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  • 1.
    Abramsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Backman, Annica C.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Edvardsson, David
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, VIC, Bundoora, Australia.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Use of heart failure medications in older individuals and associations with cognitive impairment2023Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikel-id 524Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To achieve the best treatment of heart failure, it is important to use all recommended drugs at their target doses. Given that underuse of medications can occur in individuals with cognitive impairment, we investigated the filled prescriptions and target doses of heart failure medication for older individuals with and without cognitive impairment as well as associated factors.

    Methods: The study was based on two separate datasets. The first dataset, which was based on data from questionnaires sent to nursing homes in Sweden, included 405 individuals with heart failure. The data were linked with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register and the National Patient Register to obtain information regarding filled prescriptions of heart failure medications and heart failure diagnoses among the population. In the second dataset, medical records of individuals aged 75 years or older admitted to a hospital in northern Sweden were reviewed and individuals with heart failure were identified. Target doses of heart failure medications were evaluated in 66 individuals who lived at home.

    Results: Filled prescriptions of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and loop diuretics were significantly more common in individuals without cognitive impairment (OR 1.087; 95% CI 1.026–1.152, p < 0.05) and (OR 1.057; 95% CI 1.017–1.098, p < 0.05), respectively. There were no significant differences between individuals with and without cognitive impairment in terms of achieving target doses for any of the drug classes. A higher age was associated with fewer filled prescriptions and less ability to reach the target doses of beta blockers (OR 0.950; 95% CI 0.918–0.984, p < 0.05) and (OR 0.781; 95% CI 0.645–0.946, p < 0.05), respectively.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that individuals with cognitive impairment are partly undertreated for heart failure in that they had fewer filled prescriptions of important heart medications. Separately, the relatively low proportion of older individuals reaching target doses is an important observation and indicates that treatment of heart failure could be further optimised among older individuals.

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  • 2.
    Abramsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Adherence to Bisphosphonates among People Admitted to an Orthopaedic and Geriatric Ward at a University Hospital in Sweden2018Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral bisphosphonates are the first choice of therapy to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. These medications have generally poor oral bioavailability, which may further be reduced by concomitant intake of certain foods and drugs; therefore, it is vital to follow specific instructions. The aim with this study was to assess general adherence to oral bisphosphonates and adherence to specific administration instructions among people admitted to two wards at Umeå University hospital in Sweden. This interview study focuses on elderly patients living at home and prescribed oral bisphosphonates. Invited were 27 patients admitted to an orthopaedic ward and a geriatric ward during the period 28 March 2017 and 5 December 2017. In total, 21 patients were interviewed regarding their adherence to oral bisphosphonates. Out of 21 patients, 13 (62%) were considered non-adherent. The most common reason was calcium intake less than 2 h after oral administration of bisphosphonate (54%). The number of regularly prescribed drugs was significantly higher among patients rated non-adherent to bisphosphonates compared to those rated adherent (p = 0.004). Adherence to bisphosphonates administration instruction among elderly people living at home was limited. More research is needed to confirm these results and to investigate the reasons for non-adherence and how adherence to bisphosphonates can be improved.

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  • 3.
    Abramsson, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Prevalence of drug-related problems using STOPP/START and medication reviews in elderly patients with dementia2020Ingår i: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 308-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drug-related problems (DRPs) are common among elderly patients with dementia. STOPP/START is an explicit tool that has been used to detect DRPs among elderly patients.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare prevalence and type of DRPs identified by STOPP/START with DRPs identified by clinical pharmacists among the same population. Secondary objectives were to investigate factors associated with the use of DRPs using the two methods.

    Method: Extracts from medical records were used to identify DRPs in 212 patients by using STOPP/START. The patients were ≥65 years of age with dementia or cognitive impairment. An earlier study was performed in the same study population in 2012–2014, where DRPs were identified by clinical pharmacists in order to decrease the number of rehospitalizations.

    Results: STOPP/START identified DRPs in 72.2% of the patients compared with 66.0% identified by the clinical pharmacists. The numbers of DRPs identified by the different methods were 326 and 310, respectively. Different types of DRPs were identified with the different tools. STOPP/START mainly identified DRPs in the categories “ineffective/inappropriate drug” and “needs additional drug therapy”, whereas the clinical pharmacists identified DRPs in several categories.

    Conclusion: Even though STOPP/START was able to identify a similar number of DRPs compared with DRPs identified by clinical pharmacists, STOPP/START failed to identify DRPs in several important categories. To cover all DRPs, STOPP/START might be used as a complement to implicit criteria.

  • 4.
    Elander, Astrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Inhaler Technique and Self-reported Adherence to Medications Among Hospitalised People with Asthma and COPD2020Ingår i: Drugs - real world outcomes, ISSN 2199-1154, E-ISSN 2198-9788, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 317-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are devices used for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Inhaler technique is important since incorrect technique can lead to a poorer prognosis and hospitalization.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the inhaler technique and overall adherence to medications in an adult population with asthma and COPD.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Those invited to participate were people admitted to Umeå University Hospital in northern Sweden in October, November and December 2018, with inhaled medication prescribed prior to admission. Inhaler technique was assessed using checklists and observations with placebo-inhalers were conducted. The Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS)-5 was used to measure self-reported overall adherence to drug medication.

    RESULTS: Of the 23 people included in the study, 26.1% had one or more critical errors in inhaler technique and 30.4% were considered overall non-adherent to drug medication. Among the 23 participants, the mean age, and the number of regularly prescribed medications were higher among those with poor inhaler technique than among people with no error in their inhaler technique.

    CONCLUSION: This study indicates that poor inhaler technique and overall non-adherence to medications occur among hospitalised people with asthma and COPD living in northern Sweden. Interventions to improve inhaler technique and adherence to drugs are needed.

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  • 5.
    Englund, Claire
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå universitetsbibliotek (UB), Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, Australia, New South Wales 2010, Australia.
    Pharmacy Students' Attitudes and Perceptions of "Virtual Worlds" as an Instructional Tool for Clinical Pharmacy Teaching2017Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to explore pharmacy students’ perceptions and experiences of three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVWs) as an instructional tool for clinical pharmacy teaching. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with Master of Science in Pharmacy students who had participated in communicative exercises in a 3DVW. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. More than half of the students were positive to using 3DVWs for educational purposes and see the advantages of having a setting where communication can be practiced in an authentic but ‘safe’ environment available online. However, many students also reported technical difficulties in using the 3DVW which impacted negatively on the learning experience. Perceived ease of use and usefulness of 3DVWs appears to play an important role for students. The students’ level of engagement relates to not only their computer skills, but also to the value they place on 3DVWs as an instructional tool.

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  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Optimizing drug therapy among people with dementia: the role of clinical pharmacists2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drugs are one of the cornerstones in the management of many diseases. In general, drugs are used for diagnosis, prevention, mitigation of symptoms, and, sometimes, to cure disease. However, drug treatment in elderly people, especially those with dementia and cognitive impairments, may involve significant risk of adverse drug events.  The aim of this thesis was to identify the extent of potentially inappropriate drug treatment among people with dementia and cognitive impairment and to assess the occurrence and character of drug-related problems that lead to acute hospital admissions. Another aim was to assess the potential impact of a comprehensive medication review conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a health care team on quality of patients’ drug therapy and drug-related hospital readmission rates.

    Method: Long-term use of antipsychotic/psychotropic drugs and associated factors were investigated among 344 and 278 people respectively with dementia living in specialized care units. Trends in the prescribing of potentially inappropriate drugs between 2007 and 2013, comprising 2772 and 1902 people, living in nursing homes in the county of Västerbotten, were assessed using six national quality indicators. Data on drug use, function in the activities of daily living, cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale. Further, an investigation of a separate corresponding population from 2012 was done, where potentially inappropriate drug use was measured before and after a total of 895 medication reviews. Finally, a randomized, controlled trial was carried out among people 65 years or older with dementia or cognitive impairment in internal medicine and orthopedic wards at two hospitals in northern Sweden. The proportion of hospital admissions that were drug-related were estimated, and also whether comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a health care team could affect the risk of drug-related hospital readmissions.

    Results: Antipsychotic and other psychotropic drugs were frequently prescribed to people with dementia living in specialized care units for prolonged periods. Associations were found between behavioral and psychological symptoms and different psychotropic drugs. The extent of potentially inappropriate drug use declined between 2007 and 2013. In the separate corresponding population from 2012, the frequency of potentially inappropriate drug use was significantly reduced among people who underwent medication reviews. Hospitalizations due to drug-related problems among old people with dementia or cognitive impairment were prevalent. We found that inclusion of a clinical pharmacist in the health care team significantly reduced the risk of drug-related 30-day and 180-day readmissions. However, in a subset of patients with concomitant heart failure no effect was seen.

