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  • 1.
    Aguirre Castillo, José
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Heidelberg Materials Cement Sverige AB, Slite, Sweden.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association (MinFo), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phase evolution and burnability of cement raw meal2023Ingår i: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 35, nr 12, s. 577-587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) to study the mass transfer of raw meal constituents towards forming clinker phases and the occurrence of free lime (calcium oxide), also known as burnability, was assessed. A measuring strategy with temperature ranging from 1000°C to 1450°C was developed and compared with a conventional burnability method. The free lime determined by the methods showed that HT-XRD produced good results for the evaluation of burnability. In addition, HT-XRD revealed the formation of intermediate phases, providing insight into early reactions in a cement kiln. The particle size of quartz was found to affect crystal expansion of the phase at a high temperature, subsequently affecting the formation of silica polymorphs. The different raw meals used in this study also indicate that the formation of different silica polymorphs affects the formation of C2S. The lack of knowledge regarding the influence of β-quartz on the reduction of free lime is highlighted.

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  • 2.
    Aguirre Castillo, José
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    The reactivity of spent raw meal used in the post-combustion calcium looping decarbonisation process2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Biswas, Amit
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Rudolfsson, Magnus
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Effect of pelletizing conditions on combustion behaviour of single wood pellet2014Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 119, nr 15, s. 79-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how pelletizing die temperature and moisture content affect combustion behaviour of single wood pellet. Pine wood particles with two different moisture contents (i.e. 1 wt.% and 12 wt.%) were pelletized in a laboratory-scale single pelletizer (single die pellets) at die temperature of 20, 100, 150 and 200 °C. The pellets were combusted in a laboratory scale furnace at 800 °C. Time required for single pellet combustion generally increased with both increase of pelletizing temperature and moisture content of biomass. In addition, combustion behaviour of single die pellets was significantly different than those produced in a pilot scale pelletizing plant (semi-industrial scale pellet). That difference was due to variation in physical properties of pellets (e.g. density, and morphology).

  • 4.
    Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ash transformation chemistry in biomass fixed beds with focus on slagging and aerosols: 20 years of research and new developments2017Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 254Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Borén, Eleonora
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Kajsa, Werner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Defining the temperature regime of gaseous degradation products of Norway spruce2013Ingår i: 21nd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, June, 2013, ETA Florens Renewable Energies, 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Borén, Eleonora
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Industrial Doctoral School for Research and Innovation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Biomass Technology Centre, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andreas, Averheim
    Mikael, Thyrel
    Biomass Technology Centre, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Reducing VOC off-gassing during the production of pelletized steam-exploded bark: impact of storage time and controlled ventilation2018Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 5181-5186Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) off-gassing behavior of thermally treated biomass intended for bioenergy production has recently been shown to be vastly different from that of untreated biomass. Simple measures to reduce emissions, such as controlled ventilation and prolonged storage time, have been suggested but not yet studied in detail. In the present study, we monitored how VOC off-gassing was reduced over time (24–144 h) in enclosed storage with and without ventilation. Steam-exploded bark was collected directly from a pilot-scale steam explosion plant as well as before and after subsequent pelletizing. Active Tenax-TA absorbent sampling of VOCs was performed from the headspaces of a bench-scale sample storage setup. The impact of storage time and ventilation on VOC levels was evaluated through multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that relative VOC concentrations in the headspace were reduced by increased storage time, with heavier VOCs reduced at a higher rate. VOC composition was neither reduced nor shifted by controlled intermittent ventilation during storage; instead, VOC levels equilibrated at the same levels as those stored without ventilation, and this was independent of the process step, storage time, or number of ventilations.

  • 7.
    Borén, Eleonora
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Averheim, Andreas
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Reducing VOCs off-gassing during production of pelletized steam exploded bark: impact of storage time and controlled ventilationManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    VOC off-gassing behavior of thermally treated biomass intended for bioenergy production has recently been shown to be vastly different to that of untreated biomass. Simple measures to reduce emissions, such as controlled ventilation and prolonged storage time, has been suggested but not previously studied in detail. In the present study, we monitored how VOC off-gassing was reduced over time (24–144h) in closed storage with and without ventilation. Steam exploded bark was collected directly from a pilot scale steam explosion plant, and before and after subsequent pelletizing. Storage and active sampling of VOCs in the headspace was done in a bench-scale set-up using Tenax-TA absorbent. The impact of storage time and ventilation to reduce VOCs was evaluated through multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that VOC concentrations in the headspace were reduced by increased storage time, and that heavier VOCs reduced faster. No impact on either reducing or shifting VOC composition could be achieved by controlled ventilation during storage; instead, VOCs emitted to the same concentrations anew, independent of process step, storage time, or number of ventilations.

  • 8.
    Borén, Eleonora
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Thyrel, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Averheim, Andreas
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    VOC off-gassing from pelletized steam exploded softwood bark: emissions at different industrial process steps2018Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 171, s. 70-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of hazardous gases during transport and storage of biomass for large-scale bioenergy production is an important safety concern. While off-gassing has been addressed in numerous studies for raw woody biomass, very few describe it in the context of biomass for bioenergy production pre-treated by thermal technologies such as steam explosion. Volatile Organic Components (VOCs) are expected to be altered by the treatment, but until now there is no research published on VOC profiles of steam exploded materials in industrial scale. In the present study, VOCs emitted from the products were evaluated by sampling from different production steps from steam explosion of softwood bark, and following the production chain including also pelletization. Off-gasses were actively sampled using Tenax TA absorbent and analyzed by GC-MS. The VOC formation dependency of operation and storage conditions at different process steps was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. We showed that the different process steps along the production line was the main influencing factor for VOC off-gassing amounts, with highest VOC levels directly after the steam explosion process. Treatment severity mainly altered the relative composition of VOC profiles with more terpenes emitted from milder treatment, whereas more severe treatment shifted VOCs composition to contain more furans, e.g. furfural. In summary, treatment by steam explosion leads to potentially problematic VOC off-gassing profiles from the material, and levels vary considerable along the production line. The findings are important from a fuel handling and working environment perspective.

