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  • 1.
    Andersson, Christopher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gripenland, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Using the chicken embryo to assess virulence of Listeria monocytogenes and to model other microbial infections2015In: Nature Protocols, ISSN 1754-2189, E-ISSN 1750-2799, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1155-1164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial infections are a global health problem, particularly as microbes are continually developing resistance to antimicrobial treatments. An effective and reliable method for testing the virulence of different microbial pathogens is therefore a useful research tool. This protocol describes how the chicken embryo can be used as a trustworthy, inexpensive, ethically desirable and quickly accessible model to assess the virulence of the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which can also be extended to other microbial pathogens. We provide a step-by-step protocol and figures and videos detailing the method, including egg handling, infection strategies, pathogenicity screening and isolation of infected organs. From the start of incubation of the fertilized eggs, the protocol takes <4 weeks to complete, with the infection part taking only 3 d. We discuss the appropriate controls to use and potential adjustments needed for adapting the protocol for other microbial pathogens.

  • 2. Balsalobre, Carlos
    et al.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cyclic AMP-dependent osmoregulation of crp gene expression in Escherichia coli.2006In: J Bacteriol, ISSN 0021-9193, Vol. 188, no 16, p. 5935-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have found that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP)-cAMP regulatory complex in Escherichia coli is subject to osmoregulation at the level of crp gene expression. This osmoregulation was lost in a cya mutant strain but could be restored by external addition of cAMP, suggesting that the intracellular level of cAMP is a key factor in the osmoregulation of CRP. The ability of the cell to maintain optimal CRP activity was essential for the growth and survival of the bacteria under low-osmolarity conditions as shown by studies with different crp mutant alleles. A suppressor mutant with a novel amino acid substitution (L124R) in CRP showed restored growth at low osmolarity. CRP(L124R) was not activated by cAMP and was shown to be dominant negative over the wild type. Our findings suggest that the fine-tuning of the CRP activity may be critical for bacterial viability and adaptability to changing osmotic conditions.

  • 3. Byström, Jonas
    et al.
    Thomson, Scott J.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Edin, Matthew L.
    Zeldin, Darryl C.
    Gilroy, Derek W.
    Smith, Andrew M.
    Bishop-Bailey, David
    Inducible CYP2J2 and its product 11,12-EET promotes bacterial phagocytosis: a role for CYP2J2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease?2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e75107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epoxygenase CYP2J2 has an emerging role in inflammation and vascular biology. The role of CYP2J2 in phagocytosis is not known and its regulation in human inflammatory diseases is poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of CYP2J2 in bacterial phagocytosis and its expression in monocytes from healthy controls and Crohns disease patients. CYP2J2 is anti-inflammatory in human peripheral blood monocytes. Bacterial LPS induced CYP2J2 mRNA and protein. The CYP2J2 arachidonic acid products 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET inhibited LPS induced TNFα release. THP-1 monocytes were transformed into macrophages by 48h incubation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Epoxygenase inhibition using a non-selective inhibitor SKF525A or a selective CYP2J2 inhibitor Compound 4, inhibited E. coli particle phagocytosis, which could be specifically reversed by 11,12-EET. Moreover, epoxygenase inhibition reduced the expression of phagocytosis receptors CD11b and CD68. CD11b also mediates L. monocytogenes phagocytosis. Similar, to E. coli bioparticle phagocytosis, epoxygenase inhibition also reduced intracellular levels of L. monocytogenes, which could be reversed by co-incubation with 11,12-EET. Disrupted bacterial clearance is a hallmark of Crohn's disease. Unlike macrophages from control donors, macrophages from Crohn's disease patients showed no induction of CYP2J2 in response to E. coli. These results demonstrate that CYP2J2 mediates bacterial phagocytosis in macrophages, and implicates a defect in the CYP2J2 pathway may regulate bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease.

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  • 4.
    Bäreclev, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Netterling, Sakura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    DExD-box RNA-helicases in Listeria monocytogenes are important for growth, ribosomal maturation, rRNA processing and virulence factor expression2014In: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1458-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA-helicases are proteins required for the unwinding of occluding secondary RNA structures, especially at low temperatures. In this work, we have deleted all 4 DExD-box RNA helicases in various combinations in the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Our results show that 3 out of 4 RNA-helicases were important for growth at low temperatures, whereas the effect was less prominent at 37 degrees C. Over-expression of one RNA-helicase, Lmo1450, was able to overcome the reduced growth of the quadruple mutant strain at temperatures above 26 degrees C, but not at lower temperatures. The maturation of ribosomes was affected in different degrees in the various strains at 20 degrees C, whereas the effect was marginal at 37 degrees C. This was accompanied by an increased level of immature 23S rRNA precursors in some of the RNA-helicase mutants at low temperatures. Although the expression of the PrfA regulated virulence factors ActA and LLO decreased in the quadruple mutant strain, this strain showed a slightly increased infection ability. Interestingly, even though the level of the virulence factor LLO was decreased in the quadruple mutant strain as compared with the wild-type strain, the hly-transcript (encoding LLO) was increased. Hence, our results could suggest a role for the RNA-helicases during translation. In this work, we show that DExD-box RNA-helicases are involved in bacterial virulence gene-expression and infection of eukaryotic cells.

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  • 5.
    Crowe-McAuliffe, Caillan
    et al.
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Murina, Victoriia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Turnbull, Kathryn Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Kasari, Marje
    University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Mohamad, Merianne
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Molecular & Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Polte, Christine
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Takada, Hiraku
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ignatova, Zoya
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    O’Neill, Alex J.
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Molecular & Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia; Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wilson, Daniel N.
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Structural basis of ABCF-mediated resistance to pleuromutilin, lincosamide, and streptogramin A antibiotics in Gram-positive pathogens2021In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 3577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Target protection proteins confer resistance to the host organism by directly binding to the antibiotic target. One class of such proteins are the antibiotic resistance (ARE) ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins of the F-subtype (ARE-ABCFs), which are widely distributed throughout Gram-positive bacteria and bind the ribosome to alleviate translational inhibition from antibiotics that target the large ribosomal subunit. Here, we present single-particle cryo-EM structures of ARE-ABCF-ribosome complexes from three Gram-positive pathogens: Enterococcus faecalis LsaA, Staphylococcus haemolyticus VgaALC and Listeria monocytogenes VgaL. Supported by extensive mutagenesis analysis, these structures enable a general model for antibiotic resistance mediated by these ARE-ABCFs to be proposed. In this model, ABCF binding to the antibiotic-stalled ribosome mediates antibiotic release via mechanistically diverse long-range conformational relays that converge on a few conserved ribosomal RNA nucleotides located at the peptidyltransferase center. These insights are important for the future development of antibiotics that overcome such target protection resistance mechanisms.

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  • 6.
    de Oliveira, Ana H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Guerreiro, Duarte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    García-Del Portillo, Francisco
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    O'Byrne, Conor
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, University of Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    The virulence and infectivity of Listeria monocytogenes are not substantially altered by elevated SigB activity2023In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 91, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe infections but also thriving outside the host. To respond to different stress conditions, L. monocytogenes mainly utilizes the general stress response regulon, which largely is controlled by the alternative sigma factor Sigma B (SigB). In addition, SigB is important for virulence gene expression and infectivity. Upon encountering stress, a large multicomponent protein complex known as the stressosome becomes activated, ultimately leading to SigB activation. RsbX is a protein needed to reset a "stressed"stressosome and prevent unnecessary SigB activation in nonstressed conditions. Consequently, absence of RsbX leads to constitutive activation of SigB even without prevailing stress stimulus. To further examine the involvement of SigB in the virulence of this pathogen, we investigated whether a strain with constitutively active SigB would be affected in virulence factor expression and/or infectivity in cultured cells and in a chicken embryo infection model. Our results suggest that increased SigB activity does not substantially alter virulence gene expression compared with the wild-type (WT) strain at transcript and protein levels. Bacteria lacking RsbX were taken up by phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells at a similar frequency to WT bacteria, both in stressed and nonstressed conditions. Finally, the absence of RsbX only marginally affected the ability of bacteria to infect chicken embryos. Our results suggest only a minor role of RsbX in controlling virulence factor expression and infectivity under these conditions.

