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  • 1. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Bowden, William B.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    Aiken, George R.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Bishop, Kevin
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Breen, Amy L.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Cai, Yihua
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Carey, Sean K.
    Chen, Jing M.
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    de Groot, William J.
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fetcher, Ned
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Gough, Laura
    Grogan, Paul
    Guo, Laodong
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Hinzman, Larry
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jandt, Randi
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Kelly, Ryan
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kling, George W.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Kouki, Jari
    Kuhry, Peter
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Mann, Paul J.
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    McClelland, James W.
    Molau, Ulf
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pare, David
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Payette, Serge
    Peng, Changhui
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Reynolds, James F.
    Robards, Martin
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Schaedel, Christina
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Sky, Jasper
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Starr, Gregory
    Striegl, Robert G.
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Zimov, Sergei
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikel-id 034014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

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  • 2. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Manasypov, R.
    Lim, A.
    Krickov, I.
    Kolesnichenko, L. G.
    Laudon, H.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Permafrost and lakes control river isotope composition across a boreal Arctic transect in the Western Siberian lowlands2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. =20-=20, artikel-id 034028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western Siberian Lowlands (WSL) store large quantities of organic carbon that will be exposed and mobilized by the thawing of permafrost. The fate of mobilized carbon, however, is not well understood, partly because of inadequate knowledge of hydrological controls in the region which has a vast low-relief surface area, extensive lake and wetland coverage and gradually increasing permafrost influence. We used stable water isotopes to improve our understanding of dominant landscape controls on the hydrology of the WSL. We sampled rivers along a 1700 km South-North transect from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost repeatedly over three years, and derived isotope proxies for catchment hydrological responsiveness and connectivity. We found correlations between the isotope proxies and catchment characteristics, suggesting that lakes and wetlands are intimately connected to rivers, and that permafrost increases the responsiveness of the catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events, reducing catchment mean transit times. Our work provides rare isotope-based field evidence that permafrost and lakes/wetlands influence hydrological pathways across a wide range of spatial scales (10-105 km2) and permafrost coverage (0%-70%). This has important implications, because both permafrost extent and lake/wetland coverage are affected by permafrost thaw in the changing climate. Changes in these hydrological landscape controls are likely to alter carbon export and emission via inland waters, which may be of global significance.

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  • 3. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vorobyev, S. N.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Loiko, S.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape2018Ingår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, s. 279-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Jurgensone, Iveta
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Simonelli, Paolo
    Bignert, Anders
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. e61293-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon ( humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 mu m algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 mu m. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

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  • 5.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Net ecosystem production in clear-water and brown-water lakes2012Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 26, s. GB1017-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 15 lakes in northern Sweden with respect to primary production and respiration in benthic and pelagic habitats. The lakes were characterized by different concentrations of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of terrestrial origin, forming a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water lakes. Primary production decreased and respiration increased on a whole-lake scale along the gradient of increasing DOC. Thus, the lakes became more net heterotrophic, i.e., had lower net ecosystem production (NEP = gross primary production - community respiration), with increasing terrestrial DOC and this change coincided with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in the surface waters. The single most important process for the increasing net heterotrophy along the DOC gradient was pelagic respiration of terrestrial organic carbon. In spite of high metabolic activity in the benthic habitat, benthic primary production and benthic respiration decreased simultaneously with increasing DOC, showing that the benthic habitat was in metabolic balance throughout the gradient. Therefore, the net heterotrophic states of the lakes depended on the terrestrial DOC export to lakes and the concomitant respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the pelagic habitat.

  • 6.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Terrestrial organic matter and light penetration: Effects on bacterial and primary production in lakes2009Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 2034-2040Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated productivity at the basal trophic level in 15 unproductive lakes in a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water (humic) lakes in northern Sweden. Primary production and bacterial production in benthic and pelagic habitats were measured to estimate the variation in energy mobilization from external energy sources (primary production plus bacterial production on allochthonous organic carbon) along the gradient. Clear-water lakes were dominated by autotrophic energy mobilization in the benthic habitat, whereas humic lakes were dominated by heterotrophic energy mobilization in the pelagic habitat. Whole-lake (benthic + pelagic) energy mobilization was negatively correlated to the light-extinction coefficient, which was determined by colored terrestrial organic matter in the lake water. Thus, variation in the concentration of terrestrial organic matter and its light-absorbing characteristics exerts strong control on the magnitude, as well as on the processes and pathways, of energy mobilization in unproductive lakes. We suggest that unproductive lakes in general are sensitive to input of terrestrial organic matter because of its effects on basal energy mobilization in both benthic and pelagic habitats.

  • 7.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Whole-lake estimates of carbon flux through algae and bacteria in benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes2009Ingår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, nr 7, s. 1923-1932Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified new biomass production of algae and bacteria in both benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes to contrast how carbon from the atmosphere and terrestrial sources regulates whole-lake metabolism. We studied four small unproductive lakes in subarctic northern Sweden during one summer season. The production of new biomass in both benthic and pelagic habitats was calculated as the sum of autotrophic production by algae and heterotrophic production by bacteria using allochthonous organic carbon (OC). Whole-lake production of new biomass was dominated by the benthic habitat (86% +/- 4% [mean +/- SD]) and by primary production (77% +/- 9%). Still, heterotrophic bacteria fueled by allochthonous OC constituted a significant portion of the new biomass production in both benthic (19% +/- 11%) and pelagic habitats (51% +/- 24%). In addition, overall net production (primary production minus respiration) was close to zero in the benthic habitats but highly negative (-163 +/- 81 mg C.m(-2).d(-1)) in pelagic regions of all lakes. We conclude (1) that allochthonous OC supported a significant part of total production of new biomass in both pelagic and benthic habitats, (2) that benthic habitats dominated the whole-lake production of new biomass, and (3) that respiration and net CO2 production dominated the carbon flux of the pelagic habitats and biomass production dominated the benthic carbon flux. Taken together, these findings suggest that previous investigations have greatly underestimated the productivity of clear-water lakes when benthic autotrophic production and metabolism of allochthonous OC have not been measured.

  • 8.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Competition mediated coexistence of invading intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback, and a resident omnivorous top predator, Arctic charManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change results in changes in the geographical distribution of species. Species invasion success into a new area is dependent both on the dispersal ability of species as well as the strength and identity of biotic interactions between resident and invading species. Coexistence in intraguild predation (IGP) systems depends on the relative strength of predation and competition interactions which in turn are temperature dependent. We investigated the effects of introducing an intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), into allopatric populations of the omnivorous top predator Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Introductions were performed in lakes with different climate regimes, two tundra lakes and two forest lakes that differed in average summer temperatures with 1.4 ± 0.5 ºC (average ± 1SD). We found that sticklebacks were able to invade and increase in density in both tundra and forest lakes. Sticklebacks had strong negative effects on resource densities which also was reflected in a decreased growth of small char. Increasing stickleback density had a positive effect on growth of large adults and on the maximum size of char. We conclude that stickleback presence is not limited by biological interactions in these systems but rather by dispersion ability. We suggest that the size dependency in the response of char to the invasion of sticklebacks is fundamental for the successful invasion of sticklebacks, and that size dependent interactions including cannibalism play important roles for coexistence in natural IGP-systems.

