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  • 1.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Retrieval Practice: Beneficial for All Students or Moderated by Individual Differences?2021Ingår i: Psychology Learning & Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 21-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is a learning technique that is known to produce enhanced long-term memory retention when compared to several other techniques. This difference in learning outcome is commonly called “the testing effect”. Yet there is little research on how individual differences in personality traits and working memory capacity moderate the size of the retrieval-practice benefits. The current study is a conceptual replication of a previous study, further investigating whether the testing effect is sensitive to individual differences in the personality traits Grit and Need for Cognition, and working memory capacity. Using a within-subjects design (N = 151), participants practiced 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs (e.g., adhama–honor) through retrieval practice and re-studying. Learning was assessed at three time points: five minutes, one week, and four weeks after practice. The results revealed a significant testing effect at all three time points. Further, the results showed no association between the testing effect and the personality traits, or between the testing effect and working memory, at any time point. To conclude, retrieval practice seems to be a learning technique that is not moderated by individual differences in these specific personality traits or with working memory capacity, thus possibly beneficial for all students.

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  • 2.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 241-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 3.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Börjesson, Arne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-reported memory strategies and their relationship to immediate and delayed text recall and working memory capacity2014Ingår i: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 385-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of fifth-grade children in the reproduction of the content of a new text - directly, after they had read it (immediate recall), and one week later (delayed recall) - and to investigate the relationship between performance, self-reported memory strategies, and working memory capacity (WMC). The results revealed that more complex strategies are associated with better performances, and that children with high WMC outperformed children with lower WMC in immediate and delayed text recall tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that memory strategy and WMC are the strongest predictors for both immediate and delayed recall tasks. It is argued that self-reported memory strategies are possible to use as estimates of strategy proficiency. The awareness of the importance of memory strategies and children’s WMC in education are further discussed.

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  • 4.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    A learning method for all: The testing effect is independent of cognitive ability2021Ingår i: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 113, nr 5, s. 972-985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The testing effect, defined as the positive effect of retrieval practice (i.e., self-testing) on long-term memory retention relative to other ways to support learning, is a robust empirical phenomenon. Despite substantial scientific evidence for the testing effect, less is known about its effectiveness in relation to individual differences in cognitive ability. In the present study, we examine whether the effect of retrieval practice is beneficial independent of cognitive ability using behavioral and brain imaging data. In a within-subject design, upper-secondary students learned Swahili–Swedish word pairs through retrieval practice and study. The testing effects were assessed at a direct test and for a subsample after 1- and 4-weeks retention intervals, respectively. Another subsample performed the 1-week retention test during functional MRI (fMRI). Memory retention was analyzed in relation to an educationally relevant composite score dividing participants into low, intermediate, and high cognitive-ability groups. We provide behavioral evidence that the testing effect is independent of cognitive ability. The fMRI findings confirmed a general effectiveness of retrieval practice by showing that brain regions associated with successful retrieval of conceptual representations and semantic processing were more strongly engaged after retrieval practice in all cognitive-ability groups. It is argued that the advantages of retrieval practice should be conveyed to all teachers and students.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Retrieval practice is characterized by reduced fronto-striatal activity2013Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, nr Suppl., s. S82-S83Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lesser neural pattern similarity across repeated tests is associated with better long-term memory retention2015Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 26, s. 9595-9602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability—the altering or adding of underlying memory representa- tions. Human participants studied 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgot- ten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. 

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  • 7.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    An fMRI intervention study of creative mathematical reasoning: behavioral and brain effects across different levels of cognitive ability2022Ingår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 29, artikel-id 100193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many learning methods of mathematical reasoning encourage imitative procedures (algorithmic reasoning, AR) instead of more constructive reasoning processes (creative mathematical reasoning, CMR). Recent research suggest that learning with CMR compared to AR leads to better performance and differential brain activity during a subsequent test. Here, we considered the role of individual differences in cognitive ability in relation to effects of CMR.