  • 9.
    Borén, Eleonora
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå University Industrial Doctoral School for Research and Innovation.
    Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Schilling, Christoph
    Chandra, Richard P.
    Ghiasi, Bahman
    Tang, Yong
    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Off-gassing of VOCs and permanent gases during storage of torrefied and steam exploded wood2017Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, nr 10, s. 10954-10965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment for upgrading of low-value feedstocks to improve fuel properties has gained large industrial interest in recent years. From a storage and transport perspective, hazardous off-gassing could be expected to decrease through the degradation of reactive biomass components. However, thermal treatment could also shift chemical compositions of volatile organic components, VOCs. While technologies are approaching commercialization, off-gassing behavior of the products, especially in terms of VOCs, is still unknown. In the present study, we measured off-gassing of VOCs together with CO, CO2, CH4, and O2 depletion from torrefied and steam exploded softwood during closed storage. The storage temperature, head space gas (air and N2), and storage time were varied. VOCs were monitored with a newly developed protocol based on active sampling with Tenax TA absorbent analyzed by thermal desorption-GC/MS. High VOC levels were found for both untreated and steam exploded softwood, but with a complete shift in composition from terpenes dominating the storage gas for untreated wood samples to an abundance of furfural in the headspace of steam exploded wood. Torrefied material emitted low levels of VOCs. By using multivariate statistics, it was shown that for both treatment methods and within the ranges tested, VOC off-gassing was affected first by the storage temperature and second by increasing treatment severity. Both steam exploded and torrefied biomass formed lower levels of CO than the reference biomass, but steam explosion caused a more severe O2 depletion.

  • 10.
    Boström, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Lindström, Erika
    Boman, Christoffer
    Backman, Rainer
    Öhman, Marcus
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Ash transformation chemistry during energy conversion of agricultural biomass2009Ingår i: International Conference on Solid Biofuels, ICSB2009, Beijing, China, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Boström, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Ash transformation chemistry during energy conversion of biomass2010Ingår i: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production & Environment: 29/08/2010 - 03/09/2010, Impacts of Fuel Quality , 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is relatively extensive knowledge available concerning ash transformation reactions during energy conversion of woody biomass. Traditionally, these assortments have constituted the main resources for heating in Sweden. In recent decades the utilization of these energy carriers has increased, from a low technology residential small scale level to industrial scale (e.g. CHP plants). Along this evolution ash-chemical related phenomena for woody biomass has been observed and studied. So, presently the understanding for these are, if not complete, fairly good. Briefly, from a chemical point of view the ash from woody biomass could be characterized as a silicate dominated systems with varying content of basic oxides and with relatively high degree of volatilization of alkali sulfates and chlorides. Thus, the main ash transformation mechanisms in these systems have been outlined. Here, an attempt to give a general description of the ash transformation reactions of biomass fuels is presented, with the intention to provide guidance in the understanding of ash matter behavior in the utilization of any biomass fuel, primarily from knowledge of the concentrations of ash forming elements but also by considering the physical condition in the specific combustion appliance and the physical characteristic of the biomass fuel. Furthermore, since the demand for CO2-neutral energy resources has increased the last years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future, other biomasses as for instance agricultural crops has become highly interesting. Globally, the availability of these shows large variation. In Sweden, for instance, which is a relatively spare populated country with large forests, these bio-masses will play a secondary role, although not insignificant. In other parts of the world, more densely populated and with a large agricultural sector, such bio-masses may constitute the main energy bio-mass resource in the future. However, the content of ash forming matter in agricultural bio-mass is rather different in comparison to woody biomass. Firstly, the content is much higher; from being about 0.3 – 0.5% (wt) in stem wood, it can amount to between 2 and 10 %(wt) in agricultural biomass. In addition, the composition of the ash forming matter is different. Shortly, the main difference is due to a much higher content of phosphorus (occasionally also silicon) which has major consequences on the ash-transformation reactions. In many crops, the concentration of phosphorus and silicon is equivalent, which (depending on the concentration levels of basic oxides) may result in a phosphate dominated ash. The properties of this ash are in several aspects different from the silicate dominated woody biomass ash and will consequently behave differently in various types of energy conversion systems. The knowledge about phosphate dominated ash systems has so far been scarce. We have been working with these systems, both with basic and applied research, for about a decade know. Some general experiences and conclusions as well as some specific examples of our research will be presented.

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  • 12.
    Boström, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ash transformation chemistry during combustion of biomass, theory and technical applications2017Ingår i: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 254Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Boström, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ash Transformation Chemistry during Combustion of Biomass2012Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 85-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is relatively extensive knowledge available concerning ash transformation reactions during combustion of woody biomass. In recent decades, the use of these energy carriers has increased, from a low-technology residential small-scale level to an industrial scale. Along this evolution, ash chemical-related phenomena for woody biomass have been observed and studied. Therefore, presently the understanding for these are, if not complete, fairly good. However, because the demand for CO2-neutral energy resources has increased recently and will continue to increase in the foreseeable future, other biomasses, such as, for instance, agricultural crops, have become highly interesting. The ash-forming matter in agricultural biomass is rather different in comparison to woody biomass, with a higher content of phosphorus as a distinctive feature. The knowledge about the ash transformation behavior in these systems is far from complete. Here, an attempt to give a schematic but general description of the ash transformation reactions of biomass fuels is presented in terms of a conceptual model, with the intention to provide guidance in the understanding of ash matter behavior in the use of any biomass fuel, primarily from the knowledge of the concentrations of ash-forming elements. The model was organized in primary and secondary reactions. Restrictions on the theoretical model in terms of reactivity limitations and physical conditions of the conversion process were discussed and exemplified, and some principal differences between biomass ashes dominated by Si and P, separately, were outlined and discussed.

