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  • 1.
    Ekerstad, Niklas
    et al.
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Unit of Health Care Analysis and National Centre for Priorities in Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden;The Research and Development Unit, NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Javadzadeh, Dariush
    Department of Cardiology, NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Alexander, Karen P
    Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.
    Bergström, Olle
    Department of Medicine, Växjö County Hospital, Växjö, Sweden.
    Eurenius, Lars
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gudnadottir, Gudny
    Section of Geriatrics, Department of Acute Medicine and Geriatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Held, Claes
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Jahjah, Radwan
    Department of Cardiology, Unit of Cardiovascular Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden;Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Unit of Cardiovascular Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Ewa
    Department of Cardiology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Melander, Kjell
    Department of medicine, Kalix Hospital, Kalix, Sweden.
    Mellbin, Linda
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Monica
    Department of Cardiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ravn-Fischer, Annica
    Department of Cardiology, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svennberg, Lars
    Department of Cardiology, County Hospital of Gävle, Region Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Yndigegn, Troels
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Department of Cardiology, Unit of Cardiovascular Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden;Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Unit of Cardiovascular Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Clinical Frailty Scale classes are independently associated with 6-month mortality for patients after acute myocardial infarction2022In: European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care, ISSN 2048-8726, E-ISSN 2048-8734, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Data on the prognostic value of frailty to guide clinical decision-making for patients with myocardial infarction (MI) are scarce. To analyse the association between frailty classification, treatment patterns, in-hospital outcomes, and 6-month mortality in a large population of patients with MI.

    Methods and results: An observational, multicentre study with a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data using the SWEDEHEART registry. In total, 3381 MI patients with a level of frailty assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS-9) were included. Of these patients, 2509 (74.2%) were classified as non-vulnerable non-frail (CFS 1–3), 446 (13.2%) were vulnerable non-frail (CFS 4), and 426 (12.6%) were frail (CFS 5–9). Frailty and non-frail vulnerability were associated with worse in-hospital outcomes compared with non-frailty, i.e. higher rates of mortality (13.4% vs. 4.0% vs. 1.8%), cardiogenic shock (4.7% vs. 2.5% vs. 1.9%), and major bleeding (4.5% vs. 2.7% vs. 1.1%) (allP < 0.001), and less frequent use of evidence-based therapies. In Cox regression analyses, frailty was strongly and independently associated with 6-month mortality compared with non-frailty, after adjustment for age, sex, the GRACE risk score components, and other potential risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 3.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.30–4.79]. A similar pattern was seen for vulnerable non-frail patients (fully adjusted HR 2.07, 95% CI1.41–3.02).

    Conclusion: Frailty assessed with the CFS was independently and strongly associated with all-cause 6-month mortality, also after comprehensive adjustment for baseline differences in other risk factors. Similarly, non-frail vulnerability was independently associated with higher mortality compared with those with preserved functional ability.

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  • 2. Ericsson, M.
    et al.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sederholm Lawesson, S.
    Swahn, E.
    Stromberg, A.
    Isaksson, R. M.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    First medical contact in the pre-hospital phase of a myocardial infarction, the interaction between callers and tele-nurses impacts action and level of care2018In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 39, p. 1120-1120Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pre-hospital delay in myocardial infarction (MI) patients' is of great concern. The total ischemic time, i.e., between symptom onset and reperfusion therapy is the most important factor to achieve best possible outcome. One reason for patient delay is choice of first medical Contact (FMC), still not everyone contact the emergency medical services. A previous Swedish cross-sectional multicentre study found that every fifth patient with an evolving ST elevated MI (STEMI) contacted an advisement tele-nurse intended for non-life-threatening situations as FMC. This caused a median difference in delay of 38 min from symptom onset to diagnosis. Advisement tele-nursing is an expanding actor in the Swedish healthcare system, as in some other Western nations.

    Purpose: The aim was to explore the communication between tele-nurses and callers when MI patients called a national health advisement number as FMC.

    Method: This study had a qualitative approach. We received access to 30 authentic calls. The recordings lasted between 0:39 minutes to 16:44 minutes, transcribed verbatim and analysed with content analysis. The following questions were applied to the transcript: (1) How do the callers communicate their symptom and context (2) How do the tele-nurses respond and which level of care was directed (3) Do the callers get an advice and what action do they take.

    Result: One third of the callers were female, aged 46–89 years, six were diagnosed with NSTEMI and 24 with STEMI. All tele-nurses were females. The calls followed a structure of three phases, opening-, orienting- and end-phase. The first phase was non-interfered, where the caller communicated their context and/or symptoms and tele-nurses adopt an active listening position, followed by two interactive phases. Four categories defined the interaction in the communication, indecisive, irrational, distinct or reasoning. The different interactions illustrated how tele-nurses and callers assessed and elaborated upon symptom, context and furthermore expressed the process in the dialogue. Type of interaction was pivotal for progress in the call and had impact on the communicative process either sufficient in reaching a mutual understanding or not. An indecisive or irrational interaction could increase risk of acute care not being recommended. A non explicit explanation, why it is of importance to seek acute care could lead caller to ignore the advice.

    Conclusion: Both communicative and medical skills are needed to identify level of urgency. Our study suggests that the interaction in the communication categorised in four types, indecisive, irrational or distinct or reasoning can mislead level of care directed as well as a disability to express the need of acute care. This knowledge adds new perspective and hopefully will our findings be useful to deepen our knowledge in identifying MI patients and in a broader sense improve educational efforts and diminsh delay.