    Methods: We employed a within-subject intervention (N=72, MAge=18.0) followed by a brain-imaging session (fMRI) one week later. A battery of cognitive tests preceded the intervention. Participants were divided into three cognitive ability groups based on their cognitive score (low, intermediate and high).

    Results: On mathematical tasks previously practiced with CMR compared to AR we observed better performance, and higher brain activity in key regions for mathematical cognition such as left angular gyrus and left inferior/middle frontal gyrus. The CMR-effects did not interact with cognitive ability, albeit the effects on performance were driven by the intermediate and high cognitive ability groups.

    Conclusions: Encouraging pupils to engage in constructive processes when learning mathematical reasoning confers lasting learning effects on brain activation, independent of cognitive ability. However, the lack of a CMR-effect on performance for the low cognitive ability group suggest future studies should focus on individualized learning interventions, allowing more opportunities for effortful struggle with CMR.

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  • 8.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandgren, Olof
    Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sara
    National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder2022Ingår i: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, ISSN 0161-1461, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 542-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school.

    Method: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (Mage = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1–2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition.

    Results: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words.

    Conclusions: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP,whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to be-learned material (Tier 2 words).

  • 9.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever2015Ingår i: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, s. 160-171Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

    Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

    Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

    Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

    Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

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  • 10.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hörnkvist Wiklund, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cognitive implications for learning in mathematics: young pupils and national testing2011Ingår i: The China-Sweden Symposium on Science and Humanities Education in the 21st Century, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hörnkvist Wiklund, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Introducing national examination in Swedish primary education: implications for test anxiety2011Ingår i: The China-Sweden Symposium on Science and Humanities Education in the 21st Century, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Implementing test enhanced learning: Swedish teacher students’ perception of quizzing2016Ingår i: International Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 1927-6044, E-ISSN 1927-6052, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students perceived quizzing to improve learning, and reduce test anxiety. Nonetheless, based on students’ misconceptions regarding why quizzing actually enhances learning, it is suggested that implications of test enhanced learning was not fully conveyed. It is for educational purpose imperative to not forget this application.

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  • 13.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hampering or supporting: young children’s’ experiences of national test2009Ingår i: Special Needs Education in Mathematics, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Introducing national examination in Swedish primary education: implications for test anxiety2011Ingår i: Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, ISSN 1699-5880, E-ISSN 1696-2095, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 995-1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The Swedish government has decided to introduce national tests in primary education. Swedish pupils in general have few tests and a recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils, which may have a negative impact on examination performance. However, there has been little research on effects of testing on young children within the Swedish context.

    Objectives. The current study explores the experience of test anxiety related to achievement in mathematics and Swedish in a sample of 40 grade 3 pupils. 

    Method.  A modernised standardised test for measuring children’s test anxiety. Academic achievement in various mathematical and Swedish domains.

    Results. Test anxiety, in particular its subcomponent autonomic reactions, is related to poor performance in Swedish. In mathematics there is an especially marked relationship between the subtest Written arithmetic and test anxiety, particularly its subcomponent anxious thoughts.

    Conclusion. Test anxiety seems not to be a general problem in present Swedish young sample, however, cautions need to be taken regarding the acquiring of algorithms and number of tests given.

  • 15.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The association between working memory and educational attainment as measured in different mathematical subtopics in the Swedish national assessment: primary education2012Ingår i: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 239-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n=40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and Multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that working memory could be deemed as a predictor for the overall mathematical ability. However, the significance of working memory contributions varied for the different mathematical domains assessed. Working memory contributed most to basic mathematical competencies. Algorithms were not explained significantly by working memory. The contributions of different working memory resources varied as a function of the mathematical domain, but in certain respects the variance was shared across the elements and both visuo-spatial and phonological abilities seem important for mathematic performance. We suggest that individuals’ working memory capacity is important to take into consideration in learning.

