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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    "Recovery activities are needed every step of the way": exploring the process of long-term recovery in people previously diagnosed with exhaustion disorder2024In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sick-leave rates are high due to stress-related illnesses, but little is still known about the process of recovery from these conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the recovery process, 6 to 10 years after treatment in people previously diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED), focusing on facilitators and barriers for the process of recovery from ED, and recovery activities experienced as helpful during the recovery process.

    Method: Thirty-eight participants (average age: 52 years, 32 females) previously diagnosed with ED were interviewed with semi-structured interviews 6–10 years after undergoing treatment. The interviews were analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Results: Three themes resulted from the analysis. The first theme, “A long and rocky road”, summarizes the fluctuating path to feeling better and emphasizes barriers and facilitators that affected the process of recovery, with a focus on external life events and the participants’ own behaviors. Facilitators were changing workplace, receiving support, a reduction in stressors, and changed behaviors. Barriers were a poor work environment, caregiver responsibilities, negative life events and lack of support. The second theme “Recovery activities are needed every step of the way” describes how both the need for recovery activities and the types of activities experienced as helpful changed during the recovery process, from low-effort recovery activities for long periods of time to shorter and more active recovery activities. Recovery activities were described as important for self-care but hard to prioritize in everyday life. The last theme, “Reorienting to a new place”, captures the struggle to cope with the remaining impact of ED, and how internal facilitators in terms of understanding and acceptance were important to reorient and adjust to a new way of functioning.

    Conclusions: Recovering from ED is a long and ongoing process where recovery activities are needed every step of the way. Our results highlight the importance of supporting personal recovery and long-term behavioral change, addressing individual stressors that may perpetuate the condition, and adjusting recovery activities according to where the person is in the recovery process.

    Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0073772. Registered on March 8, 2017. This study was pre-registered on Open Science Framework (osf.io).

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  • 2. Bangsbo, Jens
    et al.
    Blackwell, Joanna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). DRCMR, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caserotti, Paolo
    Dela, Flemming
    Evans, Adam B.
    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
    Gliemann, Lasse
    Kramer, Arthur F.
    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
    Lykke Mortensen, Erik
    Juul Lassen, Aske
    Gow, Alan J.
    Harridge, Stephen D.R.
    Hellsten, Ylva
    Kjaer, Michael
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Rhodes, Ryan E.
    Pike, Elizabeth C.J.
    Skinner, Timothy
    Skovgaard, Thomas
    Troelsen, Jens
    Tulle, Emmanuelle
    Tully, Mark A.
    van Uffelen, Jannique G.Z.
    Viña, Jose
    Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 53, no 14, p. 856-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies. The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power. This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.

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  • 3. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Veltman, Dick J.
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder2017In: NeuroImage: Clinical, E-ISSN 2213-1582, Vol. 16, p. 678-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in graymatter (GM) in various brain regions, as well as on the relationship between brain structure and SAD-symptomatology. These heterogeneous findings are possibly due to limited sample sizes. Multisite imaging offers new opportunities to investigate SAD-related alterations in brain structure in larger samples. An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174) and healthy control (HC)-participants (n = 213) using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI) approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

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  • 4. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic. J. A.
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, p. S7-S7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Increasing physical activity in officeworkers – the Inphact Treadmill study: a study protocol for a 13-month randomized controlled trial of treadmill workstations2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity, especially for type 2 diabetes. Since office work is related to long periods that are largely sedentary, it is of major importance to find ways for office workers to engage in light intensity physical activity (LPA). The Inphact Treadmill study aims to investigate the effects of installing treadmill workstations in offices compared to conventional workstations.

    Methods/Design: A two-arm, 13-month, randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted. Healthy overweight and obese office workers (n = 80) with mainly sedentary tasks will be recruited from office workplaces in Umeå, Sweden. The intervention group will receive a health consultation and a treadmill desk, which they will use for at least one hour per day for 13 months. The control group will receive the same health consultation, but continue to work at their regular workstations. Physical activity and sedentary time during workdays and non-workdays as well as during working and non-working hours on workdays will be measured objectively using accelerometers (Actigraph and activPAL) at baseline and after 2, 6, 10, and 13 months of follow-up. Food intake will be recorded and metabolic and anthropometric variables, body composition, stress, pain, depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and functional magnetic resonance imaging will be measured at 3–5 time points during the study period. Interviews with participants from the intervention group will be performed at the end of the study.

    Discussion: This will be the first long-term RCT on the effects of treadmill workstations on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time as well as other body functions and structures/morphology during working and non-working hours among office workers. This will provide further insight on the effects of active workstations on our health and could fill in some of the knowledge gaps regarding how we can reduce sedentary time in office environments.

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  • 6.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Matsson-Frost, Tove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Levine, James A
    Mayo Clinic Rochester MN, USA; Fondation IPSEN, Paris, France.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Walking Time Is associated With Hippocampal Volume in Overweight and Obese Office Workers2020In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 14, article id 307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the long-term effects on cognition and brain function after installing treadmill workstations in offices for 13 months.

    Methods: Eighty healthy overweight or obese office workers aged 40–67 years were individually randomized to an intervention group, receiving a treadmill workstation and encouraging emails, or to a control group, continuing to work as usual. Effects on cognitive function, hippocampal volume, prefrontal cortex (PFC) thickness, and circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed. Further, mediation analyses between changes in walking time and light-intensity physical activity (LPA) on changes in BDNF and hippocampal volume between baseline and 13 months, and multivariate analyses of the baseline data with percentage sitting time as the response variable, were performed.

    Results: No group by time interactions were observed for any of the outcomes. In the mediation analyses, positive associations between changes in walking time and LPA on changes in hippocampal volume were observed, although not mediated by changes in BDNF levels. In the multivariate analyses, a negative association between percentage sitting time and hippocampal volume was observed, however only among those older than 51 years of age.

    Conclusion: Although no group by time interactions were observed, our analyses suggest that increased walking and LPA may have positive effects on hippocampal volume and that sedentary behavior is associated with brain structures of importance for memory functions.

    Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT01997970.

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  • 7.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mattson-Frost, Tove
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Levine, James
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Installing treadmill workstations in offices does little for cognitive performance and brain structure, despite a baseline association between sitting time and hippocampus volumeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wahlström, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Otten, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lanthén, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Renklint, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Levine, James A.
    Department of Endocrinology, The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Fondation IPSEN, Paris, France.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial2018In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e523-e535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treadmill workstations that enable office workers to walk on a treadmill while working at their computers might increase physical activity in offices, but long-term effects are unknown. We therefore investigated whether treadmill workstations in offices increased daily walking time.

    Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial of healthy office workers who were either overweight or obese. We recruited participants from 13 different companies, which comprised 17 offices, in Umeå, Sweden. We included people who were aged 40-67 years, had sedentary work tasks, and had a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 kg/m2 and 40 kg/m2. After the baseline measurement, we stratified participants by their BMI (25-30 kg/m2 and >30 to 40 kg/m2); subsequently, an external statistician randomly assigned these participants (1:1) to either the intervention group (who received treadmill workstations for optional use) or the control group (who continued to work at their sit-stand desks as usual). Participants in the intervention group received reminders in boosting emails sent out to them at four occasions during the study period. Researchers were masked to group assignment until after analysis of the primary outcome. After the baseline measurement, participants were not masked to group belongings. The primary outcome was total daily walking time at weekdays and weekends, measured at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 13 months with the accelerometer activPAL (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK), which was worn on the thigh of participants for 24 h a day for 7 consecutive days. We used an intention-to-treat approach for our analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997970, and is closed to new participants.

    Findings: Between Nov 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, a total of 80 participants were recruited and enrolled (n=40 in both the intervention and control groups). Daily walking time during total time awake at weekdays increased between baseline and 13 months by 18 min (95% CI 9 to 26) in the intervention group and 1 min (-7 to 9) in the control group (difference 22 min [95% CI 7 to 37], pinteraction=0·00045); for weekend walking, the change from baseline to 13 months was 5 min (-8 to 18) in the intervention group and 8 min (-5 to 21) in the control group (difference -1 min [-19 to 17]; pinteraction=0·00045). Neither measure met our predetermined primary outcome of 30 min difference in total walking time between the intervention and control group, so the primary outcome of the trial was not met. One adverse event was reported in a participant who accidently stepped on their Achilles tendon.

    Interpretation: In a sedentary work environment, treadmill workstations result in a statistically significant but smaller-than-expected increase in daily walking time. Future studies need to investigate how increasing physical activity at work might have potentially compensatory effects on non-work activity.

