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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inledning2016In: Samiska Rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Solna: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 5-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, ElisabethUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).Lantto, PatrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Wisselgren, Maria J.Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    A database for the future major contributions from 47 years of database development and research at the demographic data base2020In: Historical Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 9, p. 173-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Demographic Data Base (DDB) at the Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR) at Umeå University has since the 1970s been building longitudinal population databases and disseminating data for research. The databases were built to serve as national research infrastructures, useful for addressing an indefinite number of research questions within a broad range of scientific fields, and open to all academic researchers who wanted to use the data. A countless number of customised datasets have been prepared and distributed to researchers in Sweden and abroad and to date, the research has resulted in more than a thousand published scientific reports, books, and articles within a broad range of academic fields. While there has long been a clear predominance of research within the humanities and social sciences, it has always been used for research in other fields as well, for example medicine. In this article, we first give a brief presentation of the DDB and its history, characteristics, and development from the 1970s to the present. It includes an overview of the research based on the DDB databases, with a focus on the databases POPUM and POPLINK with individual-level data. A number of major traits of the research from 1973 to now have been outlined, showing the breadth of the research and highlighting some major contributions, with a focus on work that would have been very difficult to perform without data from the DDB.

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  • 4.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Boarded out by auction: poor children and their families in nineteenth-century northern Sweden2004In: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 431-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boarding out and fostering poor children was a favoured method of poor relief in many rural areas in northern Europe. This article discusses children who were boarded out to foster-parents by public auction in a rural parish in northern nineteenth-century Sweden. Poverty was the main reason why children were boarded out, frequently associated with loss of parents and difficulties in providing for a large household. It is suggested that the Swedish system of boarding out poor children must be understood in the context of a welfare system where cost efficiency was important. The auction method was used in spite of the risks involved because it was considered to be the best way to provide poor children with food, clothes, shelter and care, while keeping the compensation to the foster-parents at a reasonably low level.

  • 5.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    "Det är samhällssystemets fel": Norrskensflamman och utbrottet av Spanska sjukan i Arjeplog 19202012In: Människan, arbetet och historien: en vänbok till professor Tom Ericsson / [ed] Anders Brändström & Svante Norrhem, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 9-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Flera nyanser av fattigdom: skattefattigdom och fattigvård i en norrländsk kontext 1830-18752004In: Historiens mångfald: presentation av pågående forskning vid Institutionen för historiska studier, Umeå universitet / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, p. 139-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Prästen som samhällsbyggare under 1800-talet2005In: Livsfrågor i Lappland.: Kyrkan och kolonisationen. Forskarsymposium i Vilhelmina 30 september-1 oktober 2004 / [ed] Nygren, Sigurd; Forsgren, Tuuli, Umeå: Johan Nordlander-sällskapet , 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    "Rasande, eller mild och skonsam": Svenska provinsialläkares bild av influensautbrottet 1889-902007In: Nationell influensasammankomst 1-2 nov 2007: Sammanfattningar, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The invisible pandemic: Community response to pandemic influenza in rural northern Sweden 1918-202009In: Varia Historia, ISSN ISSN 0104-8775, Vol. 25, no 42, p. 429-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout human history, recurrent influenza pandemics have affected individuals and societies all over the world. Yet the social responses have varied with time and space. This article discusses society's response to the Spanish influenza of 1918-1920 in northern rural Sweden, focusing on measures taken by local communities to meet the advancing pandemic. In the five studied rural communities, the official response was sparse and reactive, and the presence of pandemic influenza is almost invisible in the municipal records. Potentially preventive measures, such as school closures and bans on public gatherings, were used inadequately and introduced far too late to be effective. The current struggle with wartime hardship, food crisis and a strained economy, an insufficient public health administration, a national preventive policy primarily aimed at the prevention of cholera, and the continued use of traditional methods to deal with crises in society are suggested as some explanations for local authorities' apparent inertia during the Spanish influenza.

  • 10.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Useful and industrious: child labour in 19th century rural Sweden2011In: Child labour’s global past 1650-2000 / [ed] Kristoffel Lieten, Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, Bern: Peter Lang , 2011, 1, p. 331-342Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    "Useful and industrious": Child labour in 19th century rural Sweden2009In: Child labour's global past, Bern: Peter Lang Publishers , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Kurbasic, Azra
    et al.
    Poveda, Alaitz
    Chen, Yan
    Ågren, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Hu, Frank B
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Barroso, Ines
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Gene-Lifestyle Interactions in Complex Diseases: Design and Description of the GLACIER and VIKING Studies2014In: Current nutrition reports, ISSN 2161-3311, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 400-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most complex diseases have well-established genetic and non-genetic risk factors. In some instances, these risk factors are likely to interact, whereby their joint effects convey a level of risk that is either significantly more or less than the sum of these risks. Characterizing these gene-environment interactions may help elucidate the biology of complex diseases, as well as to guide strategies for their targeted prevention. In most cases, the detection of gene-environment interactions will require sample sizes in excess of those needed to detect the marginal effects of the genetic and environmental risk factors. Although many consortia have been formed, comprising multiple diverse cohorts to detect gene-environment interactions, few robust examples of such interactions have been discovered. This may be because combining data across studies, usually through meta-analysis of summary data from the contributing cohorts, is often a statistically inefficient approach for the detection of gene-environment interactions. Ideally, single, very large and well-genotyped prospective cohorts, with validated measures of environmental risk factor and disease outcomes should be used to study interactions. The presence of strong founder effects within those cohorts might further strengthen the capacity to detect novel genetic effects and gene-environment interactions. Access to accurate genealogical data would also aid in studying the diploid nature of the human genome, such as genomic imprinting (parent-of-origin effects). Here we describe two studies from northern Sweden (the GLACIER and VIKING studies) that fulfill these characteristics.

