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  • 1.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy performance criteria for residential buildings: A comparison of Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, and Russian building codes2021In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 250, article id 111276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building code are considered to be an effective policy tool to reduce energy use in buildings. In practice, national priorities influence the indicators and criteria adopted in the building codes. Consequently, neighbouring countries with similar climate conditions may use different criteria in their building codes to regulate the energy performance. In this paper, the energy performance criteria and their relative stringency in the latest residential building codes of Finland, Norway, Sweden and Russia are compared. The study is based on energy performance evaluations of one single-family building and one multi-family building, located in the north of Sweden. Both buildings complied with the Norwegian and Russian building code. However, the buildings did not comply with the specific fan power and heat loss criteria in the Finnish building code. Additionally, the single-family building did not comply with the specific primary energy and electric powerdemand criteria in the Swedish building code when heated by an electric heater. The national standard input data were found to have a large influence on the buildings’ compliance with the studied energy use criteria. Policy implications of the results are discussed.

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  • 2.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy evaluation of residential buildings: Performance gap analysis incorporating uncertainties in the evaluation methods2018In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 725-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculation and measurement-based energy performance evaluations of the same building often provide different results. This difference is referred as "the performance gap". However, a large performance gap may not necessarily mean that there are flaws in the building or deviations from the intended design. The causes for the performance gap can be analysed by calibrating the simulation model to measured data. In this paper, an approach is introduced for verifying compliance with energy performance criteria of residential buildings. The approach is based on a performance gap analysis that takes the uncertainties in the energy evaluation methods into consideration. The scope is to verify building energy performance through simulation and analysis of measured data, identifying any performance gap due to deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building based on performance gap analysis. In the approach, a simulation model is calibrated to match the heat loss coefficient of the building envelope [kWh/K] instead of the measured energy. The introduced approach is illustrated using a single-family residential building. The heat loss coefficient was found useful towards identifying any deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building. The case study indicated that the method uncertainty was important to consider in the performance gap analysis and that the proposed approach is applicable even when the performance gap appears to be non-existing.

  • 3.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy performance indicators in the Swedish building procurement process2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2). Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy); and (ii) to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

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  • 4. Asthana, Arvind
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    ?.
    Big efficiency in small scale2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Adoption of Energy Efficiency Measures in Renovation of Single-Family Houses: A Comparative Approach2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 22, article id 6042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inclusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in the renovation of the single-family housing stock can unlock the potential for much-needed energy efficiency to tackle climate change. Energy renovation (ER) in single-family houses is often promoted as an aggregate process, and EEMs are treated homogenously without sufficient attention to their differences. This study applies a comparative analysis on common EEMs using chi-square test to investigate the influence of factors already found affecting the implementation of ER. This paper addresses the “personal” and “house-related” factors influencing the adoption of EEMs regardless of motives or barriers leading the adopters’ decisions. This strategy is useful to highlight the contexts leading to an increase in the adoption rate of different EEMs. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey mailed in spring 2017 to 1550 single-family homeowners in the northern region of Sweden. Approximately 60% of respondents showed interest in adopting at least one EEM if they implement a major renovation. About 46% of respondents stated to have at least one indoor environmental problem (IEP) in their houses, and IEPs are found to have significant relations with homeowners’ interest to adopt several different EEMs. The policy implications related to different EEMs are discussed.

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  • 6.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Analysing the house-owners’ perceptions on benefits and barriers of energy renovation in Swedish single-family houses2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 198, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-family houses offer a large potential for energy savings by energy renovation (ER). Homeowners’ motivation to implement ER derives from the benefits and barriers they perceive. Benefits are the positive consequences that can motivate homeowners to act and barriers are the challenges that demotivate them to undertake ER. Different benefits and barriers do not homogenously affect every homeowner. Identifying motivating benefits and demotivating barriers for each specific group among homeowners can shed lights on ER decision-making and enable policies that are more effective. The objective of this study is to contextualize the implementation of ER by understanding how the perceived benefits and barriers influence homeowners. This study links the expected consequences, which are benefits and barriers to the influential factors on ER, which are used to group the homeowners.

