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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Klara
    et al.
    Folkhälsomyndigheten.
    Jonzon, Robert
    Folkhälsomyndigheten.
    Goicolea, Isabel (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Baroudi, Mazen (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Migration, sexuell hälsa och hiv/STI prevention: en sammanfattande rapport2020Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Amani, Paul Joseph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Systems Management, School of Public Administration and Management, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kiwara, Angwara Denis
    Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health insurance and health system (un) responsiveness: a qualitative study with elderly in rural Tanzania2021In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health insurance (HI) has increasingly been accepted as a mechanism to facilitate access to healthcare in low and middle-income countries. However, health insurance members, especially those in Sub-Saharan Africa, have reported a low responsiveness in health systems. This study aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of healthcare services from the perspective of insured and uninsured elderly in rural Tanzania.

    METHOD: An explanatory qualitative study was conducted in the rural districts of Igunga and Nzega, located in western-central Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions were carried out with 78 insured and uninsured elderly men and women who were purposely selected because they were 60 years of age or older and had utilised healthcare services in the past 12 months prior to the study. The interview questions were inspired by the domains of health systems' responsiveness. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    RESULTS: Elderly participants appreciated that HI had facilitated the access to healthcare and protected them from certain costs. But they also complained that HI had failed to provide equitable access due to limited service benefits and restricted use of services within schemes. Although elderly perspectives varied widely across the domains of responsiveness, insured individuals generally expressed dissatisfaction with their healthcare.

    CONCLUSIONS: The national health insurance policy should be revisited in order to improve its implementation and expand the scope of service coverage. Strategic decisions are required to improve the healthcare infrastructure, increase the number of healthcare workers, ensure the availability of medicines and testing facilities at healthcare centers, and reduce long administrative procedures related to HI. A continuous training plan for healthcare workers focused on patients' communication skills and care rights is highly recommended.

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  • 3.
    Amani, Paul Joseph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Systems Management, School of Public Administration and Management, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kiwara, Angwara Denis
    Department of Development Studies, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Healthcare workers´ experiences and perceptions of the provision of health insurance benefits to the elderly in rural Tanzania: an explorative qualitative study2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers play an important part in the delivery of health insurance benefits, and their role in ensuring service quality and availability, access, and good management practice for insured clients is crucial. Tanzania started a government-based health insurance scheme in the 1990s. However, no studies have specifically looked at the experience of healthcare professionals in the delivery of health insurance services in the country. This study aimed to explore healthcare workers' experiences and perceptions of the provision of health insurance benefits for the elderly in rural Tanzania.

    METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was conducted in the rural districts of Igunga and Nzega, western-central Tanzania. Eight interviews were carried out with healthcare workers who had at least three years of working experience and were involved in the provision of healthcare services to the elderly or had a certain responsibility with the administration of health insurance. The interviews were guided by a set of questions related to their experiences and perceptions of health insurance and its usefulness, benefit packages, payment mechanisms, utilisation, and availability of services. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

    RESULTS: Three categories were developed that describe healthcare workers´ experiences and perceptions of delivering the benefits of health insurance for the elderly living in rural Tanzania. Healthcare workers perceived health insurance as an important mechanism to increase healthcare access for elderly people. However, alongside the provision of insurance benefits, several challenges coexisted, such as a shortage of human resources and medical supplies as well as operational issues related to delays in funding reimbursement.

    CONCLUSION: While health insurance was considered an important mechanism to facilitate access to care among rural elderly, several challenges that impede its purpose were mentioned by the participants. Based on these, an increase in the healthcare workforce and availability of medical supplies at the health-centre level together with expansion of services coverage of the Community Health Fund and improvement of reimbursement procedures are recommended to achieve a well-functioning health insurance scheme.

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  • 4.
    Amani, Paul Joseph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Systems Management, School of Public Administration and Management, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kiwara, Angwara Denis
    Department of Development Studies, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The experience of providing the health insurance benefits to elderly in rural Tanzania: Providers’ perspectivesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Amani, Paul Joseph
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Health Systems Management, School of Public Administration and Management, Mzumbe University, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Tungu, Malale
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kiwara, Angwara Denis
    Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Frumence, Gasto
    Department of Development Studies, School of Public Health and Social Sciences, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Responsiveness of health care services towards the elderly in Tanzania: does health insurance make a difference? A cross-sectional study2020In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Responsiveness has become an important health system performance indicator in evaluating the ability of health care systems to meet patients' expectations. However, its measurement in sub-Saharan Africa remains scarce. This study aimed to assess the responsiveness of the health care services among the insured and non-insured elderly in Tanzania and to explore the association of health insurance (HI) with responsiveness in this population.

    Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 where a pre-tested household survey, administered to the elderly (60 + years) living in Igunga and Nzega districts, was applied. Participants with and without health insurance who attended outpatient and inpatient health care services in the past three and 12 months were selected. Responsiveness was measured based on the short version of the World Health Organization (WHO) multi-country responsiveness survey study, which included the dimensions of quality of basic amenities, choice, confidentiality, autonomy, communication and prompt attention. Quantile regression was used to assess the specific association of the responsiveness index with health insurance adjusted for sociodemographic factors.

    Results: A total of 1453 and 744 elderly, of whom 50.1 and 63% had health insurance, used outpatient and inpatient health services, respectively. All domains were rated relatively highly but the uninsured elderly reported better responsiveness in all domains of outpatient and inpatient care. Waiting time was the dimension that performed worst. Possession of health insurance was negatively associated with responsiveness in outpatient (− 1; 95% CI: − 1.45, − 0.45) and inpatient (− 2; 95% CI: − 2.69, − 1.30) care.

    Conclusion: The uninsured elderly reported better responsiveness than the insured elderly in both outpatient and inpatient care. Special attention should be paid to those dimensions, like waiting time, which ranked poorly. Further research is necessary to reveal the reasons for the lower responsiveness noted among insured elderly. A continuous monitoring of health care system responsiveness is recommended.

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  • 6.
    Aweesha, Huzeifa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. World Health Organization Sudan Country Office, Sudan.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sudan's health sector partnership: from confined progression to openness and hope to uncertain demise2024In: Development Policy Review, ISSN 0950-6764, E-ISSN 1467-7679, Vol. 42, no 2, article id e12757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: Despite signature of the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and subsequent adoption of the effective development cooperation (EDC) principles for better health cooperation, there is a gap in documenting the challenges to implement these commitments at country level. Sudan represents an interesting case study: the country adopted a local health compact in 2014, but for much of the time since the regime was under sanction. Sudan witnessed a revolution in 2018, followed by a counter-coup in 2021.

    Purpose: We aim to explore the evolution of Sudan health sector partners’ relationships, perspectives, and adherence to EDC principles of ownership, alignment, and harmonization, while accounting for underlying processes and context changes between 2015 and 2022.

    Methods and approach: We collected data through two rounds of interviews, in 2015 (16) and 2022 (8), with stakeholders within the Sudan Health Sector Partnership. We used the framework method for data analysis where responses are coded then sorted into themes.

    Findings: Prior to the 2019 revolution cooperation was progressive but restricted, with civil society marginalized and a dominating government. The principles, especially ownership, were misused and misaligned with national priorities driven by donors’ interests and conditions.

    The transitional (post-revolution) period witnessed partners’ openness and influx, but unstable leadership and subsequent changes in priorities led to wasted opportunities.

    Following the coup, donors adopted a no-contact policy towards the de facto government. Instead, the expectation was that civil society organizations would replace the government as the main implementers. Overall, limited coordination capacity and no sustainability measures were present throughout.

    Policy implications: Much of what was observed was down to the often complicated and difficult context of the governance of Sudan. That said, general issues arose including the government's ability to coordinate policy and implementation; the need for stable, legitimate arrangements; and the need to define the role of civil society and to empower civil society organizations. Within a complex and volatile context, revisiting partners’ commitments through joint compact reviews and transparent EDC progress monitoring is crucial.

