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  • 1.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Beyond Post-productivism: From Rural Policy Discource to Rural Diversity2014In: European Countryside, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 297-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a strong discourse in public policy aimed at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ often prove to be elusive on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism in the existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than an imperative and irreversible change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between post-productivism and the related concepts of post-production and post-productive activities in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and alternative concepts such as multifunctionality and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, post- productivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to apply the concepts of post-productivism, post-production and multifunctionality in future studies. 

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  • 2.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden2016In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 194, no 1, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a "new rural economy". As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

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    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden
  • 3.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Public funding and destination evolution in sparsely populated Arctic regions2023In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1833-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the role of public funding in transforming tourism pathways in sparsely populated Arctic destinations, comparing Northern Sweden and Finnish Lapland. Our theoretical framework considers destination path plasticity and moments of change through the lens of geographical political economy to understand patterns of uneven development. This perspective helps explain how regional development funding driven by multi-scalar political priorities and global markets set structural conditions for tourism. We present a spatial analysis of public funding between 2007 and 2021 for private firms and public projects, complemented by document analysis and expert interviews. We find that public funding in Finnish Lapland has largely reinforced ‘Arctification’ and export-driven tourism in a few locations. In Northern Sweden, it has focused more on redistributing resources to micro-businesses and broader socio-economic development in lagging regions, yet with limited impacts on changing dominant tourism pathways. Public projects improved knowledge creation and networking among public and private actors but were largely unable to consolidate emerging pathways in the long run. Overall, regional development funding supported incremental change around existing pathways and had limited transformative effects in response to shocks or disruptive moments due to the rigid nature of funding programmes.

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  • 4.
    Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    SLU.
    Fredman, Peter
    MIUN.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Ericsson, Göran
    SLU.
    Outdoor recreation – A necessity or a luxury?: Estimation of Engel curves for Sweden2013In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, ISSN 2213-0780, Vol. 3-4, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Income constitutes one important constraint for the degree of participation in outdoor recreation. The effect of this constraint can be measured by the income elasticity of outdoor recreation demand, which is of policy interest when the distribution of recreation opportunities across socio economic groups is a concern. This study investigated income elasticity of expenditures for three types of outdoor recreation in Sweden, at the individual level: outdoor recreation as an aggregated composite good, outdoor recreation close to home (less than 100km away from the permanent residence), and hunting. The findings indicated that outdoor recreation as a composite is a luxury good with elasticity in excess of unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a greater relative increase in demand). The elasticities of the specific activities were found to be lower. Outdoor recreation close to home was characterized as a necessity with elasticity less than unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a smaller relative increase in demand). The results further suggested that an increase in income could lead to either a decrease or an increase in the demand for hunting, indicating that hunting might be an inferior good or possibly a necessity.

  • 5.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Hyper-production: a new metric of multifinctionality2015In: European Countryside, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctionality has emerged as the dominant framework for understanding rural socioeconomic landscapes. The central claim of multifunctionality – that rural regions need to be understood as being made up of more than just traditional uses – has led to the incorporation of new rural activities into regional development plans, e.g., tourism. In some places, such post-productive activity is perceived to be slowly replacing productive uses of the land, e.g., agriculture/forestry. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support such claims. Drawing on previous research and data from the Swedish countryside this paper shows that, even as the number of persons employed within traditional activities decreases, the economic output per areal unit and per labour hour is increasing over time and traditional uses still occupy the majority of rural space. Hyper-production is introduced as a new metric for understanding multifunctional regions going forward. The complementary union of economic mainstays, such as agriculture, and newer activities with more quality-of-life benefits, such as tourism, is highlighted in terms of economic diversification, job creation and local social capital development, while the conflict-prone intersection of these two modes is also acknowledged. Understanding hyper-production as a key metric of multifunctionality is thus argued as integral to planning and developing resilient rural regions now and for the future. 