  • 14.
    Branca, Carmen
    et al.
    Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, C.N.R., P.le V. Tecchio, 80125 Napoli, Italy.
    Di Blasi, Colomba
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, P.le V. Tecchio, 80125 Napoli, Italy.
    Galgano, Antonio
    Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, C.N.R., P.le V. Tecchio, 80125 Napoli, Italy.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Effects of the Torrefaction Conditions on the Fixed-Bed Pyrolysis of Norway Spruce2014Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 5882-5891Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis of Norway spruce wood previously subjected to torrefaction at temperatures between 533 and 583 K and retention times between 8 and 25 min was studied. Although the thermal pretreatment always results in an increased production of char at the expense of volatile products, appropriate torrefaction conditions give rise to maximum percentages of anhydrosugars, guaiacols possessing a carbonyl group, and phenols in the liquid fraction. Other carbohydrates (e.g., acetic acid, formic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, hydroxypropanone, furfural, and furfuryl alcohol) and the large majority of guaiacols show continuously decreasing values. The percentages of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the gas product remain approximately the same, but that of methane slightly increases. The pyrolysis temperatures of torrefied wood are lower than those of the raw material, mainly because of the partial or complete absence of the exothermic contribution associated with extractives and hemicellulose degradation.

  • 15.
    Brostrom, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Branca, C.
    Di Blasi, C.
    Influence of torrefaction on the devolatilization and oxidation kinetics of wood2012Ingår i: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 96, s. 100-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Devolatilization and oxidation kinetics of torrefied wood have been studied by evaluating thermogravimetric curves measured in nitrogen and air at various heating rates. Samples consist of Norway spruce wood chips torrefied at several process temperatures and residence times. Data about untreated wood have also been obtained for comparison. Measured curves are well predicted by means of a five-reaction mechanism, consisting of three devolatilization reactions for the pseudo-components hemicellulose. cellulose and lignin and, in air, of two additional reactions for char devolatilization and combustion. The torrefaction pre-treatment only requires model modifications in the amounts of volatiles generated from the decomposition of pseudo-components, indicating that only their relative percentages and not their reactivities are modified. On the other hand, a slightly different thermal stability is found for the char generated from torrefied wood, which results in higher activation energy and lower reaction order for the oxidation step. Hence torrefaction conditions can affect the subsequent conversion characteristics of the char product. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Aspects of alkali chloride chemistry on deposit formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of biomass and waste has several environmental, economical and political advantages over the use of fossil fuels for the generation of heat and electricity. However, these fuels often have a significantly different composition and the combustion is therefore associated with additional operational problems. A high content of chlorine and alkali metals (potassium and sodium) often causes problems with deposit formation and high temperature corrosion. Some different aspects of these issues are addressed in this thesis.

    The overall objective of this thesis was to study and highlight different means by which operational problems related to alkali chlorides can be overcome, reduced or prevented.

    The most important results of this thesis are: (1) A full description of the in-situ alkali chloride monitor, its operational principles, the calibration procedure, and an example of a full-scale application was made public in a scientific publication. (2) Efficient sulfation of gaseous alkali chlorides in a full-scale boiler was achieved by injecting ammonium sulfate in a water solution into the hot flue gas. (3) Reduced deposit growth and corrosion rates were achieved by lowering the alkali chloride concentration in the flue gas by sulfation. (4) Evidence of decreased deposit growth and chlorine content in deposits during peat co-combustion. (5) Results are presented from high temperature corrosion tests with different superheater steels in two different combustion environments. (6) Controlled KCl and NaCl condensation under simulated combustion conditions resulted in deposits which consisted of mostly pure phases, in contrast to the solid solution that would be expected under the prevailing conditions at chemical equilibrium.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Effects of alkali chlorides in biomass and waste-fired boilers2009Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Integrated thermal treatment of acid sulfate soils2020Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19.
    Broström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Christer
    Axner, Ove
    Nordin, Anders
    IACM - In situ alkali chloride monitor2004Ingår i: 2nd World Conference for Energy, Industry and Climate Protection, Rome, Italy, 2004Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Broström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Enestam, Sonja
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Mäkelä, Kari
    Condensation in the KCl–NaCl system2013Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 105, s. 142-148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Condensation of gaseous KCl and NaCl is known to participate in deposit formation and high temperature corrosion processes in heat and power plants. Little is known about interaction between the two salts, which is of interest for the overall understanding of deposit and corrosion problems. Within this study, condensation at different material surface temperatures and salt mixtures was investigated.

    Salt vapors were prepared by temperature controlled evaporation. A cooled condensation probe with a temperature gradient was inserted in the hot gas. After exposure, the probe surface was visually inspected and analyzed with SEM/EDS and XRD for elemental and phase composition. TGA/DTA was used to provide complementary information on vaporization and sintering.

    The results indicated that a mixture of KCl and NaCl probably condenses as separate phases at concentrations and temperatures below the melting points of the salts. Condensation was possibly followed by a secondary sintering process. It was verified by TGA/DTA that a mixture of solid KCl and NaCl particles sinters and melts rapidly at temperatures above the melting temperature of a corresponding solution. It was also seen that sintering took place at lower temperatures with slow solid-gas interactions, possibly with the formation of solid solutions.

