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  • 1.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lillqvist, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Chemical Intolerance Is Associated With Altered Response Bias, not Greater Sensory Sensitivity2020In: i-Perception, E-ISSN 2041-6695, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 2041669520978424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a surprisingly prevalent condition or affliction characterized by adverse reactions to low levels of chemical, often odorous stimulation. Sufferers often assume that their plight is due to an uncommon sensory acuteness, yet studies repeatedly fail to reveal altered detection thresholds. Here, we investigated whether self-reported chemical intolerance is associated with altered sensory sensitivity or response bias. The sensory acuity (sensitivity; A) and sensory decision rule (criterion; B) to n-butanol was assessed using the method of constant stimuli in 82 participants with different degrees of chemical intolerance (low to high). Higher self-reported chemical intolerance was associated with a lower criterion, but not with sensitivity.

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  • 2.
    Blomgren, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svahn, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping strategies in late adolescence: relationships to parental attachment and time perspective2016In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 177, no 3, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  • 3.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Broadening the TP Profile: Future Negative Time Perspective2015In: Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application: Essays in Honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] Stolarski, Maciej, Fieulaine, Nicolas, van Beek, Wessel, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, 1, p. 87-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the future as an arena for planning, self-regulation and achievement has been of considerable interest in past research. The majority of this research suggests that future-oriented thinking has considerable benefits for psychological adjustment and wellbeing. The future is nevertheless not only a temporal space for goal-setting and positive expectations, it may also be associated with fear, uncertainty and anxiety, which may ultimately have detrimental effects on both mental and physical health. Here we present the outline for the Swedish ZTPI (S-ZTPI) which extends the original ZTPI by separating the Future dimension into two sub-factors: The Future Positive scale and the Future Negative scale. We argue that separating the future into two separate dimensions thus comprehending both a positive and a negative valence of the future, adds important information regarding association between future time perspective and subjective well-being.

  • 4.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trotter, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Balancing time for health behaviors: associations of time perspective with physical activity and weight management in older adults2024In: American Journal of Health Promotion, ISSN 0890-1171, E-ISSN 2168-6602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine associations between time perspective and health promotion behaviors of physical activity and weight management.

    Design: Quantitative cross-sectional.

    Setting: This study is part of the Betula project on aging, memory, and dementia in Northern Sweden.

    Subjects: 417 older adults aged between 55 and 85 years.

    Measures: Swedish-Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; Physical Activity in the past year, past week, and in comparison with others of similar age; Weight Management = Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2).

    Results: After controlling for age, sex, and years of education, hierarchical linear regression indicated a Balanced Time Perspective was significantly associated with more physical activity in the past year (P =.04), the past week (P <.001), and in comparison with others (P <.01). Past Negative time perspective was associated with less physical activity in the past year (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Present Fatalistic was associated with less physical activity during the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.01). Present Hedonistic was associated with more physical activity the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Past Negative was associated with higher BMI (P =.02), and Future Negative were associated with lower BMI (P =.01). Taken collectively, greater positivity and flexibility across time perspectives was associated with more physical activity, whereas negative oriented time perspectives related with less physical activity and poorer weight management.

    Conclusion: Time perspective can be associated with health behaviors in older adults and have implications for health across the lifespan. Health promotion interventions may target older adults’ enjoyment of exercise and weight management in the present, rather than highlight potential negative health outcomes in the future. 

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  • 5.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahlström, Mikael
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    The influence of personality traits on engagement in lifelong learning2024In: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, adult individuals must be able to continuously learn and adapt to the rapid changes occurring in society. However, little is known about the individual characteristics, particularly personality traits, that make adults more likely to engage in learning activities. Moreover, few studies have longitudinally and objectively investigated the influence of personality on engagement in lifelong learning throughout working age. This study therefore used longitudinal data (15 years) to examine which personality traits predicted level and long-term changes in learning activities among 1329 Swedish adults aged 30–60. The results from growth curve modelling showed that over the follow-up period, novelty seeking and self-transcendence were both positively related to overall level of engagement in learning activities, although not to rate of change. Regarding specific activities, novelty seeking was related to higher levels of engagement in attending courses, taking on new education, and making occupational changes, while harm avoidance was negatively related to the likelihood of changing occupation. The results of this study underscore the importance of considering personality in relation to engagement in lifelong learning activities. Insights from this study can potentially increase the likelihood of finding methods to promote lifelong learning, which can be beneficial for educators, policymakers, and companies.