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  • 6.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    A (ski) trip into the future: climate change and winter tourism in Polar Sweden in 20402013In: New issues in Polar tourism: communities, environments, politics / [ed] Dieter K. Müller; Linda Lundmark; Raynald H. Lemelin, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, p. 149-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research shows that many polar tourism entrepreneurs are not ready to adapt to climate change even though some areas within the polar north are more exposed and adaptive capacities of entrepreneurs vary. Moreover, sensitivities of communities to climate change are dependent on the importance of current and future winter tourism in the locale relative to other industries, thus questioning whether communities should focus on winter-tourism development. Current trends reveal a promulgation of a four seasons' approach to tourism in Polar Sweden in order to reduce sensitivities. However, there is also further winter-tourism development potential since the north inland of Sweden is more secure than many other European winter sport destinations. An important question is as follows: how can regions in the polar north capitalize on their natural assets and develop winter tourism without risking a lock-in effect through increased regional sensitivity to climate change? This chapter maps the exposed area in Polar Sweden and generates basic climate impact scenarios for the future based on plausible alternatives due to climate change and tourism business and institutional development. The discussion utilizes the Arctic Tourism Innovation System (ATIS) framework, where the necessary roles and complementary relationships of institutions and entrepreneurs in creating sustainable paths for polar communities are highlighted.

  • 7.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change in Northern Sweden: intra-regional perceptions of vulnerability among winter-oriented tourism businesses2011In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 919-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a potential threat to society and business. Although research has noted that the tourism sector may be robust on the macro scale, significant losses at local levels have been suggested. This paper examines Upper Norrland, in Northern Sweden, by measuring the perceptions of winter-oriented tourism entrepreneurs. Their perceptions of potential threats from climate change are assessed, including how entrepreneurs view the future, in terms of climate change impacts and sustainability of the region as a winter-tourism destination. A quantitative survey of entrepreneurs (n = 63) gave responses along geographical and operator dimensions to reveal local differences within the Upper Norrland region, showing the coastland to be perceived as more exposed to change than inland areas. Venue-based businesses see climate change as a higher priority than activity-based, potentially mobile, businesses, regardless of their location. The general perception among businesses is that climate change will not drastically impact the tourism sector over the next 10 years. A basic model for mapping local differences is outlined to stimulate further study of the under-researched intra-regional nuances in climate change and tourism research. A case is made for regional planners to use this tool and to educate local businesses on adaptation techniques.

  • 8.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Resource deserts, village hierarchies and de-growth in sparsely populated areas: The case of Southern Lapland, Sweden2022In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 200, no 2, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small villages in northern Sweden have seen a continuing removal of key services, such as schools, shops and public transport, since the 1970s. Disinvestment in public services has not been strategically planned but has happened in response to population loss and increased costs on a case-by-case basis. More recently, there has been a shift in policy thinking to what might be termed a ‘de-growth’ approach where digitalisation and increased personal mobility are used to provide new ways of delivering services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence of ‘resource deserts’ in Southern Lapland and the emergence (or consolidation) of village hierarchies in allocating public services. We map out the distribution of neighbourhood services (grocery stores, pre-/schools and petrol pumps) among villages, and explore the lived experiences in accessing these resources in different villages. Our results show that resource deserts clearly exist in the south and east of the region, while villages in the more sparsely populated western mountain areas were generally in a better position to retain resources. We identify a lack of consistent and transparent service planning at the village level as a key shortcoming in municipal and regional service strategies. There appear to be unofficial settlement hierarchies in the differential treatment of villages that are otherwise similar in population size, population change and distance to central places. We find that political decisions on service allocations are likely influenced by several factors. These include legacy effects relating to historic settlement status, the location of villages in relation to key transport or mobility corridors, as well as ideological factors favouring villages with more ‘exotic’ features and development potential in line with the municipalities’ economic, social and political priorities. We finally argue that a shift to de-growth needs to be more strategically planned if it is to eliminate resource deserts and promote equity of service access across all villages.

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  • 9. Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas2020In: Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Dean B. Carson, Marco Eimermann, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter sets the scene for this book. It introduces issues that we relate with living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas. We explain that 'the north' is more than an area on a geographic map. We relate this with seminal previous research on sparsely populated municipalities under constant pressure due to socio-economic challenges. This chapter also provides concrete local examples of civil society-based local development. It explains how this book nuances both myths of rural areas as struggling and dull or as ideal idylls. We relate this with views of countrysides as productivist, post-productivist and multifunctional. In turbulent times due to global political struggles, climate change and the Corona outbreak, this book shows how the north of Sweden and similar areas are heterogeneous in their dos and don’ts.