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  • 9.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Wahlström, Viktoria
    Umeå University.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University.
    Increasing Physical Activity In Office Workers - An RCT Of Treadmill Workstations2018In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 47-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Our primary hypothesis was that an intervention with treadmill workstations would increase time spent walking. Secondary hypotheses were a decrease in time spent sitting with a concomitant increase in time spent standing and in light intensity physical activity (LPA) leading to positive effects on body measurements and body composition.

    METHODS: The intervention group received a treadmill workstation at their office desk during 13 months. Daily time spent sitting, standing and walking and number of steps was measured with activPAL®. Daily time in LPA and MVPA was measured with Actigraph®. Body weight, BMI and waist circumference were measured according to standardized protocols. Dual X-ray Absorptiometry was used to estimate body composition. Mixed models was used for the statistical analysis, with group, day of week (weekday/ weekend), time point and gender as fixed effects and age as a covariate. p<0.05 was considered significant.

    RESULTS: Eighty participants were included. The intervention group significantly increased their time spent walking at all follow-ups, with a difference at 13 months of 22 minutes (p<0.01) and 1645 steps per day (p<0.05), respectively, versus controls. Concomitantly, they decreased their MVPA with 13 minutes per day (p<0.001) at weekdays at 13 months versus baseline. We also found a decrease in LPA with 19 minutes per day (p<0.05), and of 17 minutes per day for MVPA (p<0.001) at 13 months versus baseline at weekends. The control group increased their time spent sitting with 25 minutes per day (p<0.05) and decreased the time spent standing with 35 minutes per day at weekdays (p<0.001) compared to baseline. There was also a decrease in LPA with 14 minutes per day (p<0.01) and in MVPA with 6 minutes per day (p<0.01) versus baseline during weekdays, with a decrease in sitting time with 36 minutes (p<0.05) at weekends. There were no significant changes in body measurements or body composition.

    CONCLUSION: It is possible to increase daily walking time by introducing treadmill workstations at offices. A decreased MVPA within the intervention group may contribute to lack of effects on body measurements and body composition. It is therefore important that future interventions aim at both reducing sedentary time as well as increasing, or at least remaining, MVPA levels.

  • 10.
    Binnewies, Julia
    et al.
    Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Mood, Anxiety, Psychosis, Sleep & Stress program, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Nawijn, Laura
    Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Mood, Anxiety, Psychosis, Sleep & Stress program, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, MSB Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Baaré, William F.C.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Vitas Ltd. Oslo Science Park & Department of Nutrition, IMB, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway; Computational Radiology and Artificial Intelligence, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, Berlin, Germany.
    Madsen, Kathrine Skak
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Topiwala, Anya
    Nuffield Department of Population Health, Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway; Computational Radiology and Artificial Intelligence, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Penninx, Brenda W.J.H.
    Amsterdam UMC location Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Mood, Anxiety, Psychosis, Sleep & Stress program, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lifestyle-related risk factors and their cumulative associations with hippocampal and total grey matter volume across the adult lifespan: a pooled analysis in the European Lifebrain consortium2023In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 200, article id 110692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lifestyle-related risk factors, such as obesity, physical inactivity, short sleep, smoking and alcohol use, have been associated with low hippocampal and total grey matter volumes (GMV). However, these risk factors have mostly been assessed as separate factors, leaving it unknown if variance explained by these factors is overlapping or additive. We investigated associations of five lifestyle-related factors separately and cumulatively with hippocampal and total GMV, pooled across eight European cohorts.

    Methods: We included 3838 participants aged 18–90 years from eight cohorts of the European Lifebrain consortium. Using individual person data, we performed cross-sectional meta-analyses on associations of presence of lifestyle-related risk factors separately (overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, short sleep, smoking, high alcohol use) as well as a cumulative unhealthy lifestyle score (counting the number of present lifestyle-related risk factors) with FreeSurfer-derived hippocampal volume and total GMV. Lifestyle-related risk factors were defined according to public health guidelines.

    Results: High alcohol use was associated with lower hippocampal volume (r = −0.10, p = 0.021), and overweight/obesity with lower total GMV (r = −0.09, p = 0.001). Other lifestyle-related risk factors were not significantly associated with hippocampal volume or GMV. The cumulative unhealthy lifestyle score was negatively associated with total GMV (r = −0.08, p = 0.001), but not hippocampal volume (r = −0.01, p = 0.625).

    Conclusions: This large pooled study confirmed the negative association of some lifestyle-related risk factors with hippocampal volume and GMV, although with small effect sizes. Lifestyle factors should not be seen in isolation as there is evidence that having multiple unhealthy lifestyle factors is associated with a linear reduction in overall brain volume.

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  • 11. Bojsen-Moller, Emil
    et al.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Center for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark; Institute of SportsMedicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ekblom, Orjan
    Blom, Victoria
    Ekblom, Maria M.
    Relationships between Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Cognitive Functions in Office Workers2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id 4721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing evidence from animal experiments suggests that physical activity (PA) promotes neuroplasticity and learning. For humans, most research on the relationship between PA, sedentary behaviour (SB), and cognitive function has relied on self-reported measures of behaviour. Office work is characterised by high durations of SB combined with high work demands. While previous studies have shown that fitter office workers outperform their less fit colleagues in cognitive tests, the importance of PA and SB remains unknown. This study investigated associations between objectively measured PA and SB, using hip-worn accelerometers, and cognitive functions in 334 office workers. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was not associated with any cognitive outcome. However, time spent in SB tended to be positively associated with words recalled in free recall (beta = 0.125). For the least fit participants, the average length of MVPA bouts was favourably related to Stroop performance (beta = -0.211), while for the fitter individuals, a longer average length of MVPA bouts was related to worse recognition (beta = -0.216). While our findings indicate that the length of MVPA bouts was associated with better Stroop performance in the least fit participants, our findings do not support the notion that more time spent in MVPA or less time in SB is associated with better cognitive function.

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  • 12. Bojsen-Møller, Emil
    et al.
    Wang, Rui
    Nilsson, Jonna
    Heiland, Emerald G.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diag‑ nostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kallings, Lena V.
    Ekblom, Maria
    The effect of two multi-component behavior change interventions on cognitive functions2022In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We previously reported the effects of two cluster-randomized 6-month multi-component workplace interventions, targeting reducing sedentary behavior or increasing physical activity among office workers, on movement behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these interventions on cognitive functions compared to a wait-list control group. The secondary aims were to examine if changes in cognition were related to change in cardiorespiratory fitness or movement behaviors and if age, sex, or cardiorespiratory fitness moderated these associations.

    Methods: Both interventions encompassed multi-components acting on the individual, environmental, and organizational levels and aimed to change physical activity patterns to improve mental health and cognitive function. Out of 263 included participants, 139 (mean age 43 years, 76% females) completed a neuropsychological test battery and wore accelerometers at baseline and 6-month follow-up. The intervention effect (aim 1) on cognitive composite scores (i.e., Executive Functions, Episodic Memory, Processing Speed, and Global Cognition) was investigated. Additionally, associations between changes in movement behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness, and changes in cognition were examined (aim 2). Moreover, age, sex, and cardiorespiratory fitness level were investigated as possible moderators of change associations (aim 3).

    Results: Overall, cognitive performance improved from baseline to follow-up, but the change did not differ between the intervention groups and the control group. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness or any movement behavior category did not predict changes in cognitive functions. The association between changes in time in bed and changes in both Executive Function and Global Cognition were moderated by age, such that a more positive relation was seen with increasing age. A less positive association was seen between changes in sedentary behavior and Processing Speed for men vs. women, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was related to a more positive association between changes in moderate-intensity physical activity and Global Cognition.

    Conclusion: The lack of an intervention effect on cognitive functions was expected since the intervention did not change movement behavior or fitness. Age, sex, and cardiorespiratory fitness level might moderate the relationships between movement behaviors and cognitive functions changes.

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  • 13.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Research (DRCMR), Centre forFunctional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen Univer-sity Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Non-invasive brain stimulation and neuro-enhancement in aging2018In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 9, p. 464-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ames, David
    Kochan, Nicole
    Lee, Teresa
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Wen, Wei
    Armstrong, Nicola
    Kwok, John
    Schofield, Peter
    Reppermund, Simone
    Wright, Margaret
    Trollor, Julian
    Brodaty, Henry
    Sachdev, Perminder
    Mather, Karen
    Investigating the influence of KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of memory performance and hippocampal volume in older individuals2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 78, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variability of episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy observed with increasing age may partly be explained by genetic factors. KIBRA (kidney and brain expressed protein) and CLSTN2 (calsyntenin 2) are two candidate genes previously linked to episodic memory performance and volume of the hippocampus, a key memory structure. However, whether polymorphisms in these two genes also influence age-related longitudinal memory decline and hippocampal atrophy is still unknown. Using data from two independent cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and the Older Australian Twins Study, we investigated whether the KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms (rs17070145 and rs6439886) are associated with episodic memory performance and hippocampal volume in older adults (65–90 years at baseline). We were able to examine these polymorphisms in relation to memory and hippocampal volume using cross-sectional data and, more importantly, also using longitudinal data (2 years between testing occasions). Overall we did not find support for an association of KIBRA either alone or in combination with CLSTN2 with memory performance or hippocampal volume, nor did variation in these genes influence longitudinal memory decline or hippocampal atrophy in two cohorts of older adults.

