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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Johansson, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Näsholm, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of coopetition: levels and effects on different levels2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the field of coopetition has grown the multi-level nature of the phenomena have not been systematically addressed. The purpose of this systematic review is to organize extant research by distinguishing between level of coopetition and the effects of coopetition. Through a search of two databases, 99 articles were identified addressing coopetition, or collaboration and competition. The articles were classified by the method used, the level of coopetition addressed and on what level the effects were described. Within the different combinations of level and effect a content analysis was made of the articles. We suggest that additional clarification of the concept is needed to consolidate the field and give direction for future research. 

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Manzhynski, Siarhei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Stål, Herman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Out of the ashes and into the fire? Organizing mechanisms navigating multiple paradoxes in cross-sectoral collaboration for sustainabilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A systematic review of research on coopetition: Toward a multilevel understanding2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 57, p. 23-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research on the phenomenon of coopetition has dramatically increased during the last years, this line of inquiry often embodies a loosely connected body of work with fragmented themes, underdeveloped concepts, and little work explaining coopetition at multiple levels. In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review of the field, and based on a final set of 142 contributions, synthesize the disparate research into a coherent whole by developing an overarching and dynamic multilevel model. We first systematize diverse conceptualizations of coopetition with respect to different levels into The Actor and The Activity Schools of Thought. Then we integrate major critical themes into a Driver, Process, Outcomes (DPO) framework, and offer a Blended School of Thought to show how different levels are intertwined and affect each other. Next, we develop a multilevel conceptual model of coopetition by integrating the Blended School into the DPO framework. This model helps future re- search better understand how the phenomena of coopetition at one level of analysis are distinct, yet interlinked, from coopetition at other levels, and in so doing, provides a richer and more complete perspective of the phe- nomenon of coopetition. Finally, we identify promising research avenues and suggest how future research can strengthen this line of inquiry.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradox at an inter-firm level: a coopetition lens2017In: The Oxford handbook of organizational paradox / [ed] Wendy K. Smith, Marianne W. Lewis, Paula Jarzabkowski and Ann Langley, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 296-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on coopetition (i.e., simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms) as a manifestation of paradox at an inter-firm level, and develops a nuanced understanding of the resulting paradoxical tension by bringing its micro-foundations into focus. The authors suggest that unlike the paradox that manifests at the inter-firm level (or organizational level), tension is experienced by individual actors, and comprises ambivalent cognitions, emotions, and their interplay. The authors further suggest that paradoxical tension is most productive when maintained at a moderate level, and for that firms need to develop a multilevel operating capability. The suggested theory provides novel and useful insights to advance the research on paradoxes at inter-firm and organizational levels.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradoxical tensions at multiple levels and top management team crosslevel bridging in coopetition: a conceptual model2022In: Strategic Management Review, ISSN 2688-2612, E-ISSN 2688-2639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to the conventional strategic management research, emphasizing either cooperation or competition as a beneficial strategy, the emerging literature on coopetition has advanced our knowledge of how the pursuit of both cooperation and competition could potentially lead to greater benefits. However, the literature offers scarce insights into the multi-level dynamics of coopetition and the role of TMT in addressing paradoxical tensions cascaded across levels, that, if not tackled well, can overturn the benefits associated with coopetition. Using key insights from the paradox literature, this paper develops a conceptual model that suggests how the coopetition paradox unfolds at different levels within the organization, activating performing, organizing, and belonging tensions, that, in turn, affect the dynamics of the interplay between cooperation and competition at the inter-firm level. Specifically, the model contributes by foregrounding TMT’s cross-level bridging role (i.e., uniform navigation within and among relationships at the interorganizational level through efficient orchestration of internal processes at organizational levels)

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Srivastava, Manish
    Looking different vs thinking differently: Impact of TMT diversity on coopetition capability2020In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 53, no 1, article id 101857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we focus on the micro-foundations of coopetition capability and ask: "where does coopetition capability come from?" Drawing upon social psychology and cognitive theories, we seek to offer insights into the micro-foundations of coopetition capability by focusing on the role of top management team (TMT) diversity. We suggest that TMT diversity emerges from two distinct attributes of the team members: surface-level (e.g., age, gender, nationality) and deep-level (e.g., knowledge and experience). We argue that TMT diversity based on surface-level attributes contributes negatively while TMT diversity based on deep-level attributes contributes positively to coopetition capability. We test our hypotheses using a novel dataset that combines primary data and employee level secondary data of a sample of 315 Swedish firms. Results provide broad support for our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings and key limitations of our study.