  • 10. Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Epilogue: From growth to decline to degrowth? The future of Northern SPAs2020In: Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Dean B. Carson, Marco Eimermann, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 393-401Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This final chapter of the book wraps up the discussions in previous chapters and links back to the book's introductory chapter. We reflect on the future of sparsely populated areas in connection with growth, decline and degrowth. We do so through revisiting the intro-chapter's example of local development and broader historical and political perspectives on major current challenges such as the corona pandemic, climate change and the refugee crisis. What does this mean for the north? The need for rural people, places and products has not disappeared. On the contrary, change, transformation and adaptation have been pivotal for development, and this is what we have seen as examples throughout this book.

  • 11.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Sweden Centre for Rural Medicine (GMC), Storuman, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The continuing advance and retreat of rural settlement in the northern inland of Sweden2019In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1960, a range of leading rural geographers started a debate about population development and the “advance and retreat” of human settlement in sparsely populated rural areas, including in the inland north of Sweden. In what came to be known as the “Siljan Symposium,” they identified a number of key themes in relation to migration and human mobility that were thought to determine settlement patterns in the inland north, including: internal migration and urbanisation of populations; the role of simultaneous in- and out-migration in re-shaping settlement patterns; redistribution of rural populations through return migration and international migration; and changing preferences for settlement in different northern “zones” based on the methods for exploiting natural resources for agriculture, forestry, mining and energy production. This paper re-visits the main themes from the 1960 Siljan Symposium and examines Swedish register data to identify how migration patterns and the resulting “advance and retreat” of human settlement have changed across the inland of Västerbotten and Norrbotten. The results suggest that, while general urban-rural and regional- local settlement patterns appear to have been relatively consistent, new forms of migration (including internal, return and international) with different preferences for rural settlement emerging in different localities as a result of both persistent (mining, forestry, energy) and changing (tourism, lifestyle) values of natural resources. We also observe substantial differences in migration and urbanisation rates between Norrbotten and Västerbotten. The paper then discusses how the persistence and discontinuity of experiences over the past decades may provide insights into the potential future patterns of northern settlement.

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  • 12.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Dean BUmeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.Lundmark, LindaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism, mobilities, and development in sparsely populated areas2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism 'mobilities' are not restricted to the movement of tourists between places of origin and destinations. Particularly in more peripheral, remote, or sparsely populated destinations, workers and residents are also likely to be frequently moving between locations. Such destinations attract seasonal or temporary residents, sometimes with only loose ties to the tourism industry. These flows of mobile populations are accompanied by flows of other resources – money, knowledge, ideas and innovations – which can be used to help the economic and social development of the destination. This book examines key aspects of the human mobilities associated with tourism in sparsely populated areas, and investigates how new mobility patterns inspired by technological, economic, political, and social change provide both opportunities and risks for those areas. Examples are drawn from the northern peripheries of Europe and the north of Australia, and the book provides a framework for continuing research into the role that tourism and 'new mobilities' can play in regional development in these locations.

  • 13.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 353-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2016In: Tourism, mobilities and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tokmakcioglu, Kaya
    Department of Management Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Impacts of Climate Change on Second Home Property Values in the Swedish Mountain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change has and will have its impacts on the tourism industry, especially where weather-dependent amenities constitute the key attractions. In this study, our aim is to assess the impacts of climate change on existing and proposed second homes in and around ski resorts in the Swedish mountains, which are determined as among the most attractive locations for such development. It is thought that, along with climate change induced natural disasters and phenomena such as landslides, avalanches, floods and permafrost thaw, property value loss (or gain) is a major climate change impact that needs to be considered in conjunction with the vulnerability of skiing-based second homes and their immediate and wider regions. For this purpose, firstly, corresponding (and lagged) states of the ski climate are treated as estimators for second home sales prices for the 2000-2016 period and, secondly, the quantified relationship is simulated according to future climate projections, based on data available from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The results are mapped in terms of existing and potential skiing-based second home regions, the latter with a certain focus on the "winners", and according to different representative concentration pathways.