    The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey mailed to 1550 owners of single-family houses in northern Sweden. The perceptions of homeowners on benefits and barriers of ER are significantly different between the groups that are motivated and unmotivated to implement ER. Despite the perceived importance of some of the benefits such as energy cost reduction, they may not be determinative for the homeowners’ decision to undertake ER. The homeowners are more likely to implement ER for reasons other than energy use reduction such as for improving the indoor environment. The barriers such as the difficulty of finding a low-interest loan and reliable information sources are found to impede the intention to implement ER among different groups. Policy implications to facilitate ER in single-family houses are discussed.

  • 7.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University.
    Comparative Study of Influential Factors on Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Single-Family Houses in Cold Climate2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combination of factors, which include occupants and building related aspects, could motivate homeowners to implement energy renovation (ER). This study applies a comparative approach to assess perspectives of single-family homeowners towards different energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The aim is to unveil the factors that are effective on the residents’ attitude and decision making to implement an EEM or a set of EEMs. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey conducted during spring 2017 among1550 owners of single-family houses in seven municipalities in northern Sweden. Approximately, 35% of respondents expressed their interest to install energy efficient household appliances and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis suggests significant relations between the homeowners’ interest to implement thermal envelope measures and the quality of the house such as age and indoor environmental problems such as cold surfaces. The group of respondents, who reported their heating cost to be high, are more likely to be interested in implementing thermal envelope measures than other measures such as HVAC. Several socio-economic factors are found to be significantly related with homeowners’ interest to implement EEMs.

  • 8.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Demand-controlled energy systems in commercial and institutional buildings: a review of methods and potentials2019In: eceee 2019 Summer Study on energy efficiency:: Is efficient sufficient?, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2019, p. 1444-1450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) are by farthe most energy intensive systems in commercial and institutionalbuildings with office spaces. This makes HVAC systemsattractive targets for energy efficiency improvement. New technologicaladvancements can play significant role on improvingenergy efficiency. Such advancements have been also emergedin form of novel management and control strategies, whichmight lead to considerable energy savings with relatively minorinvestments. This paper evaluates demand control HVAC andlighting to assess the energy saving potential of upgrading theconventional building energy systems.

    This paper provides a summary of different methods and occupancydetection technologies. A range of technologies andmethods are covered that vary in complexity, limitations andenergy saving potential. Additional benefits such as demandresponse are evaluated and other emerging applications arediscussed. Based on the review of methods and potentials, thepaper assesses the state of the art in demand controlled energysystems and suggests areas for further research.

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  • 9.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Rabiee, Ramtin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Application of Internet of Things in academic buildings for space use efficiency using occupancy and booking data2020In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 186, article id 107355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental sustainability in academic buildings can be improved with management interventions such as improving space use efficiency supported by large data from the Internet of Things (IoT). Due to the potentials, the interest in the use of IoT tools for facility management is high among universities. However, empirical studies on this topic are scarce. To address the knowledge gap in this area, this study proposes and examines a process model with steps to measure space use and to improve space use efficiency by IoT tools in academic buildings. The applicability of the model is investigated in 8 lecture halls in a university building by using occupancy and booking data from IoT tools. Four space use indicators are developed to visualize the data and quantify space use, and based on them, the strategies and interventions for space use efficiency are proposed and discussed.

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  • 10.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Rabiee, Ramtin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Application of occupancy and booking information to optimize space and energy use in higher education institutions2020In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 172, article id 25010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building in higher education institutions (HEIs) are characterized as energy intensive Experience from practice showing large discrepancies between predicted and actual energy performance. The deviation can sometimes reach 100%. Explanations often originate from occupant’s behaviour along with building operation. IoT-based smart tools can provide extensive information about building usage to improve the building management, often associates with opportunities, for significant energy saving. The analysis in this study investigate space use based on occupancy and booking information in eight different lecture rooms at Umeå University. The results suggest interventions for significant saving potentials, such as modification of access permission and closing down redundant lecture rooms.