  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Linking coopetition tensions with performance: the mediating role of ambidexterity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By viewing coopetition as a paradox, this paper provides a conceptual model for examining the mediating role of managers’ ambidextrous orientation in linking coopetition tensions with firm’s performance. With a focus on two kinds of tensions that managers usually experience in the coopetition relationship (i.e., external tensions) as well as perceive inside the organization (i.e., internal tensions), we conceptualize their materialization from the coopetition paradox and how ambidextrous managers can mitigate their potential destructive effects on performance. This conceptual model is tested on a representative sample of 1,532 firms in Sweden. The results show that coopetition paradox associates with external tensions but weakly relates to internal tensions. A key contribution is that there is no significant direct relation between coopetition tensions and performance but that an ambidextrous orientation of managers provides a strong mediating effect between the two. 

  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The coopetition paradox and tension: the moderating role of coopetition capability2016In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 53, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we apply a paradox perspective on coopetition to investigate the effects of coopetition paradox on managers' experience and perception of coopetitive tensions, and the role of coopetition capability in managing such tensions. We propose a theoretical model to posit that the intensity of coopetition paradox positively associates with managers' experience of external tension, which in turn lead them to perceive internal tension. Further, coopetition capability plays a dual role—moderates the relation between coopetition paradox and external tension, and reduces internal tension. We tested hypotheses on a representative multi-industry sample of 1532 firms in Sweden and the results confirm them. Our study contributes to understanding the critical role of coopetition capability that enables firms to maintain a moderate level of tension regardless of the intensity of coopetition paradox. 

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  • 9.
    Carmine, Simone
    et al.
    University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Andriopoulos, Constantine
    University of London, City, London, United Kingdom.
    Gotsi, Manto
    University of London, Birkbeck, London, United Kingdom.
    Härtel, Charmine E. J.
    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Krzeminska, Anna
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Mafico, Nkosana
    Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Pradies, Camille
    EDHEC Business School, Roubaix, France.
    Raza, Hassan
    Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Schrage, Stephanie
    Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sharma, Garima
    Georgia State University, GA, Fayetteville, United States.
    Slawinski, Natalie
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, NL, St. John’s, Canada.
    Stadtler, Lea
    Grenoble Ecole de Management, Grenoble, France.
    Tunarosa, Andrea
    The University of Tampa, FL, Tampa, United States.
    Winther-Hansen, Casper
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Keller, Joshua
    UNSW Sydney, NSW, Sydney, Australia.
    A Paradox Approach to Organizational Tensions During the Pandemic Crisis2021In: Journal of Management Inquiry, ISSN 1056-4926, E-ISSN 1552-6542, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    A theory of experienced paradoxical tension in co-opetitive alliances2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical research shows that co-opetition is a double-edged sword such that it can both help and hurt the achievement of desired performance outcomes. Despite the proliferation of co-opetitive alliances (i.e., simultaneous pursuit of competition and cooperation between firms), the field still lacks a theoretical framework that could help explain the dynamic mechanisms and conditions leading to these contradictory results. This thesis attempts to distill and integrate arguments from different literature streams of paradox, ambidexterity, and emotion to develop a framework in which experienced paradoxical tension (i.e., individual level cognitive difficulty and emotional ambivalence that pulls managers in opposite directions) serves as the main underlying mechanism through which co-opetition (i.e., an inter-firm level paradox) differentially affects performance in co-opetitive alliances. I further propose that firms' failure or success to achieve performance objectives in co- opetitive alliances is also contingent upon having a strong co-opetition capability (i.e., a multidimensional capability comprising analytical, emotional, and balancing dimensions). This thesis includes four appended papers that have used various methodologies such as anecdotes, exemplar cases, and particularly survey questionnaires to test some parts of the developed theory. The results from different papers show support for most of the tested relationships. Overall, the thesis contributes by proposing a much- need theory of experienced paradoxical tension that address the core issues related to the nature, source, consequence, and management of such tension in co-opetitive alliances. My theory has implications for research on organizational paradox and emotion, as well as for senior managers who are responsible for the success of co-opetitive alliances.

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  • 11.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Experiencing the paradox of coopetition: A moderated mediation framework explaining the paradoxical tension–performance relationship2020In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 53, no 1, article id 101863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I investigate how and why experienced paradoxical tension deteriorates coopetitive performance and when such debilitating effects can be managed. More specifically, by drawing on the paradox theory and emotion literature, I suggest that paradoxical tension (i.e., the cognitive difficulty faced by senior managers as they pursue multiple, simultaneous competing demands of coopetition) creates a state of emotional ambivalence, which in turn, contributes negatively to coopetitive performance. I further propose that the negative consequences can be managed through organizational-level mechanisms, namely, emotional capability and balancing capability. The results show a full mediation of emotional ambivalence and a positive influence of balancing capability. Surprisingly, the moderating effect of emotional capability turns out to be negative. However, interestingly, the moderated-mediation result shows that a blend of higher balancing capability and lower emotional capability produces a positive indirect effect of tension on performance. The paper contributes to the research on strategy and organizational paradoxes.