    Conclusion: Among patients with dementia or cognitive impairment long-term treatment with antipsychotic and other psychotropic drugs is common. The results indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals, despite limited evidence of their efficacy and the high risk of adverse effects. Drug-related problems, such as adverse drug reactions, constituted a major cause of hospital admissions. By reducing potentially inappropriate drug use and optimizing overall drug therapy, inclusion of clinical pharmacists in a health care team might improve the quality of patient care and reduce the risk of hospital readmissions among people with dementia.

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  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Altufaili, Muna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Prevalence of Drugs and Drug Combinations that Increase Risk of Prolonged QT Time Among People with Major Neurocognitive Disorder Living in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Registry Study2023Ingår i: Drugs - real world outcomes, ISSN 2199-1154, E-ISSN 2198-9788, Vol. 10, s. 61-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People with major neurocognitive disorder might be susceptible to drug-induced QT interval prolongation due to the presence of a number of concomitant risk factors.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of QT-prolonging drugs and QT-prolonging drug–drug interactions and associated factors among older people with major neurocognitive disorder.

    Methods: In this register-based study, we obtained information regarding QT-prolonging drug use in a large population of older people with major neurocognitive disorder, through record linkage between the Swedish registry for cognitive/dementia disorders, and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. QT-prolonging drugs were identified according to the CredibleMeds online database and interactions using the Janusmed interaction database. Drug use was defined as one or more filled prescriptions during a 6-month timeframe, July 01 to December 31, 2017. Associations between people with a QT-prolonging drug and the factors of age and gender were analysed through multiple logistic regression.

    Results: Of 35,212 people included in the study, 41.6% had one or more QT-prolonging drug prescribed. The most commonly prescribed drug was donepezil, with a prevalence of 25.0%, followed by citalopram and escitalopram, representing 14.5% and 3.9% of prescriptions in the study population, respectively. Significant associations were found between QT-prolonging drug use and the factors of younger age and female gender. The most prevalent interaction was between citalopram and donepezil (2.7%), followed by the combination of escitalopram and donepezil (0.7%).

    Conclusions: In this population of older people with major neurocognitive disorder, QT-prolonging drugs and interactions that increase the risk of torsade de pointes were prevalent. Due to the presence of many risk factors in this population, it is important to continuously evaluate current QT-prolonging drugs and concomitant drug treatment in each individual.

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  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Englund, Claire
    Umeå universitet, Umeå universitetsbibliotek (UB), Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL).
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, 160 Oxford Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales 2010, Australia.
    The description and evaluation of virtual worlds in clinical pharmacy education in Northern Sweden2017Ingår i: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1877-1297, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 887-892Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate the use of a three-dimensional virtual world (3DVW) in a clinical pharmacy course.

    Educational activity and setting: Students are provided with training opportunities in simulated ward rounds and patient meetings in a 3DVW. The 3DVW enables students to practice communication with patients and colleagues in a professional manner. To evaluate the course and use of the 3DVW, an online course evaluation was completed by students after they had finished the clinical pharmacy course.

    Findings: Forty-two students completed the online course evaluation (62%). Most students (83%) reported that they could adopt the role of a clinical pharmacist in the 3DVW. Sixty percent reported that the environment felt authentic, although some noted that “it can never be quite the same as sitting next to a real person to talk”. More than half of the students (66%) described the use of the 3DVW as a worthwhile exercise. The majority (93%) rated the overall quality of the course as good or very good, with 76% reporting that the pedagogical design of the course helped them with their studies.

    Discussion and summary: Students at Umeå University valued the use of 3DVWs in clinical pharmacy teaching. However, there is a need to make the virtual environment more realistic and easier to use. The invaluable feedback gathered from students will help to improve the future use of virtual worlds in pharmacy education.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drugs among people with cognitive impairment in nursing homes in 2007 and 20132016Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 72, nr 8, s. 987-994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The use of psychotropic drugs to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among people with dementia has been widely questioned because of its limited efficacy and risk of harmful side-effects. The objectives of this study was to compare the prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms and the use of psychotropic drug treatments among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units in 2007 and 2013.

    METHODS: Two questionnaire surveys were performed in 2007 and 2013, comprising all those living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. A comparison was made between 1971 people from 2007 and 1511 people from 2013. Data were collected concerning psychotropic and antidementia drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, and behavioral and psychological symptoms, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS).

    RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2013, the use of antipsychotic drugs declined from 25.4 to 18.9 %, and of anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs from 35.5 to 29.4 %. The prevalence of people prescribed antidepressant drugs remained unchanged while antidementia drug prescription increased from 17.9 to 21.5 %. When controlled for demographic changes, 36 out of 39 behavioral and psychological symptoms showed no difference in prevalence between the years.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of antipsychotic, anxiolytic, hypnotic, and sedative drugs declined considerably between 2007 and 2013 among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care units. Despite this reduction, the prevalences of behavioral and psychological symptoms remained largely unchanged.

  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Psychotropic drug use among people with dementia - a six-month follow-up study2013Ingår i: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, E-ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 14, artikel-id 56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychotropic drugs are widely used among old people with dementia but few studies have described long-term treatment in this group of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term use of psychotropic drugs in old people with dementia.

    METHODS: Data on psychotropic drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected at baseline and six months later, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The data were collected in 2005-2006. Detailed data about the prescribing of psychotropic drugs were collected from prescription records. This study was conducted in 40 specialized care units in northern Sweden, with a study population of 278 people with dementia.

    RESULTS: At the start of the study, 229 of the participants (82%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug; 150 (54%) used antidepressants, 43 (16%) used anxiolytics, 107 (38%) used hypnotics and sedatives, and 111 (40%) used antipsychotics. Among the baseline users of antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives and antipsychotics, 67%, 44%, 57% and 57% respectively, still used the same dose of the same psychotropic drug after six months. Associations were found between behavioral and psychological symptoms and different psychotropic drugs.

    CONCLUSION: Psychotropic drug use was high among people with dementia living in specialized care units and in many cases the drugs were used for extended periods. It is very important to monitor the effects and adverse effects of the prescribed drug in this frail group of people.

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  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Inappropriate long-term use of antipsychotic drugs is common among people with dementia living in specialized care units2013Ingår i: BMC pharmacology & toxicology, ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 14, s. 10-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD), despite their limited efficacy and concerns about safety. The aim of this study was to describe antipsychotic drug therapy among people with dementia living in specialized care units in northern Sweden.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in 40 specialized care units in northern Sweden, with a total study population of 344 people with dementia. The study population was described in regard to antipsychotic drug use, ADL function, cognitive function and BPSD, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). These data were collected at baseline and six months later. Detailed data about antipsychotic prescribing were collected from prescription records.

    RESULTS: This study showed that 132 persons (38%) in the study population used antipsychotic drugs at the start of the study. Of these, 52/132 (39%) had prescriptions that followed national guidelines with regard to dose and substance.After six months, there were 111 of 132 persons left because of deaths and dropouts. Of these 111 people, 80 (72%) were still being treated with antipsychotics, 63/111 (57%) with the same dose. People who exhibited aggressive behavior (OR: 1.980, CI: 1.515-2.588), or passiveness (OR: 1.548, CI: 1.150-2.083), or had mild cognitive impairment (OR: 2.284 CI: 1.046-4.988), were at increased risk of being prescribed antipsychotics.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of antipsychotic drug use among people with dementia living in specialized care units was high and inappropriate long-term use of antipsychotic drugs was common.

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    Inappropriate long-term use of antipsychotic drugs is common among people with dementia living in specialized care units
  • 12.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lämås, Kristina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Constipation and laxative use among people living in nursing homes in 2007 and 20132019Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, artikel-id 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Constipation is a common condition among older people, particularly among people living in nursing homes, and the use of drugs such as opioids is one of many factors that contribute to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of constipation and the use of laxatives between 2007 and 2013, to analyze constipation and laxative use among people who are prescribed opioids, and to identify factors associated with constipation. Methods: In 2007 and 2013, two surveys were performed in the county of Vasterbotten in Northern Sweden, comprising all those living in nursing homes. The Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale was used to collect data regarding laxative, opioid and anticholinergic drug use, functioning in activities of daily living (ADL), cognition and symptoms of constipation. A comparison was made between 2820 people from 2007 and 1902 people from 2013. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation among people living in nursing homes increased from 36% in 2007 to 40% in 2013. After controlling for age, sex, ADL, cognitive impairment and use of opioid and anticholinergic drugs, this difference was found to be statistically significant. When controlled for demographic changes, there was a statistically significant difference in the regular use of laxatives between the respective years, from 46% in 2007 to 59% in 2013. People prescribed opioids and anticholinergic drugs were at increased risk of constipation, while people with a higher ADL score were at decreased risk. Further, among people prescribed opioids and rated as constipated, 35% in 2007 and 20% in 2013 were not prescribed laxatives for regular use, a difference that was found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms of constipation increased between 2007 and 2013. Although there was a decrease between the years, there were still a number of people being prescribed with opioids and rated as constipated who were not treated with laxatives. This study therefore indicates that constipation remains a significant problem among people in nursing homes and also indicates that those prescribed opioids could benefit from an increased awareness of the risk of constipation and treatment, if required.