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  • 11.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Rabiee, Ramtin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effect of the positioning of multi-sensor devices on occupancy and indoor environmental monitoring in single-occupant officesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Rabiee, Ramtin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effects of Positioning of Multi-Sensor Devices on Occupancy and Indoor Environmental Monitoring in Single-Occupant Offices2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 19, article id 6296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The advancements in sensor and communication technologies drive the rapid developments in the applications of occupancy and indoor environmental monitoring in buildings. Currently, the installation standards for sensors are scarce and the recommendations for sensor positionings are very general. However, inadequate sensor positioning might diminish the reliability of sensor data, which could have serious impacts on the intended applications such as the performance of demand-controlled HVAC systems and their energy use. Thus, there is a need to understand how sensor positioning may affect the sensor data, specifically when using multi-sensor devices in which several sensors are being bundled together. This study is based on the data collected from 18 multi-sensor devices installed in three single-occupant offices (six sensors in each office). Each multi-sensor device included sensors to measure passive infrared (PIR) radiation, temperature, CO2, humidity, and illuminance. The results show that the positions of PIR and CO2 sensors significantly affect the reliability of occupancy detection. The typical approach of positioning the sensors on the ceiling, in the middle of offices, may lead to relatively unreliable data. In this case, the PIR sensor in that position has only 60% accuracy of presence detection. Installing the sensors under office desks could increase the accuracy of presence detection to 84%. These two sensor positions are highlighted in sensor fusion analysis as they could reach the highest accuracy compared to other pairs of PIR sensors. Moreover, sensor positioning can affect various indoor environmental parameters, especially temperature and illuminance measurements.

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  • 13.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    The Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings: a design for better energy efficiency and social interactions2013In: Passivhus Norden 2013: Papers and Posters, Lågan , 2013, p. 76-87Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape factor of a building expresses the ratio between the building’s thermal envelope area and its volume, or alternatively to its useful floor area. Buildings with lower shape factors will have lower heat losses through the thermal envelope and lower specific final energy demand. The shape factor of building could be reduced by a compact building shape design, and by increasing the volume of the building. However, the requirement for indoor natural light put a limit on the size of the building and therefore may limit the value of the shape factor. One possible solution to address this aspect is designing building with a heated atrium.

    An atrium is a large enclosed space within a building, and may have a glazed roof. In a multi-story apartment building an atrium has the potential to increase the social interaction between the residents and, with the right design, at the same time reduce the heating demand of the building due to lower building shape factor. However, the use of atrium in residential buildings in Nordic countries has not yet gained popularity.

    In this paper the impact of the heated atrium building with cylindrical shape design on the specific final energy is investigated by comparing such building design to conventional design buildings with similar floor area. The Nydalahuset project, in city Umeå in the north of Sweden, which is a multistory residential building with a heated atrium, is used as a case study to investigate the affect of the atrium on the social interaction among the building occupants.

    The results show that heated atrium building with cylindrical shape design is a better energy efficient design than the conventional buildings. Such buildings in cold climate could help to reduce the heat losses through the thermal envelope and facilitate to achieve the passive house criteria. Moreover, the Nydalahuset project suggests that the atrium design could improve the social interaction of occupants in residential buildings.

  • 14. Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Fröling, Morgan
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden. The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 15.
    Fogelström, Frej
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Danielski, Itai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    A review of possibilities and challenges of pit thermal energy storages in Swedish district heating networks2024In: ISEC 2024: 3rd International Sustainable Energy Conference, AEE – Institute for Sustainable Technologies , 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of pit thermal energy storages (PTES) enables higher solar fraction in district heating networks by counteracting the mismatch between heat demand and production in solar district heating (SDH) installations. Capital costs linked to land areas with site-specific geological conditions are the deciding factors for PTES constructions. This study investigates non-technical and technical factors for the implementation of PTES in Swedish district heating networks. Having several SDH and PTES installations in operation the country of Denmark is used as a reference. This study, based on literature review, discusses the drivers and challenges for the use of PTES in district heating networks.