  • 21.
    Broström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ash fractionation and slag formation during entrained flow biomass gasification2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Broström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Kassman, Håkan
    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, SE-611 29 Nyköping, Sweden.
    Helgesson, Anna
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Berg, Magnus
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Andersson, Christer
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, SE-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Sulfation of corrosive alkali chlorides by ammonium sulfate in a biomass fired CFB boiler2007Ingår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 88, nr 11-12, s. 1171-1177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass and waste derived fuels contain relatively high amounts of alkali and chlorine, but contain very little sulfur. Combustion of such fuels can result in increased deposit formation and superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced by using a sulfur containing additive, such as ammonium sulfate, which reacts with the alkali chlorides and forms less corrosive sulfates. Ammonium sulfate injection together with a so-called in situ alkali chloride monitor (IACM) is patented and known as "ChlorOut". IACM measures the concentrations of alkali chlorides (mainly KCl in biomass combustion) at superheater temperatures. Tests with and without spraying ammonium sulfate into the flue gases have been performed in a 96MW(th)/25MW(e) circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The boiler was fired mainly with bark and a chlorine containing waste. KCl concentration was reduced from more than 15 ppm to approximately 2 ppm. during injection of ammonium sulfate. Corrosion probe measurements indicated that both deposit formation and material loss due to corrosion were decreased using the additive. Analysis of the deposits showed significantly higher concentration of sulfur and almost no chlorine in the case with ammonium sulfate. Results from impactor measurements supported that KCl was sulfated to potassium sulfate by the additive. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Broström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Kassman, Håkan
    Helgesson, Anna
    Berg, Magnus
    Andersson, Christer
    Backman, Rainer
    Nordin, Anders
    Sulphation of Corrosive Alkali Chlorides by Ammonium Sulphate in a Biomass Fired CFB Boiler2006Ingår i: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Chambi, Diego
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Instituto de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Procesos Quimicos, Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, P.O. Box 12958, La Paz, Bolivia; Viceministerio de Producción Industrial a Mediana y Gran Escala, Ministerio de Desarrollo Productivo y Economía Plural, P.O. Box 12958, La Paz, Bolivia.
    Lundqvist, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nygren, Erik
    Department of Agrifood and Bioscience, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, P.O. Box 857, Borås, Sweden.
    Romero-Soto, Luis
    Instituto de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Procesos Quimicos, Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, P.O. Box 12958, La Paz, Bolivia.
    Marin, Katherine
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Instituto de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Procesos Quimicos, Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, P.O. Box 12958, La Paz, Bolivia.
    Gorzsás, András
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Sundman, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Carrasco, Cristhian
    Instituto de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Procesos Quimicos, Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, P.O. Box 12958, La Paz, Bolivia.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Martín, Carlos
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Department of Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Hamar, Norway.
    Production of Exopolysaccharides by Cultivation of Halotolerant Bacillus atrophaeus BU4 in Glucose-and Xylose-Based Synthetic Media and in Hydrolysates of Quinoa Stalks2022Ingår i: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 8, nr 2, artikel-id 79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A halotolerant, exopolysaccharide-producing bacterium isolated from the Salar de Uyuni salt flat in Bolivia was identified as Bacillus atrophaeus using next-generation sequencing. Comparisons indicate that the genome most likely (p-value: 0.0024) belongs to a subspecies previously not represented in the database. The growth of the bacterial strain and its ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) in synthetic media with glucose or xylose as carbon sources, and in hydrolysates of quinoa stalks, was investigated. The strain grew well in all synthetic media, but the growth in glucose was better than that in xylose. Sugar consumption was better when initial concentrations were low. The growth was good in enzymatically produced cellulosic hydrolysates but was inhibited in hemicellulosic hydrolysates produced using hydrothermal pretreatment. The EPS yields were up to 0.064 g/g on initial glucose and 0.047 g/g on initial xylose, and was higher in media with relatively low sugar concentrations. The EPS was isolated and purified by a sequential procedure including centrifugation, cold ethanol precipitation, trichloroacetic acid treatment, dialysis, and freeze-drying. Glucose and mannose were the main sugars identified in hydrolyzed EPS. The EPS was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography, Fouriertransform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, heteronuclear single-quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (HSQC NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. No major differences were elucidated between EPS resulting from cultivations in glucoseor-xylose-based synthetic media, while some divergences with regard to molecular-weight averages and FTIR and HSQC NMR spectra were detected for EPS from hydrolysate-based media.

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  • 25.
    Cwik, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backlund, Krister
    Fjäder, Kenneth
    Hiljanen, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association MinFo, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thermal decrepitation and thermally-induced cracking of limestone used in quicklime production2022Ingår i: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikel-id 1197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To produce quicklime, high calcium carbonate rocks, including limestone, are burned in industrial kilns at 1100–1450 °C. As a consequence of the high temperatures, the carbonate rock can break and decrepitate into fine material, causing operational problems and material losses. In the present paper, an industrial case study on thermal decrepitation was performed on Boda Limestone from the Jutjärn quarry in Dalarna, Sweden. We analyzed 80 limestone samples for thermal decrepitation; furthermore, the correlation with chemical composition was statistically analyzed. The experiments were complemented by a detailed analysis of thermally-induced cracking at a range of temperatures (ambient, 500 °C, 800 °C, and 1150 °C) for two limestone samples with similar chemical compositions but with very different decrepitation behaviors. Decrepitation was analyzed by an in-house method, the chemical composition by XRF, and the thermally-induced cracking was investigated by SEM and image analysis. No strong correlation was found between thermal decrepitation and the chemical composition of the limestone. For the sample with low thermal decrepitation, a dense narrow network of fractures was found after full calcination; however, this network was not observed in the sample with high thermal decrepitation. A plausible explanation for the different decrepitation behaviors is that this fracture network releases internal stress and stabilizes the calcined rock. The obtained results can help in predicting limestone thermal decrepitation, enabling increased resource efficiency in quicklime production.