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  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Pharmacological Pain Treatment in 2012 and 2017 Among Older People with Major Neurocognitive Disorder2021Ingår i: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 38, s. 1017-1023Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Pain is highly prevalent among older people, and treatment is complicated because of comorbidities and polypharmacy. Among people with major neurocognitive disorder additional difficulties might arise. The aim of this study was to describe analgesic drug use in 2012 and 2017 and associated factors among older people with major neurocognitive disorder.

    Methods: In this register-based study, the Swedish Dementia Registry and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register were combined in order to obtain data regarding analgesic drug use among older people with major neurocognitive disorder. One or more filled prescriptions during the timeframe of 6 months (1 July–31 December 2012 and 1 July–31 December 2017) defined drug use during the respective period. A comparison between 2012 and 2017 was made, including a total of 56,101 people (20,889 and 35,212 respectively) with a mean age of 81.9 and 82.7 years, respectively.

    Results: The overall use of analgesic drugs increased significantly from 41.6% of individuals to 46.0% between the years 2012 and 2017. Users of opioid analgesics (15.2% vs 17.3%) and paracetamol (37.0% vs 42.3%) increased, while the users of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (4.9% vs 2.7%) declined between the two data collections. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for different drugs and drug classes, and it was found that the use of opioids and paracetamol was associated with older age and a longer time since diagnosis. In contrast, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with younger age and a shorter time since diagnosis.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that on a population level, pharmacological drug treatment has changed in line with guidelines between 2012 and 2017, with an increase in paracetamol and strong opioids and a decrease in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tramadol. The relatively high prevalence of opioids warrants concern given the significant risk of adverse effects among older people with major neurocognitive disorder.

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  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Mattsson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Swedish Pharmacy Students' Expectations and Perceptions of Their Education and Future Pharmacy Profession2019Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikel-id 139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education is becoming more and more common, and today distance education is well established within academic settings. The aim was to investigate first-year pharmacy students' expectations and perceptions of web-based pharmacy programs and of their future profession. Furthermore, student characteristics were compared over time. A questionnaire was distributed to all first-year students admitted to the pharmacy programs at Umea University in 2017. The students were asked questions about their background, motives for choosing pharmacy education, and their expectations and perceptions of their education and profession. Factors of most importance when choosing the education were: the education is interesting, leads to an interesting job, and is web-based. The students' expectations of the education were high, and they want to learn as much as possible and be well prepared for their future profession. Regarding the students' perception of their future profession, three themes were identified: to help other people, professional development, and employment related issues. Student characteristics have changed over the years, suggesting that the web-based pharmacy education and the flexibility it entails attracts other groups of students today compared with when the programs started.

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  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Mattsson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Students' satisfaction with a web-based pharmacy program in a re-regulated pharmacy market2017Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 5, nr 3, artikel-id E47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the shortage of pharmacists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was established at Umeå University in 2003. In 2009, the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated from a state monopoly to an open market, but it is unknown what impact this has had on education satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to examine the level of satisfaction among graduates from a web-based pharmacy program and to describe what subjects and skills students would have liked more or less of in their education. A secondary objective was to compare the level of satisfaction before and after the Swedish pharmacy market was re-regulated. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with all alumni who had graduated from the pharmacy program between 2006 and 2014 (n = 511), and responses to questions about graduates' satisfaction with the program were analyzed (n = 200). Most graduates (88%) agreed or strongly agreed that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their current job. The graduates stated that they would have wanted more applied pharmacy practice and self-care counselling, and fewer social pharmacy and histology courses. Further, 82% stated that they would start the same degree program if they were to choose again today, and 92% agreed or strongly agreed that they would recommend the program to a prospective student. Graduates were more likely to recommend the program after the re-regulation (p = 0.007). In conclusion, pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education, and no negative effects of the re-regulation could be observed on program satisfaction.

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  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Mattsson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Wallman, Andy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame Australia, NSW, Australia.
    Pharmacists' satisfaction with their work: Analysis of an alumni survey2018Ingår i: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 14, nr 7, s. 700-704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The level of job satisfaction among practicing pharmacists is important because it has been found to affect job performance and employee turnover. The Swedish pharmacy market has undergone major changes in recent years, and little is known about pharmacists' job satisfaction.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the level of job satisfaction and associated factors among graduates from the web-based pharmacy programs at Umea University.

    Methods: Job satisfaction of pharmacists was measured as part of an alumni survey conducted with those who graduated from the pharmacy programmes between 2006 and 2014. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, and logistic regression was used to explore factors affecting job satisfaction.

    Results: The total number of graduates who completed the survey was 222 (response rate 43%.) The majority of respondents were female (95%), and most were employed at a community pharmacy (85%). The mean age was 39.7 years. The majority of graduates (91%) were satisfied with their job "most of the time" or "all of the time", and 87% of the respondents would "definitely" or "maybe" choose the same career again. The multivariate analysis showed that increasing years in the current position (OR: 0.672 (0.519-0.871)) was associated with lower job satisfaction. Older age (OR: 1.123 (1.022-1.234)), the perception that the knowledge and skills acquired during university education is useful in the current job (OR: 4.643 (1.255-17.182)) and access to continuing professional development (OR: 9.472 (1.965 -45.662)) were associated with higher job satisfaction.

    Conclusion: Most graduates from the web-based pharmacy programmes were satisfied with their current job. Access to continuing professional development seems to be important for the level of job satisfaction among pharmacists.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk farmakologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Association between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings2013Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 25, nr 9, s. 1415-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms are common among cognitively impaired individuals and psychotropic drugs are widely used for their treatment. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use among old people with cognitive impairment living in geriatric care settings. Methods: The study comprised 2,019 cognitively impaired people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning psychotropic and anti-dementia drug use, function in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and prevalence of behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale. Results: Of the study population, 1,442 individuals (71%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug (antidepressants (49%), anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives (36%), antipsychotics (25%)). Furthermore, 363 individuals (18%) received anti-dementia drugs. Associations between various behavioral and psychological symptoms were found for all psychotropic drug classes and anti-dementia drugs. Verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior was associated with all psychotropic drugs. Use of antipsychotics was associated with several behavioral and psychological symptoms, including aggressive behavior. Conclusion: The associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms and psychotropic drug use found in this study indicate that these drugs are prescribed to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms among cognitively impaired individuals despite limited evidence of their efficacy. Given the significant risk of adverse effects among old people with cognitive impairment, it is important to ensure that any medication used is both appropriate and safe.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Reduction in the use of potentially inappropriate drugs among old people living in geriatric care units between 2007 and 20132015Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 507-515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to investigate trends in the prevalence of potentially inappropriate drug use among old people living in geriatric care units in the county of Västerbotten between 2007 and 2013 using six national quality indicators and to assess the impact of medication reviews on those quality indicators.

    METHODS: Data were collected concerning potentially inappropriate drug use, function in the activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive function, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). A comparison was made between the years 2007 and 2013, comprising 2772 and 1902 people, respectively, living in geriatric care in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. We conducted a parallel investigation of a separate corresponding population in Västerbotten County from 2012, where potentially inappropriate drug use was measured before and after 895 medication reviews which involved a clinical pharmacist.

    RESULTS: After controlling for age, sex, ADL and cognitive impairment, there was a significant improvement in five out of six quality indicators between 2007 and 2013. While 44 % of the people were exposed to one or more potentially inappropriate medications in 2007, this number had declined to 26 % by 2013. In the separate population from 2012, the frequency of potentially inappropriate drug use was significantly reduced amongst the people who had a medication review performed.

    CONCLUSION: The extent of potentially inappropriate drug use declined between 2007 and 2013 according to the quality indicators used. Medication reviews involving clinical pharmacists might be an important factor in reducing potentially inappropriate drug use and improving drug treatment among old people.

  • 19.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame, Australia, Darlinghurst, Australia.
    Where there is no pharmacist: doctors' and nurses' expectations on the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in rural Sweden2017Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 216-216, artikel-id HP-PC011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Pfister, Bettina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Jonsson, Jeanette
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Drug-related hospital admissions among old people with dementia2016Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 72, nr 9, s. 1143-1153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Drug treatment associated problems are common and are the cause of a large proportion of hospitalizations in oldpeople. People with dementia are especially at risk of drug-related problems. The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence and character of drug-related problems that lead to acute hospital admissions among old people (≥65 years) with dementia or cognitive impairment.