  • 9.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temperature mediated effects on top consumer populations in subarctic lakesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature on top consumer populations in subarctic lake communities were studied by contrasting two lake pairs in different climate regimes: one pair on the low alpine tundra and one pair in the subalpine birch forest. We measured zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomasses over the season and estimated population density and size structure of the top consumer Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Furthermore, we modelled char growth using literature data on temperature dependent search rate, handling time and metabolic demands. The forest lakes were warmer than the tundra lakes. Char in the forest lakes were larger and had a higher individual growth compared to char in the tundra lakes, while population density and biomasses of char were not different between the forest and the tundra lakes. There were no differences in macroinvertebrate and zooplankton resource levels available for char between lake pairs. Our modeling of char growth revealed that higher temperature increased growth of char at the observed resource densities, suggesting that the higher temperature in the forest lakes was primarily the cause of the higher growth of char in these lakes. We suggest that cannibalism in char may regulate char recruitment and thereby population density and biomass of char leading to effects of increasing temperature on consumer biomass and consumer individual growth different from what is expected in pure consumer-resource systems. Our results emphasize the importance of feedbacks within ecosystems when addressing effects of climate change and increasing temperature on lake communities.

  • 10.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 1459-1470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

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  • 11. Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Cucherousset, Julien
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Premke, Katrin
    Rubach, Anja
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Steger, Kristin
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Eklov, Peter
    Terrestrial subsidies to lake food webs: an experimental approach2012Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, nr 3, s. 807-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy are ubiquitous. Aquatic ecosystems typically receive material that also includes organic matter from the surrounding catchment. Terrestrial-derived (allochthonous) organic matter can enter aquatic ecosystems in dissolved or particulate form. Several studies have highlighted the importance of dissolved organic carbon to aquatic consumers, but less is known about allochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC). Similarly, most studies showing the effects of allochthonous organic carbon (OC) on aquatic consumers have investigated pelagic habitats; the effects of allochthonous OC on benthic communities are less well studied. Allochthonous inputs might further decrease primary production through light reduction, thereby potentially affecting autotrophic resource availability to consumers. Here, an enclosure experiment was carried out to test the importance of POC input and light availability on the resource use in a benthic food web of a clear-water lake. Corn starch (a C-4 plant) was used as a POC source due to its insoluble nature and its distinct carbon stable isotope value (delta C-13). The starch carbon was closely dispersed over the bottom of the enclosures to study the fate of a POC source exclusively available to sediment biota. The addition of starch carbon resulted in a clear shift in the isotopic signature of surface-dwelling herbivorous and predatory invertebrates. Although the starch carbon was added solely to the sediment surface, the carbon originating from the starch reached zooplankton. We suggest that allochthonous POC can subsidize benthic food webs directly and can be further transferred to pelagic systems, thereby highlighting the importance of benthic pathways for pelagic habitats.

  • 12. Berggren, M.
    et al.
    Bengtson, P.
    Soares, A. R. A.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC).
    Terrestrial support of zooplankton biomass in northern rivers2018Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 2479-2492Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of terrestrially derived carbon to micro-crustacean zooplankton biomass (i.e., allochthony) has been previously studied in lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, but little is known about zooplankton allochthony in rivers. In lacustrine environments, allochthony is regulated by distinct selective feeding behavior of different taxa. However, we hypothesized that restricted possibility for selective grazing in turbulent environments such as rivers would decouple zooplankton from specific microbial and algal food resources, such that their allochthony would mirror the terrestrial contribution to the surrounding bulk particle pool. We tested this idea by analyzing allochthony in 13 widely distributed Swedish rivers, using a dual-isotope mixing model. Zooplankton biomasses were generally low, and allochthony in different micro-crustacean groups (Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Calanoida) varied from 2% to 77%. As predicted, there were no correlations between allochthony and variables indicating the supply of algal and microbial food resources, such as chlorophyll a and bacterial production. Instead, the allochthony was generally similar to the share allochthonous contribution in bulk particulate organic matter, with relationships close to the 1 : 1 line. The zooplankton community allochthony was strongly regulated by the ecosystem metabolic balance between production and respiration, which in turn was dependent upon the ratio between total autochthonous organic carbon concentrations and water color. Our study for the first time shows that micro-crustacean allochthony is regulated differently in rivers compared to in lacustrine systems, and points to inefficient support of zooplankton biomass by algal resources in turbulent waters.

  • 13. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e0120575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter.

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  • 14. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Guillemette, Francois
    Hensgens, Geert
    Ye, Linlin
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Systematic microbial production of optically active dissolved organic matter in subarctic lake water2020Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 65, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecology and biogeochemistry of lakes in the subarctic region are particularly sensitive to changes in the abundance and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM). External input of colored DOM to these lakes is an extensively researched topic, but little is known about potential reciprocal feedbacks between the optical properties of DOM and internal microbial processes in the water. We performed 28-day dark laboratory incubation trials on water from 101 subarctic tundra lakes in northern Sweden, measuring the microbial decay of DOM and the resulting dynamics in colored (CDOM) and fluorescent (FDOM) DOM components. While losses in dissolved oxygen during the incubations corresponded to a 20% decrease in mean DOM, conversely the mean CDOM and total FDOM increased by 22% and 30%, respectively. However, the patterns in microbial transformation of the DOM were not the same in all lakes. Notably, along the gradient of increasing ambient CDOM (water brownness), the lakes showed decreased microbial production of protein-like fluorescence, lowered DOM turnover rates and decreasing bacterial growth per unit of DOM. These trends indicate that browning of subarctic lakes systematically change the way that bacteria interact with the ambient DOM pool. Our study underscores that there is no unidirectional causal link between microbial processes and DOM optical properties, but rather reciprocal dependence between the two.

  • 15. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Selvam, Balathandayuthabani Panneer
    Ström, Lena
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Quality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processes2018Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 457-470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be removed, transformed, or added during water transit through lakes, resulting in changes in DOC composition and pigmentation (color). However, the process-based understanding of these changes is incomplete, especially for headwater lakes. We hypothesized that because heterotrophic bacteria preferentially consume noncolored DOC, while photochemical processing removes colored fractions, the overall changes in DOC color upon water passage through a lake depend on the relative importance of these two processes, accordingly. To test this hypothesis we combined laboratory experiments with field studies in nine boreal lakes, assessing both the relative importance of different DOC decay processes (biological or photochemical) and the loss of color during water transit time (WTT) through the lakes. We found that influence from photo-decay dominated changes in DOC quality in the epilimnia of relatively clear headwater lakes, resulting in systematic and selective net losses of colored DOC. However, in highly pigmented brown-water lakes (absorbance at 420 nm > 7 m(-1)) biological processes dominated, and there was no systematic relationship between color loss and WTT. Moreover, in situ data and dark experiments supported our hypothesis on the selective microbial removal of nonpigmented DOC, mainly of low molecular weight, leading to persistent water color in these highly colored lakes. Our study shows that brown headwater lakes may not conform to the commonly reported pattern of the selective removal of colored constituents in freshwaters, as DOC can show a sustained degree of pigmentation upon transit through these lakes.