  • 3.
    Ericsson, M.
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sederholm-Lawesson, S.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Cardiol Med & Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Isaksson, R. M.
    Norrbotten Cty Council, Dept Res, Lulea, Sweden.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Logander, E.
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Swahn, E.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Cardiol Med & Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Thylen, I.
    Linkoping Univ, Div Nursing Sci, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Differences in symptom presentation in STEMI patients, with or without a previous history of hypertension: a survey report from the SymTime study group2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P5161, p. 908-908Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Ericsson, M.
    et al.
    Thylen, I.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Swahn, E.
    Stromberg, A.
    Lawesson, S. Sederholm
    Predictors of patient decision time in ST elevation myocardial infarction data from an observational cross sectional survey study2019In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 40, p. 1279-1279Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5. Ericsson, Maria
    et al.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Strömberg, Anna
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Moser, Debra K.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Factors associated with patient decision time in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in early and late responders: an observational cross-sectional survey study2022In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 694-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: A short time span from symptom onset to reperfusion is imperative in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with patient decision time for seeking care in STEMI, particularly how symptoms were experienced and affected patient response.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A multicentre cross-sectional self-report survey study was completed at five Swedish hospitals representing geographic diversity. The 521 patients were divided into three groups based on their time to respond to symptoms: early (<20 min), intermediate (20-90 min), and late responders (>90 min). Only one out of five patients both responded early and called an ambulance within 20 min. Believing symptoms were cardiac in origin [odds ratio (OR) 2.60], male sex (OR 2.40), left anterior descending artery as culprit artery (OR 1.77), and bystanders calling an ambulance (OR 4.32) were factors associated with early response and correct action. Associated symptoms such as dyspnoea (OR 1.67) and weakness (OR 1.65) were associated with an early action (<20 min), while chest pain was not independently associated with response time. Cold sweat (OR 0.61) prevented late care-seeking behaviour as did a high symptom burden (OR 0.86).

    CONCLUSION: Misinterpretation of symptoms delays correct care-seeking behaviour because patient expectations may not be aligned with the experience when stricken by Myocardial infarction. Therefore, it is imperative to continuously enhance public awareness in correct symptom recognition and appropriate care-seeking behaviour and to make efforts to educate individuals at risk for STEMI as well as their next of kin.

  • 6. Ericsson, Maria
    et al.
    Ängerud, Karin H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lawesson, Sofia S.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Thylén, Ingela
    Interaction between tele-nurses and callers with an evolving myocardial infarction: consequences for level of directed care2019In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 545-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rapid contact with emergency medical services is imperative to save the lives of acute myocardial infarction patients. However, many patients turn to a telehealth advisory nurse instead, where the delivery of urgent and safe care largely depends on how the interaction in the call is established.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the interaction between tele-nurses and callers with an evolving myocardial infarction after contacting a national telehealth advisory service number as their first medical contact.

    Method: Twenty men and 10 women (aged 46–89 years) were included. Authentic calls were analysed using inductive content analysis.

    Findings: One overall category, Movement towards directed level of care, labelled the whole interaction between the tele-nurse and the caller. Four categories conceptualised the different interactions: a distinct, reasoning, indecisive or irrational interaction. The interactions described how tele-nurses and callers assessed and elaborated on symptoms, context and actions. The interaction was pivotal for progress in the dialogue and affected the achievement of mutual understanding in the communicative process. An indecisive or irrational interaction could increase the risk of failing to recommend or call for acute care.

    Conclusion: The interaction in the communication could either lead or mislead the level of care directed in the call. This study adds new perspectives to the communicative process in the acute setting in order to identify a myocardial infarction and the level of urgency from both individuals experiencing myocardial infarction and professionals in the health system.

  • 7.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Symptoms and care seeking behaviour during myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Myocardial infarction (MI) it is well established that timely diagnosis and treatment may reduce mortality and improve the prognosis. Therefore it is important that patients with MI seek medical care as soon as possible. Patients with diabetes have a higher risk for MI and worse prognosis compared to patients without diabetes. Previous research is inconclusive regarding symptoms and pre-hospital delay times in MI among patients with diabetes and there is lack of research in how patients with diabetes perceive, interpret and respond to MI symptoms. 

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore symptoms and care seeking behaviour during MI in patients with diabetes. 

    Methods: This thesis comprises four studies. Studies I and II were based on data from the Northern Sweden MONICA myocardial infarction registry to describe symptoms in 4028 patients (I) and pre-hospital delay and factors associated with pre-hospital delay of ≥ 2 h in 4266 patients (II). Study III included 694 patients, at five hospitals in Sweden. The patients answered a questionnaire about symptoms, response to symptoms and delay times in MI. In study IV data were collected through interviews about experiences of getting MI and the decision to seek medical care. 