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  • 6.
    Eriksson, Terese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms.

    Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group (n = 51) or a wait-list control group (n = 49). The training encompassed 15min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks. The participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) pre and post intervention.

    Results: Eighty-one participants (n = 40 in the training group, n = 41 in the control group) took part in the pre and post intervention assessments. Selective gains for the intervention group were observed for SCS total scores (d = 0.86; d = 0.94 for the SCS), FFMQ scores (d = 0.60), while levels of self-coldness was reduced (d = 0.73). Critically, levels of perceived stress (d = 0.59) and burnout symptoms (d = 0.44 for SMBQ total) were additionally lowered post intervention. Finally, the results confirmed the hypothesis that the measures of distress would be more strongly related to self-coldness than self-compassion, a pattern seen in cross-sectional analyses and, for burnout, also in the longitudinal analyses.

    Conclusions: This training program appeared effective to increase self-compassion/reduce self-coldness, and to alleviate stress and symptoms of burnout and provide support of the distinction between self-compassion and self-coldness. Additional studies, preferably three-armed RCTs with long-term follow-up, are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of the program.

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  • 7.
    M. Gavelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Domellöf, Magdalena E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nelson, Andreas
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Launder, Nathalie H.
    Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lampit, Amit
    Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
    Cognitive function in clinical burnout: a systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 86-104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical burnout has been associated with impaired cognitive functioning; however, inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the pattern and magnitude of cognitive deficits. The aim of this systematic review and multivariate meta-analysis was to assess cognitive function in clinical burnout as compared to healthy controls and identify the pattern and severity of cognitive dysfunction across cognitive domains. We identified 17 studies encompassing 730 patients with clinical burnout and 649 healthy controls. Clinical burnout was associated with impaired performance in episodic memory (g = −0.36, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.15), short-term and working memory (g = −0.36, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.20), executive function (g = −0.39, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.23), attention and processing speed (g = −0.43, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.29) and fluency (g = −0.53, 95% CI −1.04 to −0.03). There were no differences between patients and controls in crystallized (k = 6 studies) and visuospatial abilities (k = 4). Our findings suggest that clinical burnout is associated with cognitive impairment across multiple cognitive domains. Cognitive dysfunction needs to be considered in the clinical and occupational health management of burnout to optimise rehabilitation and support return-to-work.

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  • 8. Marco, Fabbri
    et al.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wittmann, Marc
    Editorial to the Special Issue on Psychological and Biological Time: The Role of Personality2020In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Pyszkowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Silesia of Katowice, Katowice, Poland.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deviations from the balanced time perspective, cognitive fusion, and self-compassion in individuals with or without a depression diagnosis: different mean profiles but common links to depressive symptoms2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1290676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Prior research indicates that depressive symptoms in unselected or sub-clinical samples are associated with time perspective biases, including a more negative view of the past and a more fatalistic attitude toward the present. In the current study, we compared time perspective profiles for a clinical sample, with a depression diagnosis with that of a control group. Additionally, we considered a measure known as deviations from the balanced time perspective (DBTP) that capture deviations across time frames, not considered in previous studies. A second obejctive was to test a model involving DPTP as a mediator of the links between cognitive fusion and self-compassion with depressive symptoms.

    Method: In total, 300 individuals participated in the study, 150 participants with a depression diagnosis and 150 without a depression diagnoses. All participants filled in questions regarding background variables together with Polish adaptations of ZTPI, CFQ, SCS-S, and DASS-21 using a web-survey.

    Results: The results showed significantly higher scores on Past Negative and Present Fatalistic in the clinical sample. In line with the hypothesis the clinical group also displayed elevated DBTP scores (d = 0.75), a difference that remained significant when current symptoms were adjusted for. The results of structural equation modeling moreover indicate a major role of cognitive fusion (which, as expected, was strongly associated with DBTP) in predicting symptom burden, regardless of the clinical/non-clinical distinction, but. Still, DBTP accounted for significant (unique) variance in depressive symptoms. By contrast, the inclusion of cognitive fusion and DBTP eliminated the association of self-compassion and depressive symptoms.

