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  • 1.
    de Oliveira, Ana H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Guerreiro, Duarte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    García-Del Portillo, Francisco
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    O'Byrne, Conor
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    The virulence and infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes are not substantially altered by elevated SigB activity2023Inngår i: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 91, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe infections but also thriving outside the host. To respond to different stress conditions, L. monocytogenes mainly utilizes the general stress response regulon, which largely is controlled by the alternative sigma factor Sigma B (SigB). In addition, SigB is important for virulence gene expression and infectivity. Upon encountering stress, a large multicomponent protein complex known as the stressosome becomes activated, ultimately leading to SigB activation. RsbX is a protein needed to reset a "stressed"stressosome and prevent unnecessary SigB activation in nonstressed conditions. Consequently, absence of RsbX leads to constitutive activation of SigB even without prevailing stress stimulus. To further examine the involvement of SigB in the virulence of this pathogen, we investigated whether a strain with constitutively active SigB would be affected in virulence factor expression and/or infectivity in cultured cells and in a chicken embryo infection model. Our results suggest that increased SigB activity does not substantially alter virulence gene expression compared with the wild-type (WT) strain at transcript and protein levels. Bacteria lacking RsbX were taken up by phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells at a similar frequency to WT bacteria, both in stressed and nonstressed conditions. Finally, the absence of RsbX only marginally affected the ability of bacteria to infect chicken embryos. Our results suggest only a minor role of RsbX in controlling virulence factor expression and infectivity under these conditions.

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  • 2.
    de Oliveira, Ana Henriques
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;Umeå Centre of Microbial Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Guerreiro, Duarte N.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    García-del Portillo, Francisco
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    O’Byrne, Conor
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Listeria monocytogenes requires the RsbX protein to prevent SigB-activation under non-stressed conditions2022Inngår i: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 204, nr 1, artikkel-id e00486-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of microbial cells under changing environmental conditions requires an efficient reprogramming of transcription, often mediated by alternative sigma factors. The Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes senses and responds to environmental stress mainly through the alternative sigma factor σB (SigB), which controls expression of the general stress response regulon. SigB activation is achieved through a complex series of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events culminating in the release of SigB from its anti-sigma factor RsbW. At the top of the signal transduction pathway lies a large multi-protein complex known as the stressosome that is believed to act as a sensory hub for stresses. Following signal detection, stressosome proteins become phosphorylated. Resetting of the stressosome is hypothesized to be exerted by a putative phosphatase, RsbX, which presumably removes phosphate groups from stressosome proteins post-stress.We addressed the role of the RsbX protein in modulating the activity of the stressosome and consequently regulating SigB activity in L. monocytogenes. We show that RsbX is required to reduce SigB activation/levels under non-stress conditions and that it is required for appropriate SigB mediated stress-adaptation. A strain lacking RsbX displayed impaired motility and biofilm formation, but also an increased survival at low pH. Our results could suggest that absence of RsbX alter the multi-protein composition of the stressosome without dramatically affecting its phosphorylation status. Overall the data show that RsbX plays a critical role in modulating the signal transduction pathway by blocking SigB activation under non-stressed conditions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 3.
    de Oliveira, Ana Henriques
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå Center of Microbial Research, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    Portillo, Francisco García-del
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    A minor role of RsbX in Listeria monocytogenes’ virulenceManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4. Flentie, Kelly
    et al.
    Harrison, Gregory A.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Livny, Jonathan
    Good, James A. D.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sarkar, Souvik
    Zhu, Dennis X.
    Kinsella, Rachel L.
    Weiss, Leslie A.
    Solomon, Samantha D.
    Schene, Miranda E.
    Hansen, Mette R.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Cairns, Andrew G.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Kulén, Martina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wixe, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Lindgren, Anders E. G.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Chorell, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110.
    Bengtsson, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Krishnan, K. Syam
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hultgren, Scott J.
    Larsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Stallings, Christina L.
    Chemical disarming of isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, nr 21, s. 10510-10517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) killed more people in 2017 than any other single infectious agent. This dangerous pathogen is able to withstand stresses imposed by the immune system and tolerate exposure to antibiotics, resulting in persistent infection. The global tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has been exacerbated by the emergence of mutant strains of Mtb that are resistant to frontline antibiotics. Thus, both phenotypic drug tolerance and genetic drug resistance are major obstacles to successful TB therapy. Using a chemical approach to identify compounds that block stress and drug tolerance, as opposed to traditional screens for compounds that kill Mtb, we identified a small molecule, C10, that blocks tolerance to oxidative stress, acid stress, and the frontline antibiotic isoniazid (INH). In addition, we found that C10 prevents the selection for INH-resistant mutants and restores INH sensitivity in otherwise INH-resistant Mtb strains harboring mutations in the katG gene, which encodes the enzyme that converts the prodrug INH to its active form. Through mechanistic studies, we discovered that C10 inhibits Mtb respiration, revealing a link between respiration homeostasis and INH sensitivity. Therefore, by using C10 to dissect Mtb persistence, we discovered that INH resistance is not absolute and can be reversed.