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  • 26.
    Cwik, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ma, Charlie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Electrifying quicklime production to enable carbon capture: how to avoid product carbonation?2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Elbashir, Sana
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Thermodynamic modelling assisted three-stage solid state synthesis of high purity β-Ca3(PO4)22024Ingår i: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 238, artikel-id 112679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-stage solid state synthesis assisted by thermodynamic modelling was developed to prepare highly pure (>99 %) beta tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder. The optimal synthesis temperature was experimentally determined to be 1000 °C in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. The synthesis design described here has substantially improved the product quality and eliminated the presence of secondary phosphate phases compared to one- and two-stage methods investigated in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the material's structural, vibrational, and morphological characteristics was conducted. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction data confirmed the high purity of the samples. The crystal structure of the prepared β-TCP was determined and the refined unit cell parameters agreed well with the reference values. From infrared and Raman spectral analyses, the characteristics of β-TCP were observed and discussed in details. Furthermore, the morphology and elemental composition of the products were examined and found to be homogenous and impurity free. The reproducibility of the material was scrutinized and showed no significant data variations. Using our three-stage synthesis method, it is possible to produce β-TCP powder of high purity with consistent repeatability.

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  • 28.
    Elbashir, Sana
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Thyrel, Mikael
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen för skogens biomaterial och teknologi.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Structural Study On The Chemical Environment Surrounding Phosphorus In Ash Fractions Suitable For Nutrient Recovery2022Ingår i: ESPC4 & PERM5 2022 – Book of Abstracts, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nutrient recovery is an integral part of sustainable clean energy production where one of the most important nutrients is phosphorus (P). Phosphorus recovery from biomass and waste ashes has been a hot topic for research and development activities for decades. However, the chemical speciation of heavy metals (HM) that may be included in recovered phosphates is yet to be resolved. Numerous trial and error approachs have been applied to lower the amount of HM content by fuel design and/or additives. Nevertheless, the connection between P and HM is theses complex phosphate systems on the atomic level is not fully understood. Therefore, exploring if HM are associated with phosphates is paramount for creating a naturallink between sustainable energy production and primary production of biomass.

    This study aims to examine the formation of different phosphates found in ashes and the potential inclusion of HM in their structures. The inclusion of Zn and Cu in whitlockite phosphates is investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and FTIR/RAMAN spectroscopy to identify possibilities and challenges with direct application of P-rich ash fractions as a nutrient source for plants. These measurements will be complemented by synchrotron-based X-rayabsorption spectroscopy analysis in future work.

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    poster
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Matias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Nordkalk AB, Köping, Sverige.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Characterization of ring deposits inside a quicklime producing long rotary kiln2019Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, nr 11, s. 11731-11740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ring deposits are common problems in rotary kiln operations. The ring is constantly subjected to thermal and mechanical wear counteracting the growth of the ring. If the ring hardens or if the growth of the ring is too rapid the kiln needs to be shut down and the ring removed, reducing the operational time and profitability of the process. In the present study, ring deposits from a limestone fed long rotary kiln producing quicklime was sampled and characterized in detail by SEM-EDS, dynamic rate TG and XRD. This work identifies three hardening mechanisms active in the kiln, an increased densification of the ring deposits near the refractory surface, the formation of calcite and spurrite through carbonation of the ring deposits, and the intrusion of molten fuel ash and product into the refractory, resulting in a strong attachment of the deposit to the refractory surface. The work also concludes that a significant part of the ring deposit has its origin in the fuel ash, contributing to deposit mass and increasing ring growth rate.

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  • 30.
    Eriksson, Matias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. The Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association—MinFo, Marieviksgatan 25, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandström, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Industrial Doctoral School for Research and Innovation, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Impact of limestone surface impurities on quicklime product quality2024Ingår i: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 14, nr 3, artikel-id 244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Quicklime is produced through the thermal processing of limestone in industrial kilns. During quarry operations, fine particulate quarry dust adheres to limestone lump surfaces, increasing the bulk concentration of impurities in limestone products. During thermal processing in a kiln, impurities such as Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn react with Ca, reducing quicklime product quality. Which reactant phases are formed, and the extent to which these result in a reduction in quality, has not been extensively investigated. The present study investigated as-received and manually washed limestone product samples from two operational quarries using elemental compositions and a developed predictive multi-component chemical equilibrium model to obtain global phase diagrams for 1000–1500 °C, corresponding to the high-temperature zone of a lime kiln, identifying phases expected to be formed in quicklime during thermal processing. The results suggest that impurities found on the surface of the lime kiln limestone feed reduce the main quality parameter of the quicklime products, i.e., calcium oxide, CaO (s), content by 0.8–1.5 wt.% for the investigated materials. The results also show that, in addition to the effect of impurities, the quantity of CaO (s) varies greatly with temperature. More impurities result in more variation and a greater need for accurate temperature control of the kiln, where keeping the temperature below approximately 1300 °C, that of Hatrurite formation, is necessary for a product with higher CaO (s).