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  • 7.
    Baltussen, Rob
    et al.
    Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Mikkelsen, Evelinn
    Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Tromp, Noor
    Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Byskov, Jens
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Olsen, Oystein
    Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Bærøe, Kristine
    4Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hontelez, Jan A
    Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Singh, Jerome
    7Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Durban, South Africa.
    Norheim, Ole F
    Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Balancing efficiency, equity and feasibility of HIV treatment in South Africa: development of programmatic guidance2013In: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation, E-ISSN 1478-7547, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa, the country with the largest HIV epidemic worldwide, has been scaling up treatment since 2003 and is rapidly expanding its eligibility criteria. The HIV treatment programme has achieved significant results, and had 1.8 million people on treatment per 2011. Despite these achievements, it is now facing major concerns regarding (i) efficiency: alternative treatment policies may save more lives for the same budget; (ii) equity: there are large inequalities in who receives treatment; (iii) feasibility: still only 52% of the eligible population receives treatment.Hence, decisions on the design of the present HIV treatment programme in South Africa can be considered suboptimal. We argue there are two fundamental reasons to this. First, while there is a rapidly growing evidence-base to guide priority setting decisions on HIV treatment, its included studies typically consider only one criterion at a time and thus fail to capture the broad range of values that stakeholders have. Second, priority setting on HIV treatment is a highly political process but it seems no adequate participatory processes are in place to incorporate stakeholders' views and evidences of all sorts.We propose an alternative approach that provides a better evidence base and outlines a fair policy process to improve priority setting in HIV treatment. The approach integrates two increasingly important frameworks on health care priority setting: accountability for reasonableness (A4R) to foster procedural fairness, and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to construct an evidence-base on the feasibility, efficiency, and equity of programme options including trade-offs. The approach provides programmatic guidance on the choice of treatment strategies at various decisions levels based on a sound conceptual framework, and holds large potential to improve HIV priority setting in South Africa.

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  • 8.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The good, the bad, and the why: How do Arabic-speaking migrant men perceive and experience information and services related to sexual and reproductive health in Sweden?2023In: Journal of Migration and Health, ISSN 2666-6235, Vol. 7, article id 100153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although migrant men constitute a large and growing proportion of men in Sweden, literature exploring migrant men's experiences in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services is scarce. We aimed to explore how Arabic-speaking migrant men perceive and experience information and services related to SRH in Sweden. We conducted 13 semi-structured interviews with Arabic-speaking migrant men and analysed the data using reflexive thematic analysis. We developed four themes: 1) SRH is ‘something essential in life’; 2) the good: a transition to a ‘new open society’; 3) the bad: barriers to sexual education and health services; and 4) the why: blaming oneself or the system. SRH services and sexual education/information were perceived as needs and rights, and the participants were content with the new possibilities and the ‘new open society’. However, sexual education was not provided to most migrants, and SRH services provided to men had shortcomings that deprived some migrant men from fulfilling their needs. Moreover, internalised and cultural racism created a challenge to receive adequate/acceptable SRH services. There is a need to provide comprehensive sexual education for all, strengthen SRH services provided to men, and develop an action plan to reinforce the anti-discrimination/racism policies in healthcare and society.

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  • 9.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The good, the bad and the why; how do Arabic-speaking migrant men perceive and experience information and services related to sexual and reproductive health in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Social factors associated with trust in the health system in northern Sweden: a cross-sectional study2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the importance of having trust in the health system, there is a paucity of research in this feldin Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the level of trust in the health system and to assess the factors asso‑ciated with it in northern Sweden.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 in the four northern regions of Sweden. A total of 24 795 participants (48% response rate) aged 18 to 84 years were involved in the study. A log-binomial regression was usedto measure the association between sociodemographic factors and trust in the health system.

    Results: Two thirds of the participants (68.5%) reported high trust in the health system i.e. had very much or quitea lot confdence in the health system. Women had lower prevalence of trust compared to men (PR=0.96; 95%CI=0.94–0.98) while older participants had a higher trust compared to youth (PR=1.11; 95% CI=1.06–1.16). Participants with lower level of education, those who experienced economic stress, those who were born outside Swedenand those living in small municipalities also had lower prevalence of trust in the health system. Conversely, lowerincome was associated with higher trust (PR=1.08; 95% CI=1.04–1.12). Finally, a strong relationship between highersocial capital (having emotional and instrumental support, horizontal trust, and higher social participation) and trustin the health system was also found.

    Conclusions: Trust in the health system was moderately high in northern Sweden and strongly associated withsociodemographic and social capital factors. Trust is a complex phenomenon and a deeper exploration of the relationbetween trust in the health system and sociodemographic factors is needed.

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  • 11.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jonzon, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Young migrants' sexual rights in Sweden: a cross-sectional study2021In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 1618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In national public health surveys including those assessing sexual and reproductive health, migrants generally tend to be underrepresented due to cultural, linguistic, structural and legal barriers, minimising the possibility to measure sexual rights' fulfilment in this group. This study aims to describe to what extent sexual rights of young migrants in Sweden are being fulfilled. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1773 young (16 - 29 years) migrants by post, online, and at language schools and other venues. Sexual rights were operationalised and categorised into five domains adapted from the Guttmacher-Lancet Commission's definition. These domains included the right to: 1) access sexual and reproductive healthcare, 2) access information and education about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health and rights, 3) have bodily integrity, 4) make free informed decisions about sexuality and sexual relations and 5) have a satisfying and safe sexual life. Descriptive analysis was used to assess the extent of fulfilment for each right. There were wide variations in the fulfilment of sexual rights between subgroups and among the five domains. Most respondents rated their sexual health as good/fair, however, 6.3% rated their sexual health as bad/very bad. While most of those who visited related services were satisfied, 17.4% of respondents refrained from visiting the services despite their needs. Around four in ten respondents did not know where to get information about sexuality and sexual health. One-fourth of respondents reported sexual violence. Another 12.7% were limited by family members or fellow countrymen regarding with whom they can have an intimate relationship. Most respondents were satisfied with their sexual life, except for 11.9%. Men, non-binary respondents, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, asexuals, those who were awaiting a decision regarding residence permit and those born in South Asia reported poor sexual health to a greater extent and fulfilment of their sexual rights to a lesser extent than other groups. Timely and culturally adapted information about sexual rights, gender equalities, laws and available services in Sweden should be provided in appropriate languages and formats in order to raise awareness about sexual rights and improve access to available services. Tailored attention should be paid to specific vulnerable subgroups.

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  • 12.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jonzon, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Access of Migrant Youths in Sweden to Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare: A Cross-sectional Survey2022In: International Journal of Health Policy and Management, ISSN 2322-5939, E-ISSN 2322-5939, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study aims to assess migrant youths’ access to sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRHC) in Sweden, to examine the socioeconomic differences in their access, and to explore the reasons behind not seeking SRHC. 

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted for 1739 migrant youths 16 to 29 years-old during 2018. The survey was self-administered through: ordinary post, web survey and visits to schools and other venues. We measured access as a 4-stage process including: healthcare needs, perception of needs, utilisation of services and met needs. 

    Results: Migrant youths faced difficulties in accessing SRHC services. Around 30% of the participants needed SRHC last year, but only one-third of them fulfilled their needs. Men and women had the same need (27.4% of men [95% CI: 24.2, 30.7] vs. 32.7% of women [95% CI: 28.2, 37.1]), but men faced more difficulties in access. Those who did not categorise themselves as men or women (50.9% [95% CI: 34.0, 67.9]), born in South Asia (SA) (39% [95% CI: 31.7, 46.4]), were waiting for residence permit (45.1% [95% CI: 36.2, 54.0]) or experienced economic stress (34.5% [95% CI: 30.7, 38.3]) had a greater need and found more difficulties in access. The main difficulties were in the step between the perception of needs and utilisation of services. The most commonly reported reasons for refraining from seeking SRHC were the lack of knowledge about the Swedish health system and available SRHC services (23%), long waiting times (7.8%), language difficulties (7.4%) and unable to afford the costs (6.4%). 

    Conclusion: There is an urgent need to improve migrant youths’ access to SRHC in Sweden. Interventions could include: increasing migrant youths’ knowledge about their rights and the available SRHC services; improving the acceptability and cultural responsiveness of available services, especially youth clinics; and improving the quality of language assistance services.

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  • 13.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The perception of youth health centres' friendliness: does it differ between immigrant and Swedish-Scandinavian youths?2020In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 780-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ensuring a good quality service and equal access according to need for all young people is a key objective of the Swedish health system. The aim of this study was to explore youths’ perception of youth health centres’ (YHCs’) friendliness and to assess the differences in perception between immigrant and Swedish-Scandinavian youths.