  • 5.
    Karlsborn, Tony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Mahmud, A K M Firoj
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Byström, Anders S.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Loss of ncm5 and mcm5 wobble uridine side chains results in an altered metabolic profile2016Inngår i: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 12, nr 12, artikkel-id 177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Elongator complex, comprising six subunits (Elp1p-Elp6p), is required for formation of 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm(5)) and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm(5)) side chains on wobble uridines in 11 out of 42 tRNA species in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Loss of these side chains reduces the efficiency of tRNA decoding during translation, resulting in pleiotropic phenotypes. Overexpression of hypomodified tRNA(s2UUU)(Lys); tRNA(s2UUG)(Gln) and tRNA(s2UUC)(Glu), which in wild-type strains are modified with mcm(5)s(2)U, partially suppress phenotypes of an elp3 Delta strain. Objectives: To identify metabolic alterations in an elp3 Delta strain and elucidate whether these metabolic alterations are suppressed by overexpression of hypomodified tRNA(s2UUU)(Lys); tRNA(s2UUG)(Gln) and tRNA(s2UUC)(Glu). Method: Metabolic profiles were obtained using untargeted GC-TOF-MS of a temperature-sensitive elp3 Delta strain carrying either an empty low-copy vector, an empty high-copy vector, a low-copy vector harboring the wild-type ELP3 gene, or a high-copy vector overexpressing tRNA(s2UUU)(Lys); tRNA(s2UUG)(Gln) and tRNA(s2UUC)(Glu). The temperature sensitive elp3 Delta strain derivatives were cultivated at permissive (30 degrees C) or semi-permissive (34 degrees C) growth conditions. Results: Culturing an elp3 Delta strain at 30 or 34 degrees C resulted in altered metabolism of 36 and 46 %, respectively, of all metabolites detected when compared to an elp3D strain carrying the wild-type ELP3 gene. Overexpression of hypomodified tRNA(s2UUU)(Lys); tRNA(s2UUG)(Gln) and tRNA(s2UUC)(Glu) suppressed a subset of the metabolic alterations observed in the elp3 Delta strain. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the presence of ncm(5)- and mcm(5)-side chains on wobble uridines in tRNA are important for metabolic homeostasis.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 6.
    Karlsborn, Tony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Tukenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Chen, Changchun
    Byström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Familial dysautonomia (FD) patients have reduced levels of the modified wobble nucleoside mcm(5)s(2)U in tRNA2014Inngår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 454, nr 3, s. 441-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a recessive neurodegenerative genetic disease. FD is caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene resulting in a splicing defect and reduced levels of full length IKAP protein. IKAP homologues can be found in all eukaryotes and are part of a conserved six subunit protein complex, Elongator complex. Inactivation of any Elongator subunit gene in multicellular organisms cause a wide range of phenotypes, suggesting that Elongator has a pivotal role in several cellular processes. In yeast, there is convincing evidence that the main role of Elongator complex is in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides in tRNA and that their absence will influence translational efficiency. To date, no study has explored the possibility that FD patients display defects in formation of modified wobble uridine nucleosides as a consequence of reduced IKAP levels. In this study, we show that brain tissue and fibroblast cell lines from FD patients have reduced levels of the wobble uridine nucleoside 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm(5)s(2)U). Our findings indicate that FD could be caused by inefficient translation due to lower levels of wobble uridine nucleosides. 