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  • 16.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ström, L
    Laudon, H
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers2010Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 870-880Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecology Letters (2010) Abstract Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  • 17.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ye, Linlin
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; School of Geographic Sciences, Nantong University, Nantong, China.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Verheijen, Hendricus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hensgens, Geert
    Department of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Nutrient limitation masks the dissolved organic matter composition effects on bacterial metabolism in unproductive freshwaters2023Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 68, nr 9, s. 2059-2069Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic microbial responses to changes in the amount and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are of fundamental ecological and biogeochemical importance. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis of excitation–emission fluorescence spectra is a common tool to characterize DOC, yet its ability to predict bacterial production (BP), bacterial respiration (BR), and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) vary widely, potentially because inorganic nutrient limitation decouples microbial processes from their dependence on DOC composition. We used 28-d bioassays with water from 19 lakes, streams, and rivers in northern Sweden to test how much the links between bacterial metabolism and fluorescence PARAFAC components depend on experimental additions of inorganic nutrients. We found a significant interaction effect between nutrient addition and fluorescence on carbon-specific BP, and weak evidence for influence on BGE by the same interaction (p = 0.1), but no corresponding interaction effect on BR. A practical implication of this interaction was that fluorescence components could explain more than twice as much of the variability in carbon-specific BP (R2 = 0.90) and BGE (R2 = 0.70) after nitrogen and phosphorus addition, compared with control incubations. Our results suggest that an increased supply of labile DOC relative to ambient phosphorus and nitrogen induces gradually larger degrees of nutrient limitation of BP, which in turn decouple BP and BGE from fluorescence signals. Thus, while fluorescence does contain precise information about the degree to which DOC can support microbial processes, this information may be hidden in field studies due to nutrient limitation of bacterial metabolism.

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  • 18.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Deininger, A.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vrede, T.
    Effects of nitrogen enrichment on zooplankton biomass and N:P recycling ratios across a DOC gradient in northern-latitude lakes2021Ingår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 848, nr 21, s. 4991-5010Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used data from whole-lake studies to assess how changes in food quantity (phytoplankton biomass) and quality (phytoplankton community composition, seston C:P and N:P) with N fertilization affect zooplankton biomass, community composition and C:N:P stoichiometry, and their N:P recycling ratio along a gradient in lake DOC concentrations. We found that despite major differences in phytoplankton biomass with DOC (unimodal distributions, especially with N fertilization), no major differences in zooplankton biomass were detectable. Instead, phytoplankton to zooplankton biomass ratios were high, especially at intermediate DOC and after N fertilization, implying low trophic transfer efficiencies. An explanation for the observed low phytoplankton resource use, and biomass responses in zooplankton, was dominance of colony forming chlorophytes of reduced edibility at intermediate lake DOC, combined with reduced phytoplankton mineral quality (enhanced seston N:P) with N fertilization. N fertilization, however, increased zooplankton N:P recycling ratios, with largest impact at low DOC where phytoplankton benefitted from light sufficiently to cause enhanced seston N:P. Our results suggest that although N enrichment and increased phytoplankton biomass do not necessarily increase zooplankton biomass, bottom-up effects may still impact zooplankton and their N:P recycling ratio through promotion of phytoplankton species of low edibility and altered mineral quality.

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  • 19.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Faithfull Mathisen, Carolyn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nitrogen deposition and warming  – effects on phytoplankton nutrient limitation in subarctic lakes2013Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 2557-2568Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to predict the combined effects of enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition and warming on phytoplankton development in high latitude and mountain lakes. Consequently, we assessed, in a series of enclosureexperiments, how lake water nutrient stoichiometry and phytoplankton nutrient limitation varied over the growingseason in 11 lakes situated along an altitudinal/climate gradient with low N-deposition (<1 kg N ha1yr1) in northern subarctic Sweden. Short-term bioassay experiments with N- and P-additions revealed that phytoplankton inhigh-alpine lakes were more prone to P-limitation, and with decreasing altitude became increasingly N- andNP-colimited. Nutrient limitation was additionally most obvious in midsummer. There was also a strong positivecorrelation between phytoplankton growth and water temperature in the bioassays. Although excess nutrients wereavailable in spring and autumn, on these occasions growth was likely constrained by low water temperatures. Theseresults imply that enhanced N-deposition over the Swedish mountain areas will, with the exception of high-alpinelakes, enhance biomass and drive phytoplankton from N- to P-limitation. However, if not accompanied by warming,N-input from deposition will stimulate limited phytoplankton growth due to low water temperatures during largeparts of the growing season. Direct effects of warming, allowing increased metabolic rates and an extension of thegrowing season, seem equally crucial to synergistically enhance phytoplankton development in these lakes.

  • 20.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vrede, Tobias
    N-limited consumer growth and low nutrient regeneration N:P ratios in lakes with low N deposition2015Ingår i: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient limitation of primary producers and their consumers can have a large influence on ecosystem productivity. The nature and strength of nutrient limitation is driven both by external factors (e.g., nutrient loading) and internal processes (e.g., consumer-driven nutrient regeneration). Here we present results from a field study in 10 low productive headwater lakes in northern subarctic Sweden, where nitrogen (N) deposition is low and phytoplankton is primarily N-limited. We assessed the carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) stoichiometry of seston and zooplankton and estimated the N:P ratio of consumer-driven nutrient regeneration. Based on stoichiometric models, the estimated elemental imbalances between seston and zooplankton suggest that zooplankton were mainly N-limited and regenerated nutrients with low N:P ratios (median 11.9, atomic ratio). The predicted N:P regeneration ratios were consistent with results from phytoplankton nutrient limitation bioassays in mid-summer, i.e., the N:P regeneration was predicted to be low when phytoplankton were N-limited, and high when phytoplankton were P-limited. During other seasons, when water discharge was high, nutrient loading from the surrounding catchments apparently had the strongest effect on phytoplankton nutrient limitation. We propose that lakes with higher N:P ratios than the open ocean is an effect of N deposition, that N-limitation of consumers and phytoplankton is further enhanced by low nutrient regeneration N:P ratios, and that in the absence of N deposition, lake and ocean N:P stoichiometry are similar.

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  • 21.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Light and nutrient control phytoplankton biomass responses to global change in northern lakes2019Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 2021-2029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change affects terrestrial loadings of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients to northern lakes. Still, little is known about how phytoplankton respond to changes in light and nutrient availability across gradients in lake DOC. In this study, we used results from whole-lake studies in northern Sweden to show that annual mean phytoplankton biomass expressed unimodal curved relationships across lake DOC gradients, peaking at threshold DOC levels of around 11 mg/L. Whole-lake single nutrient enrichment in selected lakes caused elevated biomass, with most pronounced effect at the threshold DOC level. These patterns give support to the suggested dual control by DOC on phytoplankton via nutrient (positively) and light (negatively) availability and imply that the lakes' location along the DOC axis is critical in determining to what extent phytoplankton respond to changes in DOC and/or nutrient loadings. By using data from the large Swedish Lake Monitoring Survey, we further estimated that 80% of northern Swedish lakes are below the DOC threshold, potentially experiencing increased phytoplankton biomass with browning alone, and/or combined with nutrient enrichment. The results support the previous model results on effects of browning and eutrophication on lake phytoplankton, and provide important understanding of how northern lakes may respond to future global changes.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Contrasting plankton stoichiometry and nutrient regeneration in northern arctic and boreal lakes2018Ingår i: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 80, nr 2, artikel-id 24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrasting carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus (C: N: P) stoichiometry between phytoplankton and zooplankton affect consumer growth and phytoplankton nutrient limitation via nutrient recycling by zooplankton. However, no study has assessed how regional differences in terrestrial loadings of organic matter affect plankton N: P stoichiometry and recycling in systems with low N deposition and N-limited phytoplankton. We address this question by using data from 14 unproductive headwater arctic and boreal lakes. We found that boreal lakes had higher lake water-and seston C, N and P concentrations than arctic lakes, whereas seston C: N, C: P and N: P ratios did not differ among regions. Boreal zooplankton were also richer in N and P relative to C, with lower somatic N: P ratios, compared to arctic lakes. Consequently, the estimated N: P imbalances between seston and zooplankton were negative in arctic lakes, indicating zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton of suboptimal N content, resulting in low consumer driven N: P recycling (medians arctic sub-mid and high altitude lakes: 11 and 13). In boreal lakes, estimated N: P imbalance did not differ from zero, with a seston N: P stoichiometry matching the N: P requirements of zooplankton, which resulted in higher consumer driven N: P recycling (median 18). Our results imply that regional climate induced catchment differences, through enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs, affect plankton stoichiometry by raising consumer N: P recycling ratio and changing zooplankton from being mainly N-(arctic) to NP co-limited (boreal). Browning of lakes, in regions with low N deposition, may therefore promote large-scale regional changes in plankton nutrient limitation with potential feedbacks on pelagic food webs.