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  • 7.
    de Oliveira, Ana Henriques
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden;Umeå Centre of Microbial Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Guerreiro, Duarte N.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    García-del Portillo, Francisco
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    O’Byrne, Conor
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Listeria monocytogenes requires the RsbX protein to prevent SigB-activation under non-stressed conditions2022In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 204, no 1, article id e00486-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The survival of microbial cells under changing environmental conditions requires an efficient reprogramming of transcription, often mediated by alternative sigma factors. The Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes senses and responds to environmental stress mainly through the alternative sigma factor σB (SigB), which controls expression of the general stress response regulon. SigB activation is achieved through a complex series of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events culminating in the release of SigB from its anti-sigma factor RsbW. At the top of the signal transduction pathway lies a large multi-protein complex known as the stressosome that is believed to act as a sensory hub for stresses. Following signal detection, stressosome proteins become phosphorylated. Resetting of the stressosome is hypothesized to be exerted by a putative phosphatase, RsbX, which presumably removes phosphate groups from stressosome proteins post-stress.We addressed the role of the RsbX protein in modulating the activity of the stressosome and consequently regulating SigB activity in L. monocytogenes. We show that RsbX is required to reduce SigB activation/levels under non-stress conditions and that it is required for appropriate SigB mediated stress-adaptation. A strain lacking RsbX displayed impaired motility and biofilm formation, but also an increased survival at low pH. Our results could suggest that absence of RsbX alter the multi-protein composition of the stressosome without dramatically affecting its phosphorylation status. Overall the data show that RsbX plays a critical role in modulating the signal transduction pathway by blocking SigB activation under non-stressed conditions.

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  • 8.
    de Oliveira, Ana Henriques
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå Center of Microbial Research, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    Portillo, Francisco García-del
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center of Biotechnology, (CNB)-CSIC, Spain.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    A minor role of RsbX in Listeria monocytogenes’ virulenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Engström, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Bailey, Leslie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Önskog, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergström, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    A comparative study of RNA and DNA as internal gene expression controls early in the developmental cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae2010In: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, ISSN 0928-8244, E-ISSN 1574-695X, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 244-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many microbial pathogens invade and proliferate within host cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this behavior is currently being revealed for several bacterial species. Testing clinically relevant antibacterial compounds and elucidating their effects on gene expression requires adequate controls, especially when studying genetically intractable organisms such as Chlamydia spp., for which various gene fusions cannot be constructed. Until now, relative mRNA levels in Chlamydia have been measured using different internal gene expression controls, including 16S rRNA, mRNAs, and DNA. Here, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of various internal expression controls during the early phase of Chlamydia pneumoniae development. The relative abundance of target mRNAs varied using the different internal control RNAs. This was partly due to variation in the transcript stability of the RNA species. Also, seven out of nine of the analyzed RNAs increased fivefold or more between 2 and 14 h postinfection, while the amount of DNA and number of cells remained essentially unaltered. Our results suggest that RNA should not be used as a gene expression control during the early phase of Chlamydia development, and that intrinsic bacterial DNA is preferable for that purpose because it is stable, abundant, and its relative amount is generally correlated with bacterial numbers.

  • 10.
    Good, James A. D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Andersson, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Hansen, Sabine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wall, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Krishnan, Syam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Begum, Afshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Grundström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Niemiec, Moritz Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Chorell, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sauer, Uwe H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sauer–Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Attenuating Listeria monocytogenes virulence by targeting the regulatory protein PrfA2016In: Cell chemical biology, ISSN 2451-9448, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 404-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transcriptional activator PrfA, a member of the Crp/Fnr family, controls the expression of some key virulence factors necessary for infection by the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Phenotypic screening identified ring-fused 2-pyridone molecules that at low micromolar concentrations attenuate L. monocytogenes infectivity by reducing the expression of virulence genes, without compromising bacterial growth. These inhibitors bind the transcriptional regulator PrfA and decrease its affinity for the consensus DNA binding site. Structural characterization of this interaction revealed that one of the ring-fused 2-pyridones, compound 1, binds within a hydrophobic pocket, located between the C- and N-terminal domains of PrfA, and interacts with residues important for PrfA activation. This indicates that these inhibitors maintain the DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif of PrfA in a disordered state, thereby preventing a PrfA:DNA interaction. Ring-fused 2-pyridones represent a new class of chemical probes for studying virulence in L. monocytogenes.

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  • 11.
    Gripenland, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Andersson, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Evaluating the chicken embryo as a model for studying Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis: a role for the PrfA pathwayManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gripenland, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Andersson, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Exploring the chicken embryo as a possible model for studying Listeria monocytogenes pathogenicity2014In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 4, article id 170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Many different animal models exist to study L. monocytogenes pathogenicity, and we have investigated the chicken embryo as an infection model: What are the benefits and possible drawbacks? We have compared a defined wild-type strain with its isogenic strains lacking well-characterized virulence factors. Our results show that wild-type L. monocytogenes, already at a relatively low infection dose (similar to 5 x 10(2) cfu), caused death of the chicken embryo within 36 h, in contrast to strains lacking the main transcriptional activator of virulence, PrfA, or the cytolysin LLO. Surprisingly, strains lacking the major adhesins InIA and InIB caused similar mortality as the wild-type strain. In conclusion, our results suggest that the chicken embryo is a practical model to study L. monocytogenes infections, especially when analyzing alternative virulence pathways independent of the InIA and InIB adhesins. However, the route of infection might be different from a human infection. The chicken embryo model and other Listeria infection models are discussed.

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  • 13.
    Gripenland, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Dussurget, Olivier
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Sesto, Nina
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France..
    Byström, Jonas
    Queen Mary, University of London, London, Great Britain..
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bécavin, Christoph
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France..
    Cossart, Pascale
    Institut Pasteur, Paris, France..
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Rli38, a novel stress induced small RNA required for Listeria monocytogenes virulenceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gripenland, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Netterling, Sakura
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Loh, Edmund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Toledo-Arana, Alejandro
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    RNAs: regulators of bacterial virulence2010In: Nature Reviews Microbiology, ISSN 1740-1526, E-ISSN 1740-1534, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 857-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA-based pathways that regulate protein expression are much more widespread than previously thought. Regulatory RNAs, including 5' and 3' untranslated regions next to the coding sequence, cis-acting antisense RNAs and trans-acting small non-coding RNAs, are effective regulatory molecules that can influence protein expression and function in response to external cues such as temperature, pH and levels of metabolites. This Review discusses the mechanisms by which these regulatory RNAs, together with accessory proteins such as RNases, control the fate of mRNAs and proteins and how this regulation influences virulence in pathogenic bacteria.