  • 7.
    Karlsborn, Tony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Tukenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Mahmud, A K M Firoj
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Xu, Fu
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Xu, Hao
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Byström, Anders S
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Elongator, a conserved complex required for wobble uridine modifications in Eukaryotes2014Inngår i: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 1519-1528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Elongator is a 6 subunit protein complex highly conserved in eukaryotes. The role of this complex has been controversial as the pleiotropic phenotypes of Elongator mutants have implicated the complex in several cellular processes. However, in yeast there is convincing evidence that the primary and probably only role of this complex is in formation of the 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm(5)) and 5-carbamoylmethyl (ncm(5)) side chains on uridines at wobble position in tRNA. In this review we summarize the cellular processes that have been linked to the Elongator complex and discuss its role in tRNA modification and regulation of translation. We also describe additional gene products essential for formation of ncm(5) and mcm(5) side chains at U-34 and their influence on Elongator activity.

  • 8.
    Nord, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi, Virologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Bhatt, Monika J
    Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Farabaugh, Philip J
    Baltimore, Maryland 21228, USA.
    Wikström, P Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Mutations of ribosomal protein S5 suppress a defect in late-30S ribosomal subunit biogenesis caused by lack of the RbfA biogenesis factor2015Inngår i: RNA: A publication of the RNA Society, ISSN 1355-8382, E-ISSN 1469-9001, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1454-1468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The in vivo assembly of ribosomal subunits requires assistance by maturation proteins that are not part of mature ribosomes. One such protein, RbfA, associates with the 30S ribosomal subunits. Loss of RbfA causes cold sensitivity and defects of the 30S subunit biogenesis and its overexpression partially suppresses the dominant cold sensitivity caused by a C23U mutation in the central pseudoknot of 16S rRNA, a structure essential for ribosome function. We have isolated suppressor mutations that restore partially the growth of an RbfA-lacking strain. Most of the strongest suppressor mutations alter one out of three distinct positions in the carboxy-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S5 (S5) in direct contact with helix 1 and helix 2 of the central pseudoknot. Their effect is to increase the translational capacity of the RbfA-lacking strain as evidenced by an increase in polysomes in the suppressed strains. Overexpression of RimP, a protein factor that along with RbfA regulates formation of the ribosome's central pseudoknot, was lethal to the RbfA-lacking strain but not to a wild-type strain and this lethality was suppressed by the alterations in S5. The S5 mutants alter translational fidelity but these changes do not explain consistently their effect on the RbfA-lacking strain. Our genetic results support a role for the region of S5 modified in the suppressors in the formation of the central pseudoknot in 16S rRNA.

  • 9.
    Nye, Taylor M.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Singh, Pardeep
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India.
    Obernuefemann, Chloe L.P.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Pinkner, Jerome S.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Sarkar, Souvik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Lindgren, Anders E. G.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Dodson, Karen W.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Caparon, Michael G.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Hultgren, Scott J.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Ring-fused 2-pyridones effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens and synergistic with standard-of-care antibiotics2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 119, nr 43, artikkel-id e2210912119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The alarming rise of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria has precipitated a healthcare crisis, necessitating the development of new antimicrobial therapies. Here we describe a new class of antibiotics based on a ring-fused 2-pyridone backbone, which are active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a serious threat as classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ring-fused 2-pyridone antibiotics have bacteriostatic activity against actively dividing exponential phase enterococcal cells and bactericidal activity against nondividing stationary phase enterococcal cells. The molecular mechanism of drug-induced killing of stationary phase cells mimics aspects of fratricide observed in enterococcal biofilms, where both are mediated by the Atn autolysin and the GelE protease. In addition, combinations of sublethal concentrations of ring-fused 2-pyridones and standard-of-care antibiotics, such as vancomycin, were found to synergize to kill clinical strains of VRE. Furthermore, a broad range of antibiotic resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including those responsible for the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistant healthcare-associated infections, are susceptible to this new class of 2-pyridone antibiotics. Given the broad antibacterial activities of ring-fused 2-pyridone compounds against Gram-positive (GmP) bacteria we term these compounds GmPcides, which hold promise in combating the rising tide of antibiotic resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