  • 16.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Young pupils and national testing: cognitive implications for learning in mathematics2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Too many pupils in Sweden fail to achieve the syllabus goals in mathematics. Consequently different political initiatives have been introduced, including a recent reform that involves mandatory national examinations in mathematics for grade 3 pupils. However, a well functioning working memory capacity can be regarded as a crucial component for mathematical ability.The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n=40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics.The results showed that working memory could be deemed as a predictor for the overall mathematical ability. Thus, the significance of working memory contributions varied for the different mathematical domains assessed. We suggest that individual abilities such as working memory are important to take into consideration for the educational system with regard to learning. Cognitive implications for educational practice are discussed.

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  • 17.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Löfgren, Kent
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Executive function skills and their importance in education: Swedish student teachers' perceptions2018Ingår i: Thinking Skills and Creativity, ISSN 1871-1871, E-ISSN 1878-0423, Vol. 27, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive function (EF) skills are crucial for pupils' learning. Therefore, incorporating well-considered instructional strategies may reduce the EF demands placed on pupils with insufficient EF skills in the classroom. Hence, educators are critically positioned. In the present study, 303 student teachers answered the Mathematics Skills Questionnaire. The aim of the study was to (a) examine how student teachers rated the importance of EF skills and EF-related skills involved in pupils' learning and (b) investigate whether there were any differences in rating between regular student teachers and special needs student educators. The results of a two-way mixed ANOVA showed a significant main effect of skill in the total sample. Follow-up tests revealed that skills such as reasoning and proof, inhibition, shifting, and creativity were rated as more important when compared to other skills. Follow-up comparison of the significant interaction effect between skill and student teacher group revealed that the special needs student teachers regarded working memory skills as more important, while the regular student teachers rated EF-related skills that are grounded in core EF skills to have higher importance. The science of learning and its educational implications are discussed.

  • 18.
    Stillesjö, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Active math and grammar learning engages overlapping brain networks2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 118, nr 46, artikel-id e2106520118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We here demonstrate common neurocognitive long-term memory effects of active learning that generalize over course subjects (mathematics and vocabulary) by the use of fMRI. One week after active learning, relative to more passive learning, performance and fronto-parietal brain activity was significantly higher during retesting, possibly related to the formation and reactivation of semantic representations. These observations indicate that active learning conditions stimulate common processes that become part of the representations and can be reactivated during retrieval to support performance. Our findings are of broad interest and educational significance related to the emerging consensus of active learning as critical in promoting good long-term retention.

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  • 19.
    van den Broek, Gesa
    et al.
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Takashima, Atsuko
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Segers, Eliane
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Verhoeven, Ludo
    Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Neurocognitive mechanisms of the "testing effect": a review2016Ingår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 52-66Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Memory retrieval is an active process that can alter the content and accessibility of stored memories. Of potential relevance for educational practice are findings that memory retrieval fosters better retention than mere studying. This so-called testing effect has been demonstrated for different materials and populations, but there is limited consensus on the neurocognitive mechanisms involved. In this review, we relate cognitive accounts of the testing effect to findings from recent brain-imaging studies to identify neurocognitive factors that could explain the testing effect. Results indicate that testing facilitates later performance through several processes, including effects on semantic memory representations, the selective strengthening of relevant associations and inhibition of irrelevant associations, as well as potentiation of subsequent learning.

  • 20.
    Wiklund-Hörnkvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    The neural mechanisms underlying test-enhanced learning: An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study2012Ingår i: Earli-SIG 22: Neuroscience and Education" 24th-26th May 2012, Institute of Education, London, 2012, s. 9-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests, a phenomenon called the testing-effect. However, the neural mechanisms of test-enhanced learning are not well understood. The current study examined changes in functional brain networks in relation to repeated retrieval (i.e. test-enhanced learning).

    Participants (n=20) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while being tested on each study item three times.