  • 15.
    Guerreiro, Duarte N.
    et al.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Pucciarelli, M. Graciela
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Centre for Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Department of Molecular Biology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Centre of Molecular Biology Ͽ Severo Ochoa (CBMSO CSIC-UAM), Madrid, Spain.
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Gudynaite, Diana
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Boyd, Aoife
    Pathogenic Mechanisms Research Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    García-Del Portillo, Francisco
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Centre for Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    O Byrne, Conor P.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Acid stress signals are integrated into the σb-dependent general stress response pathway via the stressosome in the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes2022In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 18, no 3, article id e1010213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general stress response (GSR) in Listeria monocytogenes plays a critical role in the survival of this pathogen in the host gastrointestinal tract. The GSR is regulated by the alternative sigma factor B (σB), whose role in protection against acid stress is well established. Here, we investigated the involvement of the stressosome, a sensory hub, in transducing low pH signals to induce the GSR. Mild acid shock (15 min at pH 5.0) activated σB and conferred protection against a subsequent lethal pH challenge. A mutant strain where the stressosome subunit RsbR1 was solely present retained the ability to induce σB activity at pH 5.0. The role of stressosome phosphorylation in signal transduction was investigated by mutating the putative phosphorylation sites in the core stressosome proteins RsbR1 (rsbR1-T175A,-T209A,-T241A) and RsbS (rsbS-S56A), or the stressosome kinase RsbT (rsbTN49A). The rsbS S56A and rsbT N49A mutations abolished the response to low pH. The rsbR1-T209A and rsbR1-T241A mutants displayed constitutive σB activity. Mild acid shock upregulates invasion genes inlAB and stimulates epithelial cell invasion, effects that were abolished in mutants with an inactive or overactive stressosome. Overall, the results show that the stressosome is required for acid-induced activation of σB in L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, they show that RsbR1 can function independently of its paralogues and signal transduction requires RsbT-mediated phosphorylation of RsbS on S56 and RsbR1 on T209 but not T175. These insights shed light on the mechanisms of signal transduction that activate the GSR in L. monocytogenes in response to acidic environments, and highlight the role this sensory process in the early stages of the infectious cycle.

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  • 16.
    Guerreiro, Duarte N.
    et al.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Wu, Jialun
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Dessaux, Charlotte
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center for Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    de Oliveira, Ana Henriques
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Gudynaite, Diana
    Molecular Microbiology Department, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.
    Marinho, Catarina M.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland;Université Bourgogne Franche-Conté, Dijon, France;Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Agroécologie, Dijon, France.
    Boyd, Aoife
    Pathogenic Mechanisms Research Group, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    García-del Portillo, Francisco
    Laboratory of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, National Center for Biotechnology (CNB)-CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    O’Byrne, Conor P.
    Bacterial Stress Response Group, Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    Mild Stress Conditions during Laboratory Culture Promote the Proliferation of Mutations That Negatively Affect Sigma B Activity in Listeria monocytogenes2020In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 202, no 9, article id e00751-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Listeria monocytogenes, the full details of how stress signals are integrated into the σB regulatory pathway are not yet available. To help shed light on this question, we investigated a collection of transposon mutants that were predicted to have compromised activity of the alternative sigma factor B (σB). These mutants were tested for acid tolerance, a trait that is known to be under σB regulation, and they were found to display increased acid sensitivity, similar to a mutant lacking σB (ΔsigB). The transposon insertions were confirmed by whole-genome sequencing, but in each case, the strains were also found to carry a frameshift mutation in the sigB operon. The changes were predicted to result in premature stop codons, with negative consequences for σB activation, independently of the transposon location. Reduced σB activation in these mutants was confirmed. Growth measurements under conditions similar to those used during the construction of the transposon library revealed that the frameshifted sigB operon alleles conferred a growth advantage at higher temperatures, during late exponential phase. Mixed-culture experiments at 42°C demonstrated that the loss of σB activity allowed mutants to take over a population of parental bacteria. Together, our results suggest that mutations affecting σB activity can arise during laboratory culture because of the growth advantage conferred by these mutations under mild stress conditions. The data highlight the significant cost of stress protection in this foodborne pathogen and emphasize the need for whole-genome sequence analysis of newly constructed strains to confirm the expected genotype.

    IMPORTANCE: In the present study, we investigated a collection of Listeria monocytogenes strains that all carried sigB operon mutations. The mutants all had reduced σB activity and were found to have a growth advantage under conditions of mild heat stress (42°C). In mixed cultures, these mutants outcompeted the wild type when mild heat stress was present but not at an optimal growth temperature. An analysis of 22,340 published L. monocytogenes genome sequences found a high rate of premature stop codons present in genes positively regulating σB activity. Together, these findings suggest that the occurrence of mutations that attenuate σB activity can be favored under conditions of mild stress, probably highlighting the burden on cellular resources that stems from deploying the general stress response.

  • 17.
    Hainzl, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. QureTech Bio, Umeå, Sweden.
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Structural insights into CodY activation and DNA recognition2023In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 51, no 14, p. 7631-7648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virulence factors enable pathogenic bacteria to infect host cells, establish infection, and contribute to disease progressions. In Gram-positive pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (Sa) and Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), the pleiotropic transcription factor CodY plays a key role in integrating metabolism and virulence factor expression. However, to date, the structural mechanisms of CodY activation and DNA recognition are not understood. Here, we report the crystal structures of CodY from Sa and Ef in their ligand-free form and their ligand-bound form complexed with DNA. Binding of the ligands - branched chain amino acids and GTP - induces conformational changes in the form of helical shifts that propagate to the homodimer interface and reorient the linker helices and DNA binding domains. DNA binding is mediated by a non-canonical recognition mechanism dictated by DNA shape readout. Furthermore, two CodY dimers bind to two overlapping binding sites in a highly cooperative manner facilitated by cross-dimer interactions and minor groove deformation. Our structural and biochemical data explain how CodY can bind a wide range of substrates, a hallmark of many pleiotropic transcription factors. These data contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying virulence activation in important human pathogens.

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  • 18.
    Hall, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Grundström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Begum, Afshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Lindberg, Mikael J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sauer, Uwe H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Structural basis for glutathione-mediated activation of the virulence regulatory protein PrfA in Listeria2016In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 113, no 51, p. 14733-14738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infection by the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is mainly controlled by the positive regulatory factor A (PrfA), a member of the Crp/Fnr family of transcriptional activators. Published data suggest that PrfA requires the binding of a cofactor for full activity, and it was recently proposed that glutathione (GSH) could fulfill this function. Here we report the crystal structures of PrfA in complex with GSH and in complex with GSH and its cognate DNA, the hly operator PrfA box motif. These structures reveal the structural basis for a GSH-mediated allosteric mode of activation of PrfA in the cytosol of the host cell. The crystal structure of PrfAWT in complex only with DNA confirms that PrfAWT can adopt a DNA binding-compatible structure without binding the GSH activator molecule. By binding to PrfA in the cytosol of the host cell, GSH induces the correct fold of the HTH motifs, thus priming the PrfA protein for DNA interaction.