    Methods: All YHCs in the four northern counties in Sweden were invited (22 centres), and 20 agreed to participate. Overall, 1089 youths aged 16–25 years answered the youth-friendly health services-Sweden questionnaire between September 2016 and February 2017. Thirteen sub-domains of friendliness were identified and their scores were calculated. Multilevel analysis was used to examine the differences in perception between immigrant and Swedish-Scandinavian youths.

    Results: Our sample consisted of 971 Swedish-Scandinavian youths (89.2%) and 118 immigrants (10.8%). Generally, both groups perceived the services to be very friendly. All 13 sub-domains were rated more than three in a four-point scale except for fear of exposure and parental support of psychosocial services. However, immigrant youths perceived YHCs less friendly than their counterparts, particularly regarding the domains of equity, respect, quality and parental support.

    Conclusions: Our study suggests that even though youths perceived YHCs as highly friendly, there is a space for improvement regarding access to health care. Our findings highlight the importance of an open and culturally sensitive attitude of the staff and the need to engage parents and community as a key to improve immigrant youths’ accessibility to health care.

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  • 14.
    Baroudi, Mazen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stoor, Jon Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Centre for Sami Health Research, Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Blåhed, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Men and sexual and reproductive healthcare in the Nordic countries: a scoping review2021In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e052600Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Men generally seek healthcare less often than women and, other than traditional gender norms, less is known about the explanation. The aim was to identify knowledge gaps and factors influencing men regarding sexual and reproductive healthcare (SRHC) in the Nordic countries.

    Methods: We searched PubMed and SveMed+ for peer-reviewed articles published between January 2010 and May 2020. The analyses identified factors influencing men’s experiences of and access to SRHC.

    Results: The majority of the 68 articles included focused on pregnancy, birth, infertility and sexually transmitted infections including HIV. During pregnancy and childbirth, men were treated as accompanying partners rather than individuals with their own needs. The knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers were crucial for their ability to provide SRHC and for the experiences of men. Organisational obstacles, such as women-centred SRHC and no assigned healthcare profession for men’s sexual and reproductive health issues, hindered men’s access to SRHC. Lastly, the literature rarely discussed the impact of health policies on men’s access to SRHC.

    Conclusions: The literature lacked the perspectives of specific groups of men such as migrants, men who have sex with men and transmen, as well as the experiences of men in SRHC related to sexual function, contraceptive use and gender-based violence. These knowledge gaps, taken together with the lack of a clear entry point for men into SRHC, indicate the necessity of an improved health and medical education of healthcare providers, as well as of health system interventions.

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  • 15. Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Maquibar, Amaia
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Public Health Research Group of the University of Alicante, Spain.
    Health-Sector Responses to Intimate Partner Violence: fitting the Response Into the Biomedical Health System or Adapting the System to Meet the Response?2018In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 33, no 10, p. 1653-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to analyze how middle-level health systems' managers understand the integration of a health care response to intimate partner violence (IPV) within the Spanish health system. Data were obtained through 26 individual interviews with professionals in charge of coordinating the health care response to IPV within the 17 regional health systems in Spain. The transcripts were analyzed following grounded theory in accordance with the constructivist approach described by Charmaz. Three categories emerged, showing the efforts and challenges to integrate a health care response to IPV within the Spanish health system: "IPV is a complex issue that generates activism and/or resistance," "The mandate to integrate a health sector response to IPV: a priority not always prioritized," and "The Spanish health system: respectful with professionals' autonomy and firmly biomedical." The core category, "Developing diverse responses to IPV integration," crosscut the three categories and encompassed the range of different responses that emerge when a strong mandate to integrate a health care response to IPV is enacted. Such responses ranged from refraining to deal with the issue to offering a women-centered response. Attempting to integrate a response to nonbiomedical health problems as IPV into health systems that remain strongly biomedicalized is challenging and strongly dependent both on the motivation of professionals and on organizational factors. Implementing and sustaining changes in the structure and culture of the health care system are needed if a health care response to IPV that fulfills the World Health Organization guidelines is to be ensured.

  • 16.
    Brunet Johansson, Albert
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nkulu Kalengayi, Faustine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sexual and reproductive health and rights for young migrants in Sweden: an ideal-type analysis exploring regional variations of accessible documents2024In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 69, article id 1606568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aims to map sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) policies, strategies, and interventions targeting young migrants and describe the patterns of organisation, resources, and services across Sweden’s 21 regions.

    Methods: We conducted a document analysis of accessible online documents on SRHR policies, strategies, and interventions targeting young migrants in Sweden’s 21 regions. We used ideal-type analysis of the documents to create a typology, which formed the basis of a ratings system illustrating variations in organisation, resources, and services across regions.

    Results: Findings suggest that efforts aimed at addressing young migrants’ SRHR are fragmented and unequal across regions. While SRHR policies and strategies are commonplace, they routinely lack specificity. Available resources vary depending on region and resource type. Additionally, information and interventions, although common, do not consistently meet the specific needs of migrant youths.

    Conclusion: This study suggests that fragmented efforts are fuelling geographic inequalities in fulfilling SRHR among young migrants. There is an urgent need to improve national coordination and collaboration between national and local actors in SRHR efforts targeting young migrants to ensure equity.

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  • 17. Buitron, Diego
    et al.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    [Nutritional status of Naporuna children under five in the Amazon region of Ecuador]2004In: Rev Panam Salud Publica, ISSN 1020-4989, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 151-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Bukachi, Salome A
    et al.
    Onyango-Ouma, Washington
    Siso, Jared Maaka
    Nyamongo, Isaac K
    Mutai, Joseph K
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Olsen, Øystein Evjen
    Byskov, Jens
    Healthcare priority setting in Kenya: a gap analysis applying the accountability for reasonableness framework2014In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 342-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In resource-poor settings, the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) has been identified as an important advance in priority setting that helps to operationalize fair priority setting in specific contexts. The four conditions of A4R are backed by theory, not evidence, that conformance with them improves the priority setting decisions. This paper describes the healthcare priority setting processes in Malindi district, Kenya, prior to the implementation of A4R in 2008 and evaluates the process for its conformance with the conditions for A4R. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key players in the Malindi district health system and a review of key policy documents and national guidelines show that the priority setting process in the district relies heavily on guidelines from the national level, making it more of a vertical, top-down orientation. Multilateral and donor agencies, national government, budgetary requirements, traditions and local culture influence the process. The four conditions of A4R are present within the priority setting process, albeit to varying degrees and referred to by different terms. There exists an opportunity for A4R to provide a guiding approach within which its four conditions can be strengthened and assessed to establish whether conformance helps improve on the priority setting process.

  • 19. Byskov, Jens
    et al.
    Bloch, Paul
    Blystad, Astrid
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Fylkesnes, Knut
    Kamuzora, Peter
    Kombe, Yeri
    Kvåle, Gunnar
    Marchal, Bruno
    Martin, Douglas K
    Michelo, Charles
    Ndawi, Benedict
    Ngulube, Thabale J
    Nyamongo, Isaac
    Olsen, Oystein E
    Onyango-Ouma, Washington
    Sandøy, Ingvild F
    Shayo, Elizabeth H
    Silwamba, Gavin
    Songstad, Nils Gunnar
    Tuba, Mary
    Accountable priority setting for trust in health systems: the need for research into a new approach for strengthening sustainable health action in developing countries2009In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 7, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite multiple efforts to strengthen health systems in low and middle income countries, intended sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. To date most priority setting initiatives in health systems have mainly focused on technical approaches involving information derived from burden of disease statistics, cost effectiveness analysis, and published clinical trials. However, priority setting involves value-laden choices and these technical approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of relevant values - such as trust, equity, accountability and fairness - that are of concern to other partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an explicit ethical framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides guidance for decision-makers who must identify and consider the full range of relevant values. AFR consists of four conditions: i) relevance to the local setting, decided by agreed criteria; ii) publicizing priority-setting decisions and the reasons behind them; iii) the establishment of revisions/appeal mechanisms for challenging and revising decisions; iv) the provision of leadership to ensure that the first three conditions are met. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study started in 2006, which is testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. The objectives of REACT are to describe and evaluate district-level priority setting, to develop and implement improvement strategies guided by AFR and to measure their effect on quality, equity and trust indicators. Effects are monitored within selected disease and programme interventions and services and within human resources and health systems management. Qualitative and quantitative methods are being applied in an action research framework to examine the potential of AFR to support sustainable improvements to health systems performance. This paper reports on the project design and progress and argues that there is a high need for research into legitimate and fair priority setting to improve the knowledge base for achieving sustainable improvements in health outcomes.