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  • 16.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to improve energy efficiency in existing Swedish residential buildings. However, the successful implementation of efficiency measures depends on economical and technical factors, as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. A better understanding of their attitudes and perceptions may influence the design of suitable policy measures that increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. In this context, we conducted mail-in surveys completed by owners of detached houses, chairmen of co-operative housing associations (bostadsrättsförening) and municipality energy advisers in Sweden. We also interviewed window sellers/installers in Jämtland.

    Results show that it was important for the majority of homeowners to reduce their household energy use, with most undertaking no-cost measures (e.g., switching off lights). However, 70–90% of the responding homeowners had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. The main reason for non-adoption was that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition and thermal performance of their existing building envelope components. Homeowners who thought their energy cost was high were more likely to adopt an investment measure compared to those who thought their energy cost was low. Investment costs and annual energy cost savings were the most important factors in adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures. Therefore, economic incentives may induce homeowners to adopt energy efficiency investment measures. However, a large percentage (64%) of homeowners was unaware of the existence of government support for reducing household energy use. Information campaigns announcing the availability of economic incentives and the cost advantages of energy efficiency measures may be helpful in the adoption decision.

    Homeowners‘ considered interpersonal sources, builders, installers and energy advisers as important sources of information for their adoption of energy efficiency measures. Though a large percentage of respondents considered energy advisers as an important source of information, only 14% of homeowners had contacted an energy adviser in the past. Our findings suggest that the energy advice service is important for homeowners, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners‘ awareness of and satisfaction with such services. The majority of municipal energy advisers were of the opinion that more training in technical aspects of energy issues and increased financial support could improve their performance.

    Installers and material suppliers are important actors in homeowners‘ adoption of energy efficiency measures. For example, approximately 53% of responding homeowners to a survey in Jämtland/Västernorrland stated that the window seller/installer from whom they had bought windows had recommended a particular type of window, and 97% had installed the windows that were recommended. The window sellers/installers in Jämtland prefer a window that is ―reasonably‖ energy efficient. They believe that windows with a U-value of 1.2 W/m2K are good and there is no reason to further improve the energy efficiency. The majority did not recommend windows with U-value <1.2 W/m2K. They were concerned about the condensation issues and high prices of such windows. This may influence the diffusion of very energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses.

    About 80-95% of chairmen in co-operative housing associations who responded to our survey had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. They were satisfied with the existing building envelope components, which may be one of the reasons for this lack of intention. As in the case of owners of detached houses, economic factors, like annual energy cost savings and investment costs, guide the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures in co-operative housing associations. However, about 66% of the responding chairmen did not consider financial constraint as a barrier to implementing investment intensive energy efficiency measures. For 54% of the respondents limited in-house competency to evaluate the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the main barrier.

    The majority of owners of detached houses (80%) and chairmen of co-operative housing associations (70%) perceived that economic policy instruments, such as investment subsidies and tax deductions, would encourage them to implement energy efficiency measures. Other policy instruments, especially information instruments, were perceived as less effective. Among various information policies, increasing the frequency of meter reading received the highest approval with 38% of homeowners, whereas approximately 41% of housing association chairmen thought that individual metering of heating and hot water use could be effective. Approximately 30% of homeowners and housing association chairmen thought that energy declaration was effective.

  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008In: World Sustainable Energy Days, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 18.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012In: Conference on Building Energy and Environment, COBEE 12, International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. Boulder, Colorado, USA, August 1-4., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures in about one million existing apartments that are likely to be refurbished within the next 20 years. System analyses of installation of energy efficient windows, and increased insulation in attic and in exterior walls for an existing multi-story building showed that the primary energy savings for the measures depend on the energy supply system. Energy efficiency potential was higher with installation of efficient windows than improved attic insulation. Responses of 673 chairpersons of co-operative hosing associations to a mail-in survey in 2010 also showed that greater proportion of respondents perceived that energy efficient windows had advantages over insulation improvements. However, majority had no intention to implement such measures during next 10 years and economic factors guide their decisions. Lack of expertise to assess the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the most cited hindrances to energy efficiency investments.