  • 19.
    Hansen, Sabine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Grundström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Brännström, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    A Novel Growth-Based Selection Strategy Identifies New Constitutively Active Variants of the Major Virulence Regulator PrfA in Listeria monocytogenes2020In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 202, no 11, article id e00115-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive pathogen able to cause severe human infections. Its major virulence regulator is the transcriptional activator PrfA, a member of the Crp/Fnr family of transcriptional regulators. To establish a successful L. monocytogenes infection, the PrfA protein needs to be in an active conformation, either by binding the cognate inducer glutathione (GSH) or by possessing amino acid substitutions rendering the protein constitutively active (PrfA*). By a yet unknown mechanism, phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugars repress the activity of PrfA. We therefore took a transposon-based approach to identify the mechanism by which PTS sugars repress PrfA activity. For this, we screened a transposon mutant bank to identify clones able to grow in the presence of glucose-6-phosphate as the sole carbon source. Surprisingly, most of the isolated transposon mutants also carried amino acid substitutions in PrfA. In transposon-free strains, the PrfA amino acid substitution mutants displayed growth, virulence factor expression, infectivity, and DNA binding, agreeing with previously identified PrIA* mutants. Hence, the initial growth phenotype observed in the isolated clone was due to the amino acid substitution in PrfA and unrelated to the loci inactivated by the transposon mutant. Finally, we provide structural evidence for the existence of an intermediately activated PrfA state, which gives new insights into PrfA protein activation. IMPORTANCE The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is a human pathogen affecting mainly the elderly, immunocompromised people, and pregnant women. It can lead to meningoencephalitis, septicemia, and abortion. The major virulence regulator in L. monocytogenes is the PrfA protein, a transcriptional activator. Using a growth-based selection strategy, we identified mutations in the PrfA protein leading to constitutively active virulence factor expression. We provide structural evidence for the existence of an intermediately activated PrfA state, which gives new insights into PrfA protein activation.

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  • 20.
    Ignatov, Dmitriy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    RNA-mediated signal perception in pathogenic bacteria2017In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-RNA, ISSN 1757-7004, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e1429Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial pathogens encounter several different environments during an infection, many of them possibly being detrimental. In order to sense its surroundings and adjust the gene expression accordingly, different regulatory schemes are undertaken. With these, the bacterium appropriately can differentiate between various environmental cues to express the correct virulence factor at the appropriate time and place. An attractive regulator device is RNA, which has an outstanding ability to alter its structure in response to external stimuli, such as metabolite concentration or alterations in temperature, to control its downstream gene expression. This review will describe the function of riboswitches and thermometers, with a particular emphasis on regulatory RNAs being important for bacterial pathogenicity.

  • 21.
    Ignatov, Dmitriy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Durand, Sylvain
    Cahoon, Laty
    Sandberg, Stefanie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Liu, Xijia
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.
    Ryden, Patrik
    Freitag, Nancy
    Condon, Ciaran
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    An mRNA-mRNA Interaction Couples Expression of a Virulence Factor and Its Chaperone in Listeria monocytogenes2020In: Cell Reports, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 4027-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial pathogens often employ RNA regulatory elements located in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) to control gene expression. Using a comparative structural analysis, we examine the structure of 5' UTRs at a global scale in the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes under different conditions. In addition to discovering an RNA thermoswitch and detecting simultaneous interaction of ribosomes and small RNAs with mRNA, we identify structural changes in the 5' UTR of an mRNA encoding the post-translocation chaperone PrsA2 during infection conditions. We demonstrate that the 5' UTR of the prsA2 mRNA base pairs with the 3' UTR of the full-length hly mRNA encoding listeriolysin O, thus preventing RNase J1-mediated degradation of the prsA2 transcript. Mutants lacking the hly-prsA2 interaction exhibit reduced virulence properties. This work highlights an additional level of RNA regulation, where the mRNA encoding a chaperone is stabilized by the mRNA encoding its substrate.

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  • 22.
    Ignatov, Dmitriy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Generation of Sequencing Libraries for Structural Analysis of Bacterial 5′ UTRs2020In: STAR Protocols, E-ISSN 2666-1667, Vol. 1, no 2, article id 100046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of 5′ untranslated regions (5′ UTRs) of bacterial mRNAs often determines the fate of the transcripts. Using a dimethyl sulfate mutational profiling with sequencing (DMS-MaPseq) approach, we developed a protocol to generate sequence libraries to determine the base-pairing status of adenines and cytosines in the 5′ UTRs of bacterial mRNAs. Our method increases the sequencing depth of the 5′ UTRs and allows detection of changes in their structures by sequencing libraries of moderate sizes. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ignatov et al. (2020).

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  • 23.
    Johansson, J
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Eriksson, S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Sondén, B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Wai, S N
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Uhlin, B E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Microbiology.
    Heteromeric interactions among nucleoid-associated bacterial proteins: localization of StpA-stabilizing regions in H-NS of Escherichia coli.2001In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 183, no 7, p. 2343-2347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nucleoid-associated proteins H-NS and StpA in Escherichia coli bind DNA as oligomers and are implicated in gene regulatory systems. There is evidence for both homomeric and heteromeric H-NS-StpA complexes. The two proteins show differential turnover, and StpA was previously found to be subject to protease-mediated degradation by the Lon protease. We investigated which regions of the H-NS protein are able to prevent degradation of StpA. A set of truncated H-NS derivatives was tested for their ability to mediate StpA stability and to form heteromers in vitro. The data indicate that H-NS interacts with StpA at two regions and that the presence of at least one of the H-NS regions is necessary for StpA stability. Our results also suggest that a proteolytically stable form of StpA, StpA(F21C), forms dimers, whereas wild-type StpA in the absence of H-NS predominantly forms tetramers or oligomers, which are more susceptible to proteolysis.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Battling the bureaucracy hydra2016In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 351, no 6272, p. 530-530Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    RNA molecules: More than mere information intermediaries2005In: ASM news (Washington), ISSN 0044-7897, Vol. 71, no 11, p. 515-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA molecules have always been overlooked when it comes to their role in living cells. They have been considered as merely assisting in the flow of information from genes to functional molecules in living cells. However, new functions are being identified including gene regulation and expression.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    RNA thermosensors in bacterial pathogens.2009In: Bacterial Sensing and Signaling / [ed] Collin M, Schuch R, S. Karger, 2009, Vol. 16, p. 150-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the course of an infection, a pathogenic bacterium has to sense the environment and adjust its gene expression appropriately. One such environmental cue is the difference in temperature inside and outside the host. RNA thermosensors are structures that can respond to differences in temperature by altering their conformation and thereby allowing/preventing binding of the ribosome to the translational start site. This chapter discusses different types of RNA thermosensors in general and RNA thermosensors known to control virulence gene expression in particular.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Freitag, Nancy E.
    Regulation of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence2019In: Microbiology Spectrum, E-ISSN 2165-0497, Vol. 7, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas obligate human and animal bacterial pathogens may be able to depend upon the warmth and relative stability of their chosen replication niche, environmental bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes that harbor the ability to replicate both within animal cells and in the outside environment must maintain the capability to manage life under a variety of disparate conditions. Bacterial life in the outside environment requires adaptation to wide ranges of temperature, available nutrients, and physical stresses such as changes in pH and osmolarity as well as desiccation. Following ingestion by a susceptible animal host, the bacterium must adapt to similar changes during transit through the gastrointestinal tract and overcome a variety of barriers associated with host innate immune responses. Rapid alteration of patterns of gene expression and protein synthesis represent one strategy for quickly adapting to a dynamic host landscape. Here, we provide an overview of the impressive variety of strategies employed by the soil-dwelling, foodborne, mammalian pathogen L. monocytogenes to straddle diverse environments and optimize bacterial fitness both inside and outside host cells.