    Results: Study I showed that typical MI symptoms according to MONICA criteria were common in both men and women, both with and without diabetes, and no differences between the groups were found. Study II showed that more patients with diabetes had pre-hospital delay times of ≥ 2 h compared to patients without diabetes. In Study III, chest pain was the most common self-reported MI symptom in patients with and without diabetes and there were no differences between the groups. Shoulder pain/discomfort, shortness of breath and tiredness were more common in patients with diabetes whereas cold sweat was less common compared to patients without diabetes. Less than 40 % of patients with diabetes called the emergency medical services (EMS) as their first medical contact (FMC) and about 60 % initially contacted a spouse after symptom onset. Patients with diabetes reported longer patient delay than patients without diabetes, but after age and gender adjustments the results were not significant. Pain, pressure or discomfort in the stomach, anxiety, symptoms that come and go and thoughts that the symptoms would disappear were associated with longer patient delay in patients with diabetes. In study IV, the analysis revealed the core category “Becoming ready to act” and the categories perceiving symptoms, becoming aware of illness, feeling endangered, and acting on illness experience. Patients with diabetes described a variety of different MI symptoms, the onsets of MI varied and it was sometimes difficult to interpret symptoms as related to MI. The decision to seek medical care for MI was complex with several barriers for timely care seeking. 

    Conclusion: Chest pain was common in patients with diabetes and in contrast to our hypothesis chest pain was equally common in both patients with and without diabetes. There were more similarities than differences in MI symptoms between patients with and without diabetes. However, patients with diabetes were more likely to have pre-hospital delay for 2 hours or more compared to those without diabetes and there seems to be an underutilization of the use of emergency medical services as first medical contact. The process to seek care for MI was complex, initiated by perceiving symptoms, followed by illness awareness, feelings of being endangered and finally acting on the illness experience.

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  • 8.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Areas for quality improvements in heart failure care: quality of care from the family members' perspective2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The complex needs of people with chronic heart failure (HF) place great demands on their family members, and it is important to ask family members about their perspectives on the quality of HF care.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe family members' perceptions of quality of HF care in an outpatient setting.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a short form of the Quality from Patients' Perspective (QPP) questionnaire for data collection. The items in the questionnaire measure four dimensions of quality, and each item consists of both the perceived reality of the care and its subjective importance. The study included 57 family members of patients with severe HF in NYHA class III-IV.

    RESULTS: Family members reported areas for quality improvements in three out of four dimensions and in dimensionless items. The lowest level of perceived reality was reported for treatment for confusion and loss of appetite. Treatment for shortness of breath, access to the apparatus and access to equipment necessary for medical care were the items with the highest subjective importance for the family members.

    CONCLUSION: Family members identified important areas for quality improvement in the care for patients with HF in an outpatient setting. In particular, symptom alleviation, information to patients, patient participation and access to care were identified as areas for improvements. Thus, measuring quality from the family members' perspective with the QPP might be a useful additional perspective when it comes to the planning and implementation of changes in the organisation of HF care.

  • 9.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ekman, Inger
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Centre for Person-Centred Care, University of Gothenburg (GPCC), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Areas for quality improvements in heart failure care: quality of care from the patient's perspective2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 830-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a serious condition with high mortality and a high symptom burden. Most patients with heart failure will be taken care of in primary care but the knowledge of how the quality of care is perceived by patients with heart failure is limited.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore how patients with heart failure report quality of care, in an outpatient setting.

    METHODS: Seventy-one patients with a confirmed diagnosis of heart failure and who were cared for in an outpatient setting were included in this cross-sectional study. Quality of care was assessed with a short form of the Quality from the Patient's Perspective questionnaire. The items measured four dimensions, and each item consists of both perceived reality of the received care and its subjective importance.

    RESULTS: Inadequate quality was identified in three out of four dimensions and in items without dimension affiliation. In total, inadequate quality was identified in 19 out of 25 items. Patients reported the highest level of perceived reality in 'my family member was treated well' and the lowest perceived reality in 'effective treatment for loss of appetite'. Effective treatment for shortness of breath was of the highest subjective importance for the patients.

    CONCLUSION: Important areas for improvement in the quality of care for patients with heart failure in an outpatient setting were identified, such as symptom alleviation, information, participation and access to care.

  • 10.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The Process of Care-seeking for Myocardial Infarction Among Patients With Diabetes2015In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 30, no 5, p. E1-E8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People with diabetes have a higher risk for myocardial infarction (MI) than do people without diabetes. It is extremely important that patients with MI seek medical care as soon as possible after symptom onset because the shorter the time from symptom onset to treatment, the better the prognosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how people with diabetes experience the onset of MI and how they decide to seek care.

    METHODS: We interviewed 15 patients with diabetes, 7 men and 8 women, seeking care for MI. They were interviewed 1 to 5 days after their admission to hospital. Five of the participants had had a previous MI; 5 were being treated with insulin; 5, with a combination of insulin and oral antidiabetic agents; and 5, with oral agents only. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory.

    RESULTS: The core category that emerged, "becoming ready to act," incorporated the related categories of perceiving symptoms, becoming aware of illness, feeling endangered, and acting on illness experience. Our results suggest that responses in each of the categories affect the care-seeking process and could be barriers or facilitators in timely care-seeking. Many participants did not see themselves as susceptible to MI and MI was not expressed as a complication of diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with diabetes engaged in a complex care-seeking process, including several delaying barriers, when they experienced symptoms of an MI. Education for patients with diabetes should include discussions about their increased risk of MI, the range of individual variation in symptoms and onset of MI, and the best course of action when possible symptoms of MI occur.

