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  • 1. Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E26-E26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Box 7629, SE-90712 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lillqvist, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chemical Intolerance Is Associated With Altered Response Bias, not Greater Sensory Sensitivity2020In: i-Perception, E-ISSN 2041-6695, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 2041669520978424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a surprisingly prevalent condition or affliction characterized by adverse reactions to low levels of chemical, often odorous stimulation. Sufferers often assume that their plight is due to an uncommon sensory acuteness, yet studies repeatedly fail to reveal altered detection thresholds. Here, we investigated whether self-reported chemical intolerance is associated with altered sensory sensitivity or response bias. The sensory acuity (sensitivity; A) and sensory decision rule (criterion; B) to n-butanol was assessed using the method of constant stimuli in 82 participants with different degrees of chemical intolerance (low to high). Higher self-reported chemical intolerance was associated with a lower criterion, but not with sensitivity.

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  • 4.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive training in young and old adults: Transfer, long-term effects, and predictors of gain2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging, also in the absence of pathological conditions, is associated with cognitivedecline, especially in so called fluid abilities, such as episodic memory andexecutive functions. Due to an ongoing demographic shift, a larger part of thepopulation will reach higher ages, and more people will be affected by age-relatedcognitive decline. Finding ways of counteracting this development have the potentialof having large benefits for both individuals and society. It has long beenknown that living in environments that are rich in terms of cognitive challengescan affect cognitive ability in old age. In this regard, intervention studies in whichthe amount of cognitive stimulation is manipulated can therefore generate insightsto the causality of such effects in specific cognitive functions. Cognitive trainingas means to counteract negative effects of aging on cognition has received a lot ofscientific interest in the last decades.This focus of this thesis is cognitive training interventions, which is studiedfrom several perspectives. In Study i, the aim was to investigate the extent towhich executive functions can be strengthened by training in younger and olderadults, and to which degree such training generalize to other measures of cognition.Although a large body of research has been investigating training of workingmemory and executive functions in recent years, the results are diverse, and fewhave been targeting executive functions broadly with training programs based ontheoretical models of executive functions. Study i showed that despite a broadtraining program targeting three executive functions (updating, shifting and inhibition),it did not lead to transfer beyond the very near in old adults. The youngerhowever showed transfer effects to measures of working memory.In Study ii, the focus was on studying how the effects survive across time.There is limited knowledge about long-term effects of process-based training andthe results showed that the training effect was stable after 1.5 years, while only thenearest transfer effect was still significant in both younger and older adults.Study iii focused on individual factors affecting gain and maintenance thereofin a sample of older individuals. We used a strategy-based intervention focusingon episodic memory performance with a number-consonant mnemonic which is amnemonic for memorizing digit-codes. A different set of predictors was observedfor baseline episodic memory performance and training gain. Those that are betteroff in terms of episodic memory performance, also gain more in the episodic memorycriterion task. Further, a higher rate of processing speed was also important.Lastly, better verbal knowledge also influence gain beyond the other factors. Theresults have both theoretical implications regarding how plastic cognitive functionsare, and practical, in terms of how to best design training programs.

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    Cognitive training in young and old adults
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  • 5.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zogaj, Idriz
    Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Age-independent transfer after successful associative mnemonic training2023In: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, ISSN 2509-3290, Vol. 7, no 3-4, p. 159-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalization of training to support the performance on new tasks—transfer—has been much studied. One hypothesis is that transfer occurs if overlapping neuronal circuits are engaged in both training and transfer tasks. Here, we investigated transfer effects in the domain of episodic memory by following 356 participants between 20 and 83 years who downloaded and used a smart phone application to practice the method of loci (MoL) over 3 months. We measured transfer of MoL training to three associative memory tasks with hypothesized neurocognitive overlap (binding in the hippocampus) with the trained task. Transfer tasks were administered at the beginning of training and when two specific proficiency levels in Loci training were reached. Results showed robust transfer effects across the age span at both levels. These results indicate that app-based strategy training can lead to enhancement of episodic memory beyond the specific training task, which may have clinical implementations.

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  • 6.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Denmark.
    Zogaj, Idriz
    Swedish Memory Sports Council, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Ancient Mnemonic in New Format: Episodic Memory Training With the Method of Loci in a Smart Phone Application2021In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 681-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Episodic memory is age-sensitive but can be strengthened by targeted training interventions. The method of loci (MoL) is a classic mnemonic which if successfully implemented greatly improves memory performance. We developed and investigated the effects of a MoL training program implemented in a smart phone application (app) with the aim of studying usage of the application, training effect and its modifiability by age, predictors for MoL proficiency, transfer effects to a face-name memory task, and perceived benefit in everyday memory.

    Method: A total of 359 adults participated. Instruction and training of the MoL, transfer test (face-name paired associates cued recall task), and surveys were performed in an in-house developed app.