  • 19.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Potential target group for the introduction of full service energy efficient renovation in Swedish single-family houses2010In: SB10:  Sustainable  Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Swedish homeowners’ perceptions of innovative heating systems: results of three surveys2009In: ECEEE Summer study, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy advice service as a policy instrument to promote energy efficiency in residential sector: perception of end-users and service providers2011In: SB11, World Sustainable Building Conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden ; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Energy advice service as perceived by Swedish homeowners2011In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden municipality energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. The success of energy advice service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context, we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in the summer of 2008. We found that majority of owners of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had contacted an energy adviser. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy advice service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  • 23.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Perceptional and soicio-economic factors in adoption of low energy houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of low energy houses reduces greenhouse emission from residential sector. However, adoption of such houses depends on the perception of the potential buyers. In this paper we have analyzed Swedish homeowners’ perception of low energy houses. Data was collected in 2008 from a mail-in questionnaire survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses. Results showed that about 39% of respondents, especially young, educated or whose household income was high, would consider buying a low energy house. Majority of the respondents agreed that a low energy house in comparison to a conventional house has lower operating energy cost, but higher investment cost. Majority thought that low energy houses do not have lower resale value, lower aesthetic appearance, or greater operational difficulty.

  • 24.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote energy efficiency in the building sector: Indian and Swedish experiences2008In: 14th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency measures in buildings are widely regarded as cost effective options to mitigate climate change. However, policy instruments are needed to improve the diffusion of such measures. The policy mix may be country-specific. Here, we compare and contrast the various policy instruments designed to enhance energy efficiency in the building sector in India and Sweden. The objective is to explore if the experiences of Sweden that have promoted energy efficiency in buildings for decades could be useful for India, where energy demand is forecasted to strongly increase. India and Sweden are very different, for example, in terms of development, size, priorities, population, and climatic conditions. In Sweden, policy initiatives to reduce energy use in buildings date back to the 1970s and the government is committed to significantly reduce energy use in buildings. In India, the interest in energy efficiency improvements in buildings is a recent phenomenon. The country introduced an energy conservation building code in 2007. This analysis shows that policy instruments are more prevalent in Sweden than in India where regulatory instruments are particularly lacking. Hence, Swedish buildings are more energy efficient than those in India. The Swedish experience could be useful for devising programs and implementing policy instruments to improve energy efficiency of Indian buildings.

  • 25.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 7, Special Issue, p. 4264-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 26.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    The role of energy advisers on adoption of energy measures in detached houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  11-12 March, in connection with the ‘Energitinget 2009’, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Mattsson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Kordas, Olga
    Department of Sustainable Development, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Challenges and drivers for Positive Energy Districts in a Swedish context2022In: Eceee 2022 Summer Study on energy efficiency: agents of change, Stockholm: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2022, p. 633-639Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Positive Energy District (PED) is an inclusive, energy efficient district with optimized energy flows and a local production of renewable energy, with an annual surplus of energy that can be exported to other areas. Most of the municipalities in Sweden have ambitious climate neutrality goals and implementing PEDs in cities could be one way to contribute to the achievement of those climate goals. However, PED is an innovative concept which is still ambiguous for many stakeholders, and many uncertainties remain. To understand the perspectives of Swedish stakeholders towards PEDs, a three hour long online workshop was organized in December 2020. Representatives from city officials, universities, energy utilities and real estate companies participated in the discussion groups. The groups discussed three topics related to PED, namely; 1) Definition of PED, 2) Challenges and drivers for PEDs and 3) Replication of PEDs.