    Conclusion: Taken together, the results indicate that levels of DBTP/fusion for persons with depression diagnosis is present regardless of current symptom burden. Thus, DBTP could be regarded as a risk factor of developing depression. Prospective research designs are needed to further evaluate the associations of the main constructs in this study and the extent to which they are predictive of future diagnosis and changes in symptom level.

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  • 10.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Koudriavtseva, Antonina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindfulness Promotes a More Balanced Time Perspective: Correlational and Intervention-Based Evidence2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1579-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mindfulness and aspects of time perspective (TP, i.e., habitual views of past, present, future).

    Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between an established measure of mindfulness (FFMQ) and an extended version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Swedish ZTPI; S-ZTPI) in a sample with little experience of mindfulness training (n = 212). In addition, we evaluated the effects of two mindfulness-based interventions (a mindfulness instructor course involving 29 participants and a mindful self-compassion program, n = 40 for the intervention group, n = 41 for controls) on mindfulness and measures of TP including an aggregate measure of deviations from a proposed optimal, or balanced, time perspective (DBTP).

    Results: Cross-sectional data were consistent with a model by which part of the relationship between mindfulness and perceived stress is mediated by reduced DBTP. Global mindfulness scores showed the strongest (negative) associations with the S-ZTPI scales Future Negative and Past Negative. Comparisons of pre/post-intervention data revealed significant mindfulness-based intervention-related reductions of DBTP (Cohen’s d = − 0.46), with lowered scores on Past Negative and Future Negative and a small increase on Past Positive.

    Conclusions: The results support the notion that a higher level of mindfulness promotes a more balanced time perspective, with a reduced focus on negative aspects of the past and negative anticipations of the future. Relations to repetitive negative thought processes (rumination, worry) and a potential bidirectional influence of mindfulness and aspects of time perspective are discussed.

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  • 11.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived stress in adults aged 65 to 90: Relations to facets of time perspective and COMT Val158Met polymorphism2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

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  • 12.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective in Late Adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being2017In: Timing & Time Perception, ISSN 2213-445X, E-ISSN 2213-4468, Vol. 5, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined cross-sectional aging patterns for subscales of the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a population-based sample of older adults (60–90 years; N = 447). Alternative methods to assess time perspective balance (DBTP, involving a single Future dimension; S-BTP; and DBTP-E, including in addition, Future Negative), were compared and their relations to subjective well-being (SWB) were examined. Significant negative age relations were observed for Past Negative and Future Negative with a clear age-related increase in Present Fatalistic, while Past Positive, Present Hedonistic, and Future Positive were relatively stable across age. A significant age-related increase in deviation from balance was observed across methods (Cohen’s ds 0.28–0.57), with the highest value for DBTP-E. Overall, S-BTP and DBTP-E were more strongly associated with SWB than DBTP (r = −0.40), with the highest value for DBTP-E (r = −0.53). Analyses of separate age groups (60–65 vs. 70–75 vs. 80–90 years) revealed a trend of weakened association with balance in old-old age, for S-BTP and DBTP-E in particular. This seemed to reflect the fact that negative views of the future are strongly related to SWB in young-old adults but diminish in importance in late senescence (80–90 years). Potential factors behind the observed patterns of results, including deficits in cognitive functioning and physical health to account for the age-related increase in present fatalism, and the potential role of a self-transcendent future time perspective for well-being in old-old age, are discussed.