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  • 10.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Influence of wobble uridine modifications on eukaryotic translation2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Elongator is a conserved six subunit protein (Elp1p-Elp6p) complex that is required for the formation of ncm5 and mcm5 side chains at wobble uridines in transfer RNAs (tRNAs). Moreover, loss-of-function mutations in any gene encoding an Elongator subunit results in translational defects and a multitude of phenotypic effects. This thesis is based on investigations of effects of wobble uridine modifications on translation.

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ncm5U34-, mcm5U34- and mcm5s2U34- modified wobble nucleosides in tRNAs are important for proper codonanticodon interactions. My colleagues and I (hereafter we) showed that mcm5 and s2 groups at wobble uridine in tRNAs are vital for maintaining the reading frame during translation, as absence of these modifications increases the frequency of +1 frameshifting. We also showed that +1 frameshifting events at lysine AAA codons in Elongator mutants are due to slow entry of the hypomodified tRNA Lyss2UUU to the ribosomal A-site.

    Ixr1p is a protein that plays a key role in increasing production of deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) in responses to DNA damage, via induction of Ribonucleotide reductase 1 (Rnr1p), in S. cerevisiae. We showed that expression of Ixr1p is reduced in elp3Δ mutants due to a post-transcriptional defect, which results in lower levels of Rnr1p in responses to DNA damage. Collectively, these results suggest that high sensitivity of Elongator mutants to DNA damaging agents might be partially due to reductions in Ixr1p expression and hence Rnr1p levels.

    Elongator mutant phenotypes are linked to several cellular processes. To probe the mechanisms involved we investigated the metabolic perturbations associated with absence of a functional ELP3 gene in S. cerevisiae. We found that its absence results in widespread metabolic perturbations under both optimal (30°C) and semi-permissive (34°C) growth conditions. We also found that changes in levels of certain metabolites (but not others) were ameliorated by elevated levels of hypomodified tRNAs, suggesting that amelioration of perturbations of these metabolites might be sufficient for suppression of the Elongator mutant phenotypes.

    A mutation in the IKBKAP (hELP1) gene results in lower levels of the full-length hELP1 protein, which causes a neurodegenerative disease in humans called familial dysautonomia (FD). We showed that the levels of mcm5s2U-modified wobble nucleoside in tRNAs are lower in both brain tissues and fibroblast cell lines derived from FD patients than in corresponding materials derived from healthy individuals. This suggests that FD may result from inefficient translation due to partial loss of mcm5s2U-modified nucleosides in tRNAs.

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  • 11.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Edström, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Kalsum, Sadaf
    Braian, Clara
    Ummanni, Ramesh
    Lindberg, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden (CBCS).
    Sundin, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lerm, Maria
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Christer
    Corticosteroids protect infected cells against mycobacterial killing in vitro2019Inngår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 511, nr 1, s. 117-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of corticosteroids on human physiology is complex and their use in tuberculosis patients remains controversial. In a high-throughput screening approach designed to discover virulence inhibitors, several corticosteroids were found to prevent cytolysis of fibroblasts infected with mycobacteria. Further experiments with Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed anti-cytolytic activity in the 10 nM range, but no effect on bacterial growth or survival in the absence of host cells at 20 mu M. The results from a panel of corticosteroids with various affinities to the glucocorticoid- and mineralocorticoid receptors indicate that the inhibition of cytolysis most likely is mediated through the glucocorticoid receptor. Using live-imaging of M. tuberculosis-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages, we also show that corticosteroids to some extent control intracellular bacteria. In vitro systems with reduced complexity are to further study and understand the interactions between bacterial infection, immune defense and cell signaling. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