    Most of the discussion groups agreed to the importance of viewing PEDs as a part of the larger energy system and to find holistic solutions and promoting collaboration between actors. Most groups considered leadership and stakeholder engagement as important drivers for PEDs. Further, participants discussed that the slow decision processes in municipalities could be a challenge for PEDs. Even though there was consensus on most challenges and drivers, one aspect where participants had conflicting opinions was the PED definition. Some groups thought that the PED definition needs to be clearer and more narrow, while others saw it as a potential barrier if it becomes too technology focused. During discussions on replication, most groups stressed the importance of knowledge sharing and the results highlight that different stakeholders can play different roles in facilitating replication for PEDs. The study highlights the importance of a regional perspective when developing the PED definition, since the Swedish stakeholders had different viewpoints on PED that could be used to adapt the definition.

  • 28.
    Mattsson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Korda, Olga
    Department of Sustainable Development, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    An exploratory study on swedish stakeholders’ experiences with positive energy districts2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 12, article id 4790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive energy district (PED) is a novel idea aimed to have an annual surplus of renewable energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions within an area. However, it is still an ambiguous concept, which might be due to the complexity of city district projects with interconnected infrastructures and numerous stakeholders involved. This study discusses various aspects of PED implementation and presents practitioners’ experiences with the PED concept, challenges, and facilitators they have faced with real projects. The study is based on interviews with ten Swedish professionals. The major challenges reported for PED implementation were local energy production and energy flexibility, sub-optimization, legislation, suitable system boundaries, and involvement of stakeholders. Most of the interviewees mentioned improved collaboration, integrated innovative technology, political support, and climate change mitigation goals as important facilitators. The interviewees highlighted the importance of a local perspective and considered each city’s preconditions when developing a PED project. The study emphasizes that to facilitate PED implementation and replication in cities, more knowledge and clarity is required about PED such as on the definition and system boundaries.

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  • 29.
    Mattsson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Exploring the health and energy savings dilemma in swimming facilities and the potential influence of Positive Energy Districts2023In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 2654, no 1, article id 012132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive energy districts (PED) are neighborhoods with a net positive energy balance with the main goal to create sustainable districts that contribute to the energy transition. The three pillars energy efficiency, renewable energy, and energy flexibility forms the foundation of PEDs, and ‘Quality of life’ is one of the key principles.

    Indoor swimming facilities for recreation and sports, also called aquatic centers or swimming halls, are important for healthy lifestyles. They are highly energy-demanding facilities due to the large volumes and strict heating- and ventilation requirements to ensure the health of staff, visitors, and bathers. The large energy consumption indicates good potential to reduce their energy use. One possibility might be to include aquatic centersin PEDs: the district could support the facility with locally produced renewable energy. There are also studies that investigates innovative solutions regarding aquatic centers that might have potential to increase resilience and flexibility in the district.

    However, one important aspect in studies on energy use in aquatic centers that is often neglected is the presence of disinfection by-products (DBP), which are found in the air and water of chlorinated swimming pools. Several DBPs can lead to health issues, such as asthma, eye irritation, and even cancer. There are often conflicting goals in studies on swimming halls. The connection between DBP and energy is currently missing, and it could lead to projects compromising health over energy savings. Based on a literature review, this study highlights the research gap between DBPs and energy use in swimming facilities. A suggestion is also presented to integrate swimming halls into PEDs with the aim of increasing possibilities for a healthy lifestyle, supporting the aquatic center’s energy demand with renewable energy, and exploring new solutions for flexibility and resilience in the district

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  • 30.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Fostering community based social marketing for energy efficiency improvements in the residential sector2013In: International Conference on Applied Energy 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementation of energy efficiency measures in Swedish single-family houses2012Other (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Waste minimization circle in aluminium utensil manufacturing units2002Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Allard, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Åstrand, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Building professionals' views on energy efficiency compliance requirements2017In: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB 2017 / [ed] Geving S., Time B., Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 132, p. 988-993Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the national building code (BBR) stipulates the specific energy use as an indicator to verify whether a newbuilding is complying with its design-phase energy performance values. However, previous studies have shown that there may belarge differences between the calculated specific energy and the actual monitored energy use. The differences are attributed tovarious reasons including the actual energy behaviour of the occupants as compared to the standard values used in thesimulations. This may lead to disputes between the client and the contractor on the responsibility of meeting the energyrequirements.In this study an adapted version of Delphi methodology was used to understand the building professionals’ view on variousindicators used to verify building energy performance. The study showed that professionals are concerned with the use of specificenergy as an indicator in the building procurement process as they do not have control over the occupants’ energy behaviour.Majority of the professionals expressed a large confidence in the average U-value of the building, component U-values and thespecific heat loss figure by the Swedish center for zero-energy buildings as indicators of building energy performance.