    METHODS: This study was conducted in orthopedic and internal medicine wards in two hospitals in Northern Sweden. Information about acute admissions was collected from the medical records. A total of 458 people aged 65 years or older with dementia or cognitive impairment were included in the study. The contribution of drug-related problems to each hospitalization was assessed.

    RESULTS: Of 458 acute hospital admissions, 189 (41.3 %) were determined to be drug-related. The most common drug-relatedproblem (86/189; 45.5 %) was an adverse drug reaction. In total, 264 drugs were judged to be involved in 189 drug-relatedadmissions, of which cardiovascular (29.5 %) and psychotropic (26.9 %) drugs were the most commonly involved drug classes. The relationship between the drug-related problem and the admission was judged certain in 25 cases, probable in 78 cases, and possible in 86 cases. Drug-related admissions were more common among people taking more drugs (p = 0.035) and among younger patients (p = 0.031).

    CONCLUSION: Drug-related problems appear to be responsible for a major proportion of hospitalizations among old peoplewith dementia or cognitive impairment. Targeted interventions such as education and medication reviews may be warranted to reduce drug-related problems.

  • 21.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Pfister, Bettina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Jonsson, Jeanette
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Pharmacist participation in hospital ward teams and hospital readmission rates among people with dementia: a randomized controlled trial2017Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 7, nr 73, s. 827-835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To assess whether comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a healthcare team reduce drug-related hospital readmission rates among people with dementia or cognitive impairment.

    Methods: This randomized controlled trial was carried out between January 9, 2012, and December 2, 2014. Patients aged ≥65 years with dementia or cognitive impairment admitted to three wards at two hospitals located in Northern Sweden were included.

    Results: Of the 473 deemed eligible for participation, 230 were randomized to intervention and 230 to control group by block randomization. The primary outcome, risk of drug-related hospital readmissions, was assessed at 180 days of follow-up by intention-to-treat analysis.

    During the 180 days of follow-up, 18.9% (40/212) of patients in the intervention group and 23.0% (50/217) of those in the control group were readmitted for drug-related reasons (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.53–1.21, p = 0.28, univariable Cox regression). Heart failure was significantly more common in the intervention group. After adjustment for heart failure as a potential confounder and an interaction term, multiple Cox regression analysis indicated that pharmacist participation significantly reduced the risk of drug-related readmissions (HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27–0.90, p = 0.02). A post-hoc analysis showed a significantly reduced risk of 30-day readmissions due to drug-related problems in the total sample (without adjustment for heart failure).

    Conclusion: Participation of clinical pharmacists in healthcare team conducting comprehensive medication reviews did not significantly reduce the risk of drug-related readmissions in patients with dementia or cognitive impairment; however, post-hoc and subgroup analyses indicated significant effects favoring the intervention. More research is needed.

    Trial registration: Clinical trials NCT01504672.

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  • 22.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Pfister, Bettina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Effects of pharmacists' interventions on inappropriate drug use and drug-related readmissions in people with dementia: a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial2018Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id E7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-associated physiological changes and extensive drug treatment including use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) pose a significant risk of drug-drug interactions and adverse drug events among elderly people with dementia. This study aimed at analysing the effects of clinical pharmacists' interventions on use of PIMs, risk of emergency department visits, and time to institutionalization. Furthermore, a descriptive analysis was conducted of circumstances associated with drug-related readmissions. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled intervention study conducted in two hospitals in Northern Sweden. The study included patients (n = 460) 65 years or older with dementia or cognitive impairment. The intervention consisted of comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a healthcare team. There was a larger decrease in PIMs in the intervention group compared with the control group (p= 0.011). No significant difference was found in time to first all-cause emergency department visits (HR = 0.994, 95% CI = 0.755-1.307 p = 0.963, simple Cox regression) or time to institutionalization (HR = 0.761, 95% CI = 0.409-1.416 p = 0.389, simple Cox regression) within 180 days. Common reasons for drug-related readmissions were negative effects of sedatives, opioids, antidepressants, and anticholinergic agents, resulting in confusion, falling, and sedation. Drug-related readmissions were associated with living at home, heart failure, and diabetes. Pharmacist-provided interventions were able to reduce PIMs among elderly people with dementia and cognitive impairment.

  • 23.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Wallman, Andy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Mattsson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Education Satisfaction among Pharmacy Graduates in Sweden2021Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Education satisfaction is considered important for development of a professional identity and to increase learning. The aim was to investigate and compare education satisfaction over time among pharmacists who have graduated from the pharmacy programs at Umea University, Sweden. Data concerning education satisfaction were collected using an alumni survey of pharmacists who graduated between 2015 and 2018. This was compared with pharmacists graduating between 2006 and 2014. The majority of the pharmacy graduates were very satisfied with their education (96%) and thought that the programs gave them a clear professional identity (92%). No differences in education satisfaction between graduation years 2015 and 2018 and 2006 and 2014 were found. A majority of the graduates considered that the knowledge and skills acquired during their education were useful in their present job (83%). Of the graduates who thought that the studies gave them a clear professional identity, a higher proportion were satisfied with their job (p < 0.001) and thought that their work duties reflected their studies (p = 0.005). Exploring education satisfaction may help educators to further develop the education and to better prepare the students for their professional working life.

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  • 24.
    Hemmingsson, Eva-Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gustavsson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Prevalence of pain and pharmacological pain and treatment among old people in nursing homes in 2007 and 20132018Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 74, nr 4, s. 483-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Many elderly people living in nursing homes experience pain and take analgesic medication. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of pain and pharmacological pain treatment among people living in nursing homes in Sweden, in two large, comparable, samples from 2007 to 2013.

    Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 2007 and 2013, including all residents in nursing homes in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. A total of 4933 residents (2814 and 2119 respectively) with a mean age of 84.6 and 85.0 years participated. Of these, 71.1 and 72.4% respectively were cognitively impaired. The survey was completed by the staff members who knew the residents best.

    Results: The prescription of opioids became significantly more common while the use of tramadol decreased significantly. The staff reported that 63.4% in 2007 and 62.3% in 2013 had experienced pain. Of those in pain, 20.2% in 2007 and 16.8% in 2013 received no treatment and 73.4 and 75.0% respectively of those with pain, but no pharmacological treatment, were incorrectly described by the staff as being treated for pain.

    Conclusions: There has been a change in the pharmacological analgesic treatment between 2007 and 2013 with less prescribing of tramadol and a greater proportion taking opioids. Nevertheless, undertreatment of pain still occurs and in many cases, staff members believed that the residents were prescribed analgesic treatment when this was not the case.

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  • 25.
    Hägglund, Patricia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Oropharyngeal dysphagia and associated factors among individuals living in nursing homes in northern Sweden in 2007 and 20132022Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swallowing difficulties in the oral cavity or pharynx (i.e., oropharyngeal dysphagia) are a common problem in the aging population, which may result in severe consequences, such as malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and mortality. Identifying oropharyngeal dysphagia and its associated factors is essential for establishing better healthcare policies in nursing homes. In this study, we aimed to describe the oropharyngeal dysphagia prevalence among nursing home residents, and to investigate the association between dysphagia and potentially related factors in a large survey of nursing home residents in Sweden, including individuals with various degrees of cognitive impairment. A secondary aim was to compare findings between years on oropharyngeal dysphagia and its associated factors.

    Methods: This study is based on two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2007 and 2013, including 4,995 individuals living in nursing homes in the Region of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data were collected from caregivers’ reports regarding swallowing ability, nutritional status, chewing ability, and other baseline characteristics, such as cognitive function and activity of daily living (ADL). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models to calculate the odds of the association between oropharyngeal dysphagia and associated factors.

    Results: Oropharyngeal dysphagia was reported in 14.9% (95% CI: 13.9–16.0) of the nursing home residents. An adjusted model revealed that oropharyngeal dysphagia was associated by severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12) and ADL independence (OR: 0.81 95% CI: 1.82–2.66) among nursing home residents. We also identified the following as independently associated factors of dysphagia: reduced nutritional status (OR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.49–2.27), artificial nutrition (OR: 6.33, 95% CI: 2.73–14.71), and clinical signs of aspiration (OR: 10.89, 95% CI: 8.40–14.12).

    Conclusions: Oropharyngeal dysphagia was reported among approximately 15% nursing home residents and was associated with cognitive impairment and ADL capability. Furthermore, reduced nutritional status and artificial nutrition were also associated with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Implementing routine protocols in nursing homes may help detect oropharyngeal dysphagia and manage oropharyngeal dysphagia among residents.

