was not prescribed antidepressants (for a total of 408 144 people in the register). Outcome data were collected from 1 year before to 1 year after the index date (date of prescription being filled). Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2005, to December 31, 2012. EXPOSURES: First filled prescription of an antidepressant drug. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incident hip fractures occurring in the year before and year after initiation of antidepressant therapy were registered. Associations were investigated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models and flexible parametric models. RESULTS: Of the 408 144 people in the register who were included in the study, 257 486 (63.1%) were women, with a mean (SD) age of 80.1 (7.2) years. Antidepressant users sustained more than twice as many hip fractures than did nonusers in the year before and year after the initiation of therapy (2.8% vs 1.1% and 3.5% vs 1.3%, respectively, per actual incidence figures). In adjusted analyses, the odds ratios were highest for the associations between antidepressant use and hip fracture 16 to 30 days before the prescription was filled (odds ratio, 5.76; 95% CI, 4.73-7.01). In all separate analyses of age groups, of men and women, and of individual antidepressants, the highest odds ratios were seen 16 to 30 days before initiation of treatment, and no clear dose-response relationship was seen. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The present study found an association between antidepressant drug use and hip fracture before and after the initiation of therapy. This finding raises questions about the association that should be further investigated in treatment studies.

  • 41. Bränsvik, Vanja
    et al.
    Granvik, Eva
    Minthon, Lennart
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nägga, Katarina
    Mortality in patients with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: a registry-based study2021Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 1101-1109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common in patients with dementia. In the elderly population, comorbidities frequently coexist with dementia and mortality in dementia is high. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of BPSD on mortality in severe dementia.

    Methods: This study of 11,448 individuals was based on linked information from the Swedish BPSD registry, the National Patient Register and the Cause of Death register. BPSD was assessed with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed for survival analysis. To study different degrees of BPSD, data was categorized into groups: no (NPI, 0 points), mild (NPI, 1-3 points on >= 1 item), moderate (NPI, 4-8 points on >= 1 item) and severe (NPI, 9-12 points on >= 1 item) BPSD based on the highest score on any of the BPSD assessed (NPI items).

    Results: The presence of moderate or severe BPSD was associated with a stepwise increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR), 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.60 and HR 1.74; 95% CI 1.44-2.12, respectively) compared with individuals with no BPSD. In addition, there was an association between total NPI score and mortality (HR 1.01; 95% CI 1.007-1.010). The results remained significant after multivariable adjustment for age, sex, dementia diagnosis, medication, previous myocardial infarction, hip fracture and stroke.

    Conclusions: The results show a stepwise increase in mortality risk with increased BPSD, highlighting the importance of adequate management of BPSD to reduce mortality in dementia.

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  • 42.
    Burman, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Carlsson, Maine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Avdelningen för fysioterapi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Is malnutrition a risk factor for incident urinary tract infection among older people in residential care facilities?2018Ingår i: Journal of Nursing Home Research, ISSN 2496-0799, Vol. 4, s. 49-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition and urinary tract infections (UTI) are common among older people living in residential care facilities.

    Objectives: To determine whether malnutrition is a risk factor for incident urinary tract infection in people aged ≥65 years living in residential care facilities.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of people living in residential care facilities in northern Sweden (N=373). Data from the Frail Older People-Activity and Nutrition and Umeå Dementia and Exercise studies were used.

    Measurements: Malnutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Risk factors for UTI were explored using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses. Maximum follow-up time was 9 months.

    Results: The incidence of UTI was 460/1000 person-years; 85/276=30.8% of women and 16/97=16.5% of men contracted UTIs. History of UTI (hazard ratio [HR] 2.804, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.824–4.311), heart failure (HR 2.101, 95% CI 1.368–3.225), hypertension (HR 1.656, 95% CI 1.095–2.504), and low Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (HR 0.937, 95% CI 0.892–0.985) were associated independently with higher risk of incident UTI in multivariate analyses. Malnutrition was not associated with UTI in the whole sample or in women; MNA score was associated with UTI in men in univariate analysis (HR 0.841, 95% CI 0.750–0.944).

    Conclusion: The incidence of UTI was high in residential care facilities and individuals with histories of UTI, heart failure, hypertension, or cognitive impairment were more likely to be affected. Malnutrition was not a risk factor for UTI in the whole sample or in women, but may constitute a risk for UTI among men.

  • 43.
    Burman, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Obesity may increase survival, regardless of nutritional status: a Swedish cohort study in nursing homes2022Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 655Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate the associations between the body mass index (BMI), Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) scores, and 2-year mortality.

    Methods: A nationwide cohort study using data from a national quality register of older (age ≥ 65 years) nursing home residents (N = 47,686). Individuals were categorized according to BMI as underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (class I, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2; class II, 35.0-39.9 kg/m2; class III, ≥ 40.0 kg/m2). Participants' nutritional status were categorized as good (MNA-SF score 12-14), at risk of malnutrition (MNA-SF score 8-11), or malnutrition (MNA-SF score 0-7). Associations with mortality were analysed using Cox proportional-hazards models.