  • 15.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lindner, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Motor and mental training in older people: transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor-only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 16.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nordin, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia 10 Years Prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study2015In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280); group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age-and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

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  • 17.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Physical activity over a decade modifies age-related decline in perfusion, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity of the posterior default mode network: a multimodal approach2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 131, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One step toward healthy brain aging may be to entertain a physically active lifestyle. Studies investigating physical activity effects on brain integrity have, however, mainly been based on single brain markers, and few used a multimodal imaging approach. In the present study, we used cohort data from the Betula study to examine the relationships between scores reflecting current and accumulated physical activity and brain health. More specifically, we first examined if physical activity scores modulated negative effects of age on seven resting state networks previously identified by Salami, Pudas, and Nyberg (2014). The results revealed that one of the most age-sensitive RSN was positively altered by physical activity, namely, the posterior default-mode network involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Second, within this physical activity-sensitive RSN, we further analyzed the association between physical activity and gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter integrity, and cerebral perfusion using linear regression models. Regions within the identified DMN displayed larger GM volumes and stronger perfusion in relation to both current and 10-years accumulated scores of physical activity. No associations of physical activity and white matter integrity were observed. Collectively, our findings demonstrate strengthened PCC–cortical connectivity within the DMN, larger PCC GM volume, and higher PCC perfusion as a function of physical activity. In turn, these findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of how long-term regular exercise can contribute to healthy brain aging.

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  • 18.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Diet-Induced Weight Loss alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task2015In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 8, p. 261-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

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  • 19.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Neural correlates of time perspective2015In: Time perspective theory: review, research and application: essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, van Beek, W., Berlin: Springer , 2015, p. 231-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this chapter is to summarize our present knowledge about the neural correlates of time perspective and related constructs. We first briefly introduce functional magnetic resonance functional magnetic resonance imaging as a suitable technique to understand the underlying neural mechanisms when studying various constructs of time. Then, we discuss how the use of brain imaging techniques has improved our knowledge regarding concepts of time perspective. In this section it becomes evident that most studies have focused on mental time traveling. Finally we introduce a novel line of research in which we try to study neural correlates of time within the context of the Zimbardo framework. By such approach we are able to include the personality-like construct from the ZTPI to further understand the neural correlates of temporal processing.

  • 20.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Gates, Anne T.
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mortensen, Erik L.
    Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Garde, Ellen
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wimmelmann, Cathrine L.
    Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Siebner, Hartwig R.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kjaer, Michael
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health sciences, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is it all in the baseline? Trajectories of chair stand performance over 4 years and their association with grey matter structure in older adults2023In: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 44, no 11, p. 4299-4309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding individual variability in response to physical activity is key to developing more effective and personalised interventions for healthy ageing. Here, we aimed to unpack individual differences by using longitudinal data from a randomised-controlled trial of a 12-month muscle strengthening intervention in older adults. Physical function of the lower extremities was collected from 247 participants (66.3 ± 2.5 years) at four time-points. At baseline and at year 4, participants underwent 3 T MRI brain scans. K-means longitudinal clustering was used to identify patterns of change in chair stand performance over 4 years, and voxel-based morphometry was applied to map structural grey matter volume at baseline and year 4. Results identified three groups showing trajectories of poor (33.6%), mid (40.1%), and high (26.3%) performance. Baseline physical function, sex, and depressive symptoms significantly differed between trajectory groups. High performers showed greater grey matter volume in the motor cerebellum compared to the poor performers. After accounting for baseline chair stand performance, participants were re-assigned to one of four trajectory-based groups: moderate improvers (38.9%), maintainers (38.5%), improvers (13%), and decliners (9.7%). Clusters of significant grey matter differences were observed between improvers and decliners in the right supplementary motor area. Trajectory-based group assignments were unrelated to the intervention arms of the study. In conclusion, patterns of change in chair stand performance were associated with greater grey matter volumes in cerebellar and cortical motor regions. Our findings emphasise that how you start matters, as baseline chair stand performance was associated with cerebellar volume 4 years later.

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  • 21.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital–Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Hulme, Oliver J.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital–Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; London Mathematical Laboratory, London, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Siebner, Hartwig R.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital–Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital–Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kjaer, Michael
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital–Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital–Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital–Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital–Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Gillan, Claire M.
    School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; Global Brain Health Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Characterising the covariance pattern between lifestyle factors and structural brain measures: a multivariable replication study of two independent ageing cohorts2023In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 131, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modifiable lifestyle factors have been shown to promote healthy brain ageing. However, studies have typically focused on a single factor at a time. Given that lifestyle factors do not occur in isolation, multivariable analyses provide a more realistic model of the lifestyle-brain relationship. Here, canonical correlation analyses (CCA) examined the relationship between nine lifestyle factors and seven MRI-derived indices of brain structure. The resulting covariance pattern was further explored with Bayesian regressions. CCA analyses were first conducted on a Danish cohort of older adults (n = 251) and then replicated in a British cohort (n = 668). In both cohorts, the latent factors of lifestyle and brain structure were positively correlated (UK: r =.37, p < 0.001; Denmark: r =.27, p < 0.001). In the cross-validation study, the correlation between lifestyle-brain latent factors was r =.10, p = 0.008. However, the pattern of associations differed between datasets. These findings suggest that baseline characterisation and tailoring towards the study sample may be beneficial for achieving targeted lifestyle interventions.

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  • 22.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Kettegård Allé 30, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Madsen, Kathrine Skak
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Kettegård Allé 30, Hvidovre, Denmark; Radiography, Department of Technology, University College Copenhagen, Sigurdsgade 26, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Johnsen, Line K.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Kettegård Allé 30, Hvidovre, Denmark; Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Services, Capital Region Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Kjaer, Michael
    Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, København NV, Denmark; Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Kettegård Allé 30, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, København NV, Denmark.
    Siebner, Hartwig R.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Kettegård Allé 30, Hvidovre, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, Copenhagen N, Denmark; Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, København NV, Denmark.
    Right-left asymmetry in corticospinal tract microstructure and dexterity are uncoupled in late adulthood2021In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 240, article id 118405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing leads to a decline in white matter microstructure and dexterous function of the hand. In adolescents, it has previously been shown that the degree of right-left asymmetry in the corticospinal tract (CST) is linearly related with right-left asymmetry in dexterity. Here, we tested whether this association is also expressed in older adults. Participants completed a simple circle drawing task with their right and left hand as a measure of dexterity and underwent whole-brain diffusion weighted imaging at 3 Tesla (n = 199; aged 60–72 years). Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of right and left CST were extracted from a manually defined region-of-interest. Linear regression analyses were computed to replicate the analyses in adolescents. Frequentist analyses were complemented with a Bayesian analytical framework. Outcome measures were compared with those previously reported in adolescents (aged 11–16 years). Asymmetries in white matter microstructure of the CST were evident and comparable to the degree of lateralisation observed in adolescence. Similarly, asymmetries in dexterity were evident, but to a lesser degree than in adolescents. Unlike in adolescents, we found no evidence of a linear relationship between asymmetries in CST microstructure and dexterity. Complementary Bayesian regression analysis provided moderate evidence in favour of the null hypothesis, pointing towards a lack of association between the structural and functional measures of right-left asymmetry. Our findings are compatible with the notion that, by late adulthood, a diverging impact of age on white matter structure and dexterous hand function dilutes the structure-function relationship between CST microstructure and manual proficiency that has been reported in adolescents.

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  • 23.
    Domellöf, Magdalena Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Walton, Lois
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bäckström, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Evaluating a frontostriatal working-memory updating-training paradigm in Parkinson's disease: the iPARK trial, a double-blinded randomized controlled trial2020In: BMC Neurology, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive decline and dementia are common in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive deficits have been linked to the depletion of dopamine in the nigrostriatal pathway, but pharmacological treatments for PD have little evidence of improving or delaying cognitive decline. Therefore, exploring non-pharmacological treatment options is important. There have been some promising results of cognitive training interventions in PD, especially for improvements in working memory and executive functions. Yet, existing studies are often underpowered, lacking appropriate control condition, long term follow-up, a thorough description of the intervention and characteristics of the participants. Working memory updating training has previously shown to increase striatal activation in healthy young and old participants as well as dopaminergic neurotransmission in healthy young participants. In the light of dopamine dysfunction in PD, with negative effects on both motor and cognitive functions it is of interest to study if an impaired striatal system can be responsive to a non-invasive, non-pharmacological intervention.