  • 16.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Development of downhill skiing tourism in Sweden: past, present, and future2019In: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins and Stefan Türk, CABI Publishing, 2019, p. 305-323Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Back, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Impacts of climate change on Swedish second home tourism2023In: Second Homes and Climate Change / [ed] Bailey Ashton Adie and Michael Hall, London and New York: Routledge, 2023, p. 39-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second home tourism has been labelled the hidden giant of tourism. Still, little attention has been given to the impact of climate change and second homes. On the contrary, planning has neglected second homes and their users, who therefore often remain invisible in public statistics. After an overview of potential climate change induced risks for second home tourism, this chapter assesses the Swedish second home stock’s risk exposure. It is shown that second homes indeed concentrate on exposed localities such as mountain, riverine, and shoreline environments. Climate models also project dramatic change for northern environments, and thus, the presence of second homes needs to be recognised in planning to adapt to the risks of property damage as well as risks for its users.

  • 18.
    Demiroglu, Osman Cenk
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Saarinen, Jarkko
    Oulun yliopisto, Oulu, Finland; University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The last resort?: Ski tourism and climate change in Arctic Sweden2020In: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the external and internal factors that support or challenge a possible transformation of Arctic Sweden into a major ski destination under a changing climate.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper questions future availability of the physical and the human factors that foster ski tourism development in Arctic Sweden and suggests a comparative case study in relation to the already existing large resort-based ski destinations in Arctic Finland.

    Findings – Preliminary documentary analysis shows that the governmental and the industrial discourses over the past decade have acknowledged a competitive edge for Sweden and its northernmost regions in particular and may even propose a structural shift for ski tourism in the near future agenda. The visualisations based on natural snow projections presented in this paper confirm this comparative advantage but other technical and socioeconomic development factors are further discussed, in relation to Arctic Finland.

    Research limitations/implications – Future research agenda is suggested to cover, first, assessment of natural and technical snow reliability of existing and all potential ski areas in Sweden and within its competitive set extending to all the Nordics and the Alps, then, incorporation of adaptive capacities of the suppliers but especially the likely substitution tendencies of the consumers, and finally, evaluation of the overall situation in terms of the regional development needs.

    Social implications – It is apparent that land use conflicts will arise in case of large ski resort-based destination development in Arctic Sweden, especially around the environmentally protected areas, which are not only already important attractions for nature-based tourism but also traditional livelihoods for the Sami.

    Originality/value – This is the first paper to discuss a potential regional and structural shift of ski tourism in Sweden.

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  • 19.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Adjei, Evans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Bjarnason, Thoroddur
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Exploring population redistribution at sub-municipal levels: Microurbanisation and messy migration in Sweden’s high North2022In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 90, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To contribute to more balanced perspectives on sub-municipal population change in sparsely populated areas(SPAs), this paper closely examines a local pocket of growth in a shrinking Northern Swedish municipality.Integrating Swedish register data with in-depth qualitative insights, the geographic study examines patterns andprocesses of uneven local population dynamics linked to life course migration. This is done through a sociospatialcluster analysis containing, first, 15 aggregate socioeconomic variables for sub-municipal areas, andthen individual characteristics like birth countries, age groups, sex ratios, educational attainment, andemployment status. A Foresight approach and interviews with locals, municipal officials, and incoming lifestylemigrants complement this. Studying these individuals’ practical compromises regarding housing, income, andleisure at sub-municipal levels helps in overcoming fallacies in population change research at broader regionallevels, and illustrates the limits of relying solely on quantitative demographic change indicators. The paper showsthat urban traits in the municipal centre and rural natural amenities around a dogsledding trail combine toattract and retain different population groups. This adds to population change studies and shows that municipaladministrative centres in SPAs are not necessarily growing while other villages are declining, and that populationredistribution at the municipal level does not automatically imply the movement of people to municipal centresfrom a municipality’s minor villages.