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  • 20.
    Byskov, Jens
    et al.
    University of Zambia.
    Maluka, Stephen A.
    University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.
    Shayo, Elizabeth H.
    National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Blystad, Astrid
    Department of Global Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Bukachi, Salome
    Institute of Anthropology, Gender and African Studies University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Zulu, Joseph M.
    School of Public Health, Ridgeway Campus, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Michelo, Charles
    School of Public Health, Ridgeway Campus, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Bloch, Paul
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Niels Steensens Vej 6, Gentofte, Denmark.
    A systems perspective on the importance of global health strategy developments for accomplishing today’s Sustainable Development Goals2019In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 34, no 9, p. 635-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Priority setting within health systems has not led to accountable, fair and sustainable solutions to improving population health. Providers, users and other stakeholders each have their own health and service priorities based on selected evidence, own values, expertise and preferences. Based on a historical account, this article analyses if contemporary health systems are appropriate to optimize population health within the framework of cross cutting targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We applied a scoping review approach to identify and review literature of scientific databases and other programmatic web and library-based documents on historical and contemporary health systems policies and strategies at the global level. Early literature supported the 1977 launching of the global target of Health for All by the year 2000. Reviewed literature was used to provide a historical overview of systems components of global health strategies through describing the conceptualizations of health determinants, user involvement and mechanisms of priority setting over time, and analysing the importance of historical developments on barriers and opportunities to accomplish the SDGs. Definitions, scope and application of health systems-associated priority setting fluctuated and main health determinants and user influence on global health systems and priority setting remained limited. In exploring reasons for the identified lack of SDG-associated health systems and priority setting processes, we discuss issues of accountability, vested interests, ethics and democratic legitimacy as conditional for future sustainability of population health. To accomplish the SDGs health systems must engage beyond their own sector boundary. New approaches to Health in All Policies and One Health may be conducive for scaling up more democratic and inclusive priority setting processes based on proper process guidelines from successful pilots. Sustainable development depends on population preferences supported by technical and managerial expertise.

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  • 21. Byskov, Jens
    et al.
    Maluka, Stephen Oswald
    Marchal, Bruno
    Shayo, Elizabeth H.
    Bukachi, Salome
    Zulu, Joseph M.
    Blas, Erik
    Michelo, Charles
    Ndawi, Benedict
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The Need for Global Application of the Accountability for Reasonableness Approach to Support Sustainable Outcomes Comment on "Expanded HTA Enhancing Fairness and Legitimacy"2017In: International Journal of Health Policy and Management, ISSN 2322-5939, E-ISSN 2322-5939, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 115-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accountability for reasonableness (AFR) concept has been developed and discussed for over two decades. Its interpretation has been studied in several ways partly guided by the specific settings and the researchers involved. This has again influenced the development of the concept, but not led to universal application. The potential use in health technology assessments (HTAs) has recently been identified by Daniels et al as yet another excellent justification for AFR-based process guidance that refers to both qualitative and a broader participatory input for HTA, but it has raised concerns from those who primarily support the consistency and objectivity of more quantitative and reproducible evidence. With reference to studies of AFR-based interventions and the through these repeatedly documented motivation for their consolidation, we argue that it can even be unethical not to take AFR conditions beyond their still mainly formative stage and test their application within routine health systems management for their expected support to more sustainable health improvements. The ever increasing evidence and technical expertise are necessary but at times contradictory and do not in isolation lead to optimally accountable, fair and sustainable solutions. Technical experts, politicians, managers, service providers, community members, and beneficiaries each have their own values, expertise and preferences, to be considered for necessary buy in and sustainability. Legitimacy, accountability and fairness do not come about without an inclusive and agreed process guidance that can reconcile differences of opinion and indeed differences in evidence to arrive at a by all understood, accepted, but not necessarily agreed compromise in a current context -until major premises for the decision change. AFR should be widely adopted in projects and services under close monitoring and frequent reviews.

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  • 22. Byskov, Jens
    et al.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Maluka, Stephen
    Zulu, Joseph M
    Bukachi, Salome A.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Blystad, Astrid
    Kamuzora, Peter
    Michelo, Charles
    Nyandieka, Lillian N
    Ndawi, Benedict
    Bloch, Paul
    Olsen, Oystein E
    The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources: findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia2014In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 12, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.

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  • 23.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Resource deserts, village hierarchies and de-growth in sparsely populated areas: The case of Southern Lapland, Sweden2022In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 200, no 2, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small villages in northern Sweden have seen a continuing removal of key services, such as schools, shops and public transport, since the 1970s. Disinvestment in public services has not been strategically planned but has happened in response to population loss and increased costs on a case-by-case basis. More recently, there has been a shift in policy thinking to what might be termed a ‘de-growth’ approach where digitalisation and increased personal mobility are used to provide new ways of delivering services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence of ‘resource deserts’ in Southern Lapland and the emergence (or consolidation) of village hierarchies in allocating public services. We map out the distribution of neighbourhood services (grocery stores, pre-/schools and petrol pumps) among villages, and explore the lived experiences in accessing these resources in different villages. Our results show that resource deserts clearly exist in the south and east of the region, while villages in the more sparsely populated western mountain areas were generally in a better position to retain resources. We identify a lack of consistent and transparent service planning at the village level as a key shortcoming in municipal and regional service strategies. There appear to be unofficial settlement hierarchies in the differential treatment of villages that are otherwise similar in population size, population change and distance to central places. We find that political decisions on service allocations are likely influenced by several factors. These include legacy effects relating to historic settlement status, the location of villages in relation to key transport or mobility corridors, as well as ideological factors favouring villages with more ‘exotic’ features and development potential in line with the municipalities’ economic, social and political priorities. We finally argue that a shift to de-growth needs to be more strategically planned if it is to eliminate resource deserts and promote equity of service access across all villages.

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  • 24.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Albert Brunet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schaumberg, Mia
    School of Health, University of the Sunshine Coast, QLD, Sippy Downs, Australia.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Addressing the workforce crisis in (rural) social care: a scoping review2024In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This scoping review identifies strategies potentially addressing the ‘workforce crisis’ in rural social care. The increasing global demand for social care has been coupled with widely recognised challenges in recruiting and retaining sufficient staff to provide this care. While the social care workforce crisis is a global phenomenon, it is particularly acute in rural areas.

    Methods: The review identified 75 papers which (i) had been published since 2017, (ii) were peer reviewed, (iii) concerned social care, (iv) were relevant to rural settings, (v) referenced workforce shortages, and (vi) made recommendations for ways to address those shortages. Thematic synthesis was used to derive three analytical themes with a combined 17 sub-themes applying to recommended strategies and evidence supporting those strategies.

    Results: The most common strategies for addressing social care workforce shortages were to improve recruitment and retention (‘recruit and retain’) processes without materially changing the workforce composition or service models. Further strategies involved ‘revitalising’ the social care workforce through redeploying existing staff or identifying new sources of labour. A small number of strategies involved ‘re-thinking’ social care service models more fundamentally. Very few papers specifically considered how these strategies might apply to rural contexts, and evidence for the effectiveness of strategies was sparse.

    Conclusion: The review identifies a significant gap in the literature in relation to workforce innovation and placed-based studies in rural social care systems. It is unlikely that the social care workforce crisis can be addressed through continuing attempts to recruit and retain workers within existing service models.

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  • 25.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Preston, Robyn
    School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, QLD, Australia..
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Innovation in rural health services requires local actors and local action2022In: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 43, article id 1604921Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examine the role of "local actors" and "local action" (LALA) in health service innovation in high-resource small rural settings and aim to inform debates about the extent to which communities can be empowered to drive change in service design and delivery.

    Methods: Using an adapted roles and activities framework we analyzed 32 studies of innovation projects in public health, clinical interventions, and service models.

    Results: Rural communities can investigate, lead, own and sustain innovation projects. However, there is a paucity of research reflecting limited reporting capacity and/or understanding of LALA. Highlighting this lack of evidence strengthens the need for study designs that enable an analysis of LALA.