  • 12.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Paradoxical tension and performance in co-opetitive alliances: a moderated mediation model including emotional ambivalence, ambivalence response, and balancing capability2017In: 33rd EGOS Colloquium, Copenhagen, July 6-8, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University.
    The Power of ‘Both/And’: Simultaneous Trust and Distrust in Inter-Firm Coopetitive Alliances2019In: BAM2019 Conference Proceedings, London: British Academy of Management , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the association between coopetition—inter-firm relationships that involve the simultaneous interaction of cooperation and competition—and performance has shown inconsistent results. We build on the developing stream of organizational literature that emphasizes the need for both trust and distrust to address this conundrum. By explicitly treating trust and distrust as distinct and multi-dimensional constructs (i.e., trust comprising goodwill and competence dimensions and distrust consisting of malevolence and discredibility), we consider their moderating effects on the coopetition–performance relationship. Our results suggest that while the presence of both trust and distrust positively moderates the relationship between coopetition and performance, the presence of either trust or distrust fails to do so. We contribute by showing the power of ‘both/and’ (against the conventional ‘either/or’) view of trust and distrust in terms of achieving superior, long-run performance in complex relationships like that of coopetition.

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  • 14.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Umeå University.
    The role of emotional ambivalence in coopetition alliances2017In: Academy of Management Proceedings, Academy of Management , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I develop and test a theoretical model of moderated mediation in which emotional ambivalence functions as an intervening mechanism that explains association between co-opetitive tension and performance in co-opetition alliances. I also consider how managerial response of acceptance and organizational balancing capability influence the mediating role of emotional ambivalence in the tension– performance relationship through the effect they have on how ambivalence relates to performance. The structural model results, based on a sample of 220 firms involved in dyadic co-opetition alliances, show full mediation of emotional ambivalence and positive moderation of balancing capability. Counter to my expectation, however, acceptance response negatively moderates the link between emotional ambivalence and performance. Interestingly, the moderated mediation results show that when balancing capability is high and ambivalence response is low, the conditional indirect effects of tension on performance turn from negative to positive. I discuss how the recent theory on ambivalent responses of wise actors versus wise systems can explain this intriguing pattern of moderated mediation.

  • 15.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    When does (not) a coopetitive relationship matter to performance? An empirical investigation of the role of multidimensional trust and distrust2021In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 96, p. 86-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite substantive evidence showing mixed results on the association between a coopetitive relationship and performance, surprisingly little theory explains the contingencies under which a coopetitive relationship does (or does not) matter to performance. By combining insights from the trust-distrust literature and 18 in-depth managerial conversations, this study unpacks the multidimensional nature of trust (i.e., goodwill and competence) and distrust (i.e., malevolence and discredibility) and suggests that the effect of a coopetitive relationship matters to performance, when both trust and distrust are present (at moderate to high levels), but fails to do so when one of them is low and the other is high. The results based on a sample of Swedish firms provide full support for the hypotheses. In terms of theoretical contributions, this study challenges the old wisdom suggesting trust as good and distrust as bad, extends the current understanding of trust and distrust beyond their one-dimensionality, and provides a novel approach to understanding when a coopetitive relationship performs well and when it does not. In terms of practical relevance, it suggests that firms adopt a paradox mindset (with a focus on both trust and distrust) to unlock the positive potential of a coopetitive relationship.

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Does size matter in competitor collaborations? The effect of firm size on creating private and common value from coopetition2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Emotions in paradoxical inter-firm relationships: a conceptual framework2014In: The 74th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, 2014, p. 15851-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a theory of emotions in inter-firm relationships with specific attention to the context of coopetition in which firms deal with the paradox of simultaneous cooperation and competition with each other. Our theory articulates the antecedents, characteristics, consequences and management of emotions in coopetition. We propose that the cognitive appraisal of paradox in coopetition leads to emotional ambivalence – an emotional state of experiencing simultaneous positive and negative emotions. We introduce the concept of emotional ambidexterity that enables the focal firm to accept, allow, and maintain emotional ambivalence at a moderate level, and enhance performance. Applying an emotional lens on coopetition enhances scholarly understanding of the paradoxical phenomenon and provides intriguing avenues for further research.