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  • 11.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Internal Medicine, Sunderbyn, Luleå, Sweden.
    Longer pre-hospital delay in first myocardial infarction among patients with diabetes: an analysis of 4266 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2013In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 13, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reperfusion therapy reduces both morbidity and mortality in myocardial infarction, but the effectiveness depends on how fast the patient receives treatment. Despite the time-dependent effectiveness of reperfusion therapy, many patients with myocardial infarction have delays in seeking medical care. The aim of this study was to describe pre-hospital delay in a first myocardial infarction among men and women with and without diabetes and to describe the association between pre-hospital delay time and diabetes, sex, age, symptoms and size of residential area as a proxy for distance to hospital.

    Methods: This population based study was based on data from 4266 people aged 25-74 years, with a first myocardial infarction registered in the Northern Sweden MONICA myocardial infarction registry between 2000 and 2008.

    Results: The proportion of patients with delay times >= 2 h was 64% for patients with diabetes and 58% for patients without diabetes. There was no difference in delay time >= 2 h between men and women with diabetes. Diabetes, older age and living in a town or rural areas were factors associated with pre-hospital delay times >= 2 h. Atypical symptoms were not a predictor for pre-hospital delay times >= 2 h, OR 0.59 (0.47; 0.75).

    Conclusions: A higher proportion of patients with diabetes have longer pre-hospital delay in myocardial infarction than patients without diabetes. There are no differences in pre-hospital delay between men and women with diabetes. The largest risk difference for pre-hospital delay >= 2 h is between women with and without diabetes. Diabetes, older age and living in a town or rural area are predictors for pre-hospital delay >= 2 h.

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    Longer pre-hospital delay in first myocardial infarction among patients with diabetes: an analysis of 4266 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study
  • 12.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Internal Medicine, Sunderbyn, Luleå, Sweden.
    Patients with diabetes are not more likely to have atypical symptoms when seeking care of a first myocardial infarction: an analysis of 4028 patients in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study2012In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 29, no 7, p. e82-e87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe symptoms of a first myocardial infarction in men and women with and without diabetes.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based study of 4028 people aged 25-74 years, with first myocardial infarction registered in the Northern Sweden Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) myocardial infarction registry between 2000 and 2006. Symptoms were classified as typical or atypical according to the World Health Organization MONICA manual.

    Results: Among patients with diabetes, 90.1% reported typical symptoms of myocardial infarction; the corresponding proportion among patients without diabetes was 91.5%. In the diabetes group, 88.8% of women and 90.8% of men had typical symptoms of myocardial infarction. No differences were found in symptoms of myocardial infarction between women with and without diabetes or between men with and without diabetes. Atypical symptoms were more prevalent in the older age groups (> 65 years) than in the younger age groups (< 65 years). The increases were approximately equal among men and women, with and without diabetes. Diabetes was not an independent predictor for having atypical symptoms of myocardial infarction.

    Conclusions: Typical symptoms of myocardial infarction were equally prevalent in patients with and without diabetes and there were no sex differences in symptoms among persons with diabetes. Diabetes was not a predictor of atypical symptoms.

    © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine© 2011 Diabetes UK.

  • 13.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ericsson, M.
    Isaksson, R. M.
    Sederholm Lawesson, S.
    Thylen, I.
    Swahn, E.
    Differences in symptoms in relation to myocardial infarction type2016In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 37, p. 730-730Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ericsson, Maria
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Strömberg, Anna
    Thylén, Ingela
    Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction as Described in Calls to Tele-Nurses and in Questionnaires2023In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 150-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patient-reported symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (MI) may be affected by recall bias depending on when and where symptoms are assessed.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of patients' symptom description in more detail before and within 24 hours after a confirmed MI diagnosis.

    Methods: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used to examine symptoms described in calls between the tele-nurse and the patient compared with symptoms selected by the patient from a questionnaire less than 24 hours after hospital admission. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed separately and then merged into a final interpretation.

    Results: Thirty patients (median age, 67.5 years; 20 men) were included. Chest pain was the most commonly reported symptom in questionnaires (24/30). Likewise, in 19 of 30 calls, chest pain was the first complaint mentioned, usually described together with the symptom onset. Expressions used to describe symptom quality were pain, pressure, discomfort, ache, cramp, tension, and soreness. Associated symptoms commonly described were pain or numbness in the arms, cold sweat, dyspnea, weakness, and nausea. Bodily sensations, such as feeling unwell or weak, were also described. Fear and tiredness were described in calls significantly less often than reported in questionnaires (P = .01 and P = .02), whereas “other” symptoms were more often mentioned in calls compared with answers given in the questionnaire (P = .02). Some symptoms expressed in the calls were not listed in the questionnaire, which expands the understanding of acute MI symptoms. The results showed no major inconsistencies between datasets.

    Conclusion: Patients' MI symptom descriptions in tele-calls and those reported in questionnaires after diagnosis are comparable and convergent.