  • 28.
    Koller, Timm O.
    et al.
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, Hamburg, Germany.
    Turnbull, Kathryn Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Crowe-Mcauliffe, Caillan
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, Hamburg, Germany.
    Roghanian, Mohammad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Clinical Microbiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bulvas, Ondřej
    Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Flemingovo nam. 2, Prague 6, Czech Republic; Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    Nakamoto, Jose A.
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Kurata, Tatsuaki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Julius, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Hauryliuk, Vasili
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Tartu, Estonia.
    Wilson, Daniel N.
    Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, Hamburg, Germany.
    Structural basis for HflXr-mediated antibiotic resistance in Listeria monocytogenes2022In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 50, no 19, p. 11285-11300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HflX is a ubiquitous bacterial GTPase that splits and recycles stressed ribosomes. In addition to HflX, Listeria monocytogenes contains a second HflX homolog, HflXr. Unlike HflX, HflXr confers resistance to macrolide and lincosamide antibiotics by an experimentally unexplored mechanism. Here, we have determined cryo-EM structures of L. monocytogenes HflXr-50S and HflX-50S complexes as well as L. monocytogenes 70S ribosomes in the presence and absence of the lincosamide lincomycin. While the overall geometry of HflXr on the 50S subunit is similar to that of HflX, a loop within the N-terminal domain of HflXr, which is two amino acids longer than in HflX, reaches deeper into the peptidyltransferase center. Moreover, unlike HflX, the binding of HflXr induces conformational changes within adjacent rRNA nucleotides that would be incompatible with drug binding. These findings suggest that HflXr confers resistance using an allosteric ribosome protection mechanism, rather than by simply splitting and recycling antibiotic-stalled ribosomes.

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  • 29.
    Krajewski, Stefanie Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ignatov, Dmitry
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Two Are Better Than One: Dual Targeting of Riboswitches by Metabolite Analogs2017In: Cell Chemical Biology, ISSN 2451-9456, E-ISSN 2451-9448, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 535-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Wang et al. (2017) examine the effect of the novel synthetic molecule ribocil-C and the natural compound roseoflavin in Gram-positive pathogens. In methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ribocil-C and roseoflavin target two autonomous riboswitches simultaneously, thereby inhibiting de novo synthesis and uptake of riboflavin.

  • 30.
    Krajewski, Stefanie Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Isoz, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Antibacterial and antivirulence effect of 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine in Listeria monocytogenes2017In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1914-1924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging development of antibiotic resistant bacteria calls for novel types of antibacterial agents. In this work we examined the putative antibacterial effect of purine analogs in Listeria monocytogenes. We show that, among several tested purine analogs, only 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (6-N-HAP) reduces the viability of the Gram-positive pathogenListeria monocy-togenes. As in Bacillus subtilis, 6-N-HAP terminates expression at guanine riboswitches in L. monocyto-genes hence preventing expression of their downstream genes. However, we show that the bacteriocidal effect of the compound was unlinked to the terminated expression at the guanine riboswitches. When further examining the antimicrobial effect, we observed that 6-N-HAP acts as a potent mutagen in L. monocytogenes, by increasing the mutation rate and inducing the SOS-response. Also, addition of 6N-HAP decreased virulence gene expression by reducing both the levels and activity of the virulence regulator PrfA.

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  • 31.
    Kulén, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Lindgren, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Hansen, Sabine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Cairns, Andrew G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Grundström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Begum, Afshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    van der Lingen, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Brännström, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Hall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sauer, Uwe H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Structure-based design of inhibitors targeting PrfA, the master virulence regulator of Listeria monocytogenes2018In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 61, no 9, p. 4165-4175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that controls much of its virulence through the transcriptional regulator PrfA. In this study, we describe structure guided design and synthesis of a set of PrfA inhibitors based on ring-fused 2-pyridone heterocycles. Our most effective compound decreased virulence factor expression, reduced bacterial uptake into eukaryotic cells, and improved survival of chicken embryos infected with L. monocytogenes compared to previously identified compounds. Crystal structures identified an intraprotein "tunnel" as the main inhibitor binding site (A1), where the compounds participate in an extensive hydrophobic network that restricts the protein's ability to form functional DNA-binding helix−turn−helix (HTH) motifs. Our studies also revealed a hitherto unsuspected structural plasticity of the HTH motif. In conclusion, we have designed 2-pyridone analogues that function as site-A1 selective PrfA inhibitors with potent antivirulence properties.

  • 32.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Dussurget, Olivier
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Gripenland, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Mandin, Pierre
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Repoila, Francis
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Buchrieser, Carmen
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Cossart, Pascale
    Pasteur Institute, France.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    A trans-acting riboswitch controls expression of the virulence regulator PrfA in Listeria monocytogenes2009In: Cell, ISSN 0092-8674, E-ISSN 1097-4172, Vol. 139, no 4, p. 770-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Riboswitches are RNA elements acting in cis, controlling expression of their downstream genes through a metabolite-induced alteration of their secondary structure. Here, we demonstrate that two S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) riboswitches, SreA and SreB, can also function in trans and act as noncoding RNAs in Listeria monocytogenes. SreA and SreB control expression of the virulence regulator PrfA by binding to the 5´-untranslated region of its mRNA. Absence of the SAM riboswitches SreA and SreB increases the level of PrfA and virulence gene expression in L. monocytogenes. Thus, the impact of the SAM riboswitches on PrfA expression highlights a link between bacterial virulence and nutrient availability. Together, our results uncover an unexpected role for riboswitches and a distinct class of regulatory noncoding RNAs in bacteria.

  • 33.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gripenland, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Control of Listeria monocytogenes virulence by 5´-untranslated RNA2006In: Trends in Microbiology, ISSN 0966-842X, E-ISSN 1878-4380, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 294-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes uses a wide range of virulence factors for its pathogenesis. Expression of five of these factors has previously been shown to be subjected to posttranscriptional regulation as a result of their long 5´-untranslated region (5´-UTR). We have investigated the presence of 5´-UTRs among the other known virulence genes and genes that encode putatively virulence-associated surface proteins. Our results strongly suggest that L. monocytogenes controls many of its virulence genes by a mechanism that involves the 5´-UTR. These findings further emphasize the importance of post-transcriptional control for L. monocytogenes virulence.

  • 34.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Memarpour, Faranak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sondén, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    The first 20 codons of the prfA-mRNA are required for efficient translation in Listeria monocytogenesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of virulence factors in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is almost exclusively regulated by the transcriptional activator PrfA. The translation of prfA is controlled by a thermosensor located in the 5´-untranslated RNA (UTR), which is high at 37°C and low at temperatures below 30°C. Also, translation of the prfA transcript is inhibited by a trans-acting riboswitch RNA, SreA, which binds to the 5´-end of the thermosensor. In order to develop a thermoregulated translational expression system in Mycobacterial species, the 5´-UTR and different lengths of the prfA-coding sequences were placed in front of lacZ. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the constructs retained their thermoregulation. However, the β-galactosidase expression was directly correlated to the length of the prfA-coding mRNA fused in front of lacZ. A similar regulation was also detected when gfp was used as a reporter gene. Transcriptional stability experiments indicated that the observed difference in expression was not due to a decreased stability of transcripts lacking more of the prfA-coding RNA. The gfp constructs behaved similarly in L. monocytogenes as in E. coli, emphasizing the requirement of the prfA-coding RNA for maximal expression, also in its natural genetic background. Moreover, the different PrfA-LacZ fusion proteins showed the same proteolytic stability, ruling out post-translational mechanisms. Instead, in vitro transcription/translation experiments suggest a role of the first 20 codons of the native prfA-mRNA for maximal expression. Our data indicated that the difference in expression was not due to rare codons, stretches of certain bases or a putative downstream box. We observed an inverse correlation between the stability of the RNA secondary structure and protein expression. The first 12 codons of prfA displayed a very weak RNA secondary structure. Similar weak stabilities were detected also for thermosensors in other species, indicating a common strategy of regulation. In summary, the present work determines the importance of an unstructured 5´-coding region of the prfA-RNA for efficient translation.