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  • 12.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Karlsborn, Tony
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Mahmud, A K M Firoj
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Chen, Changchun
    Xu, Fu
    Byström, Anders S.
    Elongator complex enhances Rnr1p levels in response to DNA damage by influencing Ixr1p expressionManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Magnussen, Helge
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kovermann, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Byström, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Wolf-Watz, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Linkage between Fitness of Yeast Cells and Adenylate Kinase Catalysis2016Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id e0163115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzymes have evolved with highly specific values of their catalytic parameters kcat and KM. This poses fundamental biological questions about the selection pressures responsible for evolutionary tuning of these parameters. Here we are address these questions for the enzyme adenylate kinase (Adk) in eukaryotic yeast cells. A plasmid shuffling system was developed to allow quantification of relative fitness (calculated from growth rates) of yeast in response to perturbations of Adk activity introduced through mutations. Biophysical characterization verified that all variants studied were properly folded and that the mutations did not cause any substantial differences to thermal stability. We found that cytosolic Adk is essential for yeast viability in our strain background and that viability could not be restored with a catalytically dead, although properly folded Adk variant. There exist a massive overcapacity of Adk catalytic activity and only 12% of the wild type kcat is required for optimal growth at the stress condition 20°C. In summary, the approach developed here has provided new insights into the evolutionary tuning of kcat for Adk in a eukaryotic organism. The developed methodology may also become useful for uncovering new aspects of active site dynamics and also in enzyme design since a large library of enzyme variants can be screened rapidly by identifying viable colonies.

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  • 14.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Nye, Taylor M.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States; Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Bonde, Mari
    QureTech Bio, Umeå, Sweden.
    Caparon, Michael G.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States; Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hultgren, Scott J.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States; Center for Women's Infectious Disease Research, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Complete Genome Sequence of the Uropathogenic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain MRSA-13692022Inngår i: Microbiology Resource Announcements, E-ISSN 2576-098X, Vol. 11, nr 10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    MRSA-1369 is a uropathogenic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of MRSA-1369, which consists of one chromosome (2.87 Mb) and two plasmids (16.68 kb and 3.13 kb). This will serve as a reference genome for future Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and multiomic studies.

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  • 15.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Sarkar, Souvik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Anoosheh, Saber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Kruchanova, Anastasiia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Edström, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Harrison, Gregory A.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Stallings, Christina L.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Larsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3160c is a TetR-like transcriptional repressor that regulates expression of the putative oxygenase Rv3161c2021Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 1523Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a major health threat listed among the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Treatment of multidrug-resistant Mtb requires use of additional second-line drugs that prolong the treatment process and result in higher death rates. Our team previously identified a 2-pyridone molecule (C10) that blocks tolerance to the first-line drug isoniazid at C10 concentrations that do not inhibit bacterial growth. Here, we discovered that the genes rv3160c and rv3161c are highly induced by C10, which led us to investigate them as potential targets. We show that Rv3160c acts as a TetR-like transcriptional repressor binding to a palindromic sequence located in the rv3161c promoter. We also demonstrate that C10 interacts with Rv3160c, inhibiting its binding to DNA. We deleted the rv3161c gene, coding for a putative oxygenase, to investigate its role in drug and stress sensitivity as well as C10 activity. This Δrv3161c strain was more tolerant to isoniazid and lysozyme than wild type Mtb. However, this tolerance could still be blocked by C10, suggesting that C10 functions independently of Rv3161c to influence isoniazid and lysozyme sensitivity.