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  • 34.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    A management perspective on energy efficient renovations in Swedish multi-family buildings2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 132, p. 994-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has around 2.5 million dwellings in multi-family buildings, which constitute about 55% of the total dwelling units. The multi-family building ownership in Sweden can be categorized into municipal, private and co-operative ownership. Approximately 40% of apartments in multi-family buildings belong to municipal housing companies, while the rest is equally shared by private companies and co-operative housing associations. These organizations have different priorities, limitations and concerns related to energy renovations. Accordingly, in this sector the decisions to invest in energy efficiency improvement depends to a large extent on the type of ownership.

    In this study we analyzed the perspectives of different types of building ownership on energy efficient renovation. The analysis is based on detailed interviews of 4 senior managers representing the multi-family buildings under different ownership categories. Along with this we also interviewed a municipality energy adviser. All the interviewees are based in in North Sweden. The drivers to facilitate the rate of adoption of energy renovation in such buildings are discussed.

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  • 35.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    A multi-stakeholder perspective on opportunities and challenges for energy efficiency improvement in university buildings2021In: E3S Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences, 2021, article id 05006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University buildings are relatively energy-intensive. In Sweden, universities usually operate in rented buildings. In this study, interviews were carried out among three categories of stakeholders in a Swedish university to understand their perceptions of energy use and challenges to improve energy efficiency. As per most interviewees, the university's top management and Akademiska Hus, which owns the buildings, have the main responsibility to reduce the buildings' energy and carbon footprint. The heads of departments raised the concern on the non-availability of energy data to take actions to reduce energy use. The use of sensors and information technologies to monitor space use, energy use, and indoor environment are attractive to different stakeholders. The implications of the interview results are discussed.

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  • 36.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Organizational perspectives on adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish multi-storey apartment buildings2012In: MILEN International Conference, 22-23 November, Oslo., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling. Östersund.
    Diddi, Saurabh
    Bureau of Energy Efficiency, New Delhi, India .
    Partial risk guarantee fund for ESCO business: an innovative support system for energy efficiency business2012In: ECEEE Summer study, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Eklund, Erik
    “Energy visualization” as a tool to influence the energy use in a municipality kitchen2019In: eceee 2019 Summer Study on energy efficiency: Is efficient sufficient?, 3–8 June, Presqu’île de Giens, Hyères, France, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2019, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, municipalities’ own and operate the kitchens that cook food for pre-schools, schools and the elderly care facilities. There are 68 kitchens in the municipality of Umeå and providing feedback to the kitchen staff on energy use could facilitate them to reduce the energy use in these facilities. Accordingly, an “energy visualization” project was initiated in one of the kitchen: Nordstjärnan, which is a newly built kitchen equipped with separate meters for appliances that continuously record the energy use.

    For the “energy visualization” project, a visualization design software called “Siemens Control Point” is used. The software is integrated with the existing steering and control system and connected to almost all sensors/meters in the building.The electricity use data from the kitchen was collected for 5 months prior to installation of the “energy visualization” project to establish a base line for the energy use. The average electricity use is referred in this paper as “Electricity budget”, which is calculated for each kitchen appliance that has an electricity meter.

    A trial was started in the kitchen from December 2018 onwards, wherein a display unit was designed to project the electricity use of the kitchen. The display unit, which is a large television screen, has different “slides”. For example, one of the slide is modelled to energy labelling. The energy labelling in the display has a rating from A+++ to D, which is calculated continuously based on the daily electricity use and the electricity budget. If the kitchen uses more electricity than budgeted then the rating will drop, and if the electricity use is less than the budget then the rating will increase. Furthermore, depending upon the energy performance of the kitchen the visualization screens also display “smileys” which are used as injunctive norms.