    Conclusion: Innovation and community participation in health services are pressing issues in small rural settings where population size and distance from health infrastructure make service delivery challenging. Current reviews of community participation in rural health give little insight into the process of innovation nor understanding of how local actors produce improvements in innovation. This review outlines how communities and institutions can harness the essential role of LALA in supporting health innovations.

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  • 26.
    Chavula, Malizgani Paul
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health, Department of Health Promo‑ tion and Policy Management, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Zulu, Joseph Mumba
    School of Public Health, Department of Health Promo‑ tion and Policy Management, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Factors influencing the integration of comprehensive sexuality education into educational systems in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review2022In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 196Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) plays a critical role in promoting youth and adolescent's sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing. However, little is known about the enablers and barriers affecting the integration of CSE into educational programmes. The aim of this review is to explore positive and negative factors influencing the integration of CSE into national curricula and educational systems in low- and middle-income countries.

    METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review (January 2010 to August 2022). The results accord with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis standards for systematic reviews. Data were retrieved from the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Web of Hinari databases. The search yielded 442 publications, of which 34 met the inclusion criteria for full-text screening. The review is guided by an established conceptual framework that incorporates the integration of health innovations into health systems. Data were analysed using a thematic synthesis approach.

    RESULTS: The magnitude of the problem is evidenced by sexual and reproductive health challenges such as high teenage pregnancies, early marriages, and sexually transmitted infections. Awareness of these challenges can facilitate the development of interventions and the implementation and integration of CSE. Reported aspects of the interventions include core CSE content, delivery methods, training materials and resources, and various teacher-training factors. Reasons for adoption include perceived benefits of CSE, experiences and characteristics of both teachers and learners, and religious, social and cultural factors. Broad system characteristics include strengthening links between schools and health facilities, school and community-based collaboration, coordination of CSE implementation, and the monitoring and evaluation of CSE. Ultimately, the availability of resources, national policies and laws, international agendas, and political commitment will impact upon the extent and level of integration.

    CONCLUSION: Social, economic, cultural, political, legal, and financial contextual factors influence the implementation and integration of CSE into national curricula and educational systems. Stakeholder collaboration and involvement in the design and appropriateness of interventions is critical.

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  • 27.
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Understanding how young people do activism: Youth strategies on sexual health in Ecuador and Peru2015In: Youth & society, ISSN 0044-118X, E-ISSN 1552-8499, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 3-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While social movement research employs “tactical repertoire” to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools intended for understanding how young people make claims and towards whom they make them. This paper takes young activists’ strategies as its point of departure through a study that explored how young people perceived their activism to advance sexual health in Ecuador and Peru. Young activists employed a range of interconnected strategies that went beyond protests directed at the state, including responding to adult allies, carrying out social advocacy among youth, building organizations, carrying out political advocacy and developing themselves as activists. Strategies were shaped by the degree to which young activists negotiated alternative notions of ‘youth’ with different actors.

  • 28.
    Eid, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Biomedical Sciences Research, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel
    Department of Biomedical Sciences Research, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    Rojas, Ernesto
    Department of Biomedical Sciences Research, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Illanes, Daniel
    Department of Biomedical Sciences Research, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Assessment of a Leishmaniasis Reporting System in Tropical Bolivia Using the Capture-Recapture Method2018In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, ISSN 0002-9637, E-ISSN 1476-1645, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the level of underreporting of the National Program of Leishmaniasis Control (NPLC) in two communities of Cochabamba, Bolivia during the period 2013-2014. Montenegro skin test-confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were identified through active surveillance during medical campaigns. These cases were compared with those registered in the NPLC by passive surveillance. After matching and cleaning data from the two sources, the total number of cases and the level of underreporting of the National Program were calculated using the capture-recapture analysis. This estimated that 86 cases of CL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62.1-110.8) occurred in the study period in both communities. The level of underreporting of the NPLC in these communities was very high: 73.4% (95% CI: 62.1-110.8). These results can be explained by the inaccessibility of health services and centralization of the NPLC activities. This information is important to establish priorities among policy-makers and funding organizations as well as implementing adequate intervention plans.

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  • 29.
    Eid, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Institute of Biomedical Research, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Aniceto Arce Avenue 371, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel
    Rojas, Ernesto
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Illanes, Daniel
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Risk factors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the rainforest of Bolivia: a cross-sectional study2018In: Tropical Medicine and Health, ISSN 1348-8945, E-ISSN 1349-4147, Vol. 46, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease in Bolivia, particularly in the rainforest of Cochabamba, in the municipality of Villa Tunari. The precarious, dispersed, and poorly accessible settlements in these farming communities make it difficult to study them, and there are no epidemiological studies in the area. The aim of the present study was to identify the risk factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2015 and August 2016 in two communities of Villa Tunari, Cochabamba. The cases were diagnosed through clinical examinations, identification of the parasite by microscopic examination, and the Montenegro skin test. Risk factors were identified through logistic regression.

    Results: A total of 274 participants (40.9% female and 59.1% male) were surveyed, of which 43% were CL positive. Sex was the only factor associated with CL with three times more risk for men than for women; this finding suggests a sylvatic mechanism of transmission in the area.

    Conclusions: It is advisable to focus on education and prevention policies at an early age for activities related to either leisure or work. Further research is needed to assess the influence of gender-associated behavior for the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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  • 30.
    Eid, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Biomedical Sciences Research, Faculty of Medicine, San Simon University, Cochabamba, Bolivia.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Leishmaniasis patients' pilgrimage to access health care in rural Bolivia: a qualitative study using human rights to health approach2019In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease endemic in Bolivia that disproportionately affects people with little social and political capital. Although the treatment is provided free of charge by the Bolivian government, there is an under-utilization of treatments in relation to the estimated affected population. This study explores the experiences of patients with leishmaniasis and the challenges faced when searching for diagnosis and treatment in Bolivia using a human rights approach.

    Methods: We conducted open-ended interviews with 14 participants diagnosed with leishmaniasis. The qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and were interpreted under a human rights approach to health care.

    Results: Four themes emerged during data analysis: (1) the decision for seeking a cure takes time; (2) the severity of symptoms and disruption of functioning drives the search for Western medicine; (3) the therapeutic journey between Western and traditional medicine; and (4) accessibility barriers to receive adequate medical treatment. This study showed that access to health care limitations were the most important factors that prevented patients from receiving timely diagnosis and treatment. Cultural factors played a secondary role in their decision to seek medical care.

    Conclusions: Accessibility barriers resulted in a large pilgrimage between public health care and traditional medicinal treatments for patients with leishmaniasis. This pilgrimage and the related costs are important factors that determine the decision to seek health care. This study contributes to the understanding of the under-utilisation problems of medical services in leishmaniasis and other similar diseases in remote and poor populations.

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  • 31.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Trajectories of Mental Health Status Among Police Recruits in Sweden2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 753800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The stressful and complex nature of police work and its adverse effects on mental health are well-documented in police research. The mental health of police students however, has not been given the same attention. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the mental health of Swedish police recruits have not been undertaken since 2010.

    Objectives: The present study aims to examine whether there are differences in the mental health between two cohorts (2009 and 2020) of Swedish police recruits, as well as to compare the mental health of both cohorts with the general population data collected in 2002.

    Methods: Data was collected using the SCL-90-R survey. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and independent sample T-tests. Bi-variate analyses including t-test and chi-square were used to examine differences in sociodemographic variables between the two cohorts.

    Results: A total of 376 police recruits participated in the study. Results indicated no significant differences between the cohorts with regards to the three global indices of the SCL-90-R: Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Total (PST), and Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI). Recruits with a college degree had lower scores on GSI and PSDI, similar to respondents that where in a relationship vs. singles. A total of 15 (four female) recruits had GSI scores above the Swedish patient mean. Compared with the general population, males and females from the 2009, as well as females from the 2020 cohorts had lower or insignificantly different mean scores on all global indices, with males from the 2020 cohort having a significantly lower PST score.

    Conclusions: While the vast majority of recruits had results that where indicative of a low prevalence and intensity with regards to mental health disorders, some recruits did score above the Swedish patient mean. While mental preparedness is part of the curriculum for Swedish police recruits, interventions targeting the stigmas of poor mental health could be of value. The fact that educational attainment appears to have a positive impact on the mental health of police recruits, could be taken in to consideration when recruiting future police officers.