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  • 15.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sederholm Lawesson, S
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Swahn, E
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Thylén, I
    Linköping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linköping, Sweden.
    Isaksson, R. M
    Norrbotten City Council, Sunderby Hosp, Dept Res, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ericsson, M
    Linkoping Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, S-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Symptoms in MI in patients with and without diabetes: a survey report from the SymTime study group2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P6111, p. 1076-1076Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Swahn, Eva
    SymTime study group,
    Differences in symptoms, first medical contact and pre-hospital delay times between patients with ST- and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction2019In: European Heart Journal: Acute Cardiovascular Care, ISSN 2048-8726, E-ISSN 2048-8734, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In ST-elevation myocardial infarction, time to reperfusion is crucial for the prognosis. Symptom presentation in myocardial infarction influences pre-hospital delay times but studies about differences in symptoms between patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction are sparse and inconclusive. The aim was to compare symptoms, first medical contact and pre-hospital delay times in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Methods and results: This multicentre, observational study included 694 myocardial infarction patients from five hospitals. The patients filled in a questionnaire about their pre-hospital experiences within 24 h of hospital admittance. Chest pain was the most common symptom in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (88.7 vs 87.0%, p=0.56). Patients with cold sweat (odds ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 2.29–5.70), jaw pain (odds ratio 2.41, 95% confidence interval 1.04–5.58), and nausea (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.01–2.87) were more likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, whereas the opposite was true for symptoms that come and go (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.90) or anxiety (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.29–0.92). Use of emergency medical services was higher among patients admitted with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The pre-hospital delay time from symptom onset to first medical contact was significantly longer in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (2:05 h vs 1:10 h, p=0.001).

    Conclusion: Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction differed from those with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction regarding symptom presentation, ambulance utilisation and pre-hospital delay times. This knowledge is important to be aware of for all healthcare personnel and the general public especially in order to recognise symptoms suggestive of ST-elevation myocardial infarction and when to decide if there is a need for an ambulance.

  • 17.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Thylen, Ingela
    Department of Cardiology and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Department of Cardiology and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Symptoms, response to symptoms, and delay times during myocardial infarction in 694 patients with and without diabetesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Symptoms and delay times during myocardial infarction in 694 patients with and without diabetes: an explorative cross-sectional study2016In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 16, article id 108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In myocardial infarction (MI) a short pre-hospital delay, prompt diagnosis and timely reperfusion treatment can improve the prognosis. Despite the importance of timely care seeking, many patients with MI symptoms delay seeking medical care. Previous research is inconclusive about differences in symptom presentation and pre-hospital delay between patients with and without diabetes during MI. The aim of this study was to describe symptoms and patient delay during MI in patients with and without diabetes.

    METHODS: Swedish cross-sectional multicentre survey study enrolling MI patients in 5 centres within 24 h from admittance.

    RESULTS: Chest pain was common in patients both with and without diabetes and did not differ after adjustment for age and sex. Patients with diabetes had higher risk for shoulder pain/discomfort, shortness of breath, and tiredness, but lower risk for cold sweat. The three most common symptoms reported by patients with diabetes were chest pain, pain in arms/hands and tiredness. In patients without diabetes the most common symptoms were chest pain, cold sweat and pain in arms/hands. Median patient delay time was 2 h, 24 min for patients with diabetes and 1 h, 15 min for patients without diabetes (p = 0.024).

    CONCLUSION: Chest pain was common both in patients with and without diabetes. There were more similarities than differences in MI symptoms between patients with and without diabetes but patients with diabetes had considerably longer delay. This knowledge is important not only for health care personnel meeting patients with suspected MI, but also for the education of people with diabetes.

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  • 19.
    Holmlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindmark, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Health‐related quality of life in patients with heart failure eligible for treatment with sacubitril–valsartan2020In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 556-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe and compare self‐reported health‐related quality of life between younger and older patients with severe heart failure eligible for treatment with sacubitril–valsartan and to explore the association between health‐related quality of life and age, NYHA classification, systolic blood pressure and NT‐proBNP level.

    Design: Cross‐sectional study.

    Methods: A total of 59 patients, eligible for treatment with sacubitril–valsartan were consecutively included and divided into a younger (≤75 years) and older group (>75 years). Health‐related quality of life was assessed using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire and the EuroQol 5‐dimensions. Data were collected between June 2016 and January 2018. The STROBE checklist was used.

    Results: There were no differences in overall health‐related quality of life between the age groups. The older patients reported lower scores in two domains measured with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, namely self‐efficacy (67.0 SD 22.1 vs. 78.8 SD 19.7) and physical limitation (75.6 SD 19.0 vs. 86.3 SD 14.4). Higher NYHA class was independently associated with lower Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score.

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  • 20.
    Holmlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Valham, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Olsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Experiences of living with symptomatic atrial fibrillation2023In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1821-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To explore the experiences of living with symptomatic atrial fibrillation.

    DESIGN: This study, with a descriptive qualitative adesign, was performed using semi-structured individual interviews.

    METHOD: Six women and nine men with symptomatic atrial fibrillation were included. The transcribed interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The COREQ checklist was followed.

    RESULTS: The analysis resulted in a main theme, namely balancing life and included the themes striving for illness control, becoming a receiver or an active partner in care and dealing with changed self-image. The participants strived to understand their illness, prevent attacks and manage anxiety. Some of the participants were not involved in decision-making, were uninformed about self-care measures, reported a lack of continuity in care and felt that the doctors focused on information about the medical part of care.

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  • 21.
    Holmlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Olsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Valham, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    More positive patient-reported outcomes in patients newly diagnosed with atrial fibrillation: a comparative longitudinal study2024In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients newly (<6 months) diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (AF) with those who have had a longer diagnosis (≥6 months) and to investigate whether or not these outcomes change over a 6-month period.