  • 18.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tension in Paradoxical Relationships between Firms2013In: 29th EGOS Colloquium, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gnyawali, Devi
    Virginia Tech.
    Experienced paradoxical tension in coopetition and firm performance: The moderating role of coopetition capability2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate the conditions under which firms involved in coopetition can mitigate the detrimental effects of experienced paradoxical tension on performance. We propose that the ability of a firm to benefit from the challenging and paradoxical phenomenon of coopetition is contingent upon having a specialized multi-dimensional coopetition capability comprising analytical, emotional, and balancing dimensions. Analysis of multisource, one-year time-lagged data on 173 Swedish firms in the high-tech manufacturing and knowledge intensive services industries show strong support for the moderating role of coopetition capability. Our study contributes by theorizing and operationalizing coopetition capability as a multi-dimensional construct and foregrounding its critical role in helping firms reduce the negative consequences of paradoxical tension while at the same time tapping into its positive energy.

  • 20.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gnyawali, Devi R.
    Department of Management Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA.
    The nature, consequences, and management of emotions in interfirm paradoxical relationships - A conceptual framework2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 36, no 4, article id 101127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a theory of emotions in interfirm paradoxical relationships with a focus on coopetition and emotional ambivalence. We suggest that appraisals of paradoxical coopetition situations lead to the arousal of multiple, oppositely valenced emotions of various intensities, combinations of which correspond to different states of emotional ambivalence. We explicate how emotional ambivalence, through managers’ appraisal and emotional contagion processes becomes collective and how it impacts coopetition performance. We further theorize how the negative effect of ambivalence on performance could be minimized and the positive effect could be amplified through emotional capability. Our theory provides a nuanced understanding of the complex nature of emotions, and how they arise, manifest, and impact outcomes in interfirm paradoxical relationships.

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  • 21.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gnyawalli, Devi
    Managing the dark side of coopetition2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Gnyawalli, Devi
    Paradoxical tension and firm performance: The contingent role of coopetition capability2019In: Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, ISSN 0065-0668, E-ISSN 2151-6561, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While a growing body of research has recognized that coopetition is paradoxical and creates tension, limited research has examined how paradoxical tension manifests and impacts firm performance. We theorize that paradoxical tension in coopetition manifests in the cognition and emotion of senior managers and that high level of paradoxical tension creates dysfunctional behaviors that compromise performance. We further argue that the detrimental effect on performance could be mitigated when firms have capabilities to understand and deal with the paradoxical situation. We conceptualize coopetition capability as a three dimensional construct consisting of cognitive, emotional, and balancing dimensions, and empirically examine its moderating role on the tension-performance relationship. Results based on survey and secondary data from 187 high technology and knowledge intensive firms show that experienced paradoxical tension does indeed hurt firm performance. Results also show that firms that possess coopetition capability can analyze the paradoxical situation, emotionally deal with the paradox, and maintain a balance in the midst of competing demands from competition and cooperation do minimize the negative performance effect of paradoxical tension in coopetition.

  • 23.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kock, Sören
    Department of Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Vaasa, Finland.
    The coopetition paradox and tension in coopetition at multiple levels2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 189-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the nature of the paradox inherent in coopetition; that is, the simultaneous pursuit of cooperation and competition between firms, and emanating tensions that develop at individual, organizational, and inter-organizational levels. We dissect the anatomy of the coopetition paradox to discover how it materializes by creating an external boundary (i.e., via unifying forces) and internal boundaries (i.e., via divergent forces). After explaining the coopetition paradox, we distinguish tension from paradox and submit that tension comprises both positive and negative emotions simultaneously, also known as emotional ambivalence. Finally, we recognize that emotional ambivalence in coopetition prevails at different levels, and vary in its level of intensity and persistency in relation to different contexts. We employ illustrative cases to ground our propositions empirically. This article provides understanding on concepts, expects to incite fruitful dialogue, and fuels further studies on inter-firm paradoxes.

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  • 24.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Coopetition capability: what is it?2018In: The Routledge companion to coopetition strategies / [ed] Anne-Sophie Fernandez, Paul Chiambaretto, Frédéric Le Roy, Wojciech Czakon, Abingdon: Routledge , 2018, p. 197-204Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we develop a fundamental understanding of an essential yet overlooked component of alliance capability, namely coopetition capability. We suggest that coopetition capability based on three dimensions—analytical, balancing, and emotional—reflects managers' ability to handle paradoxical demands. This capability is especially helpful and needed to deal with coopetition paradox and the resultant paradoxical tension. Coopetition capability not only allows firms to balance their cooperative and competitive interactions but also helps managers to keep a moderate level of tension to boost performance outcomes.