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  • 32.
    Fagrell Trygg, Nadja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Månsdotter, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Reducing or reproducing inequalities in health?: An intersectional policy analysis of how health inequalities are represented in a Swedish bill on alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gambling2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, article id 1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to post-structural policy analyses, policies and interventions aiming at reducing social inequalities have been found to be part in producing and reifying such inequalities themselves. Given the central role of health inequalities on the public health policy agenda globally it seems important to examine the way policy on health inequalities may potentially counteract the goal of health equity. The aim of this intersectional policy analysis, was to critically analyze the representation of health inequalities in a government bill proposing a national strategy on alcohol, drugs, tobacco and gambling, to examine its performative power, and to outline alternative representations.

    Method: A post-structural approach to policy analysis was combined with an intersectional framework. The material was analyzed through an interrogating process guided by the six questions of the “What’s the problem represented to be?” (WPR) approach. Thus, the underlying assumptions of the problem representation, its potential implications and historical background were explored. In a final step of the analysis we examined our own problem representations.

    Results: The recommendations found in the gender and equity perspective of the bill represented the problem of health inequalities as a lack of knowledge, with an emphasis on quantitative knowledge about differences in health between population groups. Three underlying assumptions supporting this representation were found: quantification and objectivity, inequalities as unidimensional, and categorization and labelling. The analysis showed how the bill, by opting into these partly overlapping assumptions, is part of enacting a discourse on health inequalities that directs attention to specific subjects (e.g., vulnerable) with special needs (e.g., health care), in certain places (e.g., disadvantaged neighborhoods). It also showed how underlying processes of marginalization are largely neglected in the bill due to its focus on describing differences rather than solutions. Finally, we showed how different intersectional approaches could be used to complement and challenge this, potentially counteractive, problem representation.

    Conclusions: The problem representation of health inequalities and its underlying assumptions may have counteractive effects on health equity, and even though some of its strengths are raised, it seems to be profoundly entangled with a system resisting the kind of change that the bill itself advocates for. If carefully used, intersectionality has the potential to support a more comprehensive and inclusive equality-promoting public health policy and practice.

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  • 33. Feder, Gene
    et al.
    Rohde, Jon E
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Janlert, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Jimba, Masamine
    Materia, Enrico
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Goldin, Stephen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stafford, Tom
    Edvardsson, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Hilt, Bjorn
    Parkinson, Stuart
    Birch, Marion
    Jones, Anna
    Archibald, Kathy
    Pastore, John O
    Reed Elsevier and the international arms trade.2005In: Lancet, ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 366, no 9489, p. 889; discussion 889-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Nyamhanga, Tumaini
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mwangu, Mughwira
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Challenges to the implementation of health sector decentralization in Tanzania: experiences from Kongwa district council2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, p. 20983-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the 1990s, the government of Tanzania introduced the decentralization by devolution (D by D) approach involving the transfer of functions, power and authority from the centre to the local government authorities (LGAs) to improve the delivery of public goods and services, including health services. Objective: This article examines and documents the experiences facing the implementation of decentralization of health services from the perspective of national and district officials. Design: The study adopted a qualitative approach, and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and were analysed for themes and patterns. Results: The results showed several benefits of decentralization, including increased autonomy in local resource mobilization and utilization, an enhanced bottom-up planning approach, increased health workers' accountability and reduction of bureaucratic procedures in decision making. The findings also revealed several challenges which hinder the effective functioning of decentralization. These include inadequate funding, untimely disbursement of funds from the central government, insufficient and unqualified personnel, lack of community participation in planning and political interference. Conclusion: The article concludes that the central government needs to adhere to the principles that established the local authorities and grant more autonomy to them, offer special incentives to staff working in the rural areas and create the capacity for local key actors to participate effectively in the planning process.

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  • 35. Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Nyamhanga, Tumaini
    Mwangu, Mughwira
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Participation in health planning in a decentralised health system: experiences from facility governing committees in the Kongwa district of Tanzania2014In: Global Public Health, ISSN 1744-1692, E-ISSN 1744-1706, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 1125-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania introduced the decentralisation of its health systems in the 1990s in order to provide opportunities for community participation in health planning. Health facility governing committees (HFGCs) were then established to provide room for communities to participate in the management of health service delivery. The objective of this study was to explore the challenges and benefits for the participation of HFGCs in health planning in a decentralised health system. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). A total of 13 key informants were interviewed from the council and lower-level health facilities. Five FGDs were conducted from five health facilities in one district. Data generated were analysed for themes and patterns. The results of the study suggest that HFGCs are instrumental organs in health planning at the community level and there are several benefits resulting from their participation including an opportunity to address community needs and mobilisation of resources. However, there are some challenges associated with the participation of HFGCs in health planning including a low level of education among committee members and late approval of funds for running health facilities. In conclusion, HFGCs potentially play a significant role in health planning. However, their participation is ineffective due to their limited capacities and disabling environment.

  • 36. Frumence, Gasto
    et al.
    Nyamhanga, Tumaini
    Mwangu, Mughwira
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The dependency on central government funding of decentralised health systems: experiences of the challenges and coping strategies in the Kongwa District, Tanzania2014In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 14, no 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Decentralised health systems in Tanzania depend largely on funding from the central government to run health services. Experience has shown that central funding in a decentralised system is not an appropriate approach to ensure the effective and efficient performance of local authorities due to several limitations. One of the limitations is that funds from the central government are not disbursed on a timely basis, which in turn, leads to the serious problem of shortage of financial resources for Council Health Management Teams (CHMT). This paper examines how dependency on central government funding in Tanzania affects health activities in Kongwa district council and the strategies used by the CHMT cope with the situation.

    Methods: The study adopted a qualitative approach and data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. One district in the central region of Tanzania was strategically selected. Ten key informants involved in the management of health service delivery at the district level were interviewed and one focus group discussion was held, which consisted of members of the council health management team. The data generated were analysed for themes and patterns.

    Results: The results showed that late disbursement of funds interrupts the implementation of health activities in the district health system. This situation delays the implementation of some activities, while a few activities may not be implemented at all. However, based on their prior knowledge of the anticipated delays in financial disbursements, the council health management team has adopted three main strategies to cope with this situation. These include obtaining supplies and other services on credit, borrowing money from other projects in the council, and using money generated from cost sharing.

    Conclusion: Local government authorities (LGAs) face delays in the disbursement of funds from the central government. This has necessitated introduction of informal coping strategies to deal with the situation. National-level policy and decision makers should minimise the bureaucracy involved in allocating funds to the district health systems to reduce delays.

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    The dependency on central government funding of decentralised health systems: experiences of the challenges and coping strategies in the Kongwa District, Tanzania
  • 37.
    Gaitonde, Rakhal
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.
    Muraleedharan, V. R.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Accountability in the health system of Tamil Nadu, India: exploring its multiple meanings2019In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 17, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Accountability is increasingly being demanded of public services and is a core aspect of most recent frameworks of health system strengthening. Community-based accountability is an increasingly used strategy, and wasa core aspect of India's flagship National Rural Health Mission (NRHM; 2005-2014). Research on policy implementation has called for policy analysts to go beyond the superficial articulation of a particular policy intervention to study the underlying meaning this has for policy-makers and other actors of the implementation process and to the way in which problems sought to be addressed by the policy have been identified and problematised'.

    Methods: This research, focused on state level officials and health NGO leaders, explores the meanings attached to the concept of accountability among a number of key actors during the implementation of the NRHM in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The overall research was guided by an interpretive approach to policy analysis and the problematisation lens. Through in-depth interviews we draw on the interviewees' perspectives on accountability.

    Results: The research identifies three distinct perspectives on accountability among the key actors involved in the implementation of the NRHM. One perspective views accountability as the achievement of pre-set targets, the other as efficiency in achieving these targets, and the final one as a transformative process that equalises power differentials between communities and the public health system. We also present the ways in which these differences in perspectives are associated with different programme designs.

    Conclusions: This research underlines the importance of going beyond the statements of policy to exploring the underlying beliefs and perspectives in order to more comprehensively understand the dynamics of policy implementation; it further points to the impacts of these perspectives on the design of initiatives in response to the policy.