  • 13. Poveda, Alaitz
    et al.
    Chen, Yan
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Building 91, Skåne University Hospital, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden.
    Kurbasic, Azra
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Building 91, Skåne University Hospital, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    The heritable basis of gene-environment interactions in cardiometabolic traits2017In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 442-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis Little is known about the heritable basis of gene-environment interactions in humans. We therefore screened multiple cardiometabolic traits to assess the probability that they are influenced by genotype-environment interactions.

    Methods Fourteen established environmental risk exposures and 11 cardiometabolic traits were analysed in the VIKING study, a cohort of 16,430 Swedish adults from 1682 extended pedigrees with available detailed genealogical, phenotypic and demographic information, using a maximum likelihood variance decomposition method in Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines software.

    Results All cardiometabolic traits had statistically significant heritability estimates, with narrow-sense heritabilities (h (2)) ranging from 24% to 47%. Genotype-environment interactions were detected for age and sex (for the majority of traits), physical activity (for triacylglycerols, 2 h glucose and diastolic BP), smoking (for weight), alcohol intake (for weight, BMI and 2 h glucose) and diet pattern (for weight, BMI, glycaemic traits and systolic BP). Genotype-age interactions for weight and systolic BP, genotype-sex interactions for BMI and triacylglycerols and genotype-alcohol intake interactions for weight remained significant after multiple test correction.

    Conclusion/hypothesis Age, sex and alcohol intake are likely to be major modifiers of genetic effects for a range of cardiometabolic traits. This information may prove valuable for studies that seek to identify specific loci that modify the effects of lifestyle in cardiometabolic disease.

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  • 14.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Bland pigor, utvandrare och vanliga dödliga i 1800-talets Sverige: historiska problem i digitala källor: ett arbets- och inspirationsmaterial för gymnasieskolan2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Kärlek, liv och död på webben: Befolkningshistoriska källor som resurs i historieundervisningen2007In: Aktuellt om historia, ISSN 0348-503X, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Vikström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Larsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The demographic database: history of technical and methodological achievements2023In: Historical Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 13, p. 89-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Demographic Data Base (DDB) at the Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR) at Umeå University has since the 1970s been building longitudinal population databases and disseminating data for research. The databases were built to serve as national research infrastructures, useful for addressing an indefinite number of research questions within a broad range of scientific fields, and open to all academic researchers who wanted to use the data. A countless number of customized datasets have been prepared and distributed to researchers in Sweden and abroad and to date, the research has resulted in more than a thousand published scientific reports, books, and articles within a broad range of academic fields. This article will focus on the development of techniques and methods used to store and structure the data at DDB from the beginning in 1973 until today. This includes digitization methods, database design and methods for linkage. The different systems developed for implementing these methods are also described and to some extent, the hardware used.

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  • 17.
    Westberg, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    A Unique Source for Innovative Longitudinal Research: the POPLINK Database2016In: Historical Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 3, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the longitudinal database POPLINK, which has been developed at the Demographic Data Base at Umeå University, Sweden. Based on digitized Swedish population registers between c. 1700-1950, the database contains micro-data that covers the agrarian society through industrialization and further on to the Swedish welfare state and contemporary society. It is now possible to study the profound processes of the second demographic transition using individual level data with a proper size population. POPLINK allows for a large array of longitudinal studies, such as social mobility, migration, fertility, mortality, civil status, kinship relations, diseases, disability and causes of death. International standards of occupations (HISCO) and diseases (ICD-10) have been applied, facilitating comparability. POPLINK covers two large regions in Northern Sweden and is built on complete registrations. It is one of the world’s most information-dense historical population databases, covering up to 15 generations and 350,000 individuals described by 300 variables, allowing the ability to monitor populations over time. POPLINK has been built to allow linkage to modern registries, clinical data and medical biobanks, which enables the study of transgenerational effects, heredity and genetic transfers in disease incidence of the population today. DDB serves as an infrastructure for research and is open to researchers of any nationality. 

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