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  • 31.
    Fagerström, Jonathan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Dan, Boström
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Fuel conversion of large samples in a thermogravimetric analyzer set-up: method description and applications2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32. Falk, Joel
    et al.
    Berry, Robert J.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Mass flow and variability in screw feeding of biomass powders: relations to particle and bulk properties2015Ingår i: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 276, s. 80-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass powders often have high cohesiveness, low bulk density and poor material flow characteristics which cause interruptions and variations in feeding systems. In this study, a range of biomasses – commercial charcoal, torrefied Norway spruce stem wood, non-treated Norway spruce stem wood, and reed canary grass – were milled (screen size: 1 mm) using two different methods; cutting mill and hammer mill, to form eight types of biomass powders. The powders were analyzed for loose bulk density, Hausner ratio, compression ratio, angle of repose and for size and shape distributions. Size and shape were determined by mechanical sieving and optical particle size and shape analysis. Additionally, yield loci and wall yield loci were determined through standard bulk solid testing methods. Screw feeding properties of the eight biomass powders were determined by feeding the materials in a twin screw feeder — at constant rpm and at a constant feeding rate of 1 kg/h. Correlation analysis and principal component loadings were used to describe relations between material properties and feeding characteristics. When materials were fed at a constant rpm, feeding variability was closely correlated to the powder's angle of repose (long time) and Hausner and compression ratios (short time).

  • 33.
    Falk, Joel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Particle properties and feeding characteristics of biomass powders2013Ingår i: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition: 21st European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, ETA-Florens Renewable Energies , 2013, s. 1160-1163Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Milling of biomass is a necessary step in the use of fuel powders and also in fuel pre-treatment. Milled biomass powders are often cohesive, have low bulk density and have poor flowability leading to costly problems in fuel handling. In this study, two different milling methods (knife mill and hammer mill) and four different biomass powders (Norway spruce, torrefied Norway spruce, charcoal and reed canary grass) were tested in order to find correlations between particle properties and feeding characteristics. The powders were analyzed for size distribution using both mechanical and optical sieveless particle size analysis. Loose and tapped bulk densities were measured to calculate the Hausner ratio, an indicator of flowability. The different powders were tested for feeding characteristics in a screw feeder at constant rpm. Hammer milling produced powders with more fines and lower densities than knife milling. Feeding performance varied between materials with two materials better when hammer milled and two better when knife milled. However, hammer milled materials had better initial feeding stability. Due to large differences in bulk density there was a large difference in feeding rates. Also, two fuels showed good agreement with the theoretical feeding rate when assuming feeding at loose bulk density while the other two showed better agreement with a flow calculated at tapped bulk density indicating different packing behaviors.

  • 34.
    Forsberg, Christer
    et al.
    Vattenfall AB Nordic Heat, S-162 87 Stockholm, Sweden .
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Edvardsson, Elin
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Badiei, Shahriar
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Berg, Magnus
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, S-814 26 Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Kassman, Håkan
    Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Box 1046, S-611 29 Nyköping, Sweden.
    Principle, calibration, and application of the in situ alkali chloride monitor2009Ingår i: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 80, nr 2, s. 023104-1-023104-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The extended use of biomass for heat and power production has caused increased operational problems with fouling and high-temperature corrosion in boilers. These problems are mainly related to the presence of alkali chlorides (KCl and NaCl) at high concentrations in the flue gas. The In-Situ Alkali Chloride Monitor (IACM) was developed by Vattenfall Research and Development AB for measuring the alkali chloride concentration in hot flue gases (>650 oC). The measurement technique is based on molecular differential absorption spectroscopy in the UV range. Simultaneous measurement of SO2 concentration is also possible. The measuring range is 1-50 ppm for the sum of KCl and NaCl concentrations, and 4-750 ppm for SO2. This paper describes the principle of the IACM as well as its calibration. Furthermore, an example of its application in an industrial boiler is given.

  • 35.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Slag formation during entrained flow gasification. Part 1: Calcium rich bark fuel2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Slag formation during entrained flow gasification. Part 2: Silicon rich grass fuel with KHCO3 additive2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Slag Formation during Entrained Flow Gasification: Silicon Rich Grass Fuel with KHCO3 Additive2018Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 10720-10726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction of ash particle adherence to walls, melting, and flow properties are important for successful operation of slagging entrained flow gasifiers. In the present study, silicon-rich reed canary grass was gasified at 1000 and 1200 °C with solid KHCO3 added at 0, 1, or 5 wt % to evaluate the impact and efficiency of the dry mixed additive on slag properties. The fuel particles collided with an angled flat impact probe inside the hot reactor, constructed to allow for particle image velocimetry close to the surface of the probe. Ash deposit layer buildup was studied in situ as well as ash particle shape, size, and velocity as they impacted on the probe surface. The ash deposits were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, giving detailed information on morphology and elemental composition. Results were compared to thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for phase composition and viscosity. The experimental observations (slag melting, flow properties, and composition) were in good qualitative agreement with the theoretical predictions. Accordingly, at 1000 °C, no or partial melts were observed depending upon the potassium/silicon ratio; instead, high amounts of additive and a temperature of at least 1200 °C were needed to create a flowing melt.

  • 38.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå Universitet.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå Universitet.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå Universitet.
    Slag Formation During Entrained Flow Gasification: Calcium Rich Bark Fuel with KHCO3 AdditiveManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing slag properties is of utmost importance for successful operation of entrained flow gasifiers. The present study details some aspects of slag formed from a softwood bark fuel, and especially the situation with only small amounts of mineral contaminants, meaning composition is shifted from Si- towards P-dominated ash. Wood bark with and without KHCO3 additive was gasified between 850 °C and 1300 °C at O2 stoichiometric ratio (λ) 0.6 to study the resulting ash properties and the influence of the additive. The ash particles collided with a flat impact probe inside the hot reactor, with particle impact angles varied between 90° to 30°. The reactor and probe were constructed to allow for long-distance microscope data collection close to the surface of the probe. In situ PIV and SEM-EDS of deposit samples from lab scale entrained flow gasification experiments were used for evaluation, while XRD was used to characterize carbonates. High potassium release was found but numerous spherical ash particles indicated lower ash melting temperatures than expected from the bulk ash composition. These new findings propose a mechanism for melt formations involving carbonates rich in potassium and phosphorous, followed by K-release and calcination leading to solidification.