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  • 38.
    Gaitonde, Rakhal
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Sciences & Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dissonances and disconnects: the life and times of community-bsaed accountability in the National Rural Health Mission in Tamil Nadu, India2020In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 20, article id 89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are increasing calls for developing robust processes of community-based accountability as key components of health system strengthening. However, implementation of these processes have shown mixed results over time and geography. The Community Action for Health (CAH) project was introduced as part of India’s National Rural Health Mission (now National Health Mission) to strengthen community-based accountability through community monitoring and planning. In this study we trace the implementation process of this project from its piloting, implementation and abrupt termination in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

    Methods: We framed CAH as an innovation introduced into the health system. We use the framework on integration of innovations in complex systems developed by Atun and others. We used qualitative approaches to study the implementation. We conducted interviews among a range of individuals who were directly involved in the implementation, focusing on the policy making organizational level.

    Results: We uncover what we have termed “dissonances” and “disconnects” at the state level among individuals with key responsibility of implementation. By dissonances we refer to the diversity of perspective on the concept of community-based accountability and its perceived role. By disconnects we refer to the lack of spaces and processes for “sense-making” in a largely hierarchically functioning system. These constructs we believe contributes significantly to making sense of the initial uptake and the subsequent abrupt termination of the project.

    Conclusions: This study contributes to the overall field of policy implementation, especially the phase between the emergence on the policy agenda and its incorporation into the day to day functioning of a system. It focuses on the implementation of contested interventions like community-based accountability, in Low- and Middle-income country settings undergoing transitions in governance. It highlights the importance of “problematization” a dimension not included in most currently popular frameworks to study the uptake and spread of innovations in the health system. It points not only to the importance of diverse perspectives present among individuals at different positions in the organization, but equally importantly the need for spaces and process of collective sense-making to ensure that a contested policy intervention is integrated into a complex system.

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  • 39.
    Gaitonde, Rakhal
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Muraleedharan, V R
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Community Action for Health in India's National Rural Health Mission: One policy, many paths2017In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 188, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community participation as a strategy for health system strengthening and accountability is an almost ubiquitous policy prescription. In 2005, with the election of a new Government in India, the National Rural Health Mission was launched. This was aimed at 'architectural correction' of the health care system, and enshrined 'communitization' as one of its pillars. The mission also provided unique policy spaces and opportunity structures that enabled civil society groups to attempt to bring on to the policy agenda as well as implement a more collective action and social justice based approach to community based accountability. Despite receiving a lot of support and funding from the central ministry in the pilot phase, the subsequent roll out of the process, led in the post-pilot phase by the individual state governments, showed very varied outcomes. This paper using both documentary and interview based data is the first study to document the roll out of this ambitious process. Looking critically at what varied and why, the paper attempts to derive lessons for future implementation of such contested concepts.

  • 40.
    Gangane, Nitin
    et al.
    Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, India.
    Anshu, Anshu
    Manvatkar, Shiva
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Prevalence and Risk Factors for Patient Delay Among Women With Breast Cancer in Rural India2016In: Asia-Pacific journal of public health, ISSN 1941-2479, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Delay in seeking health care by women with breast cancer increases mortality risk. This study was conducted in rural India to identify risk factors associated with patient delay. A total of 212 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 were interviewed. Sociodemographic characteristics, time interval between seeking medical attention and appearance of symptoms, and reasons for delay were inquired. Patient delay was defined as more than 3 months between date of first symptoms and medical consultation. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations between potential risk factors and patient delay. Almost half the women with breast cancer experienced patient delay. Age more than 60 years (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-18.0) was significantly associated with patient delay. Only 6.6% of patients had heard about breast self-examination. Significantly higher number of patients with delay presented with advanced clinical stage (P = .000). Health education programs should be introduced with specific strategies to shorten patient delay.

  • 41.
    Gangane, Nitin
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, India.
    Khairkar, Pravin
    Department of Psychiatry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha, India.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Quality of Life Determinants in Breast Cancer Patients in Central Rural India2017In: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 1513-7368, Vol. 18, no 12, p. 3325-3332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women throughout world, with incidence rates increasing in India. Improved survival in breast cancer patients has resulted in their quality of life (QOL) becoming an important issue. Identifying determinants for QOL may provide insights into how to improve their living conditions. This study aimed to assess socio-demographic and clinical factors, as well as the role of self-efficacy, in relation to QOL among women with breast cancer in rural India. Methods: A total of 208 female patients with infiltrating carcinoma of the breast participated in the study. A questionnaire was administered that included sections for socio-demographic characteristics, clinical stage of the cancer and patient delay in seeking health care. A standardized instrument to measure self-efficacy was applied. To assess QOL, the WHOQOL – BREF instrument was used. Results: The overall mean score for QOL was 59.3. For domain 1 (physical health) the mean score across all groups was 55.5, for psychological health 58.2, for social relationships 63.2 and for environmental factors, 60.4. The environmental domain in QOL was negatively associated with lower education. Being divorced/widowed/unmarried had a negative association with the psychological health and social relationship dimensions, whereas higher income was positively associated with QOL parameters such as psychology, social relationships and environmental factors. Self-efficacy was positively associated with all four domains of QOL. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated a moderate QOL in women with breast cancer in rural India. Young age, lack of education and being without a partner were negatively related to QOL, and employment as casual and industrial workers, high monthly family income and higher self-efficacy were positively associated with QOL. A comprehensive public health initiative is required, including social, financial and environmental support, that can provide better QOL for breast cancer survivors.

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  • 42.
    Gangane, Nitin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    System delay of diagnosis and treatment experienced by women with breast cancer in rural IndiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carson, Dean
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Demography and Growth Planning, Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Centre for Rural Medicine, Storuman, Sweden.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Health care access for rural youth on equal terms?: A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden2018In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population.

    METHODS: The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care.

    DISCUSSION: The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

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  • 44.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Marchal, Bruno
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Searching for best practices of youth friendly services - a study protocol using qualitative comparative analysis in Sweden2016In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 16, article id 321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish youth clinics constitute one of the most comprehensive and consolidated examples of a nationwide network of health care services for young people. However, studies evaluating their 'youth-friendliness' and the combination of factors that makes them more or less 'youth-friendly' have not been conducted. This protocol will scrutinise the current youth-friendliness of youth clinics in northern Sweden and identify the best combination of conditions needed in order to implement the criteria of youth-friendliness within Swedish youth clinics and elsewhere.

    Methods/design: In this study, we will use qualitative comparative analysis to analyse the conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to implement Youth Friendly Health Services in 20 selected youth-clinics (cases). In order to conduct Qualitative Comparative Analysis, we will first identify the outcomes and the conditions to be assessed. The overall outcome - youth-friendliness - will be assessed together with specific outcomes for each of the five domains - accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective. This will be done using a questionnaire to be applied to a sample of young people coming to the youth clinics. In terms of conditions, we will first identify what might be the key conditions, to ensure the youth friendliness of health care services, through literature review, interviews with professionals working at youth clinics, and with young people. The combination of conditions and outcomes will form the hypothesis to be further tested later on in the qualitative comparative analysis of the 20 cases. Once information on outcomes and conditions is gathered from each of the 20 clinics, it will be analysed using Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Discussion: The added value of this study in relation to the findings is twofold: on the one hand it will allow a thorough assessment of the youth-friendliness of northern Swedish youth clinics. On the other hand, it will extract lessons from one of the most consolidated examples of differentiated services for young people. Methodologically, this study can contribute to expanding the use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis in health systems research.

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  • 45.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mechanisms for achieving adolescent-friendly services: a realist evaluation approach2012In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 5, p. 18748-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite evidence showing that adolescent-friendly health services (AFSs) increase young people's access to these services, health systems across the world are failing to integrate this approach.

    In Latin America, policies aimed at strengthening AFS abound. However, such services are offered only in a limited number of sites, and providers' attitudes and respect for confidentiality have not been addressed to a sufficient extent.

    Methods: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms that triggered the transformation of an 'ordinary' health care facility into an AFS in Ecuador. For this purpose, a realist evaluation approach was used in order to analyse three well-functioning AFSs. Information was gathered at the national level and from each of the settings including: (i) statistical information and unpublished reports; (ii) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with policy makers, health care providers, users and adolescents participating in youth organisations and (iii) observations at the health care facilities. Thematic analysis was carried out, driven by the realist evaluation approach, namely exploring the connections between mechanisms, contexts and outcomes.