  • 13.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westlin, Wendela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flodén, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Unger, Alexander
    Papastamatelou, Julie
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A Time to Sleep Well and Be Contented: Time Perspective, Sleep Quality, and Life Satisfaction2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 627836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between time perspective, i.e., habitual ways of relating to the past, present, and future and sleep quality. A second aim was to test a model by which the expected negative relationship between deviation from a balanced time perspective (DBTP), a measure taking temporal biases across all three frames into account, and life satisfaction was mediated by poor sleep quality. To these ends, a sample of young adults (N = 386) completed a version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). A measure of chronotype was in addition included for control purposes. Bivariate analyses revealed that the S-ZTPI subscales Past Negative, Future Negative, and Present Fatatlistic were associated with poorer sleep quality (higher PSQI scores), with significant associations in the opposite direction for Past Positive and Future Positive. However, DBTP was the strongest predictor of (poor) sleep quality, suggesting that time perspective biases have and additive effect on sleep quality. Regression analyses with PSQI as the dependent variable and alll six ZTPI subscales as the predictors indicated that time perspective accounted for about 20% of the variance in sleep quality (17% beyond chronotype), with Past Negative, Past Positive, and Future Negative as the unique predictors. The results additionally confirmed a strong relation between DBTP and life satisfaction. Finally, data were consistent with the hypothesis that the association of DBTP and life satisfaction is mediated, in part, by sleep quality. Taken together, the results confirmed a substantial link between time perspective and sleep-related problems, factors that may have a negative impact on life satisfaction. 

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  • 14.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Being in balance or stuck in time: exploring facets of time processing in relation to mental health2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is central in human functioning and crucial for adaptive behavior. The aim of the current thesis was to investigate aspects of people’s subjective experience of time and their relationship with mental health, specifically anxiety and subjective well-being. Two time concepts were of key interest in the thesis: time estimation, which refers to the ability to estimate time durations; and time perspective, which refers to people’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future.

     The thesis comprehends four studies. In the first three studies, time perspective and time estimation were investigated in persons with varying degrees of anxiety, ranging from mild symptoms to anxiety disorders. The results of these studies showed that in particular negative past time perspective and negative future time perspective were associated with anxiety. These time perspectives were further strongly associated with the tendency to ruminate and worry. Time estimation did not largely deviate between persons with anxiety and healthy controls, although there was some evidence that subcomponents of anxiety might be differentially related to time estimation. More specifically, state anxiety was moderately related to retrospective time estimation, such that higher levels of state anxiety was associated with judging time intervals in retrospect as longer.

     In the final study of the thesis, balanced time perspective (BTP) was examined in relation to subjective well-being and age. BTP can be described as an optimal way of relating to the past, the present and the future and has been suggested to facilitate mental health and well-being. However, there are several ways to measure BTP, and there are also indications that what constitutes a BTP is not completely age-invariant or equally associated with well-being across age. The fourth study of the thesis thus aimed at examining three methods of measuring BTP, and each methods distinct association with subjective well-being and age were examined. The study was conducted in a population-based sample of older adults (age range 60 – 90 years of old). Results of this study indicated subjective well-being is strongly related to BTP, particularly methods of measuring BTP that incorporates negative future time perspective. However, the strong (and inverse) relationship between negative future time perspective and subjective well-being diminished with increasing age. Instead, and among the oldest participants in the sample (80+ years), fatalistic views of the present had more bearing on subjective well-being.

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  • 15.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring multiple concepts of psychological time in relation to anxiety2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, p. S11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a central part of human experience. Different timing functions are vital for adequate behavioral outcomes, and individual differences in time perspective can be associated with both well-being and mental distress.The aim of this study is to discuss several aspects of temporal processing in relation to anxiety. Specifically, our findings suggest that moderate anxiety is associated with systematic biases in Future Negative- and Past Negative time perspectives. Further, in exploring the possible underlying mechanisms that mediate time perspective in anxiety, preliminary data on the relationship between aspects of cognitive control (inhibition), time perspective and anxiety will be presented. The findings will be discussed according to their clinical and theoretical implications.

  • 16.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the links between time perspective, anxiety, rumination and aspects of cognitive control2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, A.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Time perspective, time stimation and time reproduction in anxiety2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Depressive symptoms and time perspective in older adults: associations beyond personality and negative life events2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1674-1683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the extent to which time perspective, an individual’s habitual way of relating to the past, the present, and the future time frames, accounts for variations in self-reported depressive symptoms among older adults.

    Method: Four hundred two participants (60–90 years) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and the Swedish Zimbardo Time perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). The influence of personality as reflected by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and self-reported negative life events (NLEs) were controlled for in hierarchic regression analyses.