    Results: At baseline, 16.0% had obesity, and 14.6% were malnourished. During 2 years of follow-up, 23,335 (48.9%) individuals died. Compared with normal-weight individuals, mortality was greater among underweight individuals [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-1.69] and lesser among individuals with class I (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.60-0.66), class II (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.56-0.68), and class III (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.94) obesity. Compared with individuals with good nutritional status, mortality was increased for those with malnutrition (HR 2.98,95% CI 2.87-3.10). Lower mortality among obese individuals was also seen in subgroups defined according to MNA-SF scores.

    Conclusions: Among older nursing home residents, obesity, including severe obesity, was associated with lower 2-year mortality. Higher BMIs were associated with better survival, regardless of nutritional status according to MNA-SF.

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  • 44.
    Burman, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Öhlin, Jerry
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in four cohorts of very old adults, 2000–20172022Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Springer Link, Vol. 26, nr 7, s. 706-713Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Investigate trends in the prevalence of obesity and malnutrition among very old adults (age ≥ 85 years) between 2000 and 2017.

    Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements: A study with data from the Umeå 85+/Gerontological regional database population-based cohort study of very old adults in northern Sweden. Every 5 years from 2000–2002 to 2015–2017, comprehensive assessments of participants were performed during home visits (N=1602). Body mass index (BMI) classified participants as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores classified participants as malnourished (0 to <17), at risk of malnutrition (17–23.5), and having good nutritional status (24–30). Prevalence and trends were examined using analysis of variance and chi-squared tests, including subgroup analyses of nursing home residents.

    Results: Between 2000–2002 and 2015–2017, the mean BMI increased from 24.8± 4.7 to 26.0± 4.7 kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity and underweight were 13.4% and 7.6%, respectively, in 2000–2002 and 18.3% and 3.0%, respectively, in 2015–2017. The mean MNA score increased between 2000–2002 and 2010–2012 (from 23.2± 4.7 to 24.2± 3.6), and had decreased (to 23.3± 4.2) by 2015–2017. The prevalence of malnutrition was 12.2%, 5.1%, and 8.7% in 2000–2002, 2010–2012, and 2015–2017, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed similar BMI and MNA score patterns among nursing home residents.

    Conclusions: Among very old adults, the mean BMI and prevalence of obesity seemed to increase between 2000–2002 and 2015–2017. Meanwhile, the nutritional status (according to MNA scores) seemed to improve between 2000–2002 and 2010–2012, it declined by 2015–2017.

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  • 45.
    Eklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Bone mass, size and previous fractures as predictors of prospective fractures in an osteoporotic referral population.2009Ingår i: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 808-813Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of bone mass, bone size and previous low energy fractures upon prospective fractures has not been investigated in a referral osteoporotic population. We investigated the association between bone mass, bone size, previous fractures, body constitution, and prospective validated fractures in 5701 women and 1376 men, aged 30 years and older. Bone mass measurements of the femoral neck were collected at a single study center in Sweden. Most of the subjects were measured on suspicion of osteoporosis. Data on validated low energy retrospective and prospective fractures in the cohort were collected from the corresponding health care district. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and estimated volumetric BMD (vBMD, g/cm(3)) were shown to be good independent predictors for fracture in both women and men (Hazard ratio per standard deviation decrease (HR)=1.27-1.52, p<0.05). Bone size did not predict prospective fractures in either sex (HR=0.91-0.99, p>0.05), and bone size completely explained the higher BMD in men than in women. In women, retrospective low energy fractures (HR=1.78, p<0.001) and height (HR=1.02, p=0.006) were additional independent predictors of osteoporotic fractures after adjusting for age and BMD. In conclusion, we show that in a large osteoporotic referral population, age, BMD and previous fractures are independent predictors of prospective low energy fractures. These results add additional strength to the recent change in focus towards a multivariate analysis when assessing the future risk of fracture.

  • 46.
    Eklund, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    Neovius, Martin
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Variation in fracture rates by country may not be explained by differences in bone mass2009Ingår i: Calcified Tissue International, ISSN 0171-967X, E-ISSN 1432-0827, Vol. 85, nr 1, s. 10-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unclear whether the high fracture incidence in Sweden compared with other countries is related to low bone mass. We present and compare bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) at the femoral neck in a mainly osteoporotic referral population consisting of 2,031 men and 6,932 women with that of previous population-based cohorts. BMD measurements were collected at a single study center in Sweden, and data on validated hip fractures were collected from the corresponding health-care district and the cohort investigated. The BMD values of our cohort were similar to those of population-based cohorts from other countries. In contrast, the total incidence of hip fractures in 80-year-old women and men in the health-care district where our BMD measurements were performed was high (1.8% and 0.9%, respectively). The correlation between age and BMD was more negative in men aged 20-49 years than in women of the same age group (-0.011 vs. -0.006 g/cm(2) yearly, P < 0.001). In contrast, at 50-80 years of age, more negative regression coefficients were seen in women (-0.007 vs. -0.004 g/cm(2) yearly, P < 0.001 for comparison). In conclusion, a low BMD may not be the key factor explaining Sweden's comparatively high fracture incidence. In our cross-sectional data, age trends in BMD at the femoral neck differ between men and women. It would be highly interesting to further study the underlying causes of the global variations in fracture incidence rates.