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  • 26. Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Exploring physicians, nurses and ward-based pharmacists working relationships in a Swedish inpatient setting: a mixed methods study2019Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 728-733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden there has been limited work investigating the integration and nature of collaborative relationships between pharmacists and other healthcare practitioners. ObjectiveTo explore the working relationships of physicians, nurses and ward-based pharmacists in a rural hospital after the introduction of a clinical pharmacy service. Setting General medical ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Method Mixed methods involving face-to-face semi-structured interviews with nurses, physicians and pharmacists, and a physician survey using the Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration Index to measure the extent of physician-reported collaborative working relationships. Main outcome measure Perceptions about collaborative working relationships between physician, nurses and pharmacists. Results All physicians (n = 9) who interacted with the clinical pharmacists completed the survey. The mean total score was 78.6 ± 4.7, total 92 (higher scores represent a more advanced relationship). Mean domain scores were highest for relationship initiation (13.0 ± 1.3, total 15), and trustworthiness (38.9 ± 3.4, total 42), followed by role specification (26.3 ± 2.6, total 30). The interviews (with nurses and physicians), showed how communication, collaboration and joint knowledge-exchange in the intervention changed and developed over time. Conclusion This study provides new insights into collaborative working relationships from the perspectives of physicians and nurses. The Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration Index scores suggest that physicians felt that clinical pharmacists were active in providing patient care; could be trusted to follow up on recommendations; and were credible. The interviews suggest that the team-based intervention provided good conditions for creating new ways to work to achieve commitment to professional working relationships.

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  • 27.
    Irshaidat, Shayma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Norberg, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Self-reported medication adherence among older people admitted to hospital: a descriptive study2023Ingår i: Drugs - real world outcomes, ISSN 2199-1154, E-ISSN 2198-9788, Vol. 10, s. 23-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Poor medication adherence is prevalent among older people. To optimize therapeutic outcomes, it is crucial to understand the underlying causes and perceptions.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the extent of self-reported medication adherence and associated factors among older people admitted to hospital.

    Methods: Individuals living at home aged ≥ 75 years with an emergency admission at a university hospital between September 2018 and September 2021 were included. Participants answered the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) questionnaire upon admission regarding their prescribed long-term medications. Participants with a MARS-5 score of 23–25 were defined as adherent and with a score of 5–22 as nonadherent. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate possible factors independently associated with self-reported medication adherence.

    Results: A total of 261 individuals were included. The mean age was 84 years (standard deviation 5.7) and the mean MARS-5 score was 23.9 (standard deviation 1.8). Overall, 227 (87%) participants were classified as adherent to their prescribed treatment, while 34 (13%) participants were classified as nonadherent. Participants with cognitive impairment (odds ratio = 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.18–0.90, p = 0.027) and depression (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10–0.87, p = 0.028) had a lower odds of reporting adherence to their medications.

    Conclusions: The majority of individuals aged ≥ 75 years who were recently hospitalized rated themselves as adherent to their prescribed medications according to MARS-5. Future studies would benefit from adding more possible explanatory factors and combining a self-reported assessment with a more objective measurement of medication adherence.

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  • 28.
    Kindstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Westberg, Annica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Exploring medication-related hospital admissions and their association with cognitive impairment among acutely admitted older people2023Ingår i: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 19, nr 7, s. 1048-1053Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Medication-related hospital admissions (MRAs) are common among older people. Persons with cognitive impairment are especially vulnerable to adverse drug effects. At the same time, increased home health care and social support could theoretically prevent medication-related problems. This study aims to estimate the proportion of MRAs and explore their relationship with cognitive impairment in a population of acutely admitted older people.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 300 individuals aged 75 years or older admitted to an acute medical ward. Two assessors identified possibly MRAs using the Assessment Tool for Hospital Admissions Related to Medications 10 (AT-HARM10). Screening for cognitive impairment was performed during ward stay using a 4-item test related to time orientation. Prevalence odds ratios between cognitive test scores and MRAs were analysed through logistic regression.

    Results: Using AT-HARM10, 108 out of 300 admissions (36%) were classified as possibly MRAs by both assessors. Moreover, MRAs were least common among patients with the lowest cognitive test scores. There was an association regarding MRAs when the lowest test score was treated as a cut-off and compared against a reference category comprising all other scores (OR, 0.31 [95% CI 0.10–0.93]; p = 0.037) in a logistic regression model adjusted for cohabitation and home health care.

    Conclusion: Approximately one-third of the hospital admissions among acutely admitted older people were considered at least possibly medication-related. Hence, there is still a great need to manage medication-related problems and reduce MRAs in this vulnerable population. Using a 4-item instrument to screen for cognitive impairment, there was a negative association between MRA and lowest cognitive test score. Further exploration of the relationship between MRAs and cognitive impairment may indicate appropriate components and target populations for interventions that aims to reduce the risk of MRA.

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  • 29.
    Kindstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Psychotropic drugs among older people in relation to major neurocognitive disorder and nursing home residency: a comparative registry-based studyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Kindstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    The impact of nursing home residency on psychotropic drug use in major neurocognitive disorder: a nationwide comparison2023Ingår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 38, nr 11, artikel-id e6018Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Psychotropic drugs are utilized against neuropsychiatric symptoms among people with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD) despite well-documented risks, and older people in nursing homes are expected to be more frequently exposed to those medicines. This study compared psychotropic drug use and associated factors between older people with major NCD and matched references.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study included individuals from three national registries in Sweden. References were randomly matched 1:1 by age and sex from the Swedish Total Population Register. Drug use was defined as at least one prescription fill from 1 July to 31 December 2019 and presented as proportion of drug users. In addition, ORs regarding psychotropic drug use and associated factors use were analysed using generalized estimating equations.

    Results: There were 102,419 complete matching pairs alive on 31 December 2019. The proportions of psychotropic drug users were 59% in the population of people with major NCD and 28% in the reference group. Moreover, there was a substantial number of individuals in nursing homes who had been treated with antipsychotics but who, for unknown reasons, had not been diagnosed with major NCD. Psychotropic drug use was positively associated with both major NCD and nursing home residency. The difference in drug use in relation to major NCD was more pronounced among people living in ordinary homes.

    Conclusion: Despite well-documented risks in people with cognitive impairment, psychotropic drug use was overall high and positively associated with both major NCD and nursing home residency. Taken together, interventions to better target neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people are warranted. Hypnotic drug use among older people in general as well as antipsychotic drug exposure among older people in nursing homes appear to be two important focus areas.

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  • 31.
    Kindstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Psychotropic drug use among older people with major neurocognitive disorder: a cross-sectional study based on Swedish national registries2022Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 477-487Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Psychotropic medications include many drugs that may be inappropriate for older individuals with cognitive impairment. In Sweden, many people become registered in the Swedish Dementia Registry when they are diagnosed with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD). In this study, we aim to describe psychotropic drug use and associated factors among older Swedish people with major NCD.

    Methods: This study included 38,251 people ≥ 65 years from the Swedish registry for cognitive/dementia disorders diagnosed during 2007–2017. Drug use was defined as one or more filled prescription(s) recorded in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 1 July to 31 December 2017. Associations between psychotropics and age, sex, diagnosis date, Mini-Mental State Examination score and major NCD subtype were analysed through multiple logistic regression.

    Results: We found that 12.0% of the individuals filled at least one prescription for antipsychotics, 22.0% for anxiolytics, 23.0% for sedatives or hypnotics, 43.2% for antidepressants and 56.7% for antidementia drugs. In brief, psychotropic use was associated with female sex, higher age, longer time since diagnosis and specific subtypes of major NCD; the strongest association was found between antipsychotics and Lewy body dementia (odds ratio 2.40, 95% confidence interval 2.04–2.82).

    Conclusion: Psychotropic drugs were frequently dispensed among older Swedish people with major NCD. The use of antipsychotics and medications with sedative properties warrants concern, especially among those with Lewy body dementia who are severely sensitive to antipsychotics. A more restrictive prescribing pattern regarding these medications might reduce the risk of drug-related problems in this vulnerable group of people.

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  • 32.
    Kindstedt, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Svahn, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Investigating the effect of clinical pharmacist intervention in transitions of care on drug-related hospital readmissions among the elderly: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2020Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikel-id e036650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Drug-related problems (DRPs) are a major cause of unplanned hospital admissions among elderly people, and transitions of care have been emphasised as a key area for improving patient safety. We have designed a complex clinical pharmacist intervention that targets people >= 75 years of age undergoing transitions of care from hospital to home and primary care. The main objective is to investigate if the intervention can reduce the risk of unplanned drug-related readmission within the first 180 days after the person is discharged from hospital.