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  • 23.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hotchkiss, Erin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Rodríguez, Patricia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Austral Centre for Scientific Research (CADIC-CONICET), 9410 Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
    Vasconcelos, Rivera Francisco
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Warming decrease fish population densities and biomassManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature impact all biota and ecosystems through its direct effect on the vital rates of primary producers and consumers. Still, how these changes in rates translates through ecosystem feed backs to the population level of top consumers are poorly understood. Here, we studied effects of temperature increase (+ 3 ̊C during ice free season) on fish population dynamics in a replicated large scale pond ecosystem experiment over 3 years. Increased temperature had no significant effect on whole ecosystem gross primary production while top down effects of warming on intermediate consumers changed from negative to positive due to negative effects of warming on fish population abundance. Total fish density and biomass and abundance of both mature and old fish decreased with warming, while proportion of young fish increased, with warming. The effects of warming on fish population demographics were likely due to that temperature increased cohort competition and fish energy requirements relative to resource production. Our results suggest that global warming may increase competition, favor young individuals and overall decrease fish population densities and biomass. 

  • 24.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Van Kooten, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olofsson, Frans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Substitution of top predators: effects of pike invasion in a subarctic lake2007Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 52, nr 7, s. 1271–1280-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Invasions of top predators may have strong cascading effects in ecosystems affecting both prey species abundance and lower trophic levels. A recently discussed factor that may enhance species invasion is climate change and in this context, we studied the effects of an invasion of northern pike into a subarctic lake ecosystem formerly inhabited by the native top predator Arctic char and its prey fish, ninespined stickleback.

    2. Our study demonstrated a strong change in fish community composition from a system with Arctic char as top predator and high densities of sticklebacks to a system with northern pike as top predator and very low densities of sticklebacks. A combination of both predation and competition from pike is the likely cause of the extinction of char.

    3. The change in top predator species also cascaded down to primary consumers as both zooplankton and predator-sensitive macroinvertebrates increased in abundance.

    4. Although the pike invasion coincided with increasing summer temperatures in the study area we have no conclusive evidence that the temperature increase is the causal mechanism behind the pike invasion. But still, our study provides possible effects of future pike invasions in mountain lakes related to climate change. We suggest that future pike invasions will have strong effects in lake ecosystems, both by replacing native top consumers and through cascading effects on lower trophic levels.

  • 25.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Molecular Ecology Group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Spong, Göran
    Molecular Ecology Group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, NC, Raleigh, United States.
    Koizumi, Shuntaro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Puts, Isolde
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olajos, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Königsson, Helena
    Molecular Ecology Group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Droplet digital PCR applied to environmental DNA, a promising method to estimate fish population abundance from humic-rich aquatic ecosystems2021Ingår i: Environmental DNA, E-ISSN 2637-4943, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 343-352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of environmental DNA (eDNA) concentrations in water samples have the potential to be both a cost-efficient and a nondestructive method to estimate fish population abundance. However, the inherent temporal and spatial variability in abiotic and biotic conditions in aquatic systems have been suggested to be a major obstacle to determine relationships between fish eDNA concentrations and fish population abundance. Moreover, once water samples are collected, methodological biases are common, which introduces additional sources of variation to potential relationships between eDNA concentrations and fish population abundance. Here, we evaluate the performance of applying the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method to estimate fish population abundance in experimental enclosures. Using large-scale enclosure ecosystems that contain populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), we compared the concentrations of fish eDNA (COI mitochondrial region, 134 bp) obtained with the ddPCR method with high precision estimates of fish population abundance (i.e., number of individuals) and biomass. To evaluate the effects of contrasted concentrations of humic substances (potential PCR inhibitors) on the performance of ddPCR assays, we manipulated natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (range 4–11 mg/L) in the enclosures. Additionally, water temperature (+2°C) was manipulated in half of the enclosures. Results showed positive relationships between eDNA concentration and fish abundance and biomass estimates although unexplained variation remained. Still and importantly, fish eDNA estimates from high DOC enclosures were not lowered by potential inhibitory effects with our procedure. Finally, water temperature (although only 2°C difference) was neither detected as a significant factor influencing fish eDNA estimates. Altogether, our work highlights that ddPCR-based eDNA is a promising method for future quantification of fish population abundance in natural systems.

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  • 26.
    Casas-Ruiz, Joan P.
    et al.
    Research Group on Ecology of Inland Waters (GRECO), Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Bodmer, Pascal
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Bona, Kelly Ann
    Environment and Climate Change Canada, QC, Gatineau, Canada.
    Butman, David
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States.
    Couturier, Mathilde
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Emilson, Erik J. S.
    Natural Resources Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
    Finlay, Kerri
    University of Regina, SK, Regina, Canada.
    Genet, Hélène
    University of Alaska Fairbanks, AK, Fairbanks, United States.
    Hayes, Daniel
    University of Maine, ME, Orono, United States.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Paré, David
    Natural Resources Canada, QC, Québec, Canada.
    Peng, Changhui
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Striegl, Rob
    United States Geological Survey, CO, Boulder, United States.
    Webb, Jackie
    Centre for Regional and Rural Futures (CeRRF), Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, NSW, Griffith, Australia.
    Wei, Xinyuan
    University of Maine, ME, Orono, United States.
    Ziegler, Susan E.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, NL, St. John’s, Canada.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Integrating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to constrain estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange2023Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 1571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Perspective, we put forward an integrative framework to improve estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange based on the accumulation of carbon in the landscape as constrained by its lateral export through rivers. The framework uses the watershed as the fundamental spatial unit and integrates all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as their hydrologic carbon exchanges. Application of the framework should help bridge the existing gap between land and atmosphere-based approaches and offers a platform to increase communication and synergy among the terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric research communities that is paramount to advance landscape carbon budget assessments.