    Methods and design: The iPARK trial is a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial with a parallel-group design that aims to recruit 80 patients with PD (during the period 02/2017–02/2023). Included patients need to have PD, Hoehn and Yahr staging I-III, be between 45 to 75 years of age and not have a diagnosis of dementia. All patients will undergo 30 sessions (6–8 weeks) of web-based cognitive training performed from home. The target intervention is a process-based training program targeting working memory updating. The placebo program is a low dose short-term memory program. A battery of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires will be performed before training, directly after training, and 16 weeks after training.

    Discussion: We expect that the iPARK trial will provide novel and clinically useful information on whether updating training is an effective cognitive training paradigm in PD. Further, it will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of cognitive function in PD and provide answers regarding cognitive plasticity as well as determining critical factors for a responsive striatal system.

    Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov registry number: NCT03680170, registry name: "Cognitive Training in Parkinson's Disease: the iPARK study", retrospectively registered on the 21st of September 2018. The inclusion of the first participant was the 1st of February 2017.

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  • 24.
    Dunås, Tora
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Multimodal Image Analysis of Apparent Brain Age Identifies Physical Fitness as Predictor of Brain Maintenance2021In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 3393-3407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining a youthful brain structure and function throughout life may be the single most important determinant ofsuccessful cognitive aging. In this study, we addressed heterogeneity in brain aging by making image-based brain agepredictions and relating the brain age prediction gap (BAPG) to cognitive change in aging. Structural, functional, anddiffusion MRI scans from 351 participants were used to train and evaluate 5 single-modal and 4 multimodal predictionmodels, based on 7 regression methods. The models were compared on mean absolute error and whether they were relatedto physical fitness and cognitive ability, measured both currently and longitudinally, as well as study attrition and years ofeducation. Multimodal prediction models performed at a similar level as single-modal models, and the choice of regressionmethod did not significantly affect the results. Correlation with the BAPG was found for current physical fitness, currentcognitive ability, and study attrition. Correlations were also found for retrospective physical fitness, measured 10 years priorto imaging, and slope for cognitive ability during a period of 15 years. The results suggest that maintaining a high physicalfitness throughout life contributes to brain maintenance and preserved cognitive ability.

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  • 25.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Ek Malmer, Elin
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Danderyd Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Slunga-Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hopeful struggling for health: Experiences of participating in computerized cognitive training and aerobic training for persons with stress-related exhaustion disorder2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 361-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to understand how people with exhaustion disorder (ED) perceive interventions aiming to facilitate cognitive functioning. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to explore experiences from persons with ED after participating in a 12-week intervention of either computerized cognitive training or aerobic training. Both interventions were performed in addition to a multimodal rehabilitation programme. Thirteen participants, 11 women and 2 men, were interviewed about pros and cons with participating in the training. The interviews were analysed with Qualitative Content Analysis. The analyses resulted in the theme hopeful struggling for health and the categories support, motivation and sensations. It was hard work recovering from ED. Support from others who are in the same situation, family members, and technology and routines for the training were strongly emphasized as beneficial for recovery. Timing, i.e., matching activities to the rehabilitation programme, getting feedback and perceiving joy in the training were important for motivation. Participants in both interventions experienced positive sensations with improved memory performance, everyday life functioning and increased faith in the prospect of recovery. However, it is important to consider various aspects of support and motivation in both computerized cognitive training and aerobic training to enable participants to pursue their participation.

  • 26.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre.
    Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial2017In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program.

    METHODS: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity.

    RESULTS: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls.

    CONCLUSION: Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

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  • 27.
    Farnsworth von Cederwald, Bryn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Center for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    White matter lesion load determines exercise-induced dopaminergic plasticity and working memory gains in aging2023In: Translational Psychiatry, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related dopamine reductions have been suggested to contribute to maladaptive working memory (WM) function in older ages. One promising intervention approach is to increase physical activity, as this has been associated with plasticity of the striatal dopamine system and WM improvements, however with individual differences in efficacy. The present work focused on the impact of individual differences in white-matter lesion burden upon dopamine D2-like receptor (DRD2) availability and WM changes in response to a 6 months physical activity intervention. While the intervention altered striatal DRD2 availability and WM performance in individuals with no or only mild lesions (p < 0.05), no such effects were found in individuals with moderate-to-severe lesion severity (p > 0.05). Follow-up analyses revealed a similar pattern for processing speed, but not for episodic memory performance. Linear analyses further revealed that lesion volume (ml) at baseline was associated with reduced DRD2 availability (r = −0.41, p < 0.05), and level of DRD2 change (r = 0.40, p < 0.05). Taken together, this study underlines the necessity to consider cerebrovascular health in interventions with neurocognitive targets. Future work should assess whether these findings extend beyond measures of DRD2 availability and WM.

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  • 28.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    et al.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Sørensen, Øystein
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Wang, Yunpeng
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Baaré, William F. C.
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital—Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bartrés-Faz, David
    Departament de Medicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pii Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain.
    Bertram, Lars
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Lübeck Interdisciplinary Platform for Genome Analytics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital—Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, MSB Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Demuth, Ilja
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases (including Division of Lipid Metabolism), Biology of Aging Working Group, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin Institute of Health at Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Vitas AS, Oslo, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; UniDistance Suisse, Brig, Switzerland; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Kievit, Rogier
    Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Kühn, Simone
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Madsen, Kathrine Skak
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital—Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Radiography, Department of Technology, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mowinckel, Athanasia M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Sexton, Claire E.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Global Brain Health Institute, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, San Francisco, United States; Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Alzheimer’s Association, IL, Chicago, United States.
    Solé-Padullés, Cristina
    Departament de Medicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pii Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vidal-Piñeiro, Didac
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Gerd
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.
    Watne, Leiv Otto
    Oslo Delirium Research Group, Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    No phenotypic or genotypic evidence for a link between sleep duration and brain atrophy2023In: Nature Human Behaviour, E-ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 2008-2022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short sleep is held to cause poorer brain health, but is short sleep associated with higher rates of brain structural decline? Analysing 8,153 longitudinal MRIs from 3,893 healthy adults, we found no evidence for an association between sleep duration and brain atrophy. In contrast, cross-sectional analyses (51,295 observations) showed inverse U-shaped relationships, where a duration of 6.5 (95% confidence interval, (5.7, 7.3)) hours was associated with the thickest cortex and largest volumes relative to intracranial volume. This fits converging evidence from research on mortality, health and cognition that points to roughly seven hours being associated with good health. Genome-wide association analyses suggested that genes associated with longer sleep for below-average sleepers were linked to shorter sleep for above-average sleepers. Mendelian randomization did not yield evidence for causal impacts of sleep on brain structure. The combined results challenge the notion that habitual short sleep causes brain atrophy, suggesting that normal brains promote adequate sleep duration—which is shorter than current recommendations.

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  • 29.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    et al.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Computational Radiology and Artificial Intelligence, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Sørensen, Øystein
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Wang, Yunpeng
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Amlien, Inge K.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Baaré, William F C
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital-Amager and Hvidovre, 2650 Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bartrés-Faz, David
    Departament de Medicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital-Amager and Hvidovre, 2650 Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, MSB Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Demuth, Ilja
    corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases (including Division of Lipid Metabolism), Biology of Aging working group, Charité-Universitätsmedizin BerlinAugustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; BCRT - Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Vitas AS, The Science Park, Oslo, Norway; Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of 0372 Oslo, Norway.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Kievit, Rogier
    Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, GA Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Kühn, Simone
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Madsen, Kathrine Skak
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital-Amager and Hvidovre, 2650 Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Radiography, Department of Technology, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Solé-Padullés, Cristina
    Departament de Medicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Vidal-Piñeiro, Didac
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Wagner, Gerd
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.
    Watne, Leiv Otto
    Oslo Delirium Research Group, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Campus Ahus, Norway.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Computational Radiology and Artificial Intelligence, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Is short sleep bad for the brain?: Brain structure and cognitive function in short sleepers2023In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 5241-5250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sleep less than recommended without experiencing daytime sleepiness. According to prevailing views, short sleep increases risk of lower brain health and cognitive function. Chronic mild sleep deprivation could cause undetected sleep debt, negatively affecting cognitive function and brain health. However, it is possible that some have less sleep need and are more resistant to negative effects of sleep loss. We investigated this using a cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of 47,029 participants of both sexes (20-89 years) from the Lifebrain consortium, Human Connectome project (HCP) and UK Biobank (UKB), with measures of self-reported sleep, including 51,295 MRIs of the brain and cognitive tests. A total of 740 participants who reported to sleep <6 h did not experience daytime sleepiness or sleep problems/disturbances interfering with falling or staying asleep. These short sleepers showed significantly larger regional brain volumes than both short sleepers with daytime sleepiness and sleep problems (n = 1742) and participants sleeping the recommended 7-8 h (n = 3886). However, both groups of short sleepers showed slightly lower general cognitive function (GCA), 0.16 and 0.19 SDs, respectively. Analyses using accelerometer-estimated sleep duration confirmed the findings, and the associations remained after controlling for body mass index, depression symptoms, income, and education. The results suggest that some people can cope with less sleep without obvious negative associations with brain morphometry and that sleepiness and sleep problems may be more related to brain structural differences than duration. However, the slightly lower performance on tests of general cognitive abilities warrants closer examination in natural settings.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Short habitual sleep is prevalent, with unknown consequences for brain health and cognitive performance. Here, we show that daytime sleepiness and sleep problems are more strongly related to regional brain volumes than sleep duration. However, participants sleeping ≤6 h had slightly lower scores on tests of general cognitive function (GCA). This indicates that sleep need is individual and that sleep duration per se is very weakly if at all related brain health, while daytime sleepiness and sleep problems may show somewhat stronger associations. The association between habitual short sleep and lower scores on tests of general cognitive abilities must be further scrutinized in natural settings.