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  • 20.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Transforming a dogsledding community: the 'Gafsele Open' and lifestyle migrants in sparsely populated northern Sweden2023In: Handbook on tourism and rural community development / [ed] Heather Mair, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 386-402Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter increases our understanding of how intra-European lifestyle migrants may transform communities in sparsely populated areas (SPAs) through their engagements in civil society, using the example of a dogsledding community in Arctic Sweden. In-depth narrative analysis of interviews with international migrant dogsledders and longer-term residents shows the heterogeneity of communities in sparsely populated settings and their diverse perspectives on community transformation and renewal in response to challenges of demographic shrinkage (Eimermann et al., 2022). The case study village of Gafsele in Åsele municipality provides an interesting study context as it is home to a relatively large group of international migrants, many of whom were attracted by exceptional opportunities for dogsledding and an internationally renowned trail network. The local dogsledding club organizes an annual dogsledding event (the Gafsele Open) attracting Swedish and international participants. Balancing their incomes and lifestyles around dogsledding activities, migrants are engaging in the club and co-organizing the event as individuals and through their businesses (D.A. Carson et al., 2018; Eimermann & Singleton, 2021). This area is thus exploring its potential for local rural development through community- and nature-based tourism.

  • 21.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Centre for Regional Studies, Umeå University.
    Nuancing holistic simplicity in sweden: A statistical exploration of consumption, age and gender2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 15, article id 8340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of sustainable ways of life have hitherto made limited use of register data since, e.g., voluntary simplicity is usually identified through characteristics that cannot be found in data registers. Despite this, claims about these trends have been made in many countries, at times gen-eralising the phenomena both in academia and media, based on anecdotal examples. This article draws on a quantifiable definition of holistic simplicity (Etzioni 1998) that includes certain fully measurable aspects, such as living in more affluent suburbs, moving to less affluent places and a significant reduction in individual work income. Other aspects are partially observable in register data, such as housing and car consumption. The advantage of this study is that it combines relevant theories around voluntary simplicity with register data that capture important characteristics of the entire national population (in this case, in Sweden) and thus, to some extent, also captures the mag-nitude of the phenomena. The article aims to statistically explore different demographic groups’ probability of becoming holistic simplifiers in Sweden, regarding their consumption, gender and age. It discusses opportunities and limitations for advancing our knowledge on voluntary simplicity in Sweden, with current findings suggesting more of the same consumption patterns and only initial paths to degrowth. This is discussed in the context of individuals’ agency in a state such as Sweden, which is changing from collectivist social democratic values to more neo-liberal conditions.

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  • 22.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Zhang, Jundan Jasmine
    Mobility transitions and rural restructuring in Sweden: a database study of holistic simplifiers2021In: Degrowth and tourism: new perspectives on tourism entrepreneurship, destinations and policy / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Linda Lundmark, Jasmine Zhang, London: Routledge, 2021, p. 54-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, living simply, and sustainably, has become a legitimate, or even trendy, way for individuals to contribute to a better society in the global North. Rural areas in this context are seen as a place for people who seek voluntary simplicity to resettle, for either business purposes or personal reasons. However, few research has examined the phenomenon of voluntary simplicity in quantitative manner and the mobility aspect is often missing from the general discussion of voluntary simplicity and degrowth literature. This chapter therefore looks at holistic simplifiers, as those who seek voluntary simplicity and move to smaller towns, rural areas or other less affluent or urbanized parts of the country, with the help of longitudinal register data (Statistics Sweden). The results show demographic and economic features of holistic simplifiers and some of them are unexpected, challenging some of the assumptions and definitions of voluntary simplicity. We conclude that the number of holistic simplifier is low in Sweden, and while individuals meet the overall criteria for voluntary simplicity they do not necessarily behave accordingly by cutting down on consumption and living a simpler life. Some possible reasons are discussed and questions for future studies are suggested. 

  • 23.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Miun and ETOUR.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Mattsson, Leif
    SLU.
    Economic values in the Swedish nature-based recreation sector: a synthesis2012In: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 903-910Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research synthesis reports the main findings from a review of economic values associated with nature-based recreation in Sweden. The purpose of the work was to support policy and to identify areas for future research. Data came from over 150 scientific publications and other public sources. The authors find inter alia a lack of systematic data for several recreation activities (including naturebased tourism), a significant growth in the outdoor equipment industry and a relatively modest economic involvement by the public sector. The information is structured under different categories to illustrate the significance and range of different economic values. The authors conclude that there is a need for more comprehensive and systematically collected data, methodological development and interdisciplinary research.