    Successful repeated retrieval was characterized by decreased activity in prefrontal and premotor regions and in the right caudate, compared to items not successfully retrieved at consecutive tests. Successful repeated retrieval was also characterized by increased activity in right middle temporal cortex (BA 37 & 21).

    Tentatively, these results imply that the benefits of test-enhanced learning in part is due to decreased need for executive processing along with strengthening of semantic representations.

    The current results generate novel information on the effectiveness of testing as a learning method and thus contribute to bridge the current gap between cognitive neuroscience and educational research.

  • 21.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brain-based teaching: behavioral and neuro-cognitive evidence for the power of test-enhanced learning2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A primary goal of education is the acquisition of durable knowledge which challenges the use of efficient pedagogical methods of how to best facilitate learning. Research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that repeated testing during the learning phase improves performance on later retention tests compared to restudy of material. This empirical phenomenon is called the testing effect. The testing effect has shown to be robust across different kinds of material and when compared to different pedagogical methods. Despite the extensive number of published papers on the testing effect, the majority of the studies have been conducted in the laboratory. More specific, few studies have examined the testing effect in authentic settings when using course material during the progress of a course. Further, few studies have investigated the beneficial effects with test-enhanced learning by the use of neuroimaging methods (e.g. fMRI). The aim with the thesis was to investigate the effects of test-enhanced learning in an authentic educational context and how this is related to individual differences in working memory capacity (Study I and II) as well as changes in brain activity involved in successful repeated testing and long term retention (Study III).

    In study I, we examined whether repeated testing with feedback benefitted learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key concepts in a sample of undergraduate students. The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback was superior compared to rereading both immediate after practice and at longer delays. The effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of WMC. In Study II, we investigated test-enhanced learning in relation to the encoding variability hypothesis for the learning of mathematics in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was examined in relation to both practiced and transfer tasks. No differences were found for the practiced tasks. Regarding the transfer tasks, the results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis, but only at the immediate test. In contrast, when we followed up the durability of learning across time, the results showed that taking the same questions over and over again during the intervention resulted in better performance across time compared to variable encoding. Individual differences in WMC predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.

    Together, the results from Study I and Study II clearly indicate that testenhanced learning is effective in authentic settings, across age-groups and also produces transfer. Integrate current findings from cognitive science, in terms of test-enhanced learning, by the use of authentic materials and assessments relevant for educational goals can be rather easily done with vi computer based tasks. The observed influence of individual differences in WMC between the studies warrant further study of its specific contribution to be able to optimize the learning procedure.

    In Study III, we tested the complementary hypothesis regarding the mechanisms behind memory retrieval. Recurrent retrieval may be efficient because it induces representational consistency or, alternatively, because it induces representational variability - the altering or adding of underlying representations as a function of successful repeated retrieval. A cluster in right superior parietal cortex was identified as important for items successfully repeatedly retrieved Day 1, and also correctly remembered Day 7, compared to those successfully repeatedly retrieved Day 1 but forgotten Day 7. Representational similarity analysis in this region gave support for the theoretical explanations that emphasis semantic elaboration.

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  • 22.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Neural activations associated with feedback and retrieval success2017Ingår i: npj Science of learning, E-ISSN 2056-7936, Vol. 2, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is substantial behavioral evidence for a phenomenon commonly called “the testing effect”, i.e. superior memory performance after repeated testing compared to re-study of to-be-learned materials. However, considerably less is known about the underlying neuro-cognitive processes that are involved in the initial testing phase and thus underlies the actual testing effect. Here, we investigated functional brain activity related to test-enhanced learning with feedback. Subjects learned foreign vocabulary across three consecutive tests with correct-answer feedback. Functional brain-activity responses were analyzed in relation to retrieval and feedback events, respectively. Results revealed up-regulated activity in fronto-striatal regions during the first successful retrieval, followed by a marked reduction in activity as a function of improved learning. Whereas feedback improved behavioral performance across consecutive tests, feedback had a negligable role after the first successful retrieval for functional brain-activity modulations. It is suggested that the beneficial effects of test-enhanced learning is regulated by feedback-induced updating of memory representations, mediated via the striatum, that might underlie the stabilization of memory commonly seen in behavioral studies of the testing effect.