  • 47.
    Englund, Undis
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Bucht, Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Pettersson Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study2011Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 499-505Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women.

    Introduction: In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture.

    Methods: The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years.

    Results: Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05–0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08–0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05–0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women.

    Conclusion: An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  • 48.
    Englund, Undis
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Svensson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Bergström, Ulrica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Pettersson Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Active commuting reduces the risk of wrist fractures in middle-aged women: the UFO study2013Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 533-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Middle-aged women with active commuting had significantly lower risk for wrist fracture than women commuting by car/bus.

    INTRODUCTION: Our purpose was to investigate whether a physically active lifestyle in middle-aged women was associated with a reduced risk of later sustaining a low-trauma wrist fracture.

    METHODS: The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study is a population-based nested case-control study investigating associations between lifestyle and fragility fractures. From a cohort of ~35,000 subjects, we identified 376 female wrist fracture cases who had reported data regarding their commuting habits, occupational, and leisure physical activity, before they sustained their fracture. Each fracture case was compared with at least one control drawn from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total of 778 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 54.3 ± 5.8 years, and mean age at fracture was 60.3 ± 5.8 years.

    RESULTS: Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, body mass index, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects with active commuting (especially walking) were at significantly lower risk of sustaining a wrist fracture (OR 0.48; 95 % CI 0.27-0.88) compared with those who commuted by car or bus. Leisure time activities such as dancing and snow shoveling were also associated with a lower fracture risk, whereas occupational activity, training, and leisure walking or cycling were unrelated to fracture risk.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that active commuting is associated with a lower wrist fracture risk, in middle-aged women.

  • 49.
    Eriksson, Maija
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nääs, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Berginström, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. School of Sport Sciences, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Sedentary behavior as a potential risk factor for depression among 70-year-olds2020Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 263, s. 605-608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behavior has previously been associated with the risk of depression. In addition, older adults have been proven to be more sedentary and more depressed than other age groups. However, studies using objective measures of sedentary behavior and taking physical activity into account are lacking. Thus, the purpose of this population-based study was to examine how total sedentary time and length of sedentary bouts were associated with the risk of depression among 70-year-olds.

    Methods: The present study used data from the Healthy Ageing Initiative (n = 3,633), an ongoing cross-sectional research project in Umeå, Sweden. Sedentary behavior was measured objectively with the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer, and depression was measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Several covariates, including physical activity, were included in logistic regression analyses.

    Results: Results from two hierarchical logistic regression models showed that a greater percentage of the day spent sedentary [odds ratio (OR) = 1.031, p = 0.010] and longer average length of sedentary bouts (OR = 1.116, p = 0.045) increased the risk of depression.

    Limitations: Limitations include of possible underrepresentation of severely depressed participants, and possible observer effects.

    Conclusions: The present study verified the relationship between sedentary behavior and depression and provides new information about the risks associated with increased length of sedentary bouts.  These findings may be important to consider in the development of future recommendations for the prevention of depression among older adults.

  • 50.
    Gentile, Ambra
    et al.
    Sport and Exercise Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Educational Sciences, and Human Movement, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Bianco, Antonino
    Sport and Exercise Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Educational Sciences, and Human Movement, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa. School of Sports Science, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Use of alcohol, drugs, inhalants, and smoking tobacco and the long-term risk of depression in men: A nationwide Swedish cohort study from 1969–20172021Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 221, artikel-id 108553Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of alcohol, drugs, inhalants, and smoking tobacco may lead to mood disorders such as depression. However, knowledge on the independent contributions of the use of these substances to the risk of depression is lacking.

    Methods: The study cohort consisted of 24,564 men included in the Swedish national military conscription register who were conscripted in 1969–1970 and followed until 2017. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to estimate the risk of depression according to alcohol, drug, inhalant, and cigarette consumption, and adjusted for body mass index, verbal comprehension test scores, handgrip strength, and the other main exposures investigated.

    Results: During an average follow-up period of 44 years, 4500 men were diagnosed with or treated for depression at a mean age of 54 years. A dose-dependent association was found in men who smoked cigarettes, with the highest risk for smoking >20 cigarettes per day, at time of conscription (aHR 1.86, 95 % CI 1.61–2.16, p < 0.001). Independent associations with an increased risk of depression were found for the use of drugs at least once (aHR 1.21, 95 % CI 1.10–1.32, p < 0.001) and >50 times (aHR 1.48, 95 % CI 1.23–1.77, p < 0.001) and the use of inhalants (aHR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.05–1.29). Excessive alcohol intake was not associated with the risk of depression.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that people who reported to have used cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs at 18 years of age have a moderately increased risk of depression later in life.

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