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  • 27.
    Corman, Jessica R.
    et al.
    School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, NE, Lincoln, United States.
    Zwart, Jacob A.
    Integrated Information Dissemination Division, U.S. Geological Survey, CA, San Francisco, United States.
    Klug, Jennifer
    Biology Department, Fairfield University, CT, Fairfield, United States.
    Bruesewitz, Denise A.
    Environmental Studies Department, Colby College, ME, Waterville, United States.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Fisheries Ecosystems Advisory Service, Marine Institute, Newport, Co. Mayo, Ireland.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knoll, Lesley B.
    Department of Biology, Miami University, OH, Oxford, United States.
    Rusak, James A.
    Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, ON, Dorset, Canada; Biology Department, Queen's University, ON, Kingston, Canada.
    Vanni, Michael J.
    Department of Biology, Miami University, OH, Oxford, United States.
    Alfonso, María Belén
    Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kasuga, Japan.
    Fernandez, Rocio Luz
    National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Yao, Huaxia
    Inland Waters Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, ON, Dorset, Canada.
    Austnes, Kari
    Section for Catchment Biogeochemistry, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Couture, Raoul-Marie
    Department of Chemistry, Centre d'Études Nordiques, Université Laval, QC, Quebec, Canada.
    de Wit, Heleen A.
    Section for Catchment Biogeochemistry, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laas, Alo
    Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Response of lake metabolism to catchment inputs inferred using high-frequency lake and stream data from across the northern hemisphere2023Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 68, nr 12, s. 2617-2631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In lakes, the rates of gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP) are often controlled by resource availability. Herein, we explore how catchment vs. within lake predictors of metabolism compare using data from 16 lakes spanning 39°N to 64°N, a range of inflowing streams, and trophic status. For each lake, we combined stream loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) with lake DOC, TN, and TP concentrations and high frequency in situ monitoring of dissolved oxygen. We found that stream load stoichiometry indicated lake stoichiometry for C : N and C : P (r2 = 0.74 and r2 = 0.84, respectively), but not for N : P (r2 = 0.04). As we found a strong positive correlation between TN and TP, we only used TP in our statistical models. For the catchment model, GPP and R were best predicted by DOC load, TP load, and load N : P (R2 = 0.85 and R2 = 0.82, respectively). For the lake model, GPP and R were best predicted by TP concentrations (R2 = 0.86 and R2 = 0.67, respectively). The inclusion of N : P in the catchment model, but not the lake model, suggests that both N and P regulate metabolism and that organisms may be responding more strongly to catchment inputs than lake resources. Our models predicted NEP poorly, though it is unclear why. Overall, our work stresses the importance of characterizing lake catchment loads to predict metabolic rates, a result that may be particularly important in catchments experiencing changing hydrologic regimes related to global environmental change.

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  • 28. Creed, Irena F.
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Trick, Charles G.
    Grimm, Nancy B.
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    McKnight, Diane M.
    Freeman, Erika C.
    Senar, Oscar E.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Cherif, Mehdi
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Palta, Monica M.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes2018Ingår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, nr 8, s. 3692-3714Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans.

  • 29.
    Deininger, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Faithfull, Carolyn L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Oceanography, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, USA.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pelagic food web response to whole lake N fertilization2017Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 1498-1511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) loadings to unproductive boreal lakes. In many of these lakes phytoplankton are N limited, consequently N fertilization may affect ecosystem productivity and consumer resource use. Here, we conducted whole lake inorganic N fertilization experiments with six small N limited unproductive boreal lakes (three control and three N enriched) in an area receiving low N deposition with one reference and two impact years. Our aim was to assess the effects of N fertilization on pelagic biomass production and consumer resource use. We found that phytoplankton primary production (PP) and biomass, and the PP: bacterioplankton production ratio increased after fertilization. As expected, the relative contribution of phytoplankton derived resources (autochthony) that supported the crustacean zooplankton community increased. Yet, the response in the consumer community was modest with autochthony only increasing in one of the three major zooplankton groups and with no effect on zooplankton biomass. In conclusion, our findings imply that newly available phytoplankton energy derived from N fertilization was not efficiently transferred up to zooplankton, indicating a mismatch between producer energy supply and consumer energy use with potential accumulation of phytoplankton biomass as the result.

  • 30.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Baulch, Helen M.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Hampton, Stephanie E.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A synthesis of carbon dioxide and methane dynamics during the ice-covered period of northern lakes2018Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 117-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ice‐covered period on lakes in the northern hemisphere has often been neglected or assumed to have less importance relative to the open water season. However, recent studies challenge this convention, suggesting that the winter period is more dynamic than previously thought. In this review, we synthesize the current understanding of under‐ice carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dynamics, highlighting the annual importance of CO2 and CH4 emissions from lakes at ice‐melt. We compiled data from 25 studies that showed that the ice‐melt period represents 17% and 27% of the annual CO2 and CH4 emissions, respectively. We also found evidence that the magnitude and type of emission (i.e., CO2 and CH4) varies with characteristics of lakes including geographic location, lake morphometry, and physicochemical conditions. The scarcity of winter and spring carbon data from northern lakes represents a major gap in our understanding of annual budgets in these lakes and calls for future research during this key period.

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  • 31.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon Dioxide and Methane Dynamics in a Small Boreal Lake During Winter and Spring Melt Events2018Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, nr 8, s. 2527-2540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In seasonally ice‐covered lakes, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission at ice‐off can account for a significant fraction of the annual budget. Yet knowledge of the mechanisms controlling below lake‐ice carbon (C) dynamics and subsequent CO2 and CH4 emissions at ice‐off is limited. To understand the control of below ice C dynamics, and C emissions in spring, we measured spatial variation in CO2, CH4, and dissolved inorganic and organic carbon from ice‐on to ice‐off, in a small boreal lake during a winter with sporadic melting events. Winter melt events were associated with decreased surface water DOC in the forest‐dominated basin and increased surface water CH4 in the mire‐dominated basin. At the whole‐lake scale, CH4 accumulated below ice throughout the winter, whereas CO2 accumulation was greatest in early winter. Mass‐balance estimates suggest that, in addition to the CO2 and CH4 accumulated during winter, external inputs of CO2 and CH4 and internal processing during ice‐melt could represent significant sources of C gas emissions during ice‐off. Moreover, internal processing of CO2 and CH4 worked in opposition, with production of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 dominating at ice‐off. These findings have important implications for how small boreal lakes will respond to warmer winters in the future; increased winter melt events will likely increase external inputs below ice and thus alter the extent and timing of CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere at ice‐off.

  • 32.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lupon, Anna
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Heterogeneous CO2 and CH4 patterns across space and time in a small boreal lake2020Ingår i: Inland Waters, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 348-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small boreal lakes emit large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Yet emissions of these greenhouse gases are variable in space and time, in part due to variable within-lake CO2 and CH4 concentrations. To determine the extent and the underlying drivers of this variation, we measured lake water CO2 and CH4 concentrations and estimated associated emissions using spatially discrete water samples collected every 2 weeks from a small boreal lake. On select dates, we also collected groundwater samples from the surrounding catchment. On average, groundwater draining a connected peat mire complex had significantly higher CO2 and CH4 concentrations compared to waters draining forest on mineral soils. However, within the lake, only CH4 concentrations nearshore from the mire complex were significantly elevated. We observed little spatial variability in surface water CO2; however, bottom water CO2 in the pelagic zone was significantly higher than bottom waters at nearshore locations. Overall, temperature, precipitation, and thermal stratification explained temporal patterns of CO2 concentration, whereas hydrology (discharge and precipitation) best predicted the variation in CH4 concentration. Consistent with these different controls, the highest CO2 emission was related to lake turnover at the end of August while the highest CH4 emission was associated with precipitation events at the end of June. These results suggest that annual carbon emissions from small boreal lakes are influenced by temporal variation in weather conditions that regulate thermal stratification and trigger hydrologic land-water connections that supply gases from catchment soils to the lake.

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  • 33.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Integrated Science Lab (IceLab), Umeå University, Sweden.
    Thomsson, Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Guo, Junwen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Liess, Antonia
    Inverse relationship of epilithic algae and pelagic phosphorus in unproductive lakes: Roles of N-2 fixers and light2018Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 63, nr 7, s. 662-675Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) often limits the biomass of primary producers in freshwater lakes. However, in unproductive northern lakes, where anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is low, N instead of P can limit primary producers. In addition, light can be limiting to primary producers at high concentrations of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM), as cDOM is the major determinant of light penetration in these lakes.

