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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    The processing of mathematical symbols in working memory2020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study examines how different types of symbols, familiar and unfamiliar, are processed in working memory; phonologically and/or visuo-spatially.

  • 2.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Self-regulated use of retrieval practice: associations with individual differences in non-cognitive and cognitive factors2024Ingår i: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is a learning strategy that has repeatedly been found to have positive effects on memory and learning. However, studies indicate that students rarely use retrieval practice on a voluntary basis. The objective of the present study was to examine students’ self-regulated use of retrieval practice, and to determine whether sex and individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive aspects are related to optional use of practice testing. A classroom study was conducted with 146 upper-secondary school students taking courses in mathematics and Swedish. An ABAB design was used to compare students’ optional and non-optional use of retrieval practice (i.e., repeated online quizzing). Students performed cognitive tasks to assess working memory capacity and fluid intelligence and completed self-reports of non-cognitive factors related to school achievement, such as grit, need for cognition (NFC), conscientiousness and openness. Quiz use was then compared using paired- and independent-samples t-tests, and hierarchical linear regression analyses explored relations to individual differences. The results showed that students completed significantly fewer quizzes in the optional sections than in the non-optional sections, and that females completed significantly more optional quizzes than males in Swedish, but not in mathematics. Further, the results showed that conscientiousness predicted optional quiz use in mathematics, whereas sex, NFC, conscientiousness, and openness predicted quiz use in Swedish. To conclude, although the findings show a relatively low optional/self-regulated use of practice testing, in line with earlier research, they suggest that sex and non-cognitive factors, such as personality characteristics, can predict optional use of practice testing.

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  • 3.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Retrieval Practice: Beneficial for All Students or Moderated by Individual Differences?2021Ingår i: Psychology Learning & Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 21-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is a learning technique that is known to produce enhanced long-term memory retention when compared to several other techniques. This difference in learning outcome is commonly called “the testing effect”. Yet there is little research on how individual differences in personality traits and working memory capacity moderate the size of the retrieval-practice benefits. The current study is a conceptual replication of a previous study, further investigating whether the testing effect is sensitive to individual differences in the personality traits Grit and Need for Cognition, and working memory capacity. Using a within-subjects design (N = 151), participants practiced 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs (e.g., adhama–honor) through retrieval practice and re-studying. Learning was assessed at three time points: five minutes, one week, and four weeks after practice. The results revealed a significant testing effect at all three time points. Further, the results showed no association between the testing effect and the personality traits, or between the testing effect and working memory, at any time point. To conclude, retrieval practice seems to be a learning technique that is not moderated by individual differences in these specific personality traits or with working memory capacity, thus possibly beneficial for all students.

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  • 4.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017Ingår i: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 241-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 5.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 6.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Fellman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lincke, Alisa
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för datavetenskap och medieteknik (DM).
    Berge, Elias
    Hypocampus AB, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Predicting Visuospatial and Verbal Working Memory by Individual Differences in E-Learning Activities2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 5, s. 1-11, artikel-id 22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    E-learning is being considered as a widely recognized option to traditional learning environments, allowing for highly tailor-made adaptive learning paths with the goal to maximize learning outcomes. However, for being able to create personalized e-learning systems, it is important to identify relevant student prerequisites that are related learning success. One aspect crucial for all kind of learning that is relatively unstudied in relation to e-learning is working memory (WM), conceptualized as the ability to maintain and manipulate incoming information before it decays. The aim of the present study was to examine how individual differences in online activities is related to visuospatial- and verbal WM performance. Our sample consisted of 98 participants studying on an e-learning platform. We extracted 18 relevant features of online activities tapping on Quiz accuracy, Study activity, Within-session activity, and Repetitive behavior. Using best subset multiple regression analyses, the results showed that individual differences in online activities significantly predicted verbal WM performance (p < 0.001, R2Adjusted = 0.166), but not visuospatial WM performance (p = 0.058, R2Adjusted= 0.065). The obtained results contribute to the existing research of WM in e-learning environments, and further suggest that individual differences in verbal WM performance can be predicted by how students interact on e-learning platforms.

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  • 8.
    Fellman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Lincke, Alisa
    Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Do Individual Differences in Cognition and Personality Predict Retrieval Practice Activities on MOOCs?2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 2076Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Online quizzes building upon the principles of retrieval practice can have beneficial effects on learning, especially long-term retention. However, it is unexplored how interindividual differences in relevant background characteristics relate to retrieval practice activities in e-learning. Thus, this study sought to probe for this research question on a massive open online course (MOOC) platform where students have the optional possibility to quiz themselves on the to-be-learned materials. Altogether 105 students were assessed with a cognitive task tapping on reasoning, and two self-assessed personality measures capturing need for cognition (NFC), and grittiness (GRIT-S). Between-group analyses revealed that cognitively high performing individuals were more likely to use the optional quizzes on the platform. Moreover, within-group analyses (n = 56) including those students using the optional quizzes on the platform showed that reasoning significantly predicted quiz performance, and quiz processing speed. NFC and GRIT-S were unrelated to each of the aforementioned retrieval practice activities.