  • 30.
    Flodin, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak) over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD) in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA), as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness and intrinsic brain activity. Moreover, fitness-predicted changes in functional connectivity did not relate to changes in cognition, which is likely due to absent cross- sectional or longitudinal relationships between VO2-peak and cognition. We conclude that the aerobic exercise intervention had limited influence on patterns of intrinsic brain activity, although post hoc analyses indicated that individual changes in aerobic capacity preferentially influenced mid-temporal brain areas.

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  • 31.
    Frykholm, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Simonsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Levik Sandström, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention. Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Applicability of a supramaximal high-intensity interval training program for older adults previously not engaged in regular exercise: analyses of secondary outcomes from the Umeå HIT Study2024In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 73, article id 102647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This analysis of secondary outcomes investigated the applicability of supramaximal high-intensity interval training (HIT) with individually prescribed external intensity performed on stationary bicycles. Sixty-eight participants with a median (min; max) age of 69 (66; 79), at the time not engaged in regular exercise were randomized to 25 twice-weekly sessions of supramaximal HIT (20-min session with 10 × 6-s intervals) or moderate-intensity training (MIT, 40-min session with 3 × 8-min intervals). The primary aim was outcomes on applicability regarding; adherence to prescribed external interval intensity, participant reported positive and negative events, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE 6–20), and affective state (Feeling Scale, FS -5–5). A secondary aim was to investigate change in exercise-related self-efficacy (Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale) and motivation (Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2). Total adherence to the prescribed external interval intensity was [median (min; max)] 89 % (56; 100 %) in supramaximal HIT, and 100 % (95; 100 %) in MIT. The supramaximal HIT group reported 60 % of the positive (112 of 186) and 36 % of the negative (52 of 146) events. At the end of the training period, the median (min; max) session RPE was 15 (12; 17) for supramaximal HIT and 14 (9; 15) for MIT. As for FS, the median last within-session rating was 3 (−1; 5) for supramaximal HIT and 3 (1; 5) for MIT. Exercise-related motivation increased (mean difference in Relative Autonomy Index score = 1.54, 95 % CI [0.69; 2.40]), while self-efficacy did not change (mean difference = 0.55, 95 % CI [-0.75; 1.82]), regardless of group. This study provide support for supramaximal HIT in supervised group settings for older adults.

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  • 32.
    Grip, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Individual finger movement control and association to brain activity in healthy participants2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Grip, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Three dimensional kinematic analyses of finger movement control and association to brain activity responses: A pilot study on healthy individuals2017In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 57, p. 355-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An increased knowledge of how the brain control finger movements give us keys to understand the recovery of motor function after a brain injury. This knowledge is crucial for the development of reliable and valid assessment methods in the clinical evaluation of hand function.

    Research question: How are individual finger movements represented in the brain? Investigating the associations between kinematics and brain activity responses in healthy individuals.

    Methods: Keeping the others still. Finger movements were performed lying in the MR scanner in order to register brain activity response during the task. Optoelectronic cameras simultaneously monitored the positions of reflective markers affixed to each finger. The marker position data were used to calculate each finger's movement frequency (MF),  movement independence (“Individuation Index”, II), stationary ability (Stationarity Index, SI)[1][1]. fMRI data was analyzed by contrasting the finger movements against its active rest.

    Results: Preliminary analyses showed that (1) the finger movements primarily activate sensorimotor areas in the contralateral hemisphere (Fig. 1A), (2) that use of kinematic parameters in the fMRI analyses improved spatial specificity and (3) II engage a number of cortical areas, while MF engage fewer areas (Fig. 1B–D). Further analyses will further explore activations maps for each individual finger.

    Discussion: The inclusion of movement parameters in the fMRI analyses improves the specificity in the derived activation map, increasing the interpretability of the neural correlates of movement control. This advancement carries the promise for the development of better assessment methods of the recovery of function post-stroke with usability in rehabilitation practices.

  • 34. Gylling, Anne Theil
    et al.
    Eriksen, Christian Skou
    Garde, Ellen
    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz
    Reislev, Nina Linde
    Bieler, Theresa
    Ziegler, Andreas Kraag
    Andersen, Kasper Winther
    Bauer, Christian
    Dideriksen, Kasper
    Baekgaard, Maria
    Mertz, Kenneth Hudlebusch
    Bayer, Monika Lucia
    Bloch-Ibenfeldt, Mads
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery M81 and Centre for Translational Research, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, NV, Denmark; Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Siebner, Hartwig Roman
    Mortensen, Erik Lykke
    Kjaer, Michael
    The influence of prolonged strength training upon muscle and fat in healthy and chronically diseased older adults2020In: Experimental Gerontology, ISSN 0531-5565, E-ISSN 1873-6815, Vol. 136, article id 110939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical muscle function and brain hippocampus size declines with age, accelerating after the age of 60. Strength training over a few months improves physical function, but less is known about how long-term strength training affects physical function and hippocampus volume. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of 1-year strength training of two different intensities upon muscle mass, function, and hippocampus volume in retirement-age individuals.

    Methods: In this multidisciplinary randomized controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02123641), participants were allocated to either a) supervised, heavy resistance training (HRT, n = 149, 3/wk), b) moderate intensity resistance training (MIT, n = 154, 3/wk) or c) non-exercise activities (CON, n = 148). 451 participants were randomized (62-70 yrs., women 61%, approximate to 80% with a chronic medical disease) and 419 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (n = 143, 144 and 132; HRT, MIT and CON). Changes in muscle power (primary outcome), strength and size, physical function, body composition, hippocampus volume and physical/mental well-being were analyzed.

    Findings: Of the participants (HRT + MIT), 83% completed training at least 2/week. Leg extensor power was unchanged in all groups, but strength training had a positive effect on isometric knee extensor strength in both groups, whereas an increased muscle mass, cross-sectional area of vastus lateralis muscle, a decreased whole-body fat percentage, visceral fat content and an improved mental health (SF-36) occurred in HRT only. Further, chair-stand performance improved in all groups, whereas hippocampus volume decreased in all groups over time with no influence of strength training.

    Interpretation: Together, the results indicate that leg extensor power did not respond to long-term supervised strength training, but this type of training in a mixed group of healthy and chronically diseased elderly individuals can be implemented with good compliance and induces consistent changes in physiological parameters of muscle strength, muscle mass and abdominal fat.

  • 35. Habich, Annegret
    et al.
    Fehér, Kristoffer D.
    Antonenko, Daria
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Flöel, Agnes
    Nissen, Christoph
    Siebner, Hartwig Roman
    Thielscher, Axel
    Klöppel, Stefan
    Stimulating aged brain with transcranial direct current stimulation: Opportunities and challenges2020In: Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, ISSN 0925-4927, E-ISSN 1872-7506, Vol. 306, article id 111179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing involves significant neurophysiological changes that are both systematic while at the same time exhibiting divergent trajectories across individuals. These changes underlie cognitive impairments in elderly while also affecting the response of aged brains to interventions like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). While the cognitive benefits of tDCS are more variable in elderly, older adults also respond differently to stimulation protocols compared to young adults. The age-related neurophysiological changes influencing the responsiveness to tDCS remain to be addressed in-depth. We review and discuss the premise that, in comparison to the better calibrated brain networks present in young adults, aged systems perform further away from a homoeostatic set-point. We argue that this age-related neurophysiological deviation from the homoeostatic optimum extends the leeway for tDCS to modulate the aged brain. This promotes the potency of immediate tDCS effects to induce directional plastic changes towards the homoeostatic equilibrium despite the impaired plasticity induction in elderly. We also consider how age-related neurophysiological changes pose specific challenges for tDCS that necessitate proper adaptations of stimulation protocols. Appreciating the distinctive properties of aged brains and the accompanying adjustment of stimulation parameters can increase the potency and reliability of tDCS as a treatment avenue in older adults. 

