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  • 1. Ballesteros, S.
    et al.
    Peter, C.
    Waterworth, Eva L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The role of ICT and networking in healthy ageing2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, ACM Digital Library, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the results from the psychologicalassessment conducted using a test battery composed of cognitiveand social wellbeing tests and questionnaires performed by usersand controls that participated in the AGNES project in Spain,Sweden and Greece at the beginning of the study and after thedeployment of the first prototype. The project carries out noveltechnological interventions in an emerging area in ageingresearch. The main innovation is the integration of differenttechnological components and social networking to provide anovel solution to the ageing population living at home. Themotivation was based on relevant findings on the psychology ofageing and the need for technologies to support the ageingpopulation. End-users have been heavily involved, providingdesign input, continuum evaluation and feedback. Theprojectfocuses on improving the mental and physical wellbeing ofelderly people living at home, who often suffer the effects ofsocial and physical isolation including cognitive decline, lowactivity levels and poor mood states. The main results were thatthe users but not the control participants improved cognitiveperformance andthe feeling of being treated with respect, beingindependent, self-realization and greater achievement.

  • 2. Ballesteros, S.
    et al.
    Toril, P.
    Mayas, J.
    Reales, J.M.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The Role of a New ICT Home Environment in Healthy Ageing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to prevent and/or delay cognitive decline, and help maintain the independence and wellbeing of elders by using a web-based social network platform, enhanced with devices to detect users´ states and collect activity data. The idea is that an active lifestyle rich in social interactions, active engagement and mental training with videogames may mitigate age-related decline and reduce healthcare costs. The innovative applications and the videogame training approach developed in the study could have wide application for a large number of European older adults living alone. The effectiveness of the ICT solution is being assessed throughout the project with user and control groups in Spain, Sweden and Greece. User interviews, extensive psychological testing and on-going cognitive and fMRI experiments are being conducted.. The results have shown so far that the users improved in cognitive performance compared to controls on the MMSE. Well-being assessed with the SPF-IL Scale also showed an improvement in the Status dimension of the users. This dimension assesses the feeling of being independent, self-realization and achievement. Exploring new ways to maintain the cognitive and functional state of older users is today a critical issue, for individuals, for families, and for whole societies. The study has shown the positive potential of new interactive technologies to maintain mental health and independent living in the elderly. Computer technology and cognitive training can increase social integration and provide mental stimulation for older adults living alone.

  • 3. Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Mayas, Julia
    Prieto, Antonio
    Toril, Pilar
    Pita, Carmen
    Ponce de Leon, Laura
    Reales, Jose
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: results of the 3-month follow-up2015In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 7, article id UNSP 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616)investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video gametraining sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several agedecliningcognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contactperiod. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the posttraining(posttest) and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who receivedtraining and the control group who attended several meetings with the research teamduring the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline ondemographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions) in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attentionand spatial memory become nonsignificant after the 3-month interval. Training olderadults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training butthis effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticitycan be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

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  • 4.
    Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Prieto, Antonio
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Mayes, Julia
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Toril, Pilar
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Pita, Carmen
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Ponce de León, Laura
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Reales, José
    Studies on Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Department of Basic Psychology II, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial2014In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 6, article id 277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended two meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

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  • 5. Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Sebastian, M.
    Toril, P.
    Mayas, J.
    Reales, J.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Cognitive enrichment effects in aging: Can new information technology and networking preserve and enhance cognitive functions and wellbeing of older adults?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Ballesteros, Soledad
    et al.
    Toril, Pilar
    Mayas, Julia
    Reales, José M.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    An ICT-mediated social network in support of successful ageing2014In: Gerontechnology, ISSN 1569-1101, E-ISSN 1569-111X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The idea is that an active lifestyle rich in social interactions and active engagement may mitigate age-related decline and reduce healthcare costs. The main aim of the AGNES project was to investigate the potential of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) environments to help maintain the independence and wellbeing of elders. The innovative applications developed in this research project could have wide application for a large number of older adults living alone.  Method We used a web-based social network platform, enhanced with devices to detect users´ states and collect activity data. The effectiveness of the ICT-based solution was assessed throughout the project with user and control groups in Spain, Sweden and Greece. User interviews and psychological testing were conducted at the beginning of the project and after a year of deployment of the equipment. Both groups completed the same assessment protocol. Results & discussion We found that only the user group showed an improvement from pretest to posttest in the affective dimension of the wellbeing SPF-IL scale. This dimension relates to the degree of confidence, social acceptance, and level of satisfaction with the people around them. Exploring new ways to maintain the cognitive and functional state of older users is today a critical issue, for individuals, their families, and for whole societies. The study suggests the potential of AGNES to improve older adults’ perceived wellbeing. However, more research may be needed to determine if AGNES is a tool to maintain mental health and independent living in older adults, especially those with MCI.

  • 7. Carús, Juan Luis
    et al.
    García, Sonia
    García, Rodrigo
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Erdt, Stefanie
    The ELF@Home project: elderly sELF-care based on sELF-check of health conditions and sELF-fitness at home2014In: Proceedings of pHealth 2014: 11th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health (pHealth), Vienna: IOS Press, 2014, p. 164-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ELF@Home project is a research and innovation project running from June 1st 2013 to May 31st 2016 and co-funded by the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme (AAL JP) and National Authorities in Spain, Sweden and Germany. The ELF@Home project relies in the use of the proven advantages of elderly fitness to develop a self-care solution based on self-check of health conditions and self-fitness at home. The project uses information and communication technologies (ICT) to build an autonomous fitness system targeting healthy or pre-frail elder people aged over 65 and living independently at home.

  • 8. Chignell, Mark
    et al.
    Hosono, Naotsune
    Fels, Deborah
    Lottridge, Danielle
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Responsive interfaces: Mobility, emotion and universality2009In: Interact 2009: Research & Practice, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Danielsson, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Mulvenna, Maurice
    Computer Science, Ulster University.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Digital technology in healthcare and elderly care2017In: ECCE 2017: proceedings of the European conference on cognitive ergonomics 2017, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 188-190Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this ECCE 2017 panel is on digital technology in healthcare and elderly care. The discussion concerns the design of technology and the use of technology for health. 

  • 10.
    Fallman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Fällman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Jalkanen