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  • 9.
    Finell, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Sammallahti, Ellen
    Korhonen, Johan
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Working Memory and Its Mediating Role on the Relationship of Math Anxiety and Math Performance: A Meta-Analysis2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikel-id 798090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that math anxiety has a negative relationship with math performance (MP). A few theories have provided explanations for this relationship. One of them, the Attentional Control Theory (ACT), suggests that anxiety can negatively impact the attentional control system and increase one's attention to threat-related stimuli. Within the ACT framework, the math anxiety (MA)—working memory (WM) relationship is argued to be critical for math performance. The present meta-analyses provides insights into the mechanisms of the MA—MP relation and the mediating role of WM. Through database searches with pre-determined search strings, 1,346 unique articles were identified. After excluding non-relevant studies, data from 57 studies and 150 effect sizes were used for investigating the MA—MP correlation using a random-effects model. This resulted in a mean correlation of r = −0.168. The database search of WM as a mediator for the MA—MP relation revealed 15 effects sizes leading to a descriptive rather than a generalizable statistic, with a mean indirect effect size of −0.092. Overall, the results confirm the ACT theory, WM does play a significant role in the MA—MP relationship.

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  • 10.
    Hermansson, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Lindhé, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper.
    Lundgren, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Norlund Shaswar, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    The (non)effect of Joint Construction in a genre-based approach to teaching writing2019Ingår i: The Journal of educational research (Washington, D.C.), ISSN 0022-0671, E-ISSN 1940-0675, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 483-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This quasi-experimental intervention study examines the effect of genre-based instructional practices on 90 primary students’ narrative writing achievements and is a result of six teachers’ action to meet the educational goals of the Swedish national curriculum. Specifically, the authors examine the effects of Joint Construction, the phase in the genre pedagogical model of the Sydney School known as the Teaching and Learning Cycle, in which teachers and students work together to co-construct texts. Joint Construction has been put forward as the most powerful part of the Teaching and Learning Cycle. The authors challenge this argument, presenting findings that are inconsistent with this widely held belief. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, the study shows that the Joint Construction stage did not significantly improve the quality of students’ narrative writing or increase the text length of their writings.

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  • 11.
    Holmquist, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Inzunza, Miguel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Assessing autonomy, relatedness, and competence in higher education: the Swedish need satisfaction and frustration scale2022Ingår i: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Need-satisfying experiences corresponding to students' psychological needs of autonomy, relatedness, and competence lead to increased academic engagement and well-being. A lack of education-specific basic needs instruments validated in Swedish may inhibit basic needs research in Swedish-speaking student populations. Thus, the present study aimed to adapt the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS) to the context of education in Sweden and validate this new Swedish NSFS in a sample of Swedish university students (n = 417, 59.7% women, mean age = 23.3 (SD = 4.3) years). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to investigate the dimensionality of NSFS ratings, followed by structural equation modelling of nomological networks of basic needs, academic engagement, life satisfaction, academic burnout, and perceived stress. The NSFS ratings were best described by a three-factor model with methods correction for reversed item bias. Results showed that each need uniquely contributed to perceived stress and academic burnout. Relatedness and competence, but not autonomy, were significant predictors of life satisfaction and academic engagement. The main study contribution was providing a Swedish NSFS to assess autonomy, relatedness, and competence in higher education. The results support the use of the Swedish NSFS as a three-dimensional measure of basic needs in Swedish-speaking student populations.

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  • 12.
    Hulaj, Rame
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    E. Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backlund, Christian
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    A motivational model explaining performance in video games2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 1510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports are a rapidly growing phenomenon and understanding of factors underlying game performance are therefore of great interest. The present study investigated the influence of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness), type of motivation (amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic motivation), and number of matches played (time on task) on individuals' performance on a matchmaking rating (MMR) in the video game Defence of the Ancients 2 (Dota 2). Collected data from 315 participants was included in the analyses. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data and structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to analyze the data. The results show that perceived competence and autonomy were the only significant predictors of MMR performance beyond matches played. Fulfillment of relatedness, as well as motivational factors, were not found to be predictors of MMR scores. The strong effect of matches played, used as proxy of time on task, emphasize the effect of time and practice as a critical aspect of video-game expertise.

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  • 13.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olafsdottir, Anna Sigridur
    School of Education, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Lagström, Hanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway,.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Fossgard, Eldbjörg
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Holthe, Asle
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway.
    Talvia, Sanna
    Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali, The National University Hospital of Iceland, and Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    School meals and health: the PROMEAL-study2016Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 60, nr 1, artikel-id 31961Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prospective Control and Object Representation in Yound Infants: An action-based account2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to study the age-related differences of prospective control and object representation in young infants. The overall set of theoretical and empirical issues addressed in this thesis consists of how infants represent and react to visible and non-visible moving objects. This involves understanding the interrelationship between different actions, such as head and trunk movements, and reaching. Questions about infants’ ability to negotiate different kinds of motions and the notion that infant representation of an occluded object can be graded in strength are also addressed in the present thesis. The hypothesis of graded representation proposed that a concept of object representation is not a clear-cut distinction between whether one has a representation or not. It is rather a graded process, evolving with experience and becoming embedded in processes underlying overt behaviour. Study I showed that perturbing an object affected the quality of grasp, which seems to indicate that the approach and grasp components are, at least partially, integrated by nine months of age. The analysis of the relationship between head and hand movements showed tightness in the coupling between these movements, as indicated by a small correction time difference between them. Study III showed that 6-month-old infants, under certain conditions, can form a dynamical representation of a moving and temporarily occluded object, taking into account the velocity and the direction of the object’s motion. It also revealed three other interesting findings: firstly, that an occluder could provide landmark information about object reappearance; secondly, that reaching was dramatically disrupted when the object was temporarily non-visible either due to occlusion or blackout of the room lights and thirdly, that reaching recovered markedly after a few trials, but only when subject to blackout. Overall, the results supported the hypothesis of graded representations. In Study IV, when infants observed a circular object motion, it was shown that while head tracking is functional in 6-month-old infants, it continues to develop and become more refined up to, and beyond, the age of 12 months. The structural organization of head tracking in both 6 and 12-month-old infants complied with an organizational pattern of accelerations and decelerations, or so-called movement units, which is in line with earlier studies of both goal-directed and spontaneous arm movements. The intersegmental coupling between the head and the trunk showed that the infants tried to stabilise head movements by adjustments of the trunk. In addition, study II presents a method for coding prehensile movements by means of a touch screen system, which is used in study III.