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  • 16.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). QureTech Bio, Umeå, Sweden.
    Singh, Pardeep
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sarkar, Souvik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Çakır, Melike
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Oliveira, Ana H.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Bonde, Mari
    QureTech Bio, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    A highly substituted ring-fused 2-pyridone compound targeting PrfA and the efflux regulator BrtA in listeria monocytogenes2023Inngår i: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, E-ISSN 2150-7511, Vol. 14, nr 3, artikkel-id e0044923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative Gram-positive bacterium that causes listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease. We previously discovered that ring-fused 2-pyridone compounds can decrease virulence factor expression in Listeria by binding and inactivating the PrfA virulence activator. In this study, we tested PS900, a highly substituted 2-pyridone that was recently discovered to be bactericidal to other Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. We show that PS900 can interact with PrfA and reduce the expression of virulence factors. Unlike previous ring-fused 2-pyridones shown to inactivate PrfA, PS900 had an additional antibacterial activity and was found to potentiate sensitivity toward cholic acid. Two PS900-tolerant mutants able to grow in the presence of PS900 carried mutations in the brtA gene, encoding the BrtA repressor. In wild-type (WT) bacteria, cholic acid binds and inactivates BrtA, thereby alleviating the expression of the multidrug transporter MdrT. Interestingly, we found that PS900 also binds to BrtA and that this interaction causes BrtA to dissociate from its binding site in front of the mdrT gene. In addition, we observed that PS900 potentiated the effect of different osmolytes. We suggest that the increased potency of cholic acid and osmolytes to kill bacteria in the presence of PS900 is due to the ability of the latter to inhibit general efflux, through a yet-unknown mechanism. Our data indicate that thiazolino 2-pyridones constitute an attractive scaffold when designing new types of antibacterial agents.

    IMPORTANCE: Bacteria resistant to one or several antibiotics are a very large problem, threatening not only treatment of infections but also surgery and cancer treatments. Thus, new types of antibacterial drugs are desperately needed. In this work, we show that a new generation of substituted ring-fused 2-pyridones not only inhibit Listeria monocytogenes virulence gene expression, presumably by inactivating the PrfA virulence regulator, but also potentiate the bactericidal effects of cholic acid and different osmolytes. We identified a multidrug repressor as a second target of 2-pyridones. The repressor–2-pyridone interaction displaces the repressor from DNA, thus increasing the expression of a multidrug transporter. In addition, our data suggest that the new class of ring-fused 2-pyridones are efficient efflux inhibitors, possibly explaining why the simultaneous addition of 2-pyridones together with cholic acid or osmolytes is detrimental for the bacterium. This work proves conclusively that 2-pyridones constitute a promising scaffold to build on for future antibacterial drug design.

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  • 17.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Xu, Hao
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    Esberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Byström, Anders S.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet).
    The role of wobble uridine modifications in +1 translational frameshifting in eukaryotes2015Inngår i: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 43, nr 19, s. 9489-9499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 11 out of 42 tRNA species contain 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U), 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm5U), 5-carbamoylmethyluridine (ncm5U) or 5-carbamoylmethyl-2′-O-methyluridine (ncm5Um) nucleosides in the anticodon at the wobble position (U34). Earlier we showed that mutants unable to form the side chain at position 5 (ncm5 or mcm5) or lacking sulphur at position 2 (s2) of U34 result in pleiotropic phenotypes, which are all suppressed by overexpression of hypomodified tRNAs. This observation suggests that the observed phenotypes are due to inefficient reading of cognate codons or an increased frameshifting. The latter may be caused by a ternary complex (aminoacyl-tRNA*eEF1A*GTP) with a modification deficient tRNA inefficiently being accepted to the ribosomal A-site and thereby allowing an increased peptidyl-tRNA slippage and thus a frameshift error. In this study, we have investigated the role of wobble uridine modifications in reading frame maintenance, using either the Renilla/Firefly luciferase bicistronic reporter system or a modified Ty1 frameshifting site in a HIS4A::lacZ reporter system. We here show that the presence of mcm5 and s2 side groups at wobble uridines are important for reading frame maintenance and thus the aforementioned mutant phenotypes might partly be due to frameshift errors.

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