    To address resource limitation of epilithic algal biomass, we repeatedly sampled epilithon (periphyton on stony substrata) in 20 lakes covering a large, correlated cDOM and N‐deposition gradient across boreal and subarctic Sweden. Across these lakes, pelagic total N (TN) and total P (TP) were positively correlated, and benthic light supply was negatively correlated, with cDOM. Microscopically determined algal biovolume and epilithic carbon (C), N and P were subsequently regressed against benthic light supply and pelagic TN and TP.

    Patterns in epilithic biovolume were driven by N2‐fixing cyanobacteria, which accounted for 2%–90% of total epilithic biovolume. Averaged over the growing season, epilithic algal biovolume, C and N were negatively related to TP and positively to TN, and were highest in the clearest, most phosphorus‐poor lakes, where epilithon was heavily dominated by potentially N2‐fixing cyanobacteria.

    A structural equation model supports the hypothesis that cDOM had two counteracting effects on total epilithic algal biovolume: a positive one by providing N to algae that depend on dissolved N for growth, and a negative one by shading N2‐fixing cyanobacteria, with the negative effect being somewhat stronger.

    Together, these findings suggest that (1) light and N are the main resources limiting epilithic algal biomass in boreal to subarctic Swedish lakes, (2) epilithic cyanobacteria are more competitive in high‐light and low‐nitrogen environments, where their N2‐fixing ability allows them to reach high biomass, and (3) epilithic N increases with N2 fixer biomass and is—seemingly paradoxically—highest in the most oligotrophic lakes.

  • 34.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Thomsson, Gustaf
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wickman, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Vasconcelos, Francisco R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Uszko, Wojciech
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Resource and consumer control of cross-habitat trophic interactions in shallow lakesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35. Eiler, Alexander
    et al.
    Beier, Sara
    Säwström, Christin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    High ratio of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis genes to chlorophyll biosynthesis genes in bacteria of humic lakes2009Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 75, nr 22, s. 7221-7228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies highlight the diversity and significance of marine phototrophic microorganisms such as picocyanobacteria, phototrophic picoeukaryotes, and bacteriochlorophyll- and rhodopsin-holding phototrophic bacteria. To assess if freshwater ecosystems also harbor similar phototroph diversity, genes involved in the biosynthesis of bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll were targeted to explore oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototroph composition in a wide range of lakes. Partial dark-operative protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (DPOR) and chlorophyllide oxidoreductase (COR) genes in bacteria of seven lakes with contrasting trophic statuses were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Out of 61 sequences encoding the L subunit of DPOR (L-DPOR), 22 clustered with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, whereas 39 L-DPOR sequences related to oxygenic phototrophs, like cyanobacteria, were observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clear separation of these freshwater L-DPOR genes as well as 11 COR gene sequences from their marine counterparts. Terminal restriction fragment length analysis of L-DPOR genes was used to characterize oxygenic aerobic and anoxygenic photosynthesizing populations in 20 lakes differing in physical and chemical characteristics. Significant differences in L-DPOR community composition were observed between dystrophic lakes and all other systems, where a higher proportion of genes affiliated with aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was observed than in other systems. Our results reveal a significant diversity of phototrophic microorganisms in lakes and suggest niche partitioning of oxygenic and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs in these systems in response to trophic status and coupled differences in light regime.

  • 36.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Using laboratory incubations to predict the fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems2018Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 463-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextEnvironmental persistence of excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is usually predicted using small-scale laboratory experiments assumed to simulate natural conditions. We studied five pharmaceuticals comparing their removal rates from water under laboratory conditions and under natural environmental conditions existing in a large pond. We found that the laboratory conditions did not fully capture the complexity within the pond, which led to different removal rates in the two systems. AbstractEnvironmental persistence is a key property when evaluating risks with excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems. Such persistence is typically predicted using small-scale laboratory incubations, but the variation in aquatic environments and scarcity of field studies to verify laboratory-based persistence estimates create uncertainties around the predictive power of these incubations. In this study we: (1) assess the persistence of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, trimethoprim and oxazepam) in laboratory experiments under different environmental conditions; and (2) use a three-month-long field study in an aquatic ecosystem to verify the laboratory-based persistence estimates. In our laboratory assays, we found that water temperature (TEMP), concentrations of organic solutes (TOC), presence of sediment (SED), and solar radiation (SOL) individually affected dissipation rates. Moreover, we identified rarely studied interaction effects between the treatments (i.e. SOLxSED and TEMPxSOL), which affected the persistence of the studied drugs. Half-lives obtained from the laboratory assays largely explained the dissipation rates during the first week of the field study. However, none of the applied models could accurately predict the long-term dissipation rates (month time-scale) from the water column. For example, the studied antibioticum (trimethoprim) and the anti-anxiety drug (oxazepam) remained at detectable levels in the aquatic environment long after (similar to 150 days) our laboratory based models predicted complete dissipation. We conclude that small-scale laboratory incubations seem sufficient to approximate the short-term (i.e. within a week) dissipation rate of drugs in aquatic ecosystems. However, this simplistic approach does not capture interacting environmental processes that preserve a fraction of the dissolved pharmaceuticals for months in natural water bodies.

  • 37.
    Faithfull, Carolyn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Huss, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergstrom, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Transfer of bacterial production based on labile carbon to higher trophic levels in an oligotrophic pelagic system2012Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 69, nr 1, s. 85-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Additions of labile organic carbon (C) enhanced bacterial production (BP) and were associated with increases in crustacean zooplankton and planktivorous fish biomasses. This was shown in a mesocosm experiment where we traced the contribution of BP to zooplankton and fish using stable isotopes and labile glucose-C as a biomarker. BP increased with glucose-C addition, and all zooplankton and fish incorporated some glucose-C. However, the effect of labile-C addition on zooplankton was taxa-dependant, as although cladocerans incorporated the most labile-C, increased BP did not affect cladoceran biomass. Instead, calanoid copepod biomass increased with glucose addition. This suggests that the ability to selectively graze on high quality food, such as bacterial grazing protists capable of trophic upgrading, had a stronger positive effect on calanoid copepods biomass than unselective grazing on bacteria and protists had on cladoceran biomass. Higher BP was associated with increased survival and population growth of young-of-the-year perch (Perca fluviatilis) when stocked at high densities, which suggested that BP had a density-dependant positive effect on fish growth.

  • 38.
    Faithfull, Carolyn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Huss, Magnus
    Vrede, Tobias
    Institutionen för vatten och miljö, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Transfer of bacterial production based on labile carbon to higher trophic levels in an oligotrophic pelagic systemManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    It is debatable whether bacterial production (BP) based on labile carbon (C) is an important energy subsidy for higher trophic levels in the pelagic zone of lakes. Increased BP may reduce phytoplankton and basal production through competition for phosphorus. However, enhanced BP can also be regarded  as an additional basal food resource used directly by unselective filter feeding (cladocerans) or indirectly through grazing on the microbial food web (cladocerans and copepods). In a mesocosm experiment we traced the contribution of BP to crustacean zooplankton and planktivorous fish using stable isotopes and labile glucose-C as a biomarker. BP increased with glucose-C addition and all zooplankton and fish incorporated some glucose-C. Although cladocerans incorporated the most glucose-C, increased BP did not affect cladoceran biomass. Instead, calanoid copepod biomass increased with glucose addition. This suggests that the ability to select high quality food such as bacterial grazing protists capable of trophic upgrading (i.e. de novo synthesis of fatty acids), had a stronger positive effect on calanoids, than unselective grazing on bacteria and protists had on cladoceran biomass. Higher BP was associated with increased survival and population growth of young-of-the-year perch when stocked at high densities, which suggested that BP had a density dependant effect on fish growth. Although the total amount of energy mobilized did not affect fish growth, energy mobilized through the microbial food chain increased calanoid copepod biomass; the favored prey species of planktivorous fish in this system.