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  • 15.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Gaining Mathematical Understanding: The Effects of Creative Mathematical Reasoning and Cognitive Proficiency2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, artikel-id 574366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of mathematics education, one of the main questions remaining under debate is whether students’ development of mathematical reasoning and problem-solving is aided more by solving tasks with given instructions or by solving them without instructions. It has been argued, that providing little or no instruction for a mathematical task generates a mathematical struggle, which can facilitate learning. This view in contrast, tasks in which routine procedures can be applied can lead to mechanical repetition with little or no conceptual understanding. This study contrasts Creative Mathematical Reasoning (CMR), in which students must construct the mathematical method, with Algorithmic Reasoning (AR), in which predetermined methods and procedures on how to solve the task are given. Moreover, measures of fluid intelligence and working memory capacity are included in the analyses alongside the students’ math tracks. The results show that practicing with CMR tasks was superior to practicing with AR tasks in terms of students’ performance on practiced test tasks and transfer test tasks. Cognitive proficiency was shown to have an effect on students’ learning for both CMR and AR learning conditions. However, math tracks (advanced versus a more basic level) showed no significant effect. It is argued that going beyond step-by-step textbook solutions is essential and that students need to be presented with mathematical activities involving a struggle. In the CMR approach, students must focus on the relevant information in order to solve the task, and the characteristics of CMR tasks can guide students to the structural features that are critical for aiding comprehension.

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  • 16.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad University.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Mathematical Teaching Method affects Performance and Brain Activity2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kulaksiz, Yagmur C.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Creative and algorithmic mathematical reasoning: effects of transfer-appropriate processing and effortful struggle2016Ingår i: International journal of mathematical education in science and technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211, Vol. 47, nr 8, s. 1206-1225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two separate studies, Jonsson et al. (J. Math Behav. 2014;36: 20–32)and KarlssonWirebring et al. (Trends Neurosci Educ. 2015;4(1–2):6–14),showed that learning mathematics using creative mathematical reasoningand constructing their own solution methods can be moreefficient than if students use algorithmic reasoning and are giventhe solution procedures. It was argued that effortful struggle was thekey that explained this difference. It was also argued that the resultscould not be explained by the effects of transfer-appropriate processing,although this was not empirically investigated. This studyevaluated the hypotheses of transfer-appropriate processing andeffortful struggle in relation to the specific characteristics associatedwith algorithmic reasoning task and creativemathematical reasoningtask. In a between-subjects design, upper-secondary students werematched according to their working memory capacity.The main finding was that the superior performance associated withpracticing creative mathematical reasoning was mainly supportedby effortful struggle, however, there was also an effect of transferappropriateprocessing. It is argued that students need to strugglewith important mathematics that in turn facilitates the constructionof knowledge. It is further argued that the way we construct mathematicaltasks have consequences for how much effort students allocateto their task-solving attempt.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Mossegård, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Creative Mathematical Reasoning: Does Need for Cognition Matter?2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, artikel-id 797807Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of mathematics education centers heavily around imitative reasoning and rote learning, raising concerns about students’ lack of deeper and conceptual understanding of mathematics. To address these concerns, there has been a growing focus on students learning and teachers teaching methods that aim to enhance conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. One suggestion is allowing students to construct their own solution methods using creative mathematical reasoning (CMR), a method that in previous studies has been contrasted against algorithmic reasoning (AR) with positive effects on test tasks. Although previous studies have evaluated the effects of CMR, they have ignored if and to what extent intrinsic cognitive motivation play a role. This study investigated the effects of intrinsic cognitive motivation to engage in cognitive strenuous mathematical tasks, operationalized through Need for Cognition (NFC), and working memory capacity (WMC). Two independent groups, consisting of upper secondary students (N = 137, mean age 17.13, SD = 0.62, 63 boys and 74 girls), practiced non-routine mathematical problem solving with CMR and AR tasks and were tested 1 week later. An initial t-test confirmed that the CMR group outperformed the AR group. Structural equation modeling revealed that NFC was a significant predictor of math performance for the CMR group but not for the AR group. The results also showed that WMC was a strong predictor of math performance independent of group. These results are discussed in terms of allowing for time and opportunities for struggle with constructing own solution methods using CMR, thereby enhancing students conceptual understanding.