    Methods and results: In this longitudinal survey study, 129 patients with AF completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Arrhythmia-Specific questionnaire in Tachycardia and Arrhythmia, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at baseline and after 6 months. At baseline, patients newly diagnosed with AF (n = 53), compared with patients with a previous diagnosis (n = 76), reported AF as more temporary (P = 0.003) and had a higher belief in personal and treatment control (P = 0.004 and P = 0.041, respectively). At a 6-month follow-up, patients newly diagnosed reported a lower symptom burden (P = 0.004), better health-related quality of life (HRQoL); (P = 0.015), and a higher personal control (P < 0.001) than patients previously diagnosed. Over time, in patients newly diagnosed, symptom burden and the anxiety symptom score decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.014, respectively) and HRQoL improved (P = 0.002).

    Conclusion: Patients newly diagnosed with AF reported more positive PROs both at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up than patients with a previous diagnosis of AF. Therefore, it is important to quickly capture patients newly diagnosed to support their belief in their own abilities. Such support may, alongside medical treatments, help patients manage the disease, which may lead to reduced symptom burden and better HRQoL over time.

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  • 22.
    Holmlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Valham, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Olsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Illness perceptions and health-related quality of life in women and men with atrial fibrillation2024In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is worse in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with other populations. Factors affecting HRQoL in patients with AF are not fully clarified. Illness perceptions are important determinants of disease management and may affect HRQoL.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to describe illness perceptions and HRQoL in women and men with AF and to explore the relationship between illness perceptions and HRQoL in patients with AF.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 167 patients with AF. Patients completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire and HRQoL questionnaires: Arrhythmia-Specific questionnaire in Tachycardia and Arrhythmias, the three-level version of the EuroQol 5-dimensional questionnaire, and EuroQol visual analog scale. Subscales of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire significant in correlation analysis with the Arrhythmia-Specific questionnaire in Tachycardia and Arrhythmias HRQoL total scale were included in a multiple linear regression model.

    RESULTS: Mean age was 68.7 ± 10.4 years, and 31.1% were women. Women reported lower personal control (P = .039) and worse HRQoL measured with the Arrhythmia-Specific questionnaire in Tachycardia and Arrhythmias physical subscale (P = .047) and the EuroQol visual analog scale (P = .044) compared with men. Illness identity (P < .001), consequences (P = .031), emotional representation (P = .014), and timeline cyclical (P = .022) were related to and adversely affected HRQoL.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found a relationship between illness perceptions and HRQoL. Some subscales of illness perceptions negatively affected HRQoL in patients with AF, which indicates that efforts to change illness perceptions may be helpful in improving HRQoL. Patients should be given the opportunity to talk about the disease, their symptoms, their emotions, and the consequences of the disease to enable increased HRQoL. A challenge for healthcare will be to design support for each patient based on his/her illness perceptions.

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  • 23.
    Holmlund, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hörnsten, Carl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Valham, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Olsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Katsoularis, Ioannis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Salonen, Lauri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    The effects of a nurse-led, person-centred clinic on patient-reported outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation: a randomised controlled trialManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jutterström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stenlund, Anna-Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Otten, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Unit of Research, Education and Development Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Östersund Hospital, Östersund, Sweden.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Awareness of cardiovascular risk among persons with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study2024In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 2294512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To describe the process of becoming aware of and acting on personal cardiovascular (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes (T2D).

    METHOD: A purposive sample of 14 persons living with T2D participated in semi-structured, open-ended, in-dept interviews. The interviews were analysed with grounded theory.

    RESULT: The analysis identified the core category "Balancing emotions, integrating knowledge and understanding to achieve risk awareness and act on it." Five categories describe the movement from not being aware of the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to becoming aware of this risk and taking action to reduce it. Persons with T2D need to transform their knowledge and experience of CVD risk and incorporate it in their individual situations. Emotional and existential experiences of CVD risk can lead to awareness about the severity of the condition and contribute to increased motivation for self-management. However, an overly high emotional response can be overwhelming and may result in insufficient self-management.

    CONCLUSION: Persons with T2D seemed not to fully grasp their increased risk of CVD or recognize that self-management activities were aimed at reducing this risk. However, their awareness of CVD risk gradually increased as they came to understand the severity of T2D and became more emotionally and existentially engaged.

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  • 25.
    Norberg, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Bergdahl, Ellinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Lindmark, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    A systematic approach for introduction of novel treatments to a chronic patient group: sacubitril-valsartan as a case study2021In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 77, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To develop a model for systematic introduction and to test the feasibility in a chronic disease population. We also investigated how the approach was received by the patients.

    Methods and results: The systematic introduction approach is a seven-step procedure: step 1, define a few main criteria; step 2, primary scan patients with the one or two main criteria using computerized medical records/databases/clinical registries; step 3, identify patients applying the other predefined criteria; step 4, evaluate if any examinations/laboratory test updates are required; step 5, summon identified patients to the clinic with an information letter; step 6, discuss treatment with the patient and prescribe if appropriate; and step 7, follow up on initiated therapy and evaluate the applied process. The model was tested in a case study during introduction of the new drug sacubitril-valsartan in a heart failure population. In total, 76 out of 1924 patients were identified to be eligible for sacubitril-valsartan and summoned to the clinic to discuss treatment. Patient experiences with the approach were investigated in an interview study with general inductive approach using qualitative content analysis. This resulted in three final categories: a good approach, role of the information letter, and trust in care.

    Conclusions: The systematic introduction approach ensures that strict criteria are used in the selection process and that a treatment can be implemented in eligible patients within a specified population with limited resources and time. The model was effective in our case study and maintained the patient's confidence in healthcare.