  • 25.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Knowledge sharing and knowledge leakage in dyadic coopetitive alliances involving SMEs2018In: Global opportunities for entrepreneurial growth: coopetition and knowledge dynamics within and across firms / [ed] Stavros Sindakis, Panagiotis Theodorou, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018, p. 229-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we empirically investigate an important question of "how does knowledge sharing and knowledge leakage impact the alliance performance in dyadic coopetitive alliance settings that involve small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)." Taking the perspective of the focal SME to address this question, we posit that while knowledge sharing positively associates with alliance performance, inadvertent knowledge leakage is negatively related to performance. We further postulate that under the conditions of high knowledge leakage, the positive impacts of knowledge sharing on performance would be reduced. Our structural model results based on a survey of 186 SMEs in the high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries in Sweden show support for two of the hypothesized relation- ships. More specically, the results show that knowledge sharing has a positive effect on alliance performance but knowledge leakage has an insignificant direct effect on performance. However, knowledge leakage plays a negative moderating role on the relationship between knowledge sharing and performance. We contribute by demonstrating the effects of knowledge sharing and leakage in under-researched but important dyadic one-to-one coopetitive alliances involving SMEs.

  • 26.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kostis, Angelos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Do trust and distrust in coopetition matter to performance?2020In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 367-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that firms intensely engage in coopetition (i.e., simultaneous cooperation and competition) and obtain unique benefits from such relationships. However, limited knowledge exists about how and when coopetition intensity leads to superior performance. Building on the theoretical work documenting that both trust and distrust are critical for enhancing performance in interfirm relationships, we address the aforementioned gap by looking into the distinct yet beneficial roles of trust and distrust in coopetition. More specifically, we argue that whereas trust likely serves as an intervening mechanism through which coopetition intensity enhances relationship performance, distrust positively influences the association between coopetition intensity and relationship performance. We test our hypotheses on a sample of 225 Swedish firms engaged in coopetition, and provide empirical evidence that trust and distrust play distinct yet important roles in achieving superior performance from coopetition.

  • 27.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Nottingham Business School, United Kingdom.
    Stadtler, Lea
    Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Fernandez, Anne-Sophie
    University of Montpellier, France.
    The individual manager in the spotlight: protecting sensitive knowledge in inter-firm coopetition relationships2023In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 110, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When firms collaborate with their competitors (i.e., engage in coopetition), individual managers play a pivotal role in protecting their firm's sensitive knowledge from potential misuse by partners. But which managers are more successful in performing this role? To better understand the senior-level human resources who help secure a firm's competitive advantage, we build on the Upper Echelons Theory and explore how managers' cognitions and values, as expressed in their demographic characteristics, influence knowledge protection in coopetitive relationships. To test our hypotheses, we use multi-source, time-lagged data on a sample of 176 small and medium-sized firms involved in coopetition. Our results suggest that managers' tenure and female gender relate positively to knowledge protection, which in turn contributes to subsequent firm performance, whereas managers' age and higher education impact knowledge protection negatively. On this basis, our study helps develop micro-macro linkages between the Upper Echelons Theory and the Resource-Based View, and reveals how different managerial characteristics influence knowledge protection, thereby threatening or securing sustainable firm performance. We discuss the implications for knowledge protection processes and human resource management.

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    fulltext
  • 28.
    Xu, Rui
    et al.
    School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
    Wu, Jianlin
    School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
    Gu, Jibao
    School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.
    Raza-Ullah, Tatbeeq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Nottingham Business School, United Kingdom.
    How inter-firm cooperation and conflicts in industrial clusters influence new product development performance?: The role of firm innovation capability2023In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 111, p. 229-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite ongoing cooperation among firms in industrial clusters, inter-firm conflicts are also prevalent, and little research has explored how these factors impact new product development (NPD) performance. In this study, we examine the influence of inter-firm cooperation and conflicts (i.e., constructive and destructive) on NPD performance, and explore the mediating role of innovation capability (i.e., incremental and radical) and the joint interactive effects of cooperation and conflicts on innovation capability. Based on data collected from a multi-sourced sample of 181 industrial cluster firms, our results confirm that innovation capability mediates the relationship between cooperation/constructive conflict and NPD performance. Specifically, we find that cooperation and constructive conflict positively affect both types of innovation capability, while destructive conflict negatively affects incremental innovation capability. Moreover, we identify a negative interaction effect of cooperation and constructive conflict on radical innovation capability, and a positive interactive effect of cooperation and destructive conflict on incremental innovation capability. These findings contribute to the literature on industrial clusters and provide practical implications for firm managers and government officials interested in regional development through industrial clusters.

1 - 28 of 28
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