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  • 19.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Karlstad University, Sweden ; The Centre of Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Learning mathematics through algorithmic and creative reasoning2014Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, nr 36, s. 20-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are extensive concerns pertaining to the idea that students do not develop sufficient mathematical competence. This problem is at least partially related to the teaching of procedure-based learning. Although better teaching methods are proposed, there are very limited research insights as to why some methods work better than others, and the conditions under which these methods are applied. The present paper evaluates a model based on students’ own creation of knowledge, denoted creative mathematically founded reasoning (CMR), and compare this to a procedure-based model of teaching that is similar to what is commonly found in schools, denoted algorithmic reasoning (AR). In the present study, CMR was found to outperform AR. It was also found cognitive proficiency was significantly associated to test task performance. However the analysis also showed that the effect was more pronounced for the AR group.

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    Learning mathematics through algorithmic and creative reasning
  • 20.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Noushandeh, Barham
    MicroTouch®Screen technology for the use of coding crude movements and as a response surface for pointing tasks2000Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The following is a description of an inexpensive touch monitor system, based on a MicroTouch monitor and specifically developed software. When touching the MicroTouch monitor, a pre-determined set of values are extracted and displayed in a terminal window as single X and Y coordinates. The program is written in C, runs directly in either MS DOS or through Windows and also serves as a receiver that automatically saves the X and Y coordinates in a text-file format. This paper describes the overall system, discusses the system validity and reliability as well as how it was used in a context of coding crude motor behavior and as a response surface for a specific pen-pointing task.

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  • 21.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Testbaserat lärande: att stärka inlärning och minne2020 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Prospective head tracking: head movements, accuracy and timing in relation to a circular object motion2009Ingår i: Current Psychology Letters: Behaviour, Brain & Cognition, E-ISSN 1379-6100, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 1-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, kinematic and video recordings were made of the eye- and head tracking of an object revolving in a vertical plane in two groups of infants (6- and 12-month-old) and one group of adults. The study had two purposes. The first concerned infants' abilities to negotiate the target trajectory when being forced to extensively recruit the head. The second addressed the question whether the same underlying neural controller drives both eye- and head motor systems. It was found that head tracking ability is functional already in 6-month-old infants. However, infants of both age groups displayed more extensive head movements and less accuracy compared to adults. This finding is in line with previous research on one-dimensional horizontal head tracking in infants. Infants also showed less developed timing between head movements and vertical object motion, supporting the argument that both eye- and head tracking have a common developmental trajectory.

  • 23.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Infants’ ability to track and reach for temporarily occluded objects2003Ingår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 86-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Six-month-old infants were presented with a moving object that temporarily became invisible. The object moved on a horizontal path and was made invisible for either 400, 800 or 1,200 ms before being within reach. Two kinds of events were used to make the object invisible: blackout of the room lights and occlusion behind a screen. First, infants saw 6 trials of the fully visible motion, then 12 trials of a temporarily invisible motion and finally 6 trials of the fully visible motion again. Each infant was presented with only one of the 6 experimental conditions. The results show that reaching is much more severely affected by a eriod of temporary non-visibility than tracking. The effects of the two modes of non-visibility were rather different. In general, lackout deteriorated tracking and made the gaze lag at reappearance. It inhibited reaching but this effect attenuated with experience. onger periods of blackout deteriorated tracking and reaching more. Compared to blackout, occlusion had both a facilitating and an inhibiting effect on infants’ actions. Tracking had less tendency to lag but reaching showed more severe inhibition. The results are discussed in terms of graded representations. Furthermore, it is argued that an occluder facilitates tracking by providing information of where the moving object becomes visible again and it inhibits reaching by interfering with the representation of the object behind the occluder.

  • 24.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Predictive head movements in 6-month old infants1998Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 21, nr Supplement, s. 491-491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate infant’s predictive head-tracking relatively to a linearly moving object. Object’s motion was  produced by a large computer controlled plotter, tilted 15 degrees  forward from vertical position. The objects moved on a white  ainted  aluminum sheet (98x 130 cm). Objects were presented in three different conditions. It was either visible all the time, occluded during part of its motion, or the room lights were extinguished during part of the object’s motion. Infant’s head movements were recorded by two infrared cameras and mixed onto a single video screen. Each infant was shown 6 initial and 6 final visible trials, and 6 times 2 occlusion trials in between, occlusion either by occluder or extinguished light. Sticky paper was placed on the infant’s head and by a touch-screen technology the markers were coded every 100 msec.

  • 25.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olafsdottir, Anna S
    Lagström, Hanna
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Fossgard, Eldbjörg
    Holthe, Asle
    Talvia, Sanna
    Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    The effect of schooling on basic cognition in selected Nordic Countries2017Ingår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 645-666Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated schooling effects on cognition. Cognitive data were collected as part of a research project (ProMeal) that investigated school meals and measured the intake of school lunch in relation to children’s health, cognitive function, and classroom learning in four Nordic countries, among children between 10–11 years of age. It was found that Finnish pupils attending 4th grade were not, on any measure, outperformed by Norwegian and Icelandic pupils attending 5th and Swedish pupils attending 4th grade on a task measuring working memory capacity, processing speed, inhibition, and in a subsample on response- and attention control. Moreover, boys were found to perform superior to girls on tasks measuring processing speed. However, girls were found to perform better on tasks related to attention and self-control. The results are discussed in relation to the reciprocal association between cognition and schooling and whether these results reflect quality differences between schools in the four Nordic countries; most notably in comparison to Finland.