  • 39.
    Fork, Megan L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dissolved organic matter regulates nutrient limitation and growth of benthic algae in northern lakes through interacting effects on nutrient and light availability2020Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 5, nr 6, s. 417-424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration across northern lakes can alter rates of primary production by increasing nutrient availability and decreasing light availability. These dual effects of DOM generate a unimodal relationship in pelagic primary production and primary producer biomass among lakes over a gradient of DOM concentration. However, the responses of benthic algae to variation in DOM loading are less clear because of their potential to access sediment nutrients. We tested algal production and nutrient limitation along a DOM gradient in northern Sweden. Without added nutrients, benthic algal production showed a unimodal relationship with DOM, similar to reported pelagic responses. Nutrient addition revealed widespread nitrogen limitation, with decreasing severity in lakes with higher DOM. Because the majority of northern Swedish lakes currently fall below the inflection point in this unimodal relationship, moderate increases in DOM have the potential to increase benthic primary production, particularly for epilithic algae.

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  • 40.
    Giesler, Reiner
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lyon, S. W.
    Morth, C-M
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, E. M.
    Jantze, E. J.
    Destouni, G.
    Humborg, C.
    Catchment-scale dissolved carbon concentrations and export estimates across six subarctic streams in northern Sweden2014Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 525-537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic change is currently enhancing permafrost thawing and the flow of water through the landscape in subarctic and arctic catchments, with major consequences for the carbon export to aquatic ecosystems. We studied stream water carbon export in several tundra-dominated catchments in northern Sweden. There were clear seasonal differences in both dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations. The highest DOC concentrations occurred during the spring freshet while the highest DIC concentrations were always observed during winter baseflow conditions for the six catchments considered in this study. Long-term trends for the period 1982 to 2010 for one of the streams showed that DIC concentrations has increased by 9% during the 28 yr of measurement while no clear trend was found for DOC. Similar increasing trends were also found for conductivity, Ca and Mg. When trends were discretized into individual months, we found a significant linear increase in DIC concentrations with time for September, November and December. In these subarctic catchments, the annual mass of C exported as DIC was in the same order of magnitude as DOC; the average proportion of DIC to the total dissolved C exported was 61% for the six streams. Furthermore, there was a direct relationship between total runoff and annual dissolved carbon fluxes for these six catchments. These relationships were more prevalent for annual DIC exports than annual DOC exports in this region. Our results also highlight that both DOC and DIC can be important in high-latitude ecosystems. This is particularly relevant in environments where thawing permafrost and changes to subsurface ice due to global warming can influence stream water fluxes of C. The large proportion of stream water DIC flux also has implications on regional C budgets and needs to be considered in order to understand climate-induced feedback mechanisms across the landscape.

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  • 41.
    Giesler, Reiner
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundin, Erik J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Spatiotemporal variations of pCO(2) and delta C-13-DIC in subarctic streams in northern Sweden2013Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 176-186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current predictions of climate-related changes in high-latitude environments suggest major effects on the C export in streams and rivers. To what extent this will also affect the stream water CO2 concentrations is poorly understood. In this study we examined the spatiotemporal variation in partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) and in stable isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta C-13-DIC) in subarctic streams in northern Sweden. The selected watersheds are characterized by large variations in high-latitude boreal forest and tundra and differences in bedrock. We found that all streams generally were supersaturated in pCO(2) with an average concentration of 850 mu atm. The variability in pCO(2) across streams was poorly related to vegetation cover, and carbonaceous bedrock influence was manifested in high DIC concentrations but not reflected in either stream pCO(2) or delta C-13-DIC. Stream water pCO(2) values were highest during winter base flow when we also observed the lowest delta C-13-DIC values, and this pattern is interpreted as a high contribution from CO2 from soil respiration. Summer base flow delta C-13-DIC values probably are more affected by in situ stream processes such as aquatic production/respiration and degassing. A challenge for further studies will be to disentangle the origin of stream water CO2 and quantify their relative importance.

  • 42.
    Golub, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Dundalk Institute of Technology, Centre for Freshwater and Environmental Studies, Dundalk, Ireland.
    Koupaei-Abyazani, Nikaan
    Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Vesala, Timo
    Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Physics, Helsinki, Finland; Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, INAR/Forest Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mammarella, Ivan
    Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Physics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ojala, Anne
    Natural Resources Institute Finl, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bohrer, Gil
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, OH, Columbus, United States.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A
    Department of Ecology and Genetics/Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Blanken, Peter D.
    Department of Geography, University of Colorado, CO, Boulder, United States.
    Eugster, Werner
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Koebsch, Franziska
    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany.
    Chen, Jiquan
    Department of Geography, Environment and Spatial Science, Michigan State University, MI, East Lansing, United States.
    Czajkowski, Kevin
    Department of Geography and Planning, University of Toledo, OH, Toledo, United States.
    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar
    APRIL Asia, Laboratoire d’Aérologie, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse, France.
    Guérin, Frederic
    IRD—Marseille, Toulouse, France.
    Heiskanen, Jouni
    Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Humphreys, Elyn
    Carleton University, Geography and Environmental Studies, Ottawa, Canada.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kling, George
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, MI, Ann Arbor, United States.
    Lee, Xuhui
    Yale University, School of the Environment, CT, New Haven, United States.
    Liu, Heping
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, WA, Pullman, United States.
    Lohila, Annalea
    Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR)/Physics, Helsinki, Finland; Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate System Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lundin, Erik
    Swedish Polar Research Secretariat, Abisko Scientific Research Station, Abisko, Sweden.
    Morin, Tim
    State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, NY, Syracuse, United States.
    Podgrajsek, Eva
    Stockholm, Sweden.
    Provenzale, Maria
    University of Helsinki, Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR), Department Physics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rutgersson, Anna
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sachs, Torsten
    GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany.
    Sahlée, Erik
    Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Serça, Dominique
    Laboratoire d’Aérologie, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, Toulouse, France.
    Shao, Changliang
    Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Spence, Christopher
    Environment and Climate Change Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Strachan, Ian B.
    Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
    Xiao, Wei
    Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Yale-NUIST Center on Atmospheric Environment, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China.
    Desai, Ankur R.
    Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, Madison, United States.
    Diel, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in carbon dioxide effluxes from lakes and reservoirs2023Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 18, nr 3, artikel-id 034046Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for temporal changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) effluxes from freshwaters remains a challenge for global and regional carbon budgets. Here, we synthesize 171 site-months of flux measurements of CO2 based on the eddy covariance method from 13 lakes and reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere, and quantify dynamics at multiple temporal scales. We found pronounced sub-annual variability in CO2 flux at all sites. By accounting for diel variation, only 11% of site-months were net daily sinks of CO2. Annual CO2 emissions had an average of 25% (range 3%-58%) interannual variation. Similar to studies on streams, nighttime emissions regularly exceeded daytime emissions. Biophysical regulations of CO2 flux variability were delineated through mutual information analysis. Sample analysis of CO2 fluxes indicate the importance of continuous measurements. Better characterization of short- and long-term variability is necessary to understand and improve detection of temporal changes of CO2 fluxes in response to natural and anthropogenic drivers. Our results indicate that existing global lake carbon budgets relying primarily on daytime measurements yield underestimates of net emissions.