  • 35.
    Loh, Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Memarpour, Faranak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.
    Univ So Denmark, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sondén, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    An unstructured 5'-coding region of the prfA mRNA is required for efficient translation2012In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 1818-1827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of virulence factors in the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is almost exclusively regulated by the transcriptional activator PrfA. The translation of prfA is controlled by a thermosensor located in the 5'-untranslated RNA (UTR), and is high at 37 degrees C and low at temperatures < 30 degrees C. In order to develop a thermoregulated translational expression system, the 5'-UTR and different lengths of the prfA-coding sequences were placed in front of lacZ. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the beta-galactosidase expression was directly correlated to the length of the prfA-coding mRNA lying in front of lacZ. A similar effect was detected with gfp as a reporter gene in both L. monocytogenes and E. coli, emphasizing the requirement of the prfA-coding RNA for maximal expression. In vitro transcription/translation and mutational analysis suggests a role for the first 20 codons of the native prfA-mRNA for maximal expression. By toe-print and RNA-probing analysis, a flexible hairpin-loop located immediately downstream of the start-codon was shown to be important for ribosomal binding. The present work determines the importance of an unstructured part of the 5'-coding region of the prfA-mRNA for efficient translation.

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  • 36. Mandin, Pierre
    et al.
    Fsihi, Hafida
    Dussurget, Olivier
    Vergassola, Massimo
    Milohanic, Eliane
    Toledo-Arana, Alejandro
    Lasa, Iñigo
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Cossart, Pascale
    VirR, a response regulator critical for Listeria monocytogenes virulence.2005In: Mol Microbiol, ISSN 0950-382X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 1367-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify new genes involved in the virulence of the Gram-positive intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. One of the mutants isolated by this technique had the transposon inserted in virR, a gene encoding a putative response regulator of a two-component system. Deletion of virR severely decreased virulence in mice as well as invasion in cell-culture experiments. Using a transcriptomic approach, we identified 12 genes regulated by VirR, including the dlt-operon, previously reported to be important for L. monocytogenes virulence. However, a strain lacking dltA, was not as impaired in virulence as the DeltavirR strain, suggesting a role in virulence for other members of the vir regulon. Another VirR-regulated gene is homologous to mprF, which encodes a protein that modifies membrane phosphatidyl glycerol with l-lysine and that is involved in resistance to human defensins in Staphylococcus aureus. VirR thus appears to control virulence by a global regulation of surface components modifications. These modifications may affect interactions with host cells, including components of the innate immune system. Surprisingly, although controlling the same set of genes as VirR, the putative cognate histidine kinase of VirR, VirS, encoded by a gene located three genes downstream of virR, was shown not to be essential for virulence. By monitoring the activity of VirR with a GFP reporter construct, we showed that VirR can be activated independently of VirS, for example through a mechanism involving variations in the level of intracellular acetyl phosphate. In silico analysis of the VirR-regulated promoters revealed a VirR DNA-binding consensus site and specific interaction between purified VirR protein and this consensus sequence was demonstrated by gel mobility shift assays. This study identifies a second key virulence regulon in L. monocytogenes, after the prfA regulon.

  • 37. Mandin, Pierre
    et al.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Feeling the heat at the millennium: thermosensors playing with fire2020In: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 113, no 3, p. 588-592Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An outstanding question regards the ability of organisms to sense their environments and respond in a suitable way. Pathogenic bacteria in particular exploit host-temperature sensing as a cue for triggering virulence gene expression. This micro-review does not attempt to fully cover the field of bacterial thermosensors and in detail describe each identified case. Instead, the review focus on the time-period at the end of the 1990's and beginning of the 2000's when several key discoveries were made, identifying protein, DNA and RNA as potential thermosensors controlling gene expression in several different bacterial pathogens in general and on the prfA thermosensor of Listeria monocytogenes in particular.

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  • 38.
    Mansjö, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    The Riboflavin analog roseoflavin targets an FMN-riboswitch and blocks Listeria monocytogenes growth, but also stimulates virulence gene-expression and infection2011In: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 674-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, riboswitches have emerged as potential targets for novel antibacterial substances. In this study, we investigated how one flavin analog, roseoflavin, affected the gene-expression, growth and infectivity of the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to determine the potential of this analog to function as an antibacterial substance. The results indicate that roseoflavin has a profound inhibiting effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes at very low concentrations. Also, expression of the gene located downstream of the FMN riboswitch, a riboflavin transporter, was blocked by the addition of roseoflavin. Base-substitution mutations in the FMN riboswitch allowed the bacteria to grow in the presence of roseoflavin, showing that roseoflavin targeted the FMN riboswitch directly. Surprisingly, we found that roseoflavin stimulated L. monocytogenes virulence gene expression and infection abilities in a mechanism independent of the FMN riboswitch. Our results suggest that roseoflavin can block growth but also enhance Listeria virulence.

  • 39. Marinho, Catarina M.
    et al.
    Dos Santos, Patricia T.
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte H.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ignatov, Dmitriy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Guerreiro, Duarte N.
    Piveteau, Pascal
    O'Byrne, Conor P.
    The σB-dependent regulatory sRNA Rli47 represses isoleucine biosynthesis in Listeria monocytogenes through a direct interaction with the ilvA transcript2019In: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 1424-1437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes can persist and grow in a diverse range of environmental conditions, both outside and within its mammalian host. The alternative sigma factor Sigma B (sigma(B)) plays an important role in this adaptability and is critical for the transition into the host. While some of the functions of the sigma(B) regulon in facilitating this transition are understood the role of sigma(B)-dependent small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) remain poorly characterized. In this study, we focused on elucidating the function of Rli47, a sigma(B)-dependent sRNA that is highly induced in the intestine and in macrophages. Using a combination of in silico and in vivo approaches, a binding interaction was predicted with the Shine-Dalgarno region of the ilvA mRNA, which encodes threonine deaminase, an enzyme required for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Both ilvA transcript levels and threonine deaminase activity were increased in a deletion mutant lacking the rli47 gene. The Delta rli47 mutant displayed a shorter growth lag in isoleucine-depleted growth media relative to the wild-type, and a similar phenotype was also observed in a mutant lacking sigma(B). The impact of the Delta rli47 on the global transcription profile of the cell was investigated using RNA-seq, and a significant role for Rli47 in modulating amino acid metabolism was uncovered. Taken together, the data point to a model where Rli47 is responsible for specifically repressing isoleucine biosynthesis as a way to restrict growth under harsh conditions, potentially contributing to the survival of L. monocytogenes in niches both outside and within the mammalian host.