    Methods and analysis: This is a randomised, controlled, superiority trial with two parallel arms. A total of 700 people >= 75 years will be assigned to either intervention or routine care (control). The intervention, which aims to find and manage DRPs, is initiated within a week of the person being discharged from hospital and combines repeated medical chart reviews, phone interviews and in some cases medication reviews. People in both study arms may have been the subject of a medication review during their ward stay. As the primary outcome, we will measure time until unplanned drug-related readmission within 180 days of leaving hospital and use log rank tests and Cox proportional hazard models to analyse differences between the groups. Further investigations of subgroup effects and adjustments of the regression models will be based on heart failure and cognitive impairment as prognostic factors.

    Ethics and dissemination: The study has been approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board in Umea (registration numbers 2017-69-31M, 2018-83-32M and 2018-254-32M). We intend to publish the results with open access in international peer-reviewed journals and present our findings at international conferences. The trial is expected to result in more than one published article and form part of two PhD theses.

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  • 33.
    Lindbo, Agnes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Dysphoric symptoms in relation to other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, among elderly in nursing homes2017Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikel-id 206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common and varied in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between BPSD and dysphoric symptoms at different levels of cognitive impairment.

    METHODS: Assessments of 4397 elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Sweden were performed. Data on cognitive function and BPSD were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The relationships between dysphoria and eight BPSD factors were plotted against cognitive function to investigate how dysphoria affects BPSD throughout the dementia disease.

    RESULTS: Overall, dysphoric symptoms were most prevalent in persons with moderate cognitive impairment. However, moderate to severe dysphoric symptoms showed no clear variation with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, aggressive behavior, verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior, hallucinatory symptoms and wandering behavior were more common with concurrent dysphoria regardless of cognitive function. In contrast, passiveness was more common with concurrent dysphoria in mild cognitive impairment but not in moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

    CONCLUSIONS: BPSD, including aggressive behavior and hallucinations, were more common with concurrent dysphoric symptoms, providing insight into behavioral and psychological symptoms among individuals with cognitive impairment. Apathy was more commonly associated with concurrent dysphoria at early stages of cognitive decline but not at later stages, indicating that apathy and dysphoria represent separate syndromes among elderly patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

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  • 34.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Karlsson, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gottfries' Cognitive Scale for Staff Proxy Rating of Cognitive Function Among Nursing Home Residents2019Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 72, nr 4, s. 1251-1260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For research purposes, there is a need for tools to assess an individual's level of cognitive function. For survey-based investigations in nursing home contexts, proxy ratings allow the assessment also of individuals with severe cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the feasibility and psychometric properties of Gottfries' cognitive scale when used in a nursing home context for proxy rating of cognitive function. Method: The psychometric properties of Gottfries' cognitive scale were investigated in a sample of 8,492 nursing home residents in Vasterbotten County, Sweden, using item response theory and classic scale theory-based approaches. Results: Cognitive function could be scored in 97.1% of the assessed individuals. The scale had a negligible floor effect, it had items with a large spread in difficulties, it appeared linear, and it distributed the assessed individuals equally over the scale. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.967, and an exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors of the scale - interpreted to represent orientation to time, to place, and to person. Conclusion: Gottfries' cognitive scale is a feasible tool for grading cognitive function among nursing home residents using staff proxy ratings. The scale has excellent psychometric properties with a very high internal consistency, a favorable distribution of item difficulties producing an almost rectangular distribution of scores, and a negligible floor effect. The scale thus can be recommended for use in survey-based investigations in nursing home contexts.

  • 35.
    Mattsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Job Satisfaction among Swedish Pharmacists2020Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 8, nr 3, artikel-id 127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of pharmacists' job satisfaction is important because a lack of job satisfaction might have negative impacts on patient care and safety. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore and compare job satisfaction among pharmacists graduating from the pharmacy programs at Umea University, Sweden. Data concerning job satisfaction and associated factors were collected using an alumni survey conducted among pharmacists graduating between 2015 and 2018. Ethical committee approval is not required for this type of study in Sweden. A majority (92.6%) of the pharmacy graduates were female. A majority of the graduates (91.4%) were satisfied with their job most of the time or all of the time, which was similar to a previous investigation among pharmacists graduating between 2006 and 2014. High access to continuous professional development (CPD) was associated with higher job satisfaction (odds ratio (OR): 18.717 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.685-207.871)). In total, 65.6% considered access to CPD to be high (i.e., satisfactory to very good). Variables like gender, age, employee category, workplace, years since graduation, and income did not affect job satisfaction. Knowledge regarding job satisfaction will enable employers to respond to employees' needs, decrease turnover, and improve the work environment.

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  • 36.
    Mattsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Svahn, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Norberg, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Kardiologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Who enrols and graduates from web-based pharmacy education: experiences from Northern Sweden2018Ingår i: Currents in pharmacy teaching and learning, ISSN 1877-1297, Vol. 10, nr 8, s. 1004-1012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: As a response to the shortage of prescriptionists in Northern Sweden, a web-based Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy program was introduced at Umea. University in 2003. This study explored who is likely to enrol and graduate from the web-based bachelor program and whether the program has addressed the shortage of prescriptionists in rural Northern Sweden.

    Methods: Data from three different sources were included in this study; the initial cohort including students admitted to the program in 2003 (survey), the entire cohort including all people admitted to the program between 2003 and 2014 (university's admissions data) and the alumni cohort including graduates who participated in an alumni survey in 2015.

    Results: A typical student of the web-based pharmacy program is female, over 30 years of age, married or in a de-facto relationship and has children. Furthermore, the students graduating before 2009 were more likely to live in Northern Sweden compared to those graduating later.

    Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that the introduction of a web-based bachelor of pharmacy program at Umea. University was to some extent able to address the shortage of prescriptionists in Northern Sweden. Web-based education may potentially help address the maldistribution of health professionals by providing flexible education opportunities.

  • 37.
    Norberg, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lindqvist, Marcia Håkansson
    Department of Education, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Older individuals’ experiences of medication management and care after discharge from hospital: an interview study2023Ingår i: Patient Preference and Adherence, E-ISSN 1177-889X, Vol. 17, s. 781-792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To develop an in-depth understanding of older individuals’ attitudes and perceptions of medication management and care after discharge from hospital-to-home.

    Patients and Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with selected individuals 75 years and older, discharged from hospital within the last 6–12 months, living at home, and managing their own medications. Face-to-face interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Results: Among the 15 respondents, mean age was 83.5 years (range 75–95 years), 67% were women, and 60% lived alone. The majority (80%) managed their medications with a pill organizer or directly from the pill boxes, while 20% used dose dispensed medications. The analysis of the data led to six themes: Medication adherence, Personal responsibility, Transitions of care, Beliefs about medications, Participation (experience of participation, willingness to participate) and Accessibility (easier to reach hospital than primary care, navigating in the care system, continuity, personal chemistry).

    Conclusion: The included respondents who were older individuals, living at home and managing their own medications, expressed that they were medical adherent and self-managing. Two important aspects which were seen were difficulties to reach primary care on their own initiative and the lack of continuity with the same physician over a longer period of time.

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  • 38.
    Norberg, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Self-reported medication adherence and pharmacy refill adherence among persons with ischemic stroke: a cross-sectional study2022Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 78, s. 869-877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe and compare self-reported medication adherence assessed with the 5-item version of Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5) and pharmacy refill adherence based on data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register (SPDR) among persons with ischemic stroke, and to investigate independent predictors associated with respective assessments.

    Methods: A study questionnaire was sent to persons with ischemic stroke registered in the Swedish Stroke Register between Dec 2011 and March 2012, and who lived at home 3 months after discharge. The primary outcome was dichotomized to adherent/non-adherent based on MARS-5 and SPDR and analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. Adherence according to MARS-5 was defined as score 23 or higher (out of 25). Adherence according to SPDR was defined as at least one filled statin prescription recorded in SPDR in each 6-month interval during 2 years of follow-up.

    Results: Of 420 participants, 367 (87%) and 329 (78%) were adherent according to MARS-5 and SPDR, respectively, and 294 (70%) participants were adherent according to both assessments. A significant association was shown between medication adherence according to the two assessments (p = 0.020). Independent predictors associated with medication adherence according to MARS-5 were female sex, while factors associated with SPDR were male sex and being younger.

    Conclusions: The majority of participants were classified as adherent, 87% according to MARS-5 and 78% based on data from SPDR. However, only 70% were adherent according to both MARS-5 and SPDR, and different predictors were associated with the different measurements, suggesting that these assessments are measuring different aspects of adherence.