  • 24.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    MIUN.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Svensson, Bo
    Lindberg, Kreg
    Friluftslivet i samhällsekonomin2013In: Friluftsliv i förändring: Resultat från ett forskningsprogram. Slutrapport / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Anders Mossing, Naturvårdsverket, 2013, p. 161-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Miun, Etour.
    Boman, Mattias
    SLU.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Svensson, Bo
    Lindberg, Kreg
    Friluftslivet i Samhällsekonomin: betydande belopp i både marknadsprissatta och icke-marknadsprissatta nyttigheter2014In: Friluftsliv i förändring: studier från svenska upplevelselandskap / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014, p. 167-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Fredman, Peter
    et al.
    Avdelningen för turism/Etour, Mittuniversitetet.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Kan hela Sverige leva av naturturism?2008In: Ska hela Sverige leva? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas , 2008, p. 207-216Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Leder naturism till regional utveckling? Vad krävs för att bli en framgångsrik naturismföretagare? Och vad är det egentligen som lockar naturisterna? Attraktionerna på en turistort är själva kärnan, skriver Peter Fredman och Linda Lundmark. Men naturen kan vara en resurs för turismen bara om det samtidigt finns infrastruktur och ett lokalt utbud av produkter och service.

  • 27. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Zhang, Jundan Jasmine
    Conclusions - degrowing tourism: can tourism be moved beyond the BAU (Bruntland-as-usual)?2021In: Degrowth and tourism: new perspectives on tourism entrepreneurship, destinations and policy / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Linda Lundmark, Jundan Jasmine Zhang, Abingdon: Routledge, 2021, p. 239-248Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28. Hall, C. Michael
    et al.
    Lundmark, LindaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.Zhang, Jundan Jasmine
    Degrowth and tourism: new perspectives on tourism entrepreneurship, destinations and policy2021Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainability of tourism is increasingly under question given the challenges of overtourism, COVID-19 and the contribution of tourism to climate and environmental change. Degrowth and Tourism provides an original response to the central problem of growth in tourism, an imperative that has been intrinsic within tourism practice, and directs the reader to rethink the impacts of tourism and possible alternatives beyond the sustainable growth discourse.

    Using a multi-scaled approach to investigate degrowth's macro effects and micro indications in tourism, this book frames degrowth in tourism in terms of business, destination and policy initiatives. It uses a combination of empirical research, case studies and theory to offer new perspectives and approaches to analyse issues related to overtourism, COVID-19, small-scale tourism operations and entrepreneurship, mobility and climate change in tourism. Interdisciplinary chapters provide studies on animal-based tourism, nature-based tourism, domestic tourism, developing community-centric tourism and many other areas, within the paradigm of degrowth.

    This book offers significant insight on both the implications of degrowth paradigm in tourism studies and practices, as well as tourism's potential contributions to the degrowth paradigm, and will be essential reading for all those interested in sustainable tourism and transformations through tourism.

  • 29.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Repopulating and revitalising rural Sweden? Re-examining immigration as a solution to rural decline2017In: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959, Vol. 183, no 4, p. 400-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing international immigration is often portrayed as a potential solution to persistent economic and population decline in rural areas. Based on longitudinal register data, this study examines the extent to which international migration has contributed to demographic and labour market changes in rural Sweden between 1990 and 2010. Results show that the urbanisation rate of international migrants is very high while their employment rate in rural areas remains comparatively low. Small positive changes are noticeable in the rate of higher education, self-employment and employment in new service-related industries among particular groups of immigrants. Immigrants to rural areas are a highly heterogeneous group in terms of their demographic and labour market characteristics, which should be considered when estimating the contributions of immigration to socio-economic development in rural areas. This study shows that, while international migration may dampen population decline in rural areas to some extent, particularly in the working-age groups, its potential to stimulate socio-economic revitalisation in rural areas needs to be questioned and examined from a more nuanced and longitudinal perspective.

  • 30.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Rural restructuring and gendered micro-dynamics of the agricultural labour market2017In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 195, no 1, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a comparison of the employment trajectories of two cohorts of men and women in the agricultural sector in Sweden, this article gives an account of the past 50 years’ decline in employment in agriculture. The findings show that the decline of employment in agriculture was the result of fewer entries into the sector and more exits out of the sector. The findings also suggest that the restructuring of the agricultural sector has had greater effects on women than men, with women exiting the sector to a greater degree or never entering it to begin with.