    Results: The results highlighted that the development of the AFSs was mediated by four mechanisms: grounded self-confidence in trying new things, legitimacy, a transformative process and an integral approach to adolescents. Along this process, contextual factors at the national and institutional levels were further explored.

    Conclusion: The Ministry of Health of Ecuador, based on the New Guidelines for Comprehensive Care of Adolescent Health, has started the scaling up of AFSs. Our research points towards the need to recognise and incorporate these mechanisms as part of the implementation strategy from the very beginning of the process.

    Although contextually limited to Ecuador, many mechanisms and good practices in these AFS may be relevant to the Latin American setting and elsewhere.

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  • 46.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Coe, Anna-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Developing and sustaining adolescent-friendly health services: a multiple case study from Ecuador and Peru2017In: Global Public Health, ISSN 1744-1692, E-ISSN 1744-1706, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1004-1017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent-Friendly Health Services (AFHSs) are those that are accessible, acceptable, equitable, appropriate and effective for different youth sub-populations. This study investigated the process through which four clinics in two countries - Peru and Ecuador - introduced, developed and sustained AFHSs. A multiple case study design was chosen, and data from each clinic were collected through document review, observations and informant interviews. National level data were also collected. Data were analysed following thematic analysis. The findings showed that the process of introducing, developing and sustaining AFHSs was long term, and required a creative team effort and collaboration between donors, public institutions and health providers. The motivation and external support was crucial to initiating and sustaining the implementation of AFHSs. Health facilities' transformation into AFHSs was linked to the broader organisation of country health systems, and the evolution of national adolescent health policies. In Peru, the centralised approach to AFHSs introduction facilitated the dissemination of a comprehensive national model to health facilities, but dependency on national directives made it more difficult to systemise them when ideological and organisational changes occurred. In Ecuador, a less centralised approach to introducing AFHSs made for easier integration of the AFHSs model.

  • 47.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hultstrand Ahlin, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Accessibility and factors associated with utilization of mental health services in youth health centers: a qualitative comparative analysis in northern Sweden2018In: International Journal of Mental Health Systems, E-ISSN 1752-4458, Vol. 12, article id 69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Youth-friendly health care services can facilitate young people's access to health care services and promote their health, including their mental health. In Sweden, a network of youth health centers exist since the 1970s, incorporated within the public health system. Even if such centers take a holistic approach to youth health, the focus has been in sexual and reproductive health care, and the extent of integrating mental health care services is less developed though it varies notably between different centers. This study aims to analyse the various conditions that are sufficient and/or necessary to make Swedish youth health centers accessible for mental and psychosocial health.

    Methods: Multiple case study design, using qualitative comparative analysis to assess the various conditions that makes a youth health center accessible for mental and psychosocial issues and mental health. The cases included 18 youth health centers (from a total of 22) in the four northern counties of Sweden.

    Results: In order to enhance accessibility for mental health services, youth health centers need to be trusted by young people. Trust was necessary but not sufficient, meaning that it had to be combined with other conditions: either having a team with a variety of professions represented in the youth health center, or being a youth health center that is both easy to contact and well-staffed with mental health professionals.

    Conclusions: Differentiated, first-line services for youth can play an important role in promoting youth mental health if certain conditions are fulfilled. Trust is necessary, but has to be combined with either multidisciplinary teams, or expertise on mental health and easy accessibility.

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  • 48.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Univ Alicante, Grp Invest Salud Publ, E-03080 Alicante, Spain.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Using realist evaluation to assess primary healthcare teams' responses to intimate partner violence in Spain2015In: Gaceta Sanitaria, ISSN 0213-9111, E-ISSN 1578-1283, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 431-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Few evaluations have assessed the factors triggering an adequate health care response to intimate partner violence. This article aimed to: 1) describe a realist evaluation carried out in Spain to ascertain why, how and under what circumstances primary health care teams respond to intimate partner violence, and 2) discuss the strengths and challenges of its application.

    METHODS: We carried out a series of case studies in four steps. First, we developed an initial programme theory (PT1), based on interviews with managers. Second, we refined PT1 into PT2 by testing it in a primary healthcare team that was actively responding to violence. Third, we tested the refined PT2 by incorporating three other cases located in the same region. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and thick descriptions were produced and analysed using a retroduction approach. Fourth, we analysed a total of 15 cases, and identified combinations of contextual factors and mechanisms that triggered an adequate response to violence by using qualitative comparative analysis.

    RESULTS: There were several key mechanisms -the teams' self-efficacy, perceived preparation, women-centred care-, and contextual factors -an enabling team environment and managerial style, the presence of motivated professionals, the use of the protocol and accumulated experience in primary health care- that should be considered to develop adequate primary health-care responses to violence.

    CONCLUSION: The full application of this realist evaluation was demanding, but also well suited to explore a complex intervention reflecting the situation in natural settings.

  • 49.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Univ Alicante, Dept Community Nursing Prevent Med & Publ Hlth &, Publ Hlth Res Grp, E-03080 Alicante, Spain.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sebastian, Miguel San
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Marchal, Bruno
    Developing a programme theory to explain how primary health care teams learn to respond to intimate partner violence: a realist case-study2015In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 15, article id 228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite the progress made on policies and programmes to strengthen primary health care teams' response to Intimate Partner Violence, the literature shows that encounters between women exposed to IPV and health-care providers are not always satisfactory, and a number of barriers that prevent individual health-care providers from responding to IPV have been identified. We carried out a realist case study, for which we developed and tested a programme theory that seeks to explain how, why and under which circumstances a primary health care team in Spain learned to respond to IPV. Methods: A realist case study design was chosen to allow for an in-depth exploration of the linkages between context, intervention, mechanisms and outcomes as they happen in their natural setting. The first author collected data at the primary health care center La Virgen (pseudonym) through the review of documents, observation and interviews with health systems' managers, team members, women patients, and members of external services. The quality of the IPV case management was assessed with the PREMIS tool. Results: This study found that the health care team at La Virgen has managed 1) to engage a number of staff members in actively responding to IPV, 2) to establish good coordination, mutual support and continuous learning processes related to IPV, 3) to establish adequate internal referrals within La Virgen, and 4) to establish good coordination and referral systems with other services. Team and individual level factors have triggered the capacity and interest in creating spaces for team leaning, team work and therapeutic responses to IPV in La Virgen, although individual motivation strongly affected this mechanism. Regional interventions did not trigger individual and/ or team responses but legitimated the workings of motivated professionals. Conclusions: The primary health care team of La Virgen is involved in a continuous learning process, even as participation in the process varies between professionals. This process has been supported, but not caused, by a favourable policy for integration of a health care response to IPV. Specific contextual factors of La Virgen facilitated the uptake of the policy. To some extent, the performance of La Virgen has the potential to shape the IPV learning processes of other primary health care teams in Murcia.

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  • 50.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Public Health Research Group, Department of Community Nursing, Preventive Medicine and Public Health and History of Science, Alicante University, Alicante, Spain.
    Marchal, Bruno
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Why do certain primary health care teams respond better to intimate partner violence than others?: A multiple case study2019In: Gaceta Sanitaria, ISSN 0213-9111, E-ISSN 1578-1283, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 169-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyse how team level conditions influenced health care professionals’ responses to intimate partner violence.

    Methods: We used a multiple embedded case study. The cases were four primary health care teams located in a southern region of Spain; two of them considered "good" and two s "average". The two teams considered good had scored highest in practice issues for intimate partner violence, measured via a questionnaire (PREMIS - Physicians Readiness to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence Survey) applied to professionals working in the four primary health care teams. In each case quantitative and qualitative data were collected using a social network questionnaire, interviews and observations.

    Results: The two "good" cases showed dynamics and structures that promoted team working and team learning on intimate partner violence, had committed social workers and an enabling environment for their work, and had put into practice explicit strategies to implement a women-centred approach.

    Conclusions: Better individual responses to intimate partner violence were implemented in the teams which: 1) had social workers who were knowledgeable and motivated to engage with others; 2) sustained a structure of regular meetings during which issues of violence were discussed; 3) encouraged a friendly team climate; and 4) implemented concrete actions towards women-centred care.

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