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  • 39.
    Norberg, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Older Peoples' Adherence and Awareness of Changes in Drug Therapy after Discharge from Hospital2018Ingår i: Pharmacy, E-ISSN 2226-4787, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-adherence is important to address because it might affect the effectiveness of therapy and lead to adverse effects. The objectives of this interview study were to investigate old peoples' general adherence to drugs and their awareness of and adherence to changes in drug therapy after their hospital stay. Following ethical approval, 42 patients admitted to the medical ward were invited to participate in this study. Of these, 36 persons, with a mean age of 82.5 years, who were discharged to their home, were interviewed by telephone using the Medical Adherence Report Scale (MARS) to assess their general adherence to prescribed drugs. Questions regarding awareness and adherence to drug changes during their hospital stay were asked. Different factors related to adherence and non-adherence were investigated using the Pearson chi-square test and the independent sample t-test. The average MARS score was 23.9 +/- 1.4, with 31 persons (86%) assessed as adherent to their drug therapy and 5 persons (14%) as non-adherent. Of the 36 people, 30 had at least one change in their drug therapy during their hospital stay, and 23 (77%) of these people were aware of all changes and 23 (77%) were adherent to all of the changes. No significant differences between adherence and age, gender, living situation, or number of drugs were found. This small study found that some older people who were discharged from hospital were generally non-adherent, and some were not aware of or adherent to changes made in the drug therapy during their hospital stay. This is an important problem to address with further interventions.

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  • 40.
    Peterson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Characterization of drug-related problems and associated factors at a clinical pharmacist service-naïve hospital in northern Sweden2017Ingår i: Drugs - real world outcomes, ISSN 2199-1154, E-ISSN 2198-9788, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 97-107Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Polypharmacy and increased sensitivity to side effects cause adverse drug events, drug–drug interactions and medication errors in the elderly.

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and type of drug-related problems and associated factors among patients admitted to a clinical pharmacist service-naïve medical ward in an inland hospital in northern Sweden.

    Methods During September–November 2015 and February–April 2016, clinical pharmacists working as part of a ward team on the medical ward conducted 103 medication reviews. Drug-related problems were identified and classified. Associated factors, drug classes and specific drugs involved were also investigated.

    Results The clinical pharmacists identified 133 drug-related problems in 66% [68/103] of the study population. The most common drug-related problems in this study were inappropriate drug use and interactions. Cardiovascular drugs and psychotropic drugs were most commonly involved. Drug-related problems were more frequently observed at higher age, increasing number of drugs prescribed and in patients with reduced renal function. In the multivariate analysis, only the number of prescribed drugs was still significant.

    Conclusion Drug-related problems were commonly observed among patients admitted to the medical ward. Medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a ward team resulted in several interventions to improve the patients’ drug treatment.

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  • 41.
    Pfister, Bettina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Jonsson, Jeanette
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Drug-related problems and medicationreviews among old people with dementia2017Ingår i: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, E-ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 18, artikel-id 52Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drug-related problems, including medication errors and adverse drug events, are common among old people. Due to, for example, greater susceptibility to side effects, people with dementia are even more at risk of drug-related problems. The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence and character of drug-related problems found among old people with dementia or cognitive impairment. Methods: Data from a randomized controlled clinical trial exploring the effects of a pharmacist intervention as part of a hospital ward team in patients 65 years and older with dementia or cognitive impairment were used. The study was conducted between 2012 and 2014 in the orthopedic and medicine wards in two hospitals located in Northern Sweden. Drug-related problems identified in this patient group were classified and described, and associations with different factors were investigated. Results: Clinical pharmacists identified at least one DRP in 66% (140/212) of participants in the intervention group, for a total of 310 DRPs. Ineffective drug/inappropriate drug and unnecessary drug therapy were the most common drug-related problems. Discontinuation of drug therapy was the most common action carried out. Drug-related problems were more common among people prescribed a larger number of drugs and among people with an earlier stroke. Conclusions: Drug-related problems are common among people with dementia and cognitive impairment. Comprehensive medication reviews conducted by clinical pharmacists as part of a health care team might be important to prevent, identify and solve these problems.

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  • 42.
    Rangfast, Iris
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Sönnerstam, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications among old people with major neurocognitive disorder in 2012 and 20172022Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased risk of adverse drug reactions due to age-related altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is a challenge when prescribing medications to older people, and especially among older people with major neurocognitive disorder who are particularly sensitive to drug effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of potential inappropriate medications (PIMs) in 2012 and 2017 among old people with major neurocognitive disorder. A secondary aim was to investigate factors associated with PIM use.

    Methods: This register-study was based on the Swedish registry for cognitive/dementia disorders and the Swedish prescribed drug register. Criteria from the National Board of Health and Welfare were used to identify PIMs between 1 July–31 December 2012 and 1 July-–31 December 2017 among people ≥ 65 years. Drug use was defined as one or more filled prescriptions during each timeframe.

    Results: The total use of PIMs declined significantly between 2012 (28.7%) and 2017 (21.7%). All PIMs and PIM groups declined between these years, except for antipsychotic drugs, which increased from 11.6% to 12.3%. The results from the multiple regression model found that PIM use was associated with younger age (OR: 0.97 CI: 0.96–0.97), a lower Mini Mental State Examination score (OR: 0.99 CI: 0.99–1.00), the use of multi-dispensed drugs (OR: 2.05 CI: 1.93–2.18), and compared to Alzheimer’s disease, with the subtypes dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia (OR: 1.57 CI: 1.40–1.75), frontotemporal dementia (OR: 1.29 CI: 1.08–1.54) and vascular dementia (OR: 1.10 CI: 1.03–1.16).

    Conclusions: Overall, the use of PIMs decreased between the years 2012 and 2017. The increase of antipsychotic drugs and the association between PIM use and multi-dispensed drugs warrant concern.

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  • 43.
    Rankin, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Backman, Annica C.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Edvardsson, David
    School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia; Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Pharmacological treatment of pain in Swedish nursing homes: prevalence and associations with cognitive impairment and depressive mood2024Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 24, nr 1, artikel-id 20240007Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Chronic pain is highly prevalent in nursing home residents and often occurs with depression as well as cognitive impairment, which can severely influence and limit the expression of pain.

    Methods: The present cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the prevalence of pain, depressive mood, and cognitive impairment in association with pharmacological treatment against pain and depressive symptoms among Swedish nursing home residents.

    Results: We found an overall pain prevalence of 52.8%, a prevalence of 63.1% for being in a depressive mood, and a prevalence of cognitive impairment of 68.3%. Among individuals assessed to have depressive mood, 60.5% were also assessed to have pain. The prevalence of pharmacological treatment for pain was 77.5 and 54.1% for antidepressants. Prescription of pharmacological treatment against pain was associated with reports of currently having pain, and paracetamol was the most prescribed drug. A higher cognitive function was associated with more filled prescriptions of drugs for neuropathic pain, paracetamol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which could indicate an undertreatment of pain in those cognitively impaired.

    Conclusion: It is important to further explore the relationship between pain, depressive mood, and cognitive impairment in regard to pain management in nursing home residents.

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  • 44.
    Sjölander, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Gallego, Gisselle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi. Univ Notre Dame Australia, Sch Med, 160 Oxford St, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.
    Doctors' and nurses' perceptions of a ward-based pharmacist in rural northern Sweden2017Ingår i: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, ISSN 2210-7703, E-ISSN 2210-7711, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 953-959Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This project is part of the prospective quasi experimental proof-of-concept investigation of clinical pharmacist intervention study to reduce drug-related problems among people admitted to a ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Objective To explore doctors' and nurses' perceptions and expectations of having a ward-based pharmacist providing clinical pharmacy services. Setting Medical ward in a rural hospital in northern Sweden. Method Eighteen face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of doctors and nurses working on the ward where the clinical pharmacy service was due to be implemented. Semi-structured interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Main outcome measure Perceptions and expectations of nurses and doctors. Results Doctors and nurses had limited experience of working with pharmacists. Most had a vague idea of what pharmacists can contribute within a ward setting. Participants, mainly nurses, suggested inventory and drug distribution roles, but few were aware of the pharmacists' skills and clinical competence. Different views were expressed on whether the new clinical pharmacy service would have an impact on workload. However, most participants took a positive view of having a ward-based pharmacist. Conclusion This study provided an opportunity to explore doctors' and nurses' expectations of the role of clinical pharmacists before a clinical pharmacy service was implemented. To successfully implement a clinical pharmacy service, roles, clinical competence and responsibilities should be clearly described. Furthermore, it is important to focus on collaborative working relationships between doctors, nurses and pharmacists.

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  • 45.
    Sjölander, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Pfister, Bettina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Jonsson, Jeanette
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Schneede, Jörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Impact of clinical pharmacist engagement in ward teams on the number of drug-related readmissions among Swedish older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment: an economic evaluation2019Ingår i: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, ISSN 1551-7411, E-ISSN 1934-8150, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 287-291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Clinical pharmacists play an increasing role in the pharmacological treatment of hospital-admitted older patients with dementia or cognitive impairment. In an earlier randomised controlled trial, clinical pharmacist involvement in the ward team could significantly reduce drug-related readmissions in patient subgroups. However, the economic impact of the intervention has not been addressed so far.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of clinical pharmacist engagement in hospital ward teams for medication therapy management in older patients with dementia or cognitive impairments.