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  • 36.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindelöf, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Center for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Development and Feasibility of a Regulated, Supramaximal High-Intensity Training Program Adapted for Older Individuals2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High-intensity training (HIT) with extremely short intervals (designated here as supramaximal HIT) is a time-efficient training method for health and performance. However, a protocol for regulation and control of intensity is missing, impeding implementation in various groups, such as older individuals.

    Methods: This study presents the development and characteristics of a novel training protocol with regulated and controlled supramaximal intervals adapted for older people. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we explored the feasibility of the program, performed in a group training setting, with physically active older individuals (aged 65–75, n = 7; five women). The developed supramaximal HIT program consisted of 10 × 6 s cycle sprint intervals with ∼1 min of active recovery with the following key characteristics: (1) an individual target power output was reached and maintained during all intervals and regulated and expressed as the percentage of the estimated maximum mean power output for the duration of the interval (i.e., 6 s); (2) pedaling cadence was standardized for all participants, while resistance was individualized; and (3) the protocol enabled controlled and systematic adjustments of training intensity following standardized escalation criteria.

    Aim: Our aim was to test the feasibility of a novel training regimen with regulated and controlled supramaximal HIT, adapted for older people. The feasibility criteria for the program were to support participants in reaching a supramaximal intensity (i.e., power output > 100% of estimated VO2 max), avoid inducing a negative affective response, and have participants perceive it as feasible and acceptable.

    Results: All feasibility criteria were met. The standardized escalation procedure provided safe escalation of training load up to a supramaximal intensity (around three times the power output at estimated VO2 max). The participants never reported negative affective responses, and they perceived the program as fun and feasible.

    Conclusion: This novel program offers a usable methodology for further studies on supramaximal HIT among older individuals with different levels of physical capacity. Future research should explore the effects of the program in various populations of older people and their experiences and long-term adherence compared with other forms of training.

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  • 37.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindström, Britta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Sojka, Peter
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Is better preservation of eccentric strength after stroke due to altered prefrontal function?2016In: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 229-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is part of a network that exerts inhibitory control over the motor cortex (MC). Recently, we demonstrated that VLPFC was more activated during imagined maximum eccentric than during imagined concentric contractions in healthy participants. This was accompanied with lower activation levels within motor regions during imagined eccentric contractions. The aim was to test a novel hypothesis of an involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of force. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in VLPFC and motor regions during the concentric and the eccentric phases of imagined maximum contractions in a selected sample of subjects with stroke (n = 4). The subjects were included as they exhibited disturbed modulation of force. The previously demonstrated pattern within VLPFC was evident only on the contralesional hemisphere. On the ipsilesional hemisphere, the recruitment in VLPFC was similar for both modes of contractions. The findings support a hypothesis of the involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of maximum force production. A disturbance of this system might underlie the lack of contraction mode-specific modulation commonly found among stroke subjects, often expressed as an increased ratio between eccentric and concentric strength.

  • 38.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Burtin, Chris
    Hasselt University, Belgium.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Bispebjerg Hospital, Institute of Sports Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Vestman, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Karalija, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ruttens, David
    Umeå University.
    Gosker, Harry
    Universiteit Maastricht School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    De Brandt, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Nyberg, Andre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Effects and mechanisms of supramaximal High-Intensity Interval Training on extrapulmonary manifestations in people with and without Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD-HIIT): study protocol for a multi-centre, randomized controlled trialManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Beyond being a pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presents with extrapulmonary manifestations including reduced cognitive, cardiovascular, and muscle function. While exercise training is the cornerstone in the non-pharmacological treatment of COPD, there is a need for new exercise training methods due to suboptimal adaptations when following traditional exercise guidelines, often applying moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). In people with COPD, short-duration high-intensity interval training (HIIT) holds the potential to induce a more optimal stimulus for training adaptations while circumventing the ventilatory burden often associated with MICT in people with COPD. We aim to determine the effects of supramaximal HIIT and MICT on extrapulmonary manifestations in people with COPD compared to matched healthy controls.

    Methods: COPD-HIIT is a prospective, multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial with blinded assessors and data analysts, employing a parallel-group trial. In Phase 1, we will investigate the effects and mechanisms of a 12-week intervention of supramaximal HIIT compared to MICT in people with COPD (n = 92) and matched healthy controls (n = 70). Participants will perform watt-based cycling 2–3 times weekly. In Phase 2, we will determine how exercise training and inflammation impact the trajectories of neurodegeneration, in people with COPD, over 24 months. In addition to the 92 participants with COPD performing HIIT or MICT, a usual care group (n = 46) is included in phase 2. In both phases, the primary outcomes are change from baseline in cognitive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscle power. Key secondary outcomes include change from baseline exercise tolerance, brain structure and function measured by MRI, neuroinflammation measured by PET/CT, systemic inflammation, and intramuscular adaptations. Feasibility of the interventions will be comprehensively investigated.

    Discussion: The COPD-HIIT trial will determine the effects of supramaximal HIIT compared to MICT in people with COPD and healthy controls. We will provide evidence for a novel exercise modality that might overcome the barriers associated with MICT in people with COPD. We will also shed light on the impact of exercise at different intensities to reduce neurodegeneration. The goal of the COPD-HIIT trial is to improve the treatment of extrapulmonary manifestations of the disease.

    Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT06068322. Prospectively registered on 2023-09-28.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Influence of visual feedback, hand dominance and sex on individuated finger movements2021In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 239, no 6, p. 1911-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to perform individual finger movements, highly important in daily activities, involves visual monitoring and proprioception. We investigated the influence of vision on the spatial and temporal control of independent finger movements, for the dominant and non-dominant hand and in relation to sex. Twenty-six healthy middle-aged to old adults (M age = 61 years; range 46–79 years; females n = 13) participated. Participants performed cyclic flexion–extension movements at the metacarpophalangeal joint of one finger at a time while keeping the other fingers as still as possible. Movements were recorded using 3D optoelectronic motion technique (120 Hz). The movement trajectory distance; speed peaks (movement smoothness); Individuation Index (II; the degree a finger can move in isolation from the other fingers) and Stationarity Index (SI; how still a finger remains while the other fingers move) were extracted. The main findings were: (1) vision only improved the II and SI marginally; (2) longer trajectories were evident in the no-vision condition for the fingers of the dominant hand in the female group; (3) longer trajectories were specifically evident for the middle and ring fingers within the female group; (4) females had marginally higher II and SI compared with males; and (5) females had fewer speed peaks than males, particularly for the ring finger. Our results suggest that visual monitoring of finger movements marginally improves performance of our non-manipulative finger movement task. A consistent finding was that females showed greater independent finger control compared with males.

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  • 40.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Finger movement control and associated brain activity responses post-stroke2016In: XXI ISEK Congress: Bridges to innovation, 2016, article id P2-E-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Impaired finger dexterity is common after stroke, often affecting activities of daily living. Knowledge of kinematic characteristics and of underlying neurological mechanisms of such impairments is important to understand functional recovery. This study aims to investigate finger movement control and related brain activity patterns post-stroke (PS).

    METHODS: Data from a subsample including 9 participants PS with residual hemiparesis affecting manual dexterity (M age- 66; 3 female) and 12 able-bodied control (C) participants (M age- 65; 3 female) were analyzed. Two series of self-paced cyclic finger extension-flexion movements in random order were performed for each hand (4 series with vision, V, and 4 without vision, NV). Optoelectronic cameras monitored the 3D movement of markers affixed to the fingertips. Motion data was used to calculate each finger's individuation index (II), reflecting movement independence, each finger's Stationarity index (SI), reflecting the ability to keep the finger still while another moves [1] and Movement frequency (MF). Functional magnetic resonance imaging, with simultaneous movement recording, was used to investigate brain activity patterns in relation to the kinematic parameters. II, SI, MF and the effect of vision were analyzed for the 4th digit.

    RESULTS: A factorial ANOVA 2 [group] x 2 [condition] x 2 [side] x [index type] showed an effect for group (p < .0001; PS < C); condition (p < .01; NV < V); side (p < .0001; affected/non-preferred < non-affected/preferred); and index type (p < .0001; SI < II). An interaction between group and side (p < .01) showed that indices of the affected side were lower compared to the non-affected side within the PS group and compared to both sides in the C group. No significant effects were apparent for MF but significant correlations were found between the indices and MF that were restricted to the PS group alone (over all conditions- r = -0.22; p < .01; within the NV condition- r = -0.19; p < .01; within the affected side r = -0.15; p < .05; and within the SI categorization r = -0.14; p < .05). Furthermore, within NV for the non-affected hand on the SI alone (r = -0.54; p < .05). All indicate that slower movements had higher indices.