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  • 26.
    Olsson, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Hörnsten, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Treated with preventive anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation: the patients’ perspective2022In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 2657-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore patients’ experiences of preventive anticoagulation therapy in atrial fibrillation.

    Design: This was a descriptive qualitative study based on interviews.

    Methods: Individual interviews with 15 patients, 6 women and 9 men, treated with preventive oral anticoagulant due to atrial fibrillation, were conducted. The interviews were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Based on the analysis, the theme Managing a necessary evil emerged. The theme comprised the three categories: Coping with anxiety and changes in daily life, Having confidence in care and Being a partner or only a receiver of treatment. Patients described it like being faced with a situation where a treatment perceived as vital was weighed against undesirable consequences and risks. Patients trusted caregivers and had confidence in care, but there was a risk of being a receiver of care instead of becoming a partner.

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  • 27. Sederholm Lawesson, S.
    et al.
    Carlsson, J.
    Isaksson, R. M.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Logander, E.
    Swahn, E.
    Symptoms and pre-hospital delay times in relation to infarct related artery (IRA) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients - a survey report from the SymTime study group2015In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 36, p. 67-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28. Sederholm Lawesson, S.
    et al.
    Isaksson, R. M.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ericsson, M.
    Thylen, I.
    Gender differences in first medical contact and pre-hospital delay times in ST-elevation myocardial infarction2016In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 37, p. 1176-1176Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29. Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Research, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Maria
    Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Cardiology, Heart Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Gender disparities in first medical contact and delay in ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a prospective multicentre Swedish survey study2018In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e020211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Compare gender disparities in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) regarding first medical contact (FMC) and prehospital delay times and explore factors associated with prehospital delay in men and women separately.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on medical records and a validated questionnaire. Eligible patients were enrolled within 24 hours after admittance to hospital.

    SETTING: Patients were included from November 2012 to January 2014 from five Swedish hospitals with catheterisation facilities 24/7.

    PARTICIPANTS: 340 men and 109 women aged between 31 and 95 years completed the survey.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FMC were divided into five possible contacts: primary healthcare centre by phone or directly, national advisory nurse by phone, emergency medical services (EMS) and emergency room directly. Two parts of prehospital delay times were studied: time from symptom onset to FMC and time from symptom onset to diagnostic ECG.

    RESULTS: Women more often called an advisory nurse as FMC (28% vs 18%, p=0.02). They had a longer delay until FMC, 90 (IQR 39-221) vs 66 (28-161) min, p=0.04 and until ECG, 146 (68-316) vs 103 (61-221) min, p=0.03. Men went to hospital because of believing they were stricken by an MI to a higher extent than women did (25% vs 15%, p=0.04) and were more often recommended to call EMS by bystanders (38% vs 22%, p<0.01). Hesitating about going to hospital and experiencing pain in the stomach/back/shoulders were factors associated with longer delays in women. Believing the symptoms would disappear or interpreting them as nothing serious were corresponding factors in men. In both genders bystanders acting by contacting EMS explained shorter prehospital delays.

    CONCLUSIONS: In STEMI, women differed from men in FMC and they had longer delays. This was partly due to atypical symptoms and a longer decision time. Bystanders acted more promptly when men than when women fell ill. Public knowledge of MI symptoms, and how to act properly, still seems insufficient.

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  • 30. Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    et al.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Ericsson, Maria
    Ängerud, Karin H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Swahn, Eva
    Gender differences in symptom presentation of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: an observational multicenter survey study2018In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 264, p. 7-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Symptom presentation has been sparsely studied from a gender perspective restricting the inclusion to ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Correct symptom recognition is vital in order to promptly seek care in STEMI where fast reperfusion therapy is of utmost importance. Female gender has been found associated with atypical presentation in studies on mixed MI populations but it is unclear whether this is valid also in STEMI.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether there are gender differences in symptoms and interpretation of these in STEMI, and if this is attributable to sociodemographic and clinical factors.

    METHODS: SymTime was a multicenter observational study including a validated questionnaire and data from medical records. Eligible STEMI patients (n = 532) were enrolled within 24 h after admittance at five Swedish hospitals.

    RESULTS: Women were older, more often single and had lower educational level. Chest pain was less prevalent in women (74 vs 93%, p < 0.001), whereas shoulder (33 vs 15%, p < 0.001), throat/neck (34 vs 18%, p < 0.001), back pain (29 versus 12%, p < 0.001) and nausea (49 vs 29%, p < 0.001) were more prevalent. Women less often interpreted their symptoms as of cardiac origin (60 vs 69%, p = 0.04). Female gender was the strongest independent predictor of non-chest pain presentation, odds ratio 5.29, 95% confidence interval 2.85-9.80.

    CONCLUSIONS: A striking gender difference in STEMI symptoms was found. As women significantly misinterpreted their symptoms more often, it is vital when informing about MI to the society or to high risk individuals, to highlight also other symptoms than just chest pain.