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  • 26.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Börjesson, Arne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-reported memory strategies and their relationship to immediate and delayed text recall and working memory capacity2014Ingår i: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 385-404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of fifth-grade children in the reproduction of the content of a new text - directly, after they had read it (immediate recall), and one week later (delayed recall) - and to investigate the relationship between performance, self-reported memory strategies, and working memory capacity (WMC). The results revealed that more complex strategies are associated with better performances, and that children with high WMC outperformed children with lower WMC in immediate and delayed text recall tasks. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that memory strategy and WMC are the strongest predictors for both immediate and delayed recall tasks. It is argued that self-reported memory strategies are possible to use as estimates of strategy proficiency. The awareness of the importance of memory strategies and children’s WMC in education are further discussed.

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  • 27.
    Jonsson, Bert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    A learning method for all: The testing effect is independent of cognitive ability2021Ingår i: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176, Vol. 113, nr 5, s. 972-985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The testing effect, defined as the positive effect of retrieval practice (i.e., self-testing) on long-term memory retention relative to other ways to support learning, is a robust empirical phenomenon. Despite substantial scientific evidence for the testing effect, less is known about its effectiveness in relation to individual differences in cognitive ability. In the present study, we examine whether the effect of retrieval practice is beneficial independent of cognitive ability using behavioral and brain imaging data. In a within-subject design, upper-secondary students learned Swahili–Swedish word pairs through retrieval practice and study. The testing effects were assessed at a direct test and for a subsample after 1- and 4-weeks retention intervals, respectively. Another subsample performed the 1-week retention test during functional MRI (fMRI). Memory retention was analyzed in relation to an educationally relevant composite score dividing participants into low, intermediate, and high cognitive-ability groups. We provide behavioral evidence that the testing effect is independent of cognitive ability. The fMRI findings confirmed a general effectiveness of retrieval practice by showing that brain regions associated with successful retrieval of conceptual representations and semantic processing were more strongly engaged after retrieval practice in all cognitive-ability groups. It is argued that the advantages of retrieval practice should be conveyed to all teachers and students.

  • 28. Jägerskog, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    Jonsson, Fredrik U.
    Selander, Staffan
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Multimedia learning trumps retrieval practice in psychology teaching2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 222-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that studying with (vs. without) visual illustrations as well as taking tests (vs. restudying) is beneficial for learning, but on which strategy should one put the efforts, or should they be combined for best learning? Eighty-eight upper secondary school students were given a brief lecture presented verbally (6 classes) or with the aid of a visual illustration (visuoverbal, 6 classes). The information was processed again by taking a memory test or by restudying. Recall and transfer tests were conducted after some few minutes and again after one week. The visuoverbal lecture resulted in better learning than verbal presentation only. A significant study strategy by retention interval interaction was found. However, this interaction was not qualified by a testing effect. Hence, taking tests (retrieval practice) did not lead to better learning than restudying. It was concluded that it is worthwhile to use visual illustrations in teaching. However, the present study did not reveal any synergistic effects from the combination of visuoverbal presentation and retrieval practice.

  • 29.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Kubik, Veit
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson Sundqvist, Max
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Todorov, Ivo
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    How crucial is the response format for the testing effect?2014Ingår i: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772, Vol. 78, nr 5, s. 623-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining study and test trials during learning is more beneficial for long-term retention than repeated study without testing (i.e., the testing effect). Less is known about the relative efficacy of different response formats during testing. We tested the hypothesis that overt testing (typing responses on a keyboard) during a practice phase benefits later memory more than covert testing (only pressing a button to indicate successful retrieval). In Experiment 1, three groups learned 40 word pairs either by repeatedly studying them, by studying and overtly testing them, or by studying and covertly testing them. In Experiment 2, only the two testing conditions were manipulated in a within-subjects design. In both experiments, participants received cued recall tests after a short (~19 min) and a long (1 week) retention interval. In Experiment 1, all groups performed equally well at the short retention interval. The overt testing group reliably outperformed the repeated study group after 1 week, whereas the covert testing group performed insignificantly different from both these groups. Hence, the testing effect was demonstrated for overt, but failed to show for covert testing. In Experiment 2, overtly tested items were better and more quickly retrieved than those covertly tested. Further, this does not seem to be due to any differences in retrieval effort during learning. To conclude, overt testing was more beneficial for later retention than covert testing, but the effect size was small. Possible explanations are discussed.

  • 30.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Retrieval practice is characterized by reduced fronto-striatal activity2013Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 25, nr Suppl., s. S82-S83Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstad, Sweden.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Learning mathematics without a suggested solution method: durable effects on performance and brain activity2015Ingår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 4, nr 1-2, s. 6-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominant mathematics teaching method is to present a solution method and let pupils repeatedly practice it. An alternative method is to let pupils create a solution method themselves. The current study compared these two approaches in terms of lasting effects on performance and brain activity. Seventythree participants practiced mathematics according to one of the two approaches. One week later, participants underwent fMRI while being tested on the practice tasks. Participants who had created the solution method themselves performed better at the test questions. In both conditions, participants engaged a fronto-parietal network more when solving test questions compared to a baseline task. Importantly, participants who had created the solution method themselves showed relatively lower brain activity in angular gyrus, possibly reflecting reduced demands on verbal memory. These results indicate that there might be advantages to creating the solution method oneself, and thus have implications for the design of teaching methods.