    DISCUSSION: The associations between slower MF and higher index values within the PS group were located to conditions with increased difficulty (NV, affected side, and SI). Thus, reducing speed may be a selected strategy to increase control of finger movements PS when the demand on motor control is high. Further, with the applied calculation of finger movement independence we were able detect group differences, side differences within the PS group, and a positive effect of vision of the hands during performance. This indicates that this calculation is a sensitive measure that could be used to study the effects of stroke and to monitor progression in motor recovery. [1] Häger-Ross & Schieber, 2000, J Neurosci 20:8542-50

  • 41.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Three dimensional kinematic analyses of movement control of individual fingers post-stroke2015In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 42, no Supplement 1, p. S33-S33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: Objectives of the present study are: (1) to quantify finger movements in a 3D context and (2) by this method investigate the ability to perform individualized finger movements, with and without vision of the hands, in persons with a chronic stroke diagnosis compared to able-bodied controls.

    Introduction: Increased knowledge of how fine movement control is affected by stroke is important for the understanding of recovery of function. This is crucial for the development of reliable and valid assessment methods for evaluation of rehabilitation of the upper limbs. This study is part of the MOST project (MOST-MOvement control in STroke) where both clinical tests and 3D movement assessments are performed.

    Materials and methods: At present, 18 persons post-stroke (M age = 67 years; 6 women) and 26 able-bodied controls (M age = 62 years, 11 women) have participated. The ability to perform uni-manual individualized finger movements and the effect of vison of the hands were evaluated. Participants were instructed to move a specific finger in cyclic extension–flexion movements at the metacarpophalangeal joint, keeping the rest of the finger straight and the other fingers still, at a self-paced speed during 10 s (2 test series for each hand; 8 test series in total). The task was performed seated. The wrists were extended about 10° and fixated to a wooden frame with forearm support. Reflective markers were affixed to each fingertip and movements were recorded by optoelectronic cameras. Based on the positional change of the fingers during task performance, two indices ranging from 0-1 were calculated: (1) Individuation index (II) where the independence of each finger movement is shown and where 1 indicate complete independence, (2) stationary index (SI) where 1 indicate that the finger remains still when the other fingers move [1].

    Results: Our results show that it is possible to quantify individual finger movements by use of 3D movement analysis addressing the quality of movement performance in stroke survivors: all but 3 persons post-stroke were able to perform the task. Preliminary analyses (based on a subsample constituted of 8 post-stroke and 8 controls) verify that the test discriminated between groups where participants post-stroke had lower values on II and SI as compared to the control persons, the lowest values were observed for the middle and ring fingers. Ongoing analyses will show if vision influences the outcomes.

    Discussion: A set-up has been tested where individual finger movements can be quantified in 3D, and that discriminates between persons post stroke compared to controls. This advancement carries a promise for development of better assessment methods for recovery of function post-stroke.

    Reference

    [1] C. Häger-Ross, M.H. Schieber Quantifying the independence of human finger movements: comparisons of digits, hands and movement frequencies.J Neurosci, 20 (2000), pp. 8542–8550

     

     

  • 42.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Simulating effects of brain atrophy in longitudinal PET imaging with an anthropomorphic brain phantom2017In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 62, no 13, p. 5213-5227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the presence of volumetric changes over time can lead to an overestimation or underestimation of the true changes in the quantified PET signal due to the partial volume effect (PVE) introduced by the limited spatial resolution of existing PET cameras and reconstruction algorithms. Here, a 3D-printed anthropomorphic brain phantom with attachable striata in three sizes was designed to enable controlled volumetric changes. Using a method to eliminate the non-radioactive plastic wall, and manipulating BP levels by adding different number of events from list-mode acquisitions, we investigated the artificial volume dependence of BP due to PVE, and potential bias arising from varying BP. Comparing multiple reconstruction algorithms we found that a high-resolution ordered- subsets maximization algorithm with spatially variant point-spread function resolution modeling provided the most accurate data. For striatum, the BP changed by 0.08% for every 1% volume change, but for smaller volumes such as the posterior caudate the artificial change in BP was as high as 0.7% per 1% volume change. A simple gross correction for striatal volume is unsatisfactory, as the amplitude of the PVE on the BP differs depending on where in the striatum the change occurred. Therefore, to correctly interpret age-related longitudinal changes in the BP, we must account for volumetric changes also within a structure, rather than across the whole volume. The present 3D-printing technology, combined with the wall removal method, can be implemented to gain knowledge about the predictable bias introduced by the PVE differences in uptake regions of varying shape.

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  • 43.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Kramer, Arthur F
    Departments of Psychology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark..
    Aerobic fitness influences working memory updating via the striatal dopaminergic system in older adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much evidence that dopamine is vital for cognitive functioning in aging. Here we tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise and fitness influences dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and the non-displacable binding potential (BPND ) of [11C]raclopride, and in turn performance on offline working-memory updating tasks. In a sample of 58 older sedentary adults undergoing a six-months exercise intervention, aerobic exercise compared to stretching, toning, and resistance training did not have a differential effect on BPND . At baseline, higher aerobic fitness levels (VO2peak ) were associated with higher BPND  in the striatum. Following the intervention, for both forms of training, we found reduced BPND , indicating increased dopamine (DA), in a cluster in the anterior striatum in individuals with larger improvements in VO2peak . This reduction in BPND  mediated a positive indirect effect of VO2peak  on working-memory updating performance. Collectively these findings implicate DA as a neurocognitive mechanism explaining the positive effects of staying physically active at an old age for working memory.

  • 44.
    Jonasson, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Kramer, Arthur
    Departments of Psychology and Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Aerobic Exercise Intervention, CognitivePerformance, and Brain Structure: results from the Physical Influences on Brain in Aging (PHIBRA) Study2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 8, p. 1-15, article id 336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure from a 6-month training intervention with 60 sedentary adults (64–78 years) randomized to either aerobic training or stretching and toning control training. Cognitive functions were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery in which cognitive constructs were measured using several different tests. Freesurfer was used to estimate cortical thickness in frontal regions and hippocampus volume. Results showed that aerobic exercisers, compared to controls, exhibited a broad, rather than specific, improvement in cognition as indexed by a higher “Cognitive score,” a composite including episodic memory, processing speed, updating, and executive function tasks (p = 0.01). There were no group differences in cortical thickness, but additional analyses revealed that aerobic fitness at baseline was specifically related to larger thickness in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and hippocampus volume was positively associated with increased aerobic fitness over time. Moreover, “Cognitive score” was related to dlPFC thickness at baseline, but changes in “Cognitive score” and dlPFC thickness were associated over time in the aerobic group only. However, aerobic fitness did not predict dlPFC change, despite the improvement in “Cognitive score” in aerobic exercisers. Our interpretation of these observations is that potential exercise-induced changes in thickness are slow, and may be undetectable within 6-months, in contrast to change in hippocampus volume which in fact was predicted by the change in aerobic fitness. To conclude, our results add to a growing literature suggesting that aerobic exercise has a broad influence on cognitive functioning, which may aid in explaining why studies focusing on a narrower range of functions have sometimes reported mixed results.

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  • 45.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Kramer, Arthur F.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Higher striatal D2-receptor availability in aerobically fit older adults but non-selective intervention effects after aerobic versus resistance training2019In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 202, article id 116044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much evidence that dopamine is vital for cognitive functioning in aging. Here we tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise and fitness influence dopaminergic neurotransmission in the striatum, and in turn performance on offline working-memory updating tasks. Dopaminergic neurotransmission was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) and the non-displacable binding potential (BPND) of [11C]raclopride, i.e. dopamine (DA) D2-receptor (D2R) availability. Fifty-four sedentary older adults underwent a six-months exercise intervention, performing either aerobic exercise or stretching, toning, and resistance active control training. At baseline, higher aerobic fitness levels (VO2peak) were associated with higher BPND in the striatum, providing evidence of a link between an objective measure of aerobic fitness and D2R in older adults. BPND decreased substantially over the intervention in both groups but the intervention effects were non-selective with respect to exercise group. The decrease was several times larger than any previously estimated annual decline in D2R, potentially due to increased endogenous DA. Working-memory was unrelated to D2R both at baseline and following the intervention. To conclude, we provide partial evidence for a link between physical exercise and DA. Utilizing a PET protocol able to disentangle both D2R and DA levels could shed further light on whether, and how, aerobic exercise impacts the dopaminergic system in older adults.