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  • 43.
    Gudasz, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bastviken, David
    Department of Thematic Studies - Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    When does temperature matter for ecosystem respiration?2021Ingår i: Environmental Research Communications (ERC), E-ISSN 2515-7620, Vol. 3, nr 12, artikel-id 121001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature response of ecosystem processes is key to understand and predict impacts of climate change. This is especially true for respiration, given its high temperature sensitivity and major role in the global carbon cycle. However, similar intrinsic temperature sensitivity for respiration does not mean comparable temperature effects across ecosystems and biomes because non-temperature factors can be more important. Here we analyzed soil and sediment respiration data and found that in temperature ranges corresponding to high latitude mean temperatures, absolute respiration rates aremore sensitive to non-temperature factors than to projected direct temperature effects. However, at higher temperatures (>20 °C) the direct effect of temperature mediated by temperature sensitivity will likely be more important over changes in non-temperature factors in shaping how respiration change over time. This supports past suggestions that the relatively small projected temperature increase at low (tropical) latitudes may have a large direct impact on absolute respiration. In contrast, absolute respiration rates at high (boreal/arctic) latitudes will likely bemore sensitive on the development of the non-temperature factors than on the direct effects of the large projected temperature increase there.

    Social media abstract: Respirationmay be less dependent to changes in temperature at higher than lower latitudes.

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  • 44.
    Gudasz, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Limnology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruppenthal, Marc
    Kalbitz, Karsten
    Cerli, Chiara
    Fielder, Sabine
    Oelmann, Yvonne
    Andersson, August
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Contributions of terrestrial organic carbon to northern lake sediments2017Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 2, nr 6, s. 218-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments of northern lakes sequester large amounts of organic carbon (OC), but direct evidence of the relative importance of their sources is lacking. We used stable isotope ratios of nonexchangeable hydrogen (δ2Hn) in topsoil, algae, and surface sediments in order to measure the relative contribution of terrestrial OC in surface sediments of 14 mountainous arctic and lowland boreal lakes in Sweden. The terrestrial contribution to the sediment OC pool was on average 66% (range 46–80) and similar between arctic and boreal lakes. Proxies for the supply of terrestrial and algal OC explained trends in the relative contribution of terrestrial OC across lakes. However, the data suggest divergent predominant sources for terrestrial OC of sediments in Swedish lakes, with dissolved matter dominating in lowland boreal lakes and particulate OC in mountainous arctic lakes.

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  • 45.
    Hamdan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon dioxide stimulates lake primary production2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 10878Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gross primary production (GPP) is a fundamental ecosystem process that sequesters carbon dioxide (CO2) and forms the resource base for higher trophic levels. Still, the relative contribution of different controls on GPP at the whole-ecosystem scale is far from resolved. Here we show, by manipulating CO2 concentrations in large-scale experimental pond ecosystems, that CO2 availability is a key driver of whole-ecosystem GPP. This result suggests we need to reformulate past conceptual models describing controls of lake ecosystem productivity and include our findings when developing models used to predict future lake ecosystem responses to environmental change.

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  • 46.
    Hamdan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biology, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed J.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    An experimental test of climate change effects in northern lakes: Increasing allochthonous organic matter and warming alters autumn primary production2021Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 66, nr 5, s. 815-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes are predicted to influence gross primary production (GPP) of lakes directly through warming and indirectly through increased loads of allochthonous coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) from surrounding landscapes. However, few studies have investigated this combined effect.

    Here we tested the effects of warming (elevated 3celcius) and cDOM input (three levels of humic river water addition) on GPP in autumn (2 months including open water and ice-covered periods) in experimental pond ecosystems.

    The cDOM input decreased whole-ecosystem GPP at natural temperature conditions mainly as a result of lower benthic GPP not fully counteracted by an increase in pelagic GPP, while warming increased whole-ecosystem GPP due to a positive response of mainly pelagic GPP at all levels of cDOM input.

    Warming delayed autumn ice cover formation by 2 weeks but did not affect light availability in the water column compared to ambient ice-covered treatments. Gross primary production during this period was still affected by warming and cDOM.

    The results stress the importance of accounting for multiple climate drivers and habitats when predicting lake GPP responses to climate change. We conclude that climate change may shift whole-ecosystem GPP through different responses of habitat-specific GPP to increasing cDOM inputs and warming.

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  • 47.
    Hamdan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biology, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed J.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon dioxide limitation of benthic primary production in boreal lakesManuskript (preprint) (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 48.
    Hamdan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Al-Haidarey, Mohammed J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carbon dioxide limitation of benthic primary production in a boreal lake2022Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 67, nr 10, s. 1752-1760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gross primary production (GPP) by benthic microalgae growing on soft sediments is an important contributor to lake productivity in many lakes world-wide. As benthic microalgae have access to nutrients in the sediment they have been regarded as primarily controlled by light, while the role of CO2 as a limiting factor for benthic GPP in lake ecosystems is largely unknown.

    In this study, we experimentally tested for CO2 limitation of benthic GPP by collecting littoral surface sediments, with associated benthic microalgae, from a typical boreal lake. Intact sediment cores were incubated at different depths (light conditions) after addition of dissolved inorganic (bicarbonate) or organic (DOC; glucose) carbon as direct and indirect sources of CO2, respectively.

    Benthic microalgal GPP was stimulated by both dissolved inorganic carbon and DOC additions at high, but not at low, light levels.

    This study shows that benthic microalgal GPP can be CO2-limited when light is not limiting and suggests that both direct (e.g., via groundwater inflow) and indirect (via mineralisation of DOC) CO2 supply can stimulate benthic GPP.

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  • 49.
    Hamdan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Biology, Baghdad University, Al-Jadiria, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Warming strengthens trophic cascades and top-down control of lake primaryproductionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Hedström, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bystedt, David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bokma, Folmer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brownification increases winter mortality in fish2017Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 183, nr 2, s. 587-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In northernclimateswinter is a bottleneck for many organisms. Low light and resource availability constrain individual foraging rates,potentially leading tostarvation and increasedmortality.Increasinginput of humic substances to aquatic ecosystems causesbrownification of water and hence a further decreaseof light availability,which may lead tofurther decreased foraging ratesand starvation mortality during winter.To test this hypothesis, we measured the effectsof experimentally increased humicwaterinput on consumption and survival of young-of-the-year (YOY) three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) over winterin largeoutdoor enclosures. Population densitieswereestimated in autumn andthefollowing springand food availabilityand consumptionwere monitoredoverwinter. As hypothesized,mortality washigher underhumic(76%)as compared to ambientconditions (64%).Also, body condition and ingested prey biomass werelower under humic conditionseven thoughresource availability wasnotlower under humic conditions. Light conditions were significantly poorer under humic conditions. This suggeststhat increased mortality and decreased body condition and ingested prey biomasswasnot due to decreased resource availability but due todecreasedsearch efficiencyin this visual feeding consumer. Increased future brownification of aquatic systems may therefore negatively affect both recruitment and densities of fish.

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