    Results: The app interested people across the adult life span. Older adults practiced the most, whereas younger and youngold participants showed the highest level of MoL proficiency. Level of proficiency was modulated by amount of practice, but in the oldest participants this effect was less pronounced. Greater self-rated health was associated with higher level of proficiency. No transfer effect was observed. Among those who answered the survey, about half expressed that MoL training had benefitted memory in their everyday life.

    Discussion: App-based memory training in the MoL can be delivered successfully via an app across the adult life span. Level of performance reached in training is variable but generally high, and mainly influenced by amount of training and age of the participants. Our data suggest plasticity across the life span, but to a lesser degree for adults between 70 and 90 years.

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  • 7.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Derwinger-Hallberg, Anna
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory plasticity in older adults: Cognitive predictors of training response and maintenance following learning of number-consonant mnemonic2016In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 742-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated the relationship between cognitive factors and gains in number recall following training in a number–consonant mnemonic in a sample of 112 older adults (M = 70.9 years). The cognitive factors examined included baseline episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. In addition, predictors of maintenance of gains to a follow-up assessment, eight months later, were examined. Whereas working memory was a prominent predictor of baseline recall, the magnitude of gains in recall from pre- to post-test assessments were predicted by baseline episodic memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. Verbal knowledge was the only significant predictor of maintenance. Collectively, the results indicate the need to consider multiple factors to account for individual differences in memory plasticity. The potential contribution of additional factors to individual differences in memory plasticity is discussed.

  • 8.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive process training in young and old adults2014In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 577-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of research on the modifiability of executive functions in different stages of life. Previous studies demonstrate robust training effects but limited transfer in younger and particularly in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a theoretically derived intervention for executive functioning, addressing several basic processes (updating, shifting, and inhibition), can induce transfer effects in early and late adulthood. Fifty-nine healthy adults, 29 young and 30 older adults, were randomly assigned to either training or no-contact control groups. The training groups received 15 sessions of executive process training for about 45 min/session during 5 weeks. A test battery including a criterion task and near, intermediate, and far transfer tasks was administered before and after training. Results showed pronounced age-equivalent gains on the criterion task. Near transfer was seen to non-trained updating and inhibition tasks for the young and older trained participants. However, only the young adults showed intermediate transfer to two complex working memory tasks. No far transfer effects were seen for either age group. These findings provide additional evidence for age-related constraints in the ability to generalize acquired executive skills, and specifically show that training of multiple executive processes is not sufficient to foster transfer beyond the very near in older adults.

  • 9.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term effects of executive process training in young and old adults2016In: Neuropsychological rehabilitation (Print), ISSN 0960-2011, E-ISSN 1464-0694, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 761-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior studies have examined the magnitude of training and transfer effects after process-based training in early and late adulthood. However, little is known about how long-lasting these effects are. Here we investigate the degree of stability of training gains and transfer effects in younger and older adults 18 months after completion of executive process training, tapping updating, inhibition, and shifting. From the original sample, 24 out of 30 older participants, and 19 out of 29 young adults, returned for follow-up assessment at which the criterion and transfer tests from pre- and post-test were re-administered. The results demonstrated stability of training gains in the updating criterion task (Letter Memory Running Span), and in a near transfer updating task (Number Memory Running Span) for both age groups. The young adults improved performance in two complex working memory tasks immediately after training. These transfer effects did not survive across time. Our results provide evidence that executive process training has its greatest effect on transfer tasks with a substantial process overlap with the trained tasks: only those effects are maintained over an 18 month period in both early and late adulthood.

  • 10.
    Sandberg, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Maintenance of Training Gains and Near Transfer Effects in Young and Old Adults: an 18-Month Follow-up of Executive Process TrainingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Prior studies have examined the magnitude of training and transfer effects after process-based training in early and late adulthood. However, little is known about how long-lasting these effects are. Here we investigated the degree of stability of training gains and transfer effects in younger and older adults 18 months after completion of executive process training, tapping updating, inhibition, and shifting. Method: From the original sample, 24 out of 30 older participants, and 19 out of 29 young adults, returned for follow-up assessment at which the criterion and transfer tests from pre- and posttest were re-administered. Results: The results demonstrated stability of training gains in the updating criterion task (letter memory running span), and in a near transfer updating task (number memory running span) for both age groups. The young adults improved performance in two complex working memory tasks immediately after training. These transfer effects did not survive across time. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that executive process training has its greatest effect on transfer tasks with a substantial process overlap with the trained tasks: only those effects are maintained over an 18 month period in both early and late adulthood.

  • 11.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sehlstedt, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekman, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Working Memory Updating Training in Older Adults: Is Level of Performance After Training Related to Transfer?2013In: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 27, no Supplement 1, p. 69-70Article in journal (Other academic)
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