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  • 23.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Börjesson, A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert A
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Working memory, reading comprehension and learning strategies among 5(th) grade children2010Ingår i: XIV EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (ECDP), Bologna: Medimond, 2010, s. 105-108Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between reading comprehension, working memory (WM) and learning strategies. The results revealed that working memory predicted reading comprehension, both immediate and with one week delay. Having a strategy benefits comprehension and children with high WM span outperformed low span individuals in terms of more elaborated strategies. In addition, girls used significantly more and more elaborated strategies than boys.

  • 24.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    An fMRI study of the supportive role of feedback during test-enhanced learning2016Ingår i: ICOM-6 Conference Programme: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, 2016, s. 29-29Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research in cognitive psychology has demonstrated that testing improves the performance on later retention tests (i.e., the testing-effect).

    One key factor is the inclusion of feedback which enhances the benefits. Participants (n=21) first studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word-pairs. Subsequently, they underwent fMRI while being tested on each study-item either with or without feedback.

    Contrary to no feedback, several regions were identified as a feedback-network with the strongest contribution from the bilateral MTL regions (anterior hippocampus, amygdala), insula and left IFC. Several of these responses were modulated by type of response (correct/incorrect) and repetition (1,2,3).

    These findings link the effect of feedback on learning to strengthening of semantic representations, providing novel insights about the crucial role of feedback during test-enhanced learning.

  • 25.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Untangling the Contribution of the Subcomponents of Working Memory to Mathematical Proficiency as Measured by the National Tests: A Study among Swedish Third Graders2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, artikel-id 1062Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the present study was to examine the relationship between the subcomponents in working memory (WM) and mathematical performance, as measured by the National tests in a sample of 597 Swedish third-grade pupils. In line with compelling evidence of other studies, individual differences in WM capacity significantly predicted mathematical performance. Dividing the sample into four groups, based on their mathematical performance, revealed that mathematical ability can be conceptualized in terms of different WM profiles. Pupils categorized as High-math performers particularly differed from the other three groups in having a significant higher phonological ability. In contrast, pupils categorized as Low-math performers were particularly characterized by having a significant lower visuo-spatial ability. Findings suggest that it is important for educators to recognize and acknowledge individual differences in WM to support mathematical achievement at an individual level.

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  • 26.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    How to learn? The Effects of Repeated Testing with Feedback compared to Rereading of Educational Material2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An obvious way to promote acquisition of new information is to repeat the learning/encoding phase. However, recent evidence (Roediger & Butler, 2010) indicate that repeating the test phase may be even more effective, particularly when combined with feedback on response correctness.

    The aim of this ongoing study is to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology text-book facts in an educational context. The effect was examined immediate after practice, after 18-days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students.

    Preliminary analyses revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, thus indicating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and long-term. Learning methods including elements of repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 27.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 10-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (= 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  • 28.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Transfer in mathematical learning: a comparison study of elementary school children in an educational contextManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies in cognitive psychology have shown that repeated testing enhances learning, a phenomenon called the testing effect. The aim with the present study was to investigate the encoding variability hypothesis in relation to both practiced and transfer mathematical tasks in a sample of fifth-grade children. Learning was assessed immediately after practice, 3-days, and five weeks after initial learning. Encoding variability was manipulated by re-formulate some of the questions in one group (Variable-Test group), versus keeping them constant in a second group (Same-Test group), but with the same amount of total practice for both groups. The results gave support for the encoding variability hypothesis with regard to transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test. At the delayed tests, the encoding variability hypothesis was disclaimed. Clickers were used during both the learning phase and the following tests. Individual differences in working memory capacity predicted performance on the transfer tasks, but only at the immediate test, regardless of group.