  • 46.
    Karalija, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Jonasson, Lars S.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Papenberg, Goran
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Karolinska Institutet; Stockholm University.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    High long-term test-retest reliability for extrastriatal 11C-raclopride binding in healthy older adults2020In: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, ISSN 0271-678X, E-ISSN 1559-7016, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 1859-1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo dopamine D2-receptor availability is frequently assessed with 11C-raclopride and positron emission tomography. Due to low signal-to-noise ratios for 11C-raclopride in areas with low D2 receptor densities, the ligand has been considered unreliable for measurements outside the dopamine-dense striatum. Intriguingly, recent studies show that extrastriatal 11C-raclopride binding potential (BPND) values are (i) reliably higher than in the cerebellum (where D2-receptor levels are negligible), (ii) correlate with behavior in the expected direction, and (iii) showed good test-retest reliability in a sample of younger adults. The present work demonstrates high seven-month test-retest reliability of striatal and extrastriatal 11C-raclopride BPND values in healthy, older adults (n = 27, age: 64-78 years). Mean 11C-raclopride BPND values were stable between test sessions in subcortical nuclei, and in frontal and temporal cortices (p > 0.05). Across all structures analyzed, intraclass correlation coefficients were high (0.85-0.96), absolute variability was low (mean: 4-8%), and coefficients of variance ranged between 9 and 25%. Furthermore, regional 11C-raclopride BPND values correlated with previously determined 18F-fallypride BPND values (rho = 0.97 and 0.92 in correlations with and without striatal values, respectively, p < 0.01) and postmortem determined D2-receptor densities (including striatum: rho = 0.92; p < 0.001; excluding striatum: rho = 0.75; p = 0.067). These observations suggest that extrastriatal 11C-raclopride measurements represent a true D2 signal.

  • 47.
    Kompus, Kristiina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Larsson, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Dynamic switching between semantic and episodic memory systems2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2252-2260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that episodic and semantic long-term memory systems interact during retrieval. Here we examined the flexibility of memory retrieval in an associative task taxing memories of different strength, assumed to differentially engage episodic and semantic memory. Healthy volunteers were pre-trained on a set of 36 face-name pairs over a 6-week period. Another set of 36 items was shown only once during the same time period. About 3 months after the training period all items were presented in a randomly intermixed order in an event-related fMRI study of face-name memory. Once presented items differentially activated anterior cingulate cortex and a right prefrontal region that previously have been associated with episodic retrieval mode. High-familiar items were associated with stronger activation of posterior cortices and a left frontal region. These findings fit a model of memory retrieval by which early processes determine, on a trial-by-trial basis, if the task can be solved by the default semantic system. If not, there is a dynamic shift to cognitive control processes that guide retrieval from episodic memory.

  • 48. Lind, Anna
    et al.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Petersen, Esben Thade
    Paulson, Olaf Bjarne
    Andersen, Ove
    Siebner, Hartwig Roman
    Marsman, Anouk
    Do glia provide the link between low-grade systemic inflammation and normal cognitive ageing?: A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 7 tesla2021In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to ageing-related cognitive decline, possibly by triggering a neuroinflammatory response through glial activation. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) at 7T in normal human individuals from 18 to 79 years in a cross-sectional study, we previously observed higher regional levels of myo-inositol (mIns), total creatine (tCr) and total choline (tCho) in older than younger age groups. Moreover, visuo-spatial working memory (vsWM) correlated negatively with tCr and tCho in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and mIns in hippocampus and thalamus. As mIns, tCr and tCho are higher in glia than neurons, this suggest a potential in vivo connection between cognitive ageing and higher regional levels of glia-related metabolites. In the present study, we tested whether these metabolic differences may be related to low-grade systemic inflammation. In the same individuals, plasma concentrations of the proinflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were measured on the same day as 1 H-MRS assessments. We tested whether CRP, IL-8, and TNF-α concentrations correlated with the levels of glia-related metabolites. CRP and IL-8, but not TNF-α, were higher in older (69-79 years) than younger (18-26 years) individuals. CRP correlated positively with thalamic mIns and negatively with vsWM. IL-8 correlated positively with ACC tCho and hippocampal mIns, but not with vsWM. Mediation analysis revealed an indirect effect of IL-8 on vsWM via ACC tCho. Together, these findings corroborate the role of glial cells, perhaps via their role in neuroinflammation, as part of the neurobiological link between systemic inflammation and cognitive ageing.

  • 49. Lind, Anna
    et al.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Petersen, Esben Thade
    Paulsson, Olaf Bjarne
    Siebner, Hartwig Roman
    Marsman, Anouk
    Regional myo-inositol, creatine and choline levels are higher at older age and scale negatively with visuo-spatial working memory: a cross-sectional proton MR spectroscopy study at 7 tesla on normal ageing2020In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 40, no 42, p. 8149-8159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) has been used to assess regional neurochemical brain changes during normal ageing, but results have varied. Exploiting the increased sensitivity at ultra-high field, we performed 1H-MRS in 60 healthy human volunteers to asses age-related differences in metabolite levels and their relation to cognitive ageing. Sex was balanced, and participants were assigned to a younger, middle, and older group according to their age, ranging from 18 to 79 years. They underwent 7T 1H-MRS of the ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and thalamus and performed a visuospatial working memory task outside the scanner. A multivariate ANCOVA revealed a significant overall effect of age group on metabolite levels in all regions. Higher levels in the middle than the younger group were observed for myo-inositol (mIns) in DLPFC and hippocampus and total choline (tCho) in ACC. Higher levels in the older than the younger group were observed for mIns in hippocampus and thalamus, total creatine (tCr) and tCho in ACC and hippocampus; lower levels of glutamate (Glu) were observed in DLPFC. Higher levels in the older than the middle group were observed for mIns in hippocampus, tCr in ACC and hippocampus, tCho in hippocampus, and total N-acetyl aspartate (tNAA) in hippocampus. Working memory performance correlated negatively with tCr and tCho levels in ACC and mIns levels in hippocampus and thalamus, but not with tNAA or glutamate levels. As NAA and Glu are commonly regarded to reflect neuronal health and function and concentrations of mIns, tCr, and tCho are higher in glia than neurons, the findings of this study suggest a potential in vivo connection between cognitive ageing and higher regional levels of glia-related metabolites.

    SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurochemical ageing is an integral component of age-related cognitive decline. Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies of in vivo neurochemical changes across the lifespan have, however, yielded inconclusive results. 1H-MRS at ultra-high field strength can potentially improve the consistency of findings. Using 7T 1H-MRS, we assessed levels of mIns, tCr, and tCho (glia-related metabolites) and tNAA and Glu (neuron-related metabolites) in ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and thalamus. We found higher levels of glia-related metabolites in all brain regions in older individuals. Working memory performance correlated negatively with regional levels of glia-related metabolites. This study is the first to investigate normal ageing in these brain regions using 7T 1H-MRS and findings indicate that glia-related metabolites could be valuable in cognitive ageing studies

  • 50.
    Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pagin, Amos
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bartrés-Faz, David
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brandmaier, Andreas M.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany; Department of Psychology, MSB Medical School Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Demnitz, Naiara
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Drevon, Christian A.
    Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo & Vitas AS, Oslo Science Park, Norway.
    Ebmeier, Klaus P.
    Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, UK.
    Fjell, Anders M.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; ComputationalRadiology and Artificial Intelligence, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Ghisletta, Paolo
    Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland; Faculty of Psychology, UniDistance Suisse, Brig, Switzerland.
    Gorbach, Tetiana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.
    Plachti, Anna
    Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital – Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Walhovd, Kristine B.
    Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; ComputationalRadiology and Artificial Intelligence, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    No moderating influence of education on the association between changes in hippocampus volume and memory performance in aging2023In: Aging Brain, ISSN 2589-9589, Vol. 4, article id 100082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary accounts of factors that may modify the risk for age-related neurocognitive disorders highlight education and its contribution to a cognitive reserve. By this view, individuals with higher educational attainment should show weaker associations between changes in brain and cognition than individuals with lower educational attainment. We tested this prediction in longitudinal data on hippocampus volume and episodic memory from 708 middle-aged and older individuals using local structural equation modeling. This technique does not require categorization of years of education and does not constrain the shape of relationships, thereby maximizing the chances of revealing an effect of education on the hippocampus-memory association. The results showed that the data were plausible under the assumption that there was no influence of education on the association between change in episodic memory and change in hippocampus volume. Restricting the sample to individuals with elevated genetic risk for dementia (APOE ε4 carriers) did not change these results. We conclude that the influence of education on changes in episodic memory and hippocampus volume is inconsistent with predictions by the cognitive reserve theory.

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