  • 39.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Chishty, Muhammad Aqib
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Multi-phase modelling of a twin shaft regenerative lime kiln2023Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Slag Formation during Entrained Flow Gasification: Calcium-Rich Bark Fuel with KHCO3 Additive2020Ingår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 7112-7120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Slag property management is of utmost importance for successful operation of entrained flow gasifiers. The present study investigates the influence of potassium introduced as KHCO3 on the ash and slag formation of softwood bark, a calcium-rich fuel, during entrained flow gasification. The bark contained only minor mineral inclusions causing the ash composition to be dominated by calcium and potassium. Wood bark with and without KHCO3 additive was gasified between 850 and 1400 degrees C at O-2 stoichiometric ratio (lambda) 0.6. The ash particles collided with a flat impact probe inside the hot reactor at particle impact angles set to 90 degrees, 60 degrees, and 30 degrees. The reactor and probe allowed long-distance microscope data collection close to the probe surface. Particle deposition was optically monitored and resulting deposits were analyzed by SEM-EDS and XRD. Thermodynamic equilibrium and viscosity calculations were used to assist interpretation of experimental results. The predicted temperature window for liquid carbonate formation was experimentally verified, but the melt fraction of the deposit was too low to cause efficient flow and removal of ash from the probe under the prevailing experimental conditions. At higher temperatures, spherical particles indicated lower ash melting temperatures than expected from the bulk ash composition, and a detailed mechanism was proposed.

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  • 41.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Strandberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Wagner, David R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Molinder, Roger
    Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteå.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Energitekniskt Centrum, Piteå.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå Technical University.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Size, Shape and Density Changes of Biomass Particles during Devolatilization in a Drop Tube Furnace2014Ingår i: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production October 26 –31, 2014, Snowbird, Utah, USA, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Holmgren, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Wagner, David R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Strandberg, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Molinder, Roger
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Size, shape, and density changes of biomass particles during rapid devolatilization2017Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 206, s. 342-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle properties such as size, shape and density play significant roles on particle flow and flame propagationin pulverized fuel combustion and gasification. A drop tube furnace allows for experiments athigh heating rates similar to those found in large-scale appliances, and was used in this study to carryout experiments on pulverized biomass devolatilization, i.e. detailing the first stage of fuel conversion.The objective of this study was to develop a particle conversion model based on optical informationon particle size and shape transformation. Pine stem wood and wheat straw were milled and sieved tothree narrow size ranges, rapidly heated in a drop tube setup, and solid residues were characterized usingoptical methods. Different shape descriptors were evaluated and a shape descriptor based on particleperimeter was found to give significant information for accurate estimation of particle volume. The opticalconversion model developed was proven useful and showed good agreement with conversion measuredusing a reference method based on chemical analysis of non-volatilized ash forming elements.The particle conversion model presented can be implemented as a non-intrusive method for in-situ monitoringof particle conversion, provided density data has been calibrated.

  • 43. Häggström, Gustav
    et al.
    Karl Hannl, Thomas
    Holmgren, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Fate of phosphorus in pulverized fuel co-combustion of sewage sludge and agricultural residues2023Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 335, artikel-id 127059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fate of phosphorus concerning its distribution in the thermal process and chemical speciation was studied during the co-combustion of sewage sludge with wheat straw and sunflower husks in powder combustion conditions. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a lab-scale entrained flow reactor (EFR) at 1000 °C and 1400 °C. SEM-EDS and ICP-OES analyses were used for studies of deposits collected on a probe, bottom ash, and particulate matter samples collected during experiments. Deposition probe samples were further studied and interpreted using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermochemical equilibrium calculations (TECs). The inorganic material in the different fuel particles mainly interacted through a molten phase observed on deposition probes. Crystalline P was mainly identified in β-Ca3(PO4)2 whitlockites. TECs support the experimental findings and suggest that a mostly homogenous melt occurs at 1400 °C, whereas Fe-oxides and Ca-phosphates precipitate during the cooling of the formed deposits. It was found that <5 % of incoming P was collected in fine particulate matter (<1 µm), indicating that the majority of P can be found in deposits and bottom ash. This outcome implies that P recovery efforts should be focused on these ash fractions.

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  • 44. Kassman, Håkan
    et al.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Berg, Magnus
    Åmand, Lars-Erik
    Measures to reduce chlorine in deposits: Application in a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler firing biomass2011Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 90, nr 4, s. 1325-1334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of biomass with a high content of alkali (mainly potassium, K) and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. Among the measures applied to decrease such problems are co-combustion and the use of additives. The positive effects of these measures are to a large extent either sulphation of the alkali chlorides (KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates or capture of alkali from KCl during release of HCl. A test campaign was carried out in a large-scale circulating fluidised boiler fired with biomass where the measures applied were sulphation by ammonium sulphate and co-combustion with peat. Their performance was evaluated by means of several advanced measurement tools including: IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous KCl); a low-pressure impactor (size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles) and deposit measurements (chemical composition in collected deposits). The overall performance was better for ammonium sulphate, which significantly lowered KCl in the flue gas. Meanwhile no chlorine was found in the deposits. Only a minor reduction of gaseous KCl was obtained during co-combustion with peat although the chlorinecontent in the deposits was greatly reduced. These findings were supported by the results from the impactor measurements.