  • 29.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Are episodic memory differentially related to the effects of test-enhanced learning compared to group discussions?2016Ingår i: ICOM-6 Conference Programme.: Konferensbidrag. Abstract (Refereegranskat), 2016, s. 84-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite compelling evidence for test-enhanced learning as superior compared to other pedagogical methods, less is known about how cognitive level affects performance.

    The beneficial effects has been ascribed to an episodic context account; in which subjects rely on the use of a temporal context while retrieving from memory.

    We examined individual differences in episodic memory in relation to different learning methods.

    Participants (n=103) were randomized to three groups: testing with feedback, group-discussion with or without feedback. The to-be-learned material was a chapter from a psychology textbook.

    Learning were assessed immediately, one and, at four weeks after initial learning.

    Results revealed that the testing-group performed significantly better across time compared to both group discussion groups. A significant positive relationship between episodic memory and learning for both group-discussion groups, but not the testing-group. The results indicates that individual differences in episodic memory is less sensitive when learning from repeated testing - suggesting that test-enhanced learning is equally beneficial for all individuals independent of cognitive ability. In contrast learning from group discussions relies more on individual differences in episodic memory, so those with better episodic memory learns better compared to those with lower episodic memory.  

     

  • 30.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Activity in left temporal-parietal regions characterizes long-term retention after repeated testing2013Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, nr Suppl., s. S114-S114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Neurovetenskaper.
    Test bidrar till effektiv inlärning2015Ingår i: Vägen ut ur skolkrisen: nio experter om framtiden för svensk utbildning / [ed] Mats Bergstrand, Visby: eddy.se ab , 2015, s. 87-108Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Retrieval practice facilitates learning by strengthening processing in both the anterior and posterior hippocampus2021Ingår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 11, artikel-id e01909Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Methods: A large number of behavioral studies show that retrieval practice is a powerful way of strengthening learning of new information. Repeated retrieval might support long‐term retention in a quantitative sense by inducing stronger episodic representations or in a qualitative sense by contributing to the formation of more gist‐like representations. Here we used fMRI to examine the brain bases related to the learning effects following retrieval practice and provide imaging support for both views by showing increased activation of anterior and posterior hippocampus regions during a delayed memory test.

    Results: Brain activity in the posterior hippocampus increased linearly as a function of number of successful retrievals during initial learning, whereas anterior hippocampus activity was restricted to items retrieved many but not few times during the learning phase.

    Conclusion: Taken together, these findings indicate that retrieval practice strengthens subsequent retention via "dual action" in the anterior and posterior hippocampus, possibly reflecting coding of individual experiences as well as integration and generalization across multiple experiences. Our findings are of educational significance by providing insight into the brain bases of a learning method of applied relevance.

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  • 33.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Retrieval Practice Is Effective Regardless of Self-Reported Need for Cognition - Behavioral and Brain Imaging Evidence2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikel-id 797395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emerging consensus that retrieval practice is a powerful way to enhance long-term retention and to reduce achievement gaps in school settings. Less is known whether retrieval practice benefits performance in individuals with low intrinsic motivation to spend time and effort on a given task, as measured by self-reported need for cognition (NFC). Here, we examined retrieval practice in relation to individual differences in NFC by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Using a within-subject design, upper-secondary school students (N = 274) learned a language-based material (Swahili-Swedish word-pairs), with half of the items by means of retrieval practice with feedback and half by study only. One week later, the students were tested on the word-pairs either in the classroom (n = 204), or in a fMRI scanner (n = 70). In both settings, a retrieval practice effect was observed across different levels of NFC (high or low). Relatedly, comparable fMRI effects were seen in both NFC subgroups. Taken together, our findings provide behavioral and brain-imaging evidence that retrieval practice is effective also for individuals with lower levels of NFC, which is of direct relevance for educational practice.

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    fulltext
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