    Results: The six S-ZTPI dimensions accounted for 24.5% of the variance in CES-D scores beyond age and gender. Half of the variance remained when the TCI factors and NLEs were controlled for. Past Negative, Future Negative, and Past Positive (inverse association) were the significant unique predictors. Significant age interactions were observed for two S-ZTPI dimensions, with a diminished association to depressive symptoms for Future Negative and a magnified association for Present Fatalistic with higher age.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate a substantial relation between facets of time perspective and depressive symptoms in old age. They also indicate an age-related shift in the relative importance from concerns about of the future (Future Negative) to the present (Present Fatalistic) with increased age. In young old-age, when the future is more ‘open’, future worries (Future Negative) may be a more frequent source of distress. In late senescence, perceived threats to autonomy (e.g. physical health problems and cognitive deficits), as reflected by higher scores on Present Fatalistic, may instead have more bearing on mood state.

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  • 19.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Seif, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Getting "stuck" in the future or the past: Relationships between dimensions of time perspective, executive functions, and repetitive negative thinking in anxiety2018In: Psychopathology, ISSN 0254-4962, E-ISSN 1423-033X, Vol. 51, p. 362-370Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e., time perspective, repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination),and executive functioning, in persons with anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls and examined the influence of negative past and negative future time perspective and executive functioning on worry and rumination.

    Method: Thirty-six psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders (mean age = 30.83, SD = 11.74; 30 females and 6 males) and 44 healthy controls (mean age = 28.89, SD = 9.54; 24 females and 20 males) completed inventories of time perspective and repetitive negative thinking, and tasks measuring executive functioning (shifting and inhibition).

    Results: The groups (patient vs. control) differed significantly on all time perspective dimensions (past, present, and future), with largest effect sizes observed for negative past and negative future. Regression analyses with executive functioning, negative past, and negative future time perspectives as predictors, and worry and rumination as outcomes, showed that negative past time perspective was the best predictor for rumination, whereas negative future time perspective more strongly predicted worry. Executive functioning was not a significant predictor of either worry or rumination.

    Conclusions: Individuals with anxiety disorders demonstrated systematic biases in all time perspective dimensions, particularly negative past and negative future time perspective, which was further related to worry and rumination. Thus, interventions targeting temporal focus may be one way of reducing repetitive negative thinking. A major limitation of this study was the use of a cross-section design. 

  • 20.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Examining the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a clinical sample using classical test theory and item response theory2023In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) using classical test theory and item response theory (IRT). The CORE-OM is a commonly used 34-item self-report instrument measuring psychological problems/distress covering four domains: subjective well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk. Despite its broad application, only a few studies have used IRT to examine the psychometric properties, and the properties of the Swedish version have only been examined in one initial study. The present study included 1,011 clients with mild to moderate symptoms of distress, applying for psychotherapy at an outpatient training clinic in Sweden. Clients' responses were subjected to classical item analyses as well as IRT (Rasch) analysis using the partial credit model. The classical analyses demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and acceptable levels of item discrimination for the majority of the items, although lower for some items, particularly in the Risk domain. IRT analyses showed that there was a rather good match between item and respondent locations and the measurement precision was high. Disordered step and average measures for some of the items in the Risk domain indicate that these items were problematic from a psychometric point of view and only applicable for a minority of the participants. Differential item functioning for gender in some of the items suggests that they might need to be revised to minimise potential gender bias.

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  • 21.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time estimation in patients with anxiety disorders: Relationships with worry and state anxietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sircova, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time2014In: Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, ISSN 2054-4723, Vol. 2, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is well-recognized that emotions and emotional disorders may alter the experience of time. Yet relatively little is known about different aspects of psychological time in relation to anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to explore several aspects of temporal processing, including time perspective, prospective and retrospective time estimation, in persons with anxiety symptoms.

    Methods: A total of 110 individuals with varying degrees of anxiety participated in two studies. They were assigned to two groups (anxiety–control) based on their scores on anxiety measurements. Participants also completed an inventory of time perspective and several time estimation tasks which were analyzed on a group-level. Depressive symptoms were assessed and used as a covariate in the second study.

    Results: Anxiety was significantly associated with Past Negative and Future Negative time perspectives as measured by the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), even when controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. No other significant differences were found.

    Conclusion: Exploring time perspective in persons with anxious symptoms may provide important insights into features of anxiety. These findings may offer new ways of conceptualizing anxiety and provide suggestions for treatment strategies.

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