  • 31. Simonsson, Moa
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    Erlinge, David
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Hofmann, Robin
    Kellerth, Thomas
    Lindhagen, Lars
    Ravn-Fischer, Annica
    Szummer, Karolina
    Ueda, Peter
    Yndigegn, Troels
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Temporal trends in bleeding events in acute myocardial infarction: insights from the SWEDEHEART registry2020In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 833-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To describe the time trends of in-hospital and out-of-hospital bleeding parallel to the development of new treatments and ischaemic outcomes over the last 20 years in a nationwide myocardial infarction (MI) population.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with acute MI (n = 371 431) enrolled in the SWEDEHEART registry from 1995 until May 2018 were selected and evaluated for in-hospital bleeding and out-of-hospital bleeding events at 1 year. In-hospital bleeding increased from 0.5% to a peak at 2% 2005/2006 and thereafter slightly decreased to a new plateau around 1.3% by the end of the study period. Out-of-hospital bleeding increased in a stepwise fashion from 2.5% to 3.5 % in the middle of the study period and to 4.8% at the end of the study period. The increase in both in-hospital and out-of-hospital bleeding was parallel to increasing use of invasive strategy and adjunctive antithrombotic treatment, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), and potent DAPT, while the decrease in in-hospital bleeding from 2007 to 2010 was parallel to implementation of bleeding avoidance strategies. In-hospital re-infarction decreased from 2.8% to 0.6% and out-of-hospital MI decreased from 12.6% to 7.1%. The composite out-of-hospital MI, cardiovascular death, and stroke decreased in a similar fashion from 18.4% to 9.1%.

    CONCLUSION: During the last 20 years, the introduction of invasive and more intense antithrombotic treatment has been associated with an increase in bleeding events but concomitant there has been a substantial greater reduction of ischaemic events including improved survival.

  • 32. Talabani, Naghada
    et al.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Research Unit Skellefteå, Department of Medicine, Umeå University, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Brännström, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Patients' experiences of person-centred integrated heart failure care and palliative care at home: an interview study2020In: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care, ISSN 2045-435X, E-ISSN 2045-4368, Vol. 10, no 1, article id e9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Patients with severe heart failure (HF) suffer from a high symptom burden and high mortality. European and Swedish guidelines for HF care recommend palliative care for these patients. Different models for integrated palliative care and HF care have been described in the literature. No studies were found that qualitatively evaluated these models. The purpose of this study is to describe patients' experiences of a new model of person-centred integrated HF and palliative care at home.

    Method Interviews were conducted with 12 patients with severe HF (New York Heart Association class III–IV) and included in the research project of Palliative advanced home caRE and heart FailurE caRe (PREFER). Qualitative content analysis was used for data analysis.

    Results Two themes and a total of five categories were identified. The first theme was feeling secure and safe through receiving care at home with the categories: having access to readily available care at home, being followed up continuously and having trust in the team members' ability to help. The second theme was being acknowledged as both a person and a patient, with the following two categories: being met as a person, participating in decisions about one's care and receiving help for symptoms of both HF and comorbidities.

    Conclusions Person-centred integrated HF and palliative care provides a secure environment and holistic care for patients with severe HF. This approach is a way to improve the care management in this population.

  • 33.
    Thylen, I.
    et al.
    Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Nursing Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Isaksson, R. M.
    Norrbotten Cty Council, Dept Res, Luleå, Sweden.
    Swahn, E.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Eriksson, M.
    City Council Östergotland, Dept Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Logander, E.
    City Council Östergotland, Dept Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Sederholm-Lawesson, S.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Div Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    First medical contact in STEMI patients: utilization of healthcare advice via telephone in the acute phase - a survey report from the SymTime study group2014In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, Meeting abstract P6110, p. 1076-1076Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34. Thylén, Ingela
    et al.
    Ericsson, Maria
    Hellström Ängerud, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Isaksson, Rose-Marie
    Sederholm Lawesson, Sofia
    First medical contact in patients with STEMI and its impact on time to diagnosis: an explorative cross-sectional study2015In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 4, article id e007059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: It is unknown into what extent patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) utilise a joint service number (Swedish Healthcare Direct, SHD) as first medical contact (FMC) instead of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and how this impact time to diagnosis. We aimed to (1) describe patients' FMC; (2) find explanatory factors influencing their FMC (ie, EMS and SHD) and (3) explore the time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis.

    SETTING: Multicentred study, Sweden.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional, enrolling patients with consecutive STEMI admitted within 24 h from admission.

    RESULTS: We included 109 women and 336 men (mean age 66±11 years). Although 83% arrived by ambulance to the hospital, just half of the patients (51%) called EMS as their FMC. Other utilised SHD (21%), contacted their primary healthcare centre (14%), or went directly to the emergency room (14%). Reasons for not contacting EMS were predominantly; (1) my transport mode was faster (40%), (2) did not consider myself sick enough (30%), and (3) it was easier to be driven or taking a taxi (25%). Predictors associated with contacting SHD as FMC were female gender (OR 1.92), higher education (OR 2.40), history of diabetes (OR 2.10), pain in throat/neck (OR 2.24) and pain intensity (OR 0.85). Predictors associated with contacting EMS as FMC were history of MI (OR 2.18), atrial fibrillation (OR 3.81), abdominal pain (OR 0.35) and believing the symptoms originating from the heart (OR 1.60). Symptom onset to diagnosis time was significantly longer when turning to the SHD instead of the EMS as FMC (1:59 vs 1:21 h, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Using other forms of contacts than EMS, significantly prolong delay times, and could adversely affect patient prognosis. Nevertheless, having the opportunity to call the SHD might also, in some instances, lower the threshold for taking contact with the healthcare system, and thus lowers the number that would otherwise have delayed even longer.

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