    METHODS: Economic evaluation of a randomised controlled trial conducted in two hospitals in Northern Sweden between January 2012 and December 2014. Participants included 460 hospital-admitted older patients with dementia or cognitive impairments. Patients were randomly assigned to usual care, or usual care with pharmacist intervention; the intervention consisted of medication reconciliation, medication review, and participation in ward rounds. The outcomes were measured as drug-related readmissions to hospital as assessed by a group of external experts, 180 and 30 days after discharge. Costs included pharmacists' direct labour costs for the interventions, average costs for drug-related readmissions, and from this the total cost per person was calculated.

    RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on drug-related readmissions within 180 days was significant in patients without heart failure (subgroup analysis), and the intervention resulted in cost savings of €950 per person in this subgroup. Drug-related readmissions within 30 days were reduced in the total sample (post-hoc analysis), and the cost-savings in this intervention group were €460 per person.

    CONCLUSIONS: Post-hoc and subgroup analyses indicate that engagement of pharmacists in hospital ward teams reduced the number of drug-related readmissions, and that the cost per person was lower in the intervention group compared to the control group. Including clinical pharmacists created savings in the subgroups of older patients with dementia or cognitive impairments.

  • 46.
    Skottheim, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Insomnia symptoms among old people in nursing homes2018Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 30, s. 77-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Insomnia symptoms are common among old people, and hypnotics and sedative drugs are often prescribed in spite of small benefits. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and to analyze the association between insomnia symptoms, cognitive level, and prescription of hypnotics and sedatives among old people living in nursing homes.

    METHODS: The study comprised 2,135 people living in nursing homes in the county of Västerbotten, Sweden. Data concerning hypnotic and sedative drugs, cognitive function, and prevalence of insomnia symptoms were collected, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS).

    RESULTS: The three most common insomnia symptoms were "sleeps for long periods during the day," "interrupted night-time sleep," and "wakes up early in the morning" with 57.8%, 56.4%, and 48.0%, respectively, of the residents exhibiting the symptoms at least once a week. Different insomnia symptoms showed different association patterns with sex and age. Most insomnia symptoms were more common among people with cognitive impairment compared to those with no cognitive impairment and seemed to reach their peak prevalence in people with moderate to severe cognitive impairment, subsequently decreasing with further cognitive decline. Of the study population, 24.0% were prescribed hypnotics and sedatives. Prescriptions were more common among those without cognitive impairment, and among those exhibiting the symptom "difficulty initiating sleep."

    CONCLUSIONS: Insomnia symptoms and prescription of hypnotics and sedatives are common among old people living in nursing homes. Considering the risk of adverse effects, it is important to regularly re-evaluate the need for these drugs.

  • 47.
    Svahn, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Isaksson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sandman, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Cardiovascular drug use among people with cognitive impairment living in nursing homes in northern Sweden2020Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 76, nr 4, s. 525-537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe changes in the pattern of cardiovascular agents used in elderly people living in nursing homes between 2007 and 2013. Further, the aim was to analyse the use of cardiovascular drugs in relation to cognitive impairment and associated factors within the same population, where prescription of loop diuretics was used as a proxy for heart failure.

    Methods: Two questionnaire surveys were performed including 2494 people in 2007 and 1654 people in 2013 living in nursing homes in northern Sweden. Data were collected concerning drug use, functioning in activities of daily living (ADL) and cognition, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The use of different drugs and drug classes among people at four different levels of cognitive function in 2007 and 2013 were compared.

    Results: The proportion of people prescribed ASA and diuretics was significantly lower at all four levels of cognitive function in 2013 compared to 2007. Among people prescribed loop diuretics, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs) increased from 37.8 to 45.6%, β-blockers from 36.0 to 41.8% and warfarin from 4.4 to 11.4%. The use of warfarin, ACEI/ARBs, β-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) were less common among individuals with more severe cognitive impairment.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular drug treatment has improved between 2007 and 2013, but there is room for further improvement, especially regarding adherence to guidelines for heart failure. Increasing cognitive impairment had an effect on treatment patterns for heart failure and atrial fibrillation.

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  • 48.
    Sönnerstam, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Potentially inappropriate medications in relation to length of nursing home stay among older adults2022Ingår i: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikel-id 70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relation to the length of nursing home stay among older adults.

    Methods: Questionnaire surveys using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment scale were sent out to all nursing homes in Västerbotten county in northern Sweden in 2007 and 2013. In total, 3186 adults (1881 from 2007 and 1305 from 2013) ≥65 years old were included and 71.8% of those had cognitive impairment. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified using drug-specific quality indicators according to Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.

    Results: Potentially inappropriate medications were used by 48.0% of the 2007 study sample and by 28.4% of the 2013 study sample. The prevalence of glibenclamide use 2007 and antipsychotic drug use 2013 increased linearly (β = 0.534E− 3, 95% CI: 0.040E− 3-0.103E− 2, p = 0.034 and β = 0.155E− 2, 95% CI: 0.229E− 3-0.288E− 2, p = 0.022, respectively) with the length of nursing home stay. No significant association was found between the prevalence of propiomazine, codeine, long-acting benzodiazepines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, tramadol or the total use of potentially inappropriate medications and the length of stay in nursing homes in 2007 or 2013. Antipsychotics were the most commonly prescribed of the drug classes investigated and used by 22.6% of the residents 2007 and by 16.0% of the residents 2013.

    Conclusions: These results indicate that treatment with potentially inappropriate medications is common among older adults living in nursing homes, but it seems to be related to the length of nursing home stay only to a smaller extent. Drug treatment should regularly be reviewed and followed-up among nursing home residents regardless of their length of nursing home stay, in order to prevent unnecessary adverse events.

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  • 49.
    Sönnerstam, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Potentially inappropriate medications pre and post-diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorders among older people in Sweden - A register-based, six-year longitudinal studyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Sönnerstam, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM).
    Sjölander, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Potentially Inappropriate Medications Pre- and Post-Diagnosis of Major Neurocognitive Disorders Among Older People in Sweden: A Register-Based, 6-Year Longitudinal Study2022Ingår i: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 39, nr 7, s. 573-585Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate how potentially inappropriate medication usage and anti-dementia drug use change from 3 years prior to, up until 3 years post-diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorders among older people living in Sweden. Methods: People registered in the Swedish registry for cognitive/dementia disorders from 1 July, 2008 to 31 December, 2017, and aged 68 years or older at diagnosis, were included (n = 67,226). Data were combined with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry to obtain information about drugs collected in 6-month periods at Swedish pharmacies from 3 years pre-diagnosis until 3 years post-diagnosis. Potentially inappropriate medications were identified according to Swedish national guidelines. A generalised estimating equation regression model and estimated marginal means were used. Results: Of the 67,226 people included in the study population, 59.2% were women and the mean age ± standard deviation was 81.5 ± 6.4 years, 47.0% lived together with a spouse or partner, and 88.9% were living at home at the time of diagnosis. The proportions of people using potentially inappropriate medications continuously decreased pre- and post-diagnosis, except for antipsychotic drug use, which continuously increased both pre- and post-diagnosis. Moreover, anticholinergic drug use increased pre-diagnosis and declined post-diagnosis. When comparing the periods pre- and post-diagnosis date, the adjusted proportion of people using potentially inappropriate medications was significantly lower post-diagnosis compared with pre-diagnosis, except for the adjusted proportion using antipsychotics, which was significantly higher post-diagnosis, 10.6%, compared with the period before, 3.1% (adjusted odds ratio 3.71; 95% confidence interval 3.59–3.83). The adjusted proportion of people using anticholinergic drugs was significantly lower post-diagnosis, 7.2%, compared with the pre-diagnosis period, 8.9% (adjusted odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.78–0.82). Anti-dementia drug use was significantly higher post-diagnosis, 52.6%, when compared with the pre-diagnosis period, 3.5% (adjusted odds ratio 30.13; 95% confidence interval 29.19–31.10). Conclusions: Overall, the prevalence of people using potentially inappropriate medications decreased and was significantly lower post-diagnosis of major neurocognitive disorders, except for antipsychotics. This indicates that potentially inappropriate medication use should be noticed and reviewed among all older people. The small decrease in the prevalence of anticholinergic drug users and the increasing proportions of people using antipsychotic drugs post-diagnosis are of special concern because of the adverse drug reactions associated with these types of potentially inappropriate medications. Consequently, it is important to identify and regularly question anticholinergic and antipsychotic drug treatment to prevent unnecessary and serious adverse drug reactions among a vulnerable group of people.

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