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    fulltext
  • 31.
    Jansson, Bruno
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Jakobsen, Leif
    Hvidberg, M.
    Asmussen, M.
    Sandberg, M.
    Engström, C.
    Effektutvärdering av de geografiska målprogrammen inom EG:s strukturfonder2004Report (Other academic)
  • 32. Jóhannesson, Gunnar Thór
    et al.
    Welling, Johannes
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nilsson, Robert O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Granås, Brynhild
    Kvidal-Røvik, Trine
    Rantala, Outi
    Tervo-Kankare, Kaarina
    Maher, Patrick
    Arctic tourism in times of change: uncertain futures – from overtourism to re-starting tourism2022Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents findings from a workshop where researchers, students, tourism industry representatives, policy makers and entrepreneurs from the Arctic discussed the challenges of overtourism, the impact of COVID-19 and visions for restarting tourism. A key for sustainable management of tourism is that actors are aware that they are part of a wide ranging tourism system that affects how they can tackle ensuing crisis or challenges such as overtourism and undertourism. The COVID-19 hit tourism hard across the Arctic although there are also regional differences. The pandemic revealed the vulnerability of the tourism product and opened a space for reconsidering tourism growth and the negative impacts of tourism on climate, biodiversity and communities. The report argues for the need to build tourism based on tourism-community collaboration.

  • 33.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Slee, Bill
    Villa, Mariann
    Feliciano, Diana
    Rural-urban policies: changing conceptions of the human-environment relationship2017In: Globalisation and change in forest ownership and forest use: natural resource management in transition / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 183-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how understandings of the "rural" have progressed from a focus on either decline or amenity, whereby these more simplified understandings can be seen to have had an impact on rural policy development. The chapter argues that rural areas, including forests, need to be understood in relation to both production and integration with urban landscapes. It thus illustrates the role of both historical processes and policy in creating current understandings of the rural: drawing upon an example from the Swedish case, it amongst others shows that a redistributive tax system has played a larger and more crucial role than rural policy in retaining active rural areas in Sweden.

  • 34.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The controversy over protected areas and forest-sector employment in Norrbotten, Sweden: forest stakeholder perceptions and statistics2010In: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 146-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even as environmental protection constitutes an aim of national policy, the conservation of productive forest may impact communities reliant on local employment, with one example being Norrbotten County in Northern Sweden. The study focuses on the perceptions of environmental protection among stakeholders in forestry and of its relation to employment and how these compare with quantitative impacts of environmental protection. Results show that although forest stakeholders believe that forestry in the region is threatened by environmental protection, protection has thus far had only a limited impact on employment in the sector when compared to the impacts of internal processes of rationalization and mechanization. That stakeholders emphasize environmental protection as a crucial concern and risk may be due to their limited control over environmental protection processes as compared to internal processes in the production and management of the resource and the future of the forest economy. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 35.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A holiday on ice on hold?: nature-based tourism and climate change in the nordic north2010In: Tourism and change in polar regions: climate, environment and experiences / [ed] C. Michael Hall & Jarkko Saarinen, Routledge , 2010, p. 177-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    A new age for nature-based tourism?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Economic restructuring into tourism: the case of the Swedish mountain range2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The labour force in the Swedish mountain range has been influenced by globalisation and restructuring of the economy. The problem for the region is twofold: (1) an ageing and smaller population; and (2) changes in the structure of employment. Due to decreasing employment in forestry and manufacturing, as well as downsizing of the public sector, the economy is going through rapid change. The increase of the importance of the tourism sector has been prominent in some parts of the mountainous area. This study focuses mainly on the character of the tourism labour market in the region and the implications of the development in the tourism sector. The data used are drawn from a database containing the total population in the area 1985–1999. Data are analysed using GIS. The main conclusions are that there has been a shift in employment from the primary sector and the public sector in the region. The tourism sector has been seen as an important receiver of work force but this development is found to be uneven and uncertain in some parts of the region. Although the permanent population is decreasing, increasing seasonal labour migration due to tourism businesses has been observed.