  • 39.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fransson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Perspectives of building professionals on the use of LCA tools in Swedish climate declaration2021In: E3S Web of Conferences / [ed] J. Kurnitski and M. Thalfeldt, EDP Sciences, 2021, article id 13004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 1st January 2022, Swedish government plan to introduce the climate declarations as a legal requirement for new buildings. LCA is a method that could be used to quantify buildings' climate impact. The climate declaration in the Swedish building code expects to create interest in LCA among stakeholders. This study aims to identify and understand the challenges and opportunities of using LCA by stakeholders during the early stage of construction process. The study is based on responses from six building professionals to a questionnaire. The policy implications of the study findings are discussed.

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  • 40.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Barriers to implement energy efficiency investment measures in Swedish co-operative apartment buildings2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41. Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2956-2963Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Owners perception on the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 2411-2419Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Programme of activities: Will it break the ice for residential sector CDM projects?2008In: 14th Annual international sustainable development research conference, New Delhi, India, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Role of sellers/installers in the diffusion of energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses2010In: SB10: Sustainable Community, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish detached houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitinget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners’ need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures such as improved windows and attic and wall insulation. The results of a questionnaire surveying 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 revealed that about 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of implementing such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing installations. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improving attic insulation has more advantages than other measures, but windows were more likely to be installed than attic insulation was to be improved. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure, while environmental aspects were given lower priority. Hence, economic incentives could be useful in promoting the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies/installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to install energy efficiency measures.

  • 46.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Implementation of energy efficient windows in Swedish single-family houses2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 329-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A questionnaire survey of 1010 homeowners in Jämtland and Västernorrland, which are two counties in central Sweden, was conducted to understand the factors influencing their decision to install energy-efficient windows. We complemented this survey with an interview of 12 window sellers/installers in the county Jämtland. The annual energy cost reduction, age, and condition of the windows were the most important reasons for the window replacement decision. Approximately 80% of the respondents replaced their windows with energy-efficient windows with U-value of 1.2 W/m2 K. Condensation problems, perceived higher prices, and lack of awareness about windows with lower U-values were important reasons for non-adoption of more energy-efficient windows. Window sellers/installers have a strong influence on homeowners’ window selection that was indicated by the 97% of homeowners who bought the windows that were recommended to them. Sellers/installers revealed that they did not recommend windows with U-value of less than 1.2 W/m2 K because they thought that investing in such windows was not economical and because windows with U-value less than 1.2 W/m2 K could cause water condensation on the external surface of window pane.

  • 47.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Influence of external actors in Swedish homeowners’ adoption of energy efficient windows2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress, 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote building energy efficiency from an end-user point of view2011In: ECEEE Summer study, Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France, 6–11 June, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Mattsson, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Delice, Eser
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Dino, Ipek Gursel
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Energy production, efficiency and flexibility for positive energy districts: a review2024In: ISEC 2024 – 3rd International Sustainable Energy Conference, TIB Open Publishing , 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, EU launched the programme “Positive energy districts and neighbourhoods for sustainable urban development” with an aim to support the planning, deployment and replication of 100 Positive energy districts (PEDs) by 2025. This is an ambitious target considering the various challenges on implementing PEDs. This paper, based on literature review, provides an overview on the challenges and possibilities on the three main components of PEDs; energy production, energy efficiency and energy flexibility.

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  • 50.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Azizi, Shoaib
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Role of Online Information Sources in Energy Efficient Renovations: Perspectives of House Owners in Finland and Sweden2021In: BEHAVE 2020-2021: the 6th European Conference on Behaviour Change for Energy Efficiency: Conference proceedings / [ed] Xianli Zhu and Gabriela Prata Dias, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Centre on Energy Efficiency , 2021, p. 160-162Conference paper (Refereed)
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