  • 40. Matern, Andreas
    et al.
    Pedrolli, Danielle
    Großhennig, Stephanie
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Mack, Matthias
    Uptake and Metabolism of Antibiotics Roseoflavin and 8-Demethyl-8-Aminoriboflavin in Riboflavin-Auxotrophic Listeria monocytogenes2016In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 198, no 23, p. 3233-3243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are produced by the bacteria Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus Riboflavin analogs have the potential to be used as broad-spectrum antibiotics, and we therefore studied the metabolism of riboflavin (vitamin B2), RoF, and AF in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which is a riboflavin auxotroph. We show that the L. monocytogenes protein Lmo1945 is responsible for the uptake of riboflavin, RoF, and AF. Following import, these flavins are phosphorylated/adenylylated by the bifunctional flavokinase/flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase Lmo1329 and adenylylated by the unique FAD synthetase Lmo0728, the first monofunctional FAD synthetase to be described in bacteria. Lmo1329 generates the cofactors flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD, whereas Lmo0728 produces FAD only. The combined activities of Lmo1329 and Lmo0728 are responsible for the intracellular formation of the toxic cofactor analogs roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN), roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD), 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin mononucleotide (AFMN), and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin adenine dinucleotide (AFAD). In vivo reporter gene assays and in vitro transcription/translation experiments show that the L. monocytogenes FMN riboswitch Rli96, which controls expression of the riboflavin transport gene lmo1945, is negatively affected by riboflavin/FMN and RoF/RoFMN but not by AF/AFMN. Treatment of L. monocytogenes with RoF or AF leads to drastically reduced FMN/FAD levels. We suggest that the reduced flavin cofactor levels in combination with concomitant synthesis of inactive cofactor analogs (RoFMN, RoFAD, AFMN, and AFAD) explain why RoF and AF contribute to antibiotic activity in L. monocytogenes IMPORTANCE: The riboflavin analogs roseoflavin (RoF) and 8-demethyl-8-aminoriboflavin (AF) are small molecules which are produced by Streptomyces davawensis and Streptomyces cinnabarinus RoF and AF were reported to have antibacterial activity, and we studied how these compounds are metabolized by the human bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes We found that the L. monocytogenes protein Lmo1945 mediates uptake of AF and RoF and that the combined activities of the enzymes Lmo1329 and Lmo0728 are responsible for the conversion of AF and RoF to toxic cofactor analogs. Comparative studies with RoF and AF (a weaker antibiotic) suggest that the reduction in FMN/FAD levels and the formation of inactive FMN/FAD analogs explain to a large extent the antibiotic activity of AF and RoF.

  • 41. Mellin, JR
    et al.
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Becavin, Christophe
    Gouin, Edith
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Cossart, Pascale
    A riboswitch-regulated antisense RNA in Listeria monocytogenes2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 32, p. 13132-13137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Netterling, Sakura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bäreclev, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    RNA helicase important for Listeria monocytogenes hemolytic activity and virulence factor expression2016In: Infection and Immunity, ISSN 0019-9567, E-ISSN 1098-5522, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA helicases have been shown to be important for the function of RNA molecules at several levels, although their putative involvement in microbial pathogenesis has remained elusive. We have previously shown that Listeria monocytogenes DExD-box RNA helicases are important for bacterial growth, motility, ribosomal maturation, and rRNA processing. We assessed the importance of the RNA helicase Lmo0866 (here named CshA) for expression of virulence traits. We observed a reduction in hemolytic activity in a strain lacking CshA compared to the wild type. This phenomenon was less evident in strains lacking other RNA helicases. The reduced hemolysis was accompanied by lower expression of major listerial virulence factors in the ΔcshA strain, mainly listeriolysin O, but also to some degree the actin polymerizing factor ActA. Reduced expression of these virulence factors in the strain lacking CshA did not, however, correlate with a decreased level of the virulence regulator PrfA. When combining the ΔcshA knockout with a mutation creating a constitutively active PrfA protein (PrfA*), the effect of the ΔcshA knockout on LLO expression was negated. These data suggest a role for the RNA helicase CshA in posttranslational activation of PrfA. Surprisingly, although the expression of several virulence factors was reduced, the ΔcshA strain did not demonstrate any reduced ability to infect nonphagocytic cells compared to the wild-type strain.

  • 43.
    Netterling, Sakura
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Vaitkevicius, Karolis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nord, Stefan
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    A listeria monocytogenes RNA-helicase essential for growth and ribosomal maturation at low temperatures, uses its C-terminus for appropriate interaction with the ribosome2012In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 194, no 16, p. 4377-4385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive food-borne human pathogen, is able to grow at temperatures close to 0°C and is thus of great concern for the food-industry. In this work, we have investigated the physiological role of one DExD-box RNA-helicase in Listeria monocytogenes. The RNA-helicase Lmo1722 was required for optimal growth at low temperatures, whereas it was dispensable at 37°C. A Δlmo1722 strain was less motile due to a down-regulation of the major subunit of the flagellum, FlaA, caused by decreased flaA expression. By ribosomal fractionation experiments, it was observed that Lmo1722 was mainly associated with the 50S subunit of the ribosome. Absence of Lmo1722 decreased the fraction of 50S ribosomal subunits and mature 70S ribosomes and affected the processing of the 23S precursor rRNA. The ribosomal profile could be restored to wild-type levels in a Δlmo1722 strain expressing Lmo1722. Interestingly, the C-terminal part of Lmo1722 was redundant for low temperature growth, motility, 23S rRNA processing and appropriate ribosomal maturation. However, Lmo1722 lacking the C-terminus showed a reduced affinity for the 50S and 70S fractions, suggesting that the C-terminus is important for proper guidance of Lmo1722 to the 50S subunit. Taken together, our results show that the Listeria RNA helicase Lmo1722 is essential for growth at low temperatures, motility, ribosomal RNA processing and is important for ribosomal maturation being associated mainly with the 50S subunit of the ribosome.

  • 44.
    Nye, Taylor M.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Tükenmez, Hasan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Singh, Pardeep
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Flores-Mireles, Ana L.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, India.
    Obernuefemann, Chloe L.P.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Pinkner, Jerome S.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Sarkar, Souvik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bonde, Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lindgren, Anders E. G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Dodson, Karen W.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Caparon, Michael G.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Hultgren, Scott J.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Center for Women’s Infectious Disease Research, Washington University, School of Medicine, MO, St. Louis, United States.
    Ring-fused 2-pyridones effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens and synergistic with standard-of-care antibiotics2022In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 119, no 43, article id e2210912119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alarming rise of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria has precipitated a healthcare crisis, necessitating the development of new antimicrobial therapies. Here we describe a new class of antibiotics based on a ring-fused 2-pyridone backbone, which are active against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), a serious threat as classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ring-fused 2-pyridone antibiotics have bacteriostatic activity against actively dividing exponential phase enterococcal cells and bactericidal activity against nondividing stationary phase enterococcal cells. The molecular mechanism of drug-induced killing of stationary phase cells mimics aspects of fratricide observed in enterococcal biofilms, where both are mediated by the Atn autolysin and the GelE protease. In addition, combinations of sublethal concentrations of ring-fused 2-pyridones and standard-of-care antibiotics, such as vancomycin, were found to synergize to kill clinical strains of VRE. Furthermore, a broad range of antibiotic resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including those responsible for the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistant healthcare-associated infections, are susceptible to this new class of 2-pyridone antibiotics. Given the broad antibacterial activities of ring-fused 2-pyridone compounds against Gram-positive (GmP) bacteria we term these compounds GmPcides, which hold promise in combating the rising tide of antibiotic resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