  • 38.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Efterfrågan på naturturism: Nuläge och potential för regional utveckling2009Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forest-related employment in the European North: current trends and future development2005In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 183, no 2, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the impact of climate change on the forest-related employment is important for making relevant policy decisions in areas where forestry is economically important. This paper contrasts two different areas in Sweden and Finland in terms of population structure, employment structure and forest-based economy. The paper discusses the future possible outcomes of climate change in terms of forest-related employment. The geographical level of analysis is the county of Norrbotten in Sweden, and the county of Lappi in Finland. These are sparsely populated peripheral areas with ageing populations. There has been a decline or stagnation in the economic and social conditions and the survival of many rural communities, in particular those inland, is seriously threatened. In the context of climate change the issue of how the forest growth will change and how well the different areas will adapt to these changes are addressed.

  • 40.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Housing in SPAs: too much of nothing or too much for 'free'?2020In: Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Linda Lundmark; Dean Bradley Carson; Marco Eimermann, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 89-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the lack of housing has been widely discussed as an urban not a rural problem. Population decline and ageing have been a common development pattern implying a surplus of housing. However, new patterns of economic activity as well as sustainability goals among the population at large will likely involve new types of housing demand. This has implications for the way in which housing and future settlement are planned for by municipalities in the north. According to the municipalities there is not enough (appropriate) housing and building new housing is too expensive. This is creating even more obstacles for rural development in the north.

  • 41.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Mobility, Migration and Seasonal Tourism Employment2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 54-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mobility, migration and seasonal tourism employment: evidence from Swedish mountain municipalities2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 197-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent research it has been shown that a large share of the tourism work force in the Swedish mountain municipalities have their permanent place of residence outside of daily commuting distance from the municipality where they work. In this study, tourism labour mobility and migration to two Swedish mountain municipalities, Åre and Malung, is examined. The principal question addressed is whether temporal tourism labour migration leads to permanent migration of tourism workers or not. The research is based on a longitudinal database material including individual observations between the years 1991–2001. It is shown that the case municipalities have a higher propensity than the rest to employ in‐migrants in tourism. Results also show that relatively few people involved in temporary labour migration to tourism employment in the case municipalities later will permanently migrate to the mountain municipalities but that tourism sector employment is important for the in‐migration of long distance commuters to the case municipalities. The reason for this it is argued is that the motive to seasonally migrate to tourism employment is lifestyle‐related and not meant to be permanent. The seasonality of tourism employment has implications for the local and regional development through tourism.

  • 43.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mountain resort labour market: the case of the Swedish mountain range2009In: Nordic Tourism: issues and cases / [ed] Hall, Colin Michael, Müller, Dieter K., Saarinen, Jarkko, Buffalo / Clevedon: Channel View Publications , 2009, p. 231-235Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nature-based tourism demand: Age or habit?2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Supply and demand of nature-based tourism in Sweden2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Säsongsberoendet inom turismen minskar dess betydelse för lokal utveckling2006In: GränsbrytningArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    MIUN.
    Fredman, Peter
    MIUN.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    När friluftsliv blir naturturism2013In: Friluftsliv i förändring: Resultat från ett forskningsprogram. Slutrapport / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell och Anders Mossing, Naturvårdsverket, 2013, p. 175-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mituniversitet, ETOUR.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    När friluftslivet blir naturturism: en fråga om samspelet mellan det privata och det offentliga2014In: Friluftsliv i förändring: studier från svenska upplevelselandskap / [ed] Peter Fredman, Marie Stenseke, Klas Sandell, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2014, p. 182-195Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Dean B.Eimermann, MarcoUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dipping in to the North explores how changing mobility and migration is affecting the social, economic, cultural, and environmental characteristics of sparsely populated areas of northern Sweden (and places like it). It examines who lives in, works in, and visits the north; how and why this has changed over time; and what those changes mean for how the north might develop in the future. The book draws upon deep expertise and knowledge from a range of social scientists, presenting valuable insights in an accessible style for a broad audience.

  • 50.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Who travels to the North?: challenges and opportunities for tourism2020In: Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Dean B. Carson, Marco Eimermann, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 265-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we introduce the section on 'who visits the north' by presenting the characteristics of tourism in northern Sweden, and the various circumstances affecting tourism in different parts of the region. We find that tourism has grown dramatically but that the development has been polarised, and somewhat different between the counties of Västerbotten and Norrbotten. The 'boring bits' between the coast and the resort-based destinations in the mountains have a different and slower tourism development. The future of tourism in the area might lie in the undervalued regional tourism or alternative tourism development.

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