  • 45. Kirtania, Kawnish
    et al.
    Haggstrom, Gustav
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Furusjo, Erik
    Cogasification of Crude Glycerol and Black Liquor Blends: Char Morphology and Gasification Kinetics2017Ingår i: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, nr 8, s. 1272-1281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we assessed the feasibility of black liquor/glycerol blends as a potential gasification feedstock. The char gasification reactivity and kinetics were studied at T=750, 800, 850, and 900 degrees C for 20 and 40% blends of glycerol with black liquor. Three qualities of glycerol were used including two industrial-grade crude glycerols. The gasification rates were similar for all blends; therefore, the alkali-metal catalysis is also sufficient for the char blends (alkali/C atomic ratio between 0.45 and 0.55). The blends with the most impure glycerol (containing K) had the lowest activation energies (approximate to 120 kJ mol(-1)) and reaction times for char gasification and, therefore, had fuel properties suitable for gasification. The char particles from different blends showed surface morphologies similar to those of black liquor chars with an even surface distribution of alkali elements. A loss of alkali (mainly K) from the fuel blends during pyrolysis indicated the necessity to perform gas-phase studies of alkali release. Overall, these results encourage the use of glycerol as a potential gasification feedstock for catalytic-gasification-based biorefineries.

  • 46.
    Kumar Wagri, Naresh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ma, Charlie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    A postmortem corrosion study of spent MgO-based refractory materials from a lime kilnManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Kumar Wagri, Naresh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ma, Charlie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Crushing strength of MgO-based refractory after exposure to fuel ashes and quicklime at high temperatureManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Kumar Wagri, Naresh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association - MinFo, C/O Cementa, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Charlie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    High temperature interactions between coal ash and MgO-based refractories in lime kiln conditions2023Ingår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 342, artikel-id 127711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnesium oxide (MgO)-based refractories are commonly used in quicklime and cement rotary kilns. At the high temperatures in the kiln burn zone, the infiltration of molten fuel ash into the refractory can occur. Subsequent chemical interactions can cause refractory wear that inflicts high maintenance costs and loss of production. To improve refractory reliability, it is necessary to increase the understanding of the interactions between fuel ash slag and refractory liner materials. Three commercially available MgO-based refractory materials were exposed to coal ash at 1200 °C and 1400 °C for between 15 and 60 min under a CO2-rich gaseous environment. Hot slag from the coal ash infiltrated the refractories and the infiltration depths were estimated with scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Based on detailed elemental and microstructure analyses, the interactions between ash and refractory were examined. Molten silicates infiltrated the refractory through grain boundaries and pores into depths of up to 2.8 mm. Powder X-ray diffraction of the exposed refractory samples indicated that MgO grains reacted with SiO2-containing phases to form Mg2SiO4. This was identified as a corrosion product whose formation was supported by thermochemical equilibrium calculations. Elevated Mg content was found in the ash residue on top of the samples, indicating the dissolution or dislocation of refractory components. In addition, phases such as MgO were identified in the ash residue.

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  • 49.
    Kumar Wagri, Naresh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association - MinFo, C/O Cementa, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Charlie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    High temperature interactions between K-rich biomass ash and MgO-based refractories2023Ingår i: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 3770-3777Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    MgO-based refractories are used in lime kilns to withstand the high temperature and chemical environment. Efforts to reduce CO2 emissions have led to an increased interest to use bio-based fuels as alternatives to traditional fossil sources. The potential for refractory corrosion from a potassium-rich biomass ash was investigated by studying the infiltration of olive pomace ash into magnesia/spinel refractories. Refractory samples were exposed to the ash at up to 1400 °C for 15–60 min in a CO2–rich atmosphere. Molten ash infiltrated the refractories through pores and grain boundaries to a depth of up to 9.6 mm, which was quantified with a new systematic procedure. The phase KAlO2 was identified inside the refractories after exposure, indicating an attack of spinel components by potassium. Phases found in the ash residues also indicated the migration of refractory constituents. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations were also used to investigate the ash/refractory chemistry.

  • 50.
    Kumar Wagri, Naresh
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Carlborg, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Eriksson, Matias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Swedish Mineral Processing Research Association - MinFo, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Charlie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Britt M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Interaction of olive pomace ash and coal ash with magnesium oxide based refractories2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on the Impact of Fuel Quality on Power Production and the Environment / [ed] Markus Broström, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University , 2022Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In quicklime production, limestone is calcined at temperatures above 1000°C, depending on the desired product quality. Heat is supplied to the process from combustion inside the kilns that are insulated to reduce heat loss. The kilns are lined with insulating refractory bricks to withstand the hot, chemically aggressive, and mechanically abrasive environment. Magnesia bricks have emerged as well-performinglining materials, but they are still prone to extensive wear in kilns that are operated at higher temperatures. In particular, refractory corrosion can be caused by fuel ash infiltration that results inmaterial wear, which can incur high maintenance and operational costs through unplanned shutdowns of the kilns. At the same time, to reduce the release of fossil-based carbon to the atmosphere, it is of interest to introduce bio-based fuels into the kilns with only relatively small modifications to the process. Biobased waste streams from existing industries are preferable rather than biomass grown with the sole purpose of combustion. The ash content and properties of these types of waste residues do, however, tend to be problematic from a fuel ash chemistry point of view. Therefore, before introducing a new fuel, their potential effects on kiln lining material should be investigated. In this study, the infiltration of olivepomace ash and coal ash into commercially available refractory materials composed of mainly periclase(MgO) with minor amounts of spinel (MgAl2O4) were compared. They were exposed to the fuel ashes under a simulated lime kiln high CO2 atmosphere at 1200 and 1400°C for 15 and 60 minutes. The morphology and elemental composition of the exposed samples were investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Ash-forming elements infiltrated the porous parts of the materials. The analytical results are complemented with thermodynamic equilibrium calculations to investigate the ash melting behavior. Crystalline phases in the residual ashes were investigated with X-ray diffraction. Refractory phases could be found in both ashes, indicating migration of refractory constituents. Olive pomace ash formed new crystalline compounds together with the refractory components whereas this was not observed for the coal ash, indicating that the former is more of a risk for material failure.  

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