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  • 45. O'Donoghue, Beth
    et al.
    NicAogain, Kerrie
    Bennett, Claire
    Conneely, Alan
    Tiensuu, Teresa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    O'Byrne, Conor
    Blue-Light Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes Growth Is Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species and Is Influenced by sigma(B) and the Blue-Light Sensor Lmo07992016In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 82, no 13, p. 4017-4027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes senses blue light via the flavin mononucleotide-containing sensory protein Lmo0799, leading to activation of the general stress response sigma factor SigB (sigma(B)). In this study, we investigated the physiological response of this foodborne pathogen to blue light. We show that blue light (460 to 470 nm) doses of 1.5 to 2 mW cm(-2) cause inhibition of growth on agar-based and liquid culture media. The inhibitory effects are dependent on cell density, with reduced effects evident when high cell numbers are present. The addition of 20 mM dimethylthiourea, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, or catalase to the medium reverses the inhibitory effects of blue light, suggesting that growth inhibition is mediated by the formation of reactive oxygen species. A mutant strain lacking sigma(B) (Delta sigB) was found to be less inhibited by blue light than the wild type, likely indicating the energetic cost of deploying the general stress response. When a lethal dose of light (8 mW cm(-2)) was applied to cells, the Delta sigB mutant displayed a marked increase in sensitivity to light compared to the wild type. To investigate the role of the blue-light sensor Lmo0799, mutants were constructed that either had a deletion of the gene (Delta lmo0799) or alteration in a conserved cysteine residue at position 56, which is predicted to play a pivotal role in the photocycle of the protein (lmo0799 C56A). Both mutants displayed phenotypes similar to the Delta sigB mutant in the presence of blue light, providing genetic evidence that residue 56 is critical for light sensing in L. monocytogenes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes is inhibited by blue light in a manner that depends on reactive oxygen species, and they demonstrate clear light-dependent phenotypes associated with sigma(B) and the blue-light sensor Lmo0799.

  • 46.
    Oelker, Melanie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Vielfort, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kiss, Anita
    Lindgren, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Grundström, Christin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Kulén, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nagel, Nadja
    van der Lingen, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Tyagi, Mohit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Begum, Afshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hall, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Lindgren, Anders E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Singh, Pardeep
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Almqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Discovery of three new binding sites and modes of ring-fused 2-pyridones to PrfA: How can they contribute to drug design?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Olsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Honkala, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Blomqvist, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kok, Eloise
    Weidung, Bodil
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Urea dilution of serum for reproducible anti-HSV1 IgG avidity index2019In: BMC Infectious Diseases, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 19, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), establishes life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe a protocol to generate a reliable and discriminative avidity index (AI) for anti-HSV1 IgG content in human sera. Human serum from two distinct cohorts; one a biobank collection (Betula) (n = 28), and one from a clinical diagnostics laboratory at Northern Sweden University Hospital (NUS) (n = 18), were assessed for presence of IgG antibodies against HSV1 by a commercially available ELISA-kit. Addition of urea at the incubation step reduces effective binding, and the ratio between urea treated sample and non-treated sample was used to express an avidity index (AI) for individual samples. AI score ranged between 43.2 and 73.4% among anti-HSV1 positive biobank sera. Clinical samples ranged between 36.3 and 74.9%. Reproducibility expressed as an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was estimated at 0.948 (95% CI: 0.900-0.979) and 0.989 (95% CI 0.969-0.996) in the biobank and clinical samples, respectively. The method allows for AI scoring of anti-HSV1 IgG from individual human sera with a single measurement. The least significant change between two measurements at the p < 0.05 level was estimated at 5.4 and 3.2 points, respectively, for the two assessed cohorts.

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  • 48.
    Park, Hyun-Sook
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Östberg, Yngve
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wagner, E Gerhart
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Novel role for a bacterial nucleoid protein in translation of mRNAs with suboptimal ribosome-binding sites2010In: Genes & Development, ISSN 0890-9369, E-ISSN 1549-5477, Vol. 24, no 13, p. 1345-1350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Escherichia coli, the major nucleoid protein H-NS limits transcription by acting as a repressor or transcriptional silencer, presumably by its ability to close the looped chromosome domains in the nucleoid through DNA-protein-DNA bridging. Here, we demonstrate the direct involvement of H-NS as a positive factor stimulating translation of the malT mRNA. In vitro studies showed that H-NS facilitates a repositioning of the 30S preinitiation complex on the malT mRNA. H-NS stimulation of translation depended on the AU-rich -35 to -40 region of the mRNA. Several additional examples were found demonstrating a novel function for H-NS in translation of genes with suboptimal ribosome-binding sequences.

  • 49. Quereda, Juan J.
    et al.
    Andersson, Christopher
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Cossart, Pascale
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Pizarro-Cerda, Javier
    Role in virulence of phospholipases, listeriolysin O and listeriolysin S from epidemic Listeria monocytogenes using the chicken embryo infection model2018In: Veterinary research (Print), ISSN 0928-4249, E-ISSN 1297-9716, Vol. 49, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most human listeriosis outbreaks are caused by Listeria monocytogenes evolutionary lineage I strains which possess four exotoxins: a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PlcA), a broad-range phospholipase C (PlcB), listeriolysin O (LLO) and listeriolysin S (LLS). The simultaneous contribution of these molecules to virulence has never been explored. Here, the importance of these four exotoxins of an epidemic lineage I L. monocytogenes strain (F2365) in virulence was assessed in chicken embryos infected in the allantoic cavity. We show that LLS does not play a role in virulence while LLO is required to infect and kill chicken embryos both in wild type transcriptional regulator of virulence PrfA -(PrfAWT) and constitutively active PrfA (PrfA*) backgrounds. We demonstrate that PlcA, a toxin previously considered as a minor virulence factor, played a major role in virulence in a PrfA* background. Interestingly, GFP transcriptional fusions show that the plcA promoter is less active than the hly promoter in vitro, explaining why the contribution of PlcA to virulence could be observed more importantly in a PrfA* background. Together, our results suggest that PlcA might play a more important role in the infectious lifecycle of L. monocytogenes than previously thought, explaining why all the strains of L. monocytogenes have conserved an intact copy of plcA in their genomes.

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  • 50. Sievers, Susanne
    et al.
    Lund, Anja
    Menendez-Gil, Pilar
    Nielsen, Aaraby
    Storm Mollerup, Maria
    Lambert Nielsen, Stine
    Buch Larsson, Pernille
    Borch-Jensen, Jonas
    Johansson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Kallipolitis, Birgitte Haahr
    The multicopy sRNA LhrC controls expression of the oligopeptide-binding protein OppA in Listeria monocytogenes2015In: RNA Biology, ISSN 1547-6286, E-ISSN 1555-8584, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 985-997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of the foodborne disease listeriosis. During infection, L. monocytogenes produces an array of non-coding RNAs, including the multicopy sRNA LhrC. These five, nearly identical sRNAs are highly induced in response to cell envelope stress and target the virulence adhesin lapB at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we demonstrate that LhrC controls expression of additional genes encoding cell envelope-associated proteins with virulence function. Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we identified a set of genes affected by LhrC in response to cell envelope stress. Three targets were significantly down-regulated by LhrC at both the RNA and protein level: lmo2349, tcsA and oppA. All three genes encode membrane-associated proteins: A putative substrate binding protein of an amino acid ABC transporter (Lmo2349); the CD4+ T cell-stimulating antigen TcsA, and the oligopeptide binding protein OppA, of which the latter 2 are required for full virulence of L. monocytogenes. For OppA, we show that LhrC acts by direct base paring to the ribosome binding site of the oppA mRNA, leading to an impediment of its translation and a decreased mRNA level. The sRNA-mRNA interaction depends on 2 of 3 CU-rich regions in LhrC allowing binding of 2 oppA mRNAs to a single LhrC molecule. Finally, we found that LhrC contributes to infection in macrophage-like cells. These findings demonstrate a central role for LhrC in controlling the level of OppA and other virulence-associated cell envelope proteins in response to cell envelope stress.

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