  • 32.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Lesser neural pattern similarity across repeated tests is associated with better long-term memory retention2015Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, nr 26, s. 9595-9602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability—the altering or adding of underlying memory representa- tions. Human participants studied 60 Swahili–Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgot- ten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. 

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  • 33.
    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Stillesjö, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    An fMRI intervention study of creative mathematical reasoning: behavioral and brain effects across different levels of cognitive ability2022Ingår i: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 29, artikel-id 100193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many learning methods of mathematical reasoning encourage imitative procedures (algorithmic reasoning, AR) instead of more constructive reasoning processes (creative mathematical reasoning, CMR). Recent research suggest that learning with CMR compared to AR leads to better performance and differential brain activity during a subsequent test. Here, we considered the role of individual differences in cognitive ability in relation to effects of CMR.

    Methods: We employed a within-subject intervention (N=72, MAge=18.0) followed by a brain-imaging session (fMRI) one week later. A battery of cognitive tests preceded the intervention. Participants were divided into three cognitive ability groups based on their cognitive score (low, intermediate and high).

    Results: On mathematical tasks previously practiced with CMR compared to AR we observed better performance, and higher brain activity in key regions for mathematical cognition such as left angular gyrus and left inferior/middle frontal gyrus. The CMR-effects did not interact with cognitive ability, albeit the effects on performance were driven by the intermediate and high cognitive ability groups.

    Conclusions: Encouraging pupils to engage in constructive processes when learning mathematical reasoning confers lasting learning effects on brain activation, independent of cognitive ability. However, the lack of a CMR-effect on performance for the low cognitive ability group suggest future studies should focus on individualized learning interventions, allowing more opportunities for effortful struggle with CMR.

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  • 34.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks, and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. These students probably use counting based strategies that impose more WM load and have lower WM capacity than their peers who are more likely to use memory based strategies (i.e., fact-retrieval) in addition to having higher WM capacity. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

  • 35.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Additive and multiplicative effects of working memory and test anxiety on mathematics performance in grade 3 students2018Ingår i: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 38, nr 5, s. 572-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between test anxiety and working memory (WM) on mathematics performance in younger children. A sample of 624 grade 3 students completed a test battery consisting of a test anxiety scale, WM tasks and the Swedish national examination in mathematics for grade 3. The main effects of test anxiety and WM, and the two-way interaction between test anxiety and WM on mathematics performance, were modelled with structural equation modelling techniques. Additionally, the effects were also tested separately on tasks with high WM demands (mathematical problem-solving) versus low WM demands (basic arithmetic). As expected, WM positively predicted mathematics performance in all three models (overall mathematics performance, problem-solving tasks, and basic arithmetic). Test anxiety had a negative effect on problem-solving on the whole sample level but concerning basic arithmetic only students with lower WM were affected by the negative effects of test anxiety on performance. Thus, students with low WM are more vulnerable to the negative effects of test anxiety in low WM tasks like basic arithmetic. The results are discussed in relation to the early identification of test anxiety.

  • 36.
    Korhonen, Johan
    et al.
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The role of cognitive-affective factors in underachievement2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandgren, Olof
    Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sara
    National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder2022Ingår i: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, ISSN 0161-1461, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 542-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school.

    Method: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (Mage = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1–2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition.

    Results: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words.

    Conclusions: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP,whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to be-learned material (Tier 2 words).

  • 38.
    Lincke, Alisa
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Fellman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jansen, Marc
    Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences, Ruhr West, Germany.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Berge, Elias
    Hypocampus AB, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Correlating working memory capacity with learners´ study behavior in a web-based learning platform2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 27th international conference on computers in education / [ed] Maiga Chang; Hyo-Jeong So; Lung-Hsiang Wong; Fu-Yun Yu; Ju-Ling Shih, Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education (APSCE) , 2019, Vol. 1, s. 90-92Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive pre-requisites should be taken into consideration when providing personalized and adaptive digital content in web-based learning platforms. In order to achieve this it should be possible to extract these cognitive characteristics based on students´ study behavior. Working memory capacity (WMC) is one of the cognitive characteristics that affect students’ performance and their academic achievements. However, traditional approaches to measuring WMC are cognitively demanding and time consuming. In order to simplify these measures, Chang et al. (2015) proposed an approach that can automatically identify students’ WMC based on their study behavior patterns. The intriguing question is then whether there are study behavior characteristics that correspond to the students’ WMC? This work explores to what extent it is possible to map individual WMC data onto individual patterns of learning by correlating working memory capacity with learners´ study behavior in an adaptive web-based learning system. Several machine learning models together with a rich context model have been applied to identify the most relevant study behavior characteristics and to predict students’ WMC. The evaluation was performed based on data collected from 122 students during a period of 2 years using a web-based learning platform. The initial results show that there is no linear correlation with learners´study behavior and their WMC.

  • 39.
    Lindroos, Erika
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Erikslund, Frida
    Åbo Akademi .
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi.
    Kan extra fysisk aktivitet ge bättre resultat i matematik?: En interventionsstudie2019Ingår i: TIDSKRIFT OM LÄRANDE OCH INLÄRNINGSSVÅRIGHETER, ISSN 2342-9046, Vol. 29, s. 24-39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungdomar rör på sig allt mindre och endast 17 % av alla högstadieelever i Finland når upp till minimimängden en timmes fysisk aktivitet per dag. Tidigare forskning visar att det finns ett positivt samband mellan fysisk aktivitet och skolprestationer. I den här studien undersöker vi hur extrainsatt fysisk aktivitet inverkar på prestationer i matematik och arbetsminne över tid, samt om det finns någon skillnad mellan låg-, medel- och högpresterande elever. I studien deltog 129 finlandssvenska elever i årskurs 7 och interventionen pågick i tre månader. Eleverna delades in i en interventions- och en kontrollgrupp. På basis av av matematikprestationer delades eleverna in i låg-, medel- och högpresterande. Resultaten visar att extra- insatt fysisk aktivitet inte hade någon signifikant inverkan på utvecklingen av matematikprestationer och arbetsminne. Resultaten visar också att den fysiska aktiviteten inte bidrog till att matematikprestationer hos låg-, medel- och högpresterande elever utvecklats olika. Bidragande faktorer kan vara att deltagarantalet var för litet, att interventionen var för kort och att interventionen inte hade en tillräckligt hög fysisk intensitet.

  • 40.
    Lithner, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Yvonne, Liljekvist
    Karlstad universitet.
    Mathematical Reasoning: Creative versus Imitative Teaching Methods2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 41. Munakata, Yuko
    et al.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Spelke, Elisabeth S
    von Hofsten, Claes
    When it helps to occlude and obscure: 6-month-olds' predictive tracking of moving toys1996Ingår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 19, nr Suppl. 1, s. 639-639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    What do infants know about hidden objects’? Previous research suggests that the answer depends on how the objects are hidden. For instance, infants appear to reach for toys in the dark (Clifton, Rochat, Litovsky, & Penis, 1991; Hood & Willatts, 1986) before they reach for toys occluded in the light. However, these experiments have not compared directly toys occluded in the light and by darkness. The current experiment tests infants under both conditions in the same paradigm. In addition, the experiment introduces a combined ccluderdarkness condition to test two distinct explanations for a possible advantage in the dark. First,  infants may have knowledge about hidden objects but cannot act on it for occluder-specific reasons (e.g., means-ends deficits, beliefs about the whether the object is accessible). Second, infants may have graded representations of occluded objects that can be more easily maintained in the face of global darkness than with the direct visual interference of an occluder. Counterintuitive results from the current experiment provide evidence for both representational and occluder-specific effects.

  • 42.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Self-reported and performance-based measures of executive functions in interned youth2017Ingår i: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 240-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study address three questions: (a) Do interned adolescents exhibit general or specific deficits in the core executive functions, as compared to an age-matched control group? (b) Do interned adolescents report more executive problems in everyday life, as compared to an age-matched control group? And (c) are performance-based measures of executive functions related to self-reported executive problems? Thirty-one interned youths and 40 non-interned controls participated in the study. To this end, we measured the three constituents (inhibition, shifting, and updating) of the Unity/Diversity model of executive functioning, as well as the participants’ self-reported everyday executive functioning using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions scale. The interned group performed less well compared to the control group on the majority of performance-based tasks but did not show more pronounced deficits in any one executive function, reflective of a more general deficit. Compared to the controls, the interned adolescents also reported more dysfunction in executive behaviors related to the ability to inhibit action, behavioral flexibility, working memory, and the ability to follow through with tasks. Overall, correlations between self-report and performance-based measures were weak. These findings suggest that performance-based and self-report measures may assess different, albeit important, aspects of executive functioning.

  • 43.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier, Karlstads Universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Limited effects of executive-process training in interned and non-interned adolescents: Issues of transfer to school-related tasks, performance-based, and self-assessed cognitionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a process-based executive functions (EFs) training program in interned and in non-interned adolescents. In particular, the extent to which training effects were transferred to non-trained executive functions, scholastic performance, as well as to self-reported everyday executive functioning, was addressed. Three groups participated in the study: one group consisted of interned adolescents receiving EF-training (n=21), the other two 30 non-interned adolescents randomized to either EF-training (n=15) or alternatively placebo-training (n=15). All three groups participated in 28 computer-based training sessions, each lasting 20 minutes, over a period of 10 weeks. Theresults showed that the non-interned adolescents receiving EF training did not improve over and above that of the placebo-training group on any of the criterion and transfer tasks, nor in self-assessed cognition. Instead both groups showed equivalent gains suggesting that the improvements seen after training most likely is driven by placebo responses. Comparing the interned and non-interned training progression revealed that the non-interned group gained substantially more across training than the interned group. Still, both groups showed equal improvements in several non-trained tasks, along with self-reported aspects of working memory and planning ability. The implication of these findings for EF training as part of rehabilitation in incarcerated settings will be discussed below.

  • 44.
    Nordvall, Olov
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Self-Reported Impulsivity and its Relation to Executive Functions in Interned Youth2017Ingår i: Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, ISSN 1321-8719, E-ISSN 1934-1687, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 910-922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In adolescence, antisocial behaviors increase in prevalence, an occurrence that has been related to the parallel increase of impulsive behaviors. However, impulsivity is a conglomerate of unidimensional impulsigenic traits, divided into aspects of behavioral dyscontrol and sensation seeking. In the present study, we examine how these traits differ between interned youth and an aged-matched control group, and how they relate to executive functioning. Results indicate that impulsigenic traits related to behavioral dyscontrol, but not sensation seeking, are more pronounced in interned adolescents. Also, executive functioning was predictive of lack of premeditation, a trait specifically related to antisocial behavior. One implication of this is that interventions improving executive functioning could be beneficial in the rehabilitation of interned adolescents with impulsivity-related problems.

  • 45.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Eye-tracking data and mathematical tasks with focus on mathematical reasoning2019Ingår i: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 25, artikel-id 104216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This data article contains eye-tracking data (i.e., dwell time and fixations), Z-transformed cognitive data (i.e., Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Operation span), and practice and test scores from a study in mathematics education. This data is provided in a supplementary file. The method section describes the mathematics tasks used in the study. These mathematics tasks are of two kinds, with and without solution templates, to induce different types of mathematical reasoning.

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  • 46.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Shifts in student attention on algorithmic and creative practice tasks2023Ingår i: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In mathematics classrooms, it is common practice to work through a series of comparable tasks provided in a textbook. A central question in mathematics education is if tasks should be accompanied with solution methods, or if students should construct the solutions themselves. To explore the impact of these two task designs on student behavior during repetitive practice, an eye-tracking study was conducted with 50 upper secondary and university students. Their eye movements were analyzed to study how the two groups shifted their gaze both within and across 10 task sets. The results show that when a solution method was present, the students reread this every time they solved the task, while only giving minute attention to the illustration that carried information supporting mathematical understanding. Students who practiced with tasks without a solution method seemed to construct a solution method by observing the illustration, which later could be retrieved from memory, making this method more efficient in the long run. We discuss the implications for teaching and how tasks without solution methods can increase student focus on important mathematical properties.

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  • 47.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Investigating algorithmic and creative reasoning strategies by eye tracking2019Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 55, artikel-id 100701Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitative teaching and learning approaches have been dominating in mathematics education. Although more creative approaches (e.g. problem-based learning) have been proposed and implemented, a main challenge of mathematics education research is to document robust links between teaching, tasks, student activities and learning. This study investigates one aspect of such links, by contrasting tasks providing algorithmic solution templates with tasks requiring students’ constructions of solutions and relating this to students’ learning processes and outcomes. Information about students’ task solving strategies are gathered by corneal eye-tracking, which is related to subsequent post-test performances and individual variation in cognitive proficiency. Results show that students practicing by creative tasks outperform students practicing by imitative algorithmic tasks in the post-test, but also that students that perform less well on creative tasks tend to try ineffective imitative strategies.

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  • 48.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Increased efficiency when engaging in creative mathematical founded reasoning2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 5. / [ed] Lindmeier, A. M. & Heinze, A., Kiel, Germany: PME , 2013, s. 136-136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap..
    Creative Reasoning More Beneficial For Cognitively Weaker Students2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Prague: Charles University , 2015, s. 502-503Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study with 91 upper-secondary students the efficiency of two different types of mathematical practice tasks, procedural based algorithmic tasks and creative reasoning tasks, were studied. It was found that although the algorithmic group outperformed the creative group during practice the latter performed significantly better on a follow-up test. Closer inspection revealed that the difference in test performance was, contrary to common beliefs, driven by the cognitively weaker students.

  • 50.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kognitiva implikationer för matematiklärande hos yngre elever2015Ingår i: Resultatdialog 2015 / [ed] Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, s. 160-171Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt projekt visar att kognition och emotion har stor betydelse for åk 3 elevers matematikprestation. Det var 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik för elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil. Det fanns inget samband mellan kronologisk ålder och matematikprestation. Låg arbetsminneskapacitet i samverkan med hög provångest bidrog negativt till matematikprestation. Skolklass bidrog till skillnader i elevers rapporterade provångest.

    Q1) Provångest och arbetsminne predicerade enskilt elevs matematikprestation; hög provångest respektive låg arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till låg matematikprestation, och låg provångest respektive god arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog till god matematikprestation. Därtill fanns en samverkanseffekt vilken var ogynnsam för elever med låg arbetsminneskapacitet, jämfört med elever med medel och hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Q2) Elever identifierade med en risk-kognitiv profil hade 13 gånger högre risk att prestera lågt i matematik. Elever som presterade lågt i matematik hade dock inte uteslutande en risk-kognitiv profil. Likaväl fanns andra profiler än den stödjande-kognitiva profilen i gruppen med bra matematikprestation. Lika lovande som att 75 % av elever med en risk-profil inte presterade lågt i matematik, lika nedslående är det att endast 16 % av elever med en stödjande-kognitiv profil presterade bra i matematik.

    Q3) Grad av matematikprestation ar en funktion av arbetsminneskapacitet, men olika subkomponenter i arbetsminnet karaktariserar olika nivaer av matematikprestation. Lågpresterande elever påvisade framförallt betydande sämre visuospatial förmåga (bearbeta visuell och spatial information), medan god fonologisk förmåga (auditivt material) var karaktaristiskt för den högpresterande elevgruppen. I ett didaktiskt perspektiv pekar dessa resultat på vikten av anpassade pedagogiska insatser i relation till kognitiva förmågor.

    Q4) Skolklass har en betydande inverkan på elevers skattade provångest. För skolklasser med ett högt medelvärde på provångest verkade självregleringsförmåga ytterligare bidra till rapporterad provångest.

    Q5) Resultatet visar inte på någon relativ ålderseffekt och modereras inte heller av arbetsminneskapacitet. Resultatet tyder på att biologisk mognad i termer av arbetsminnet är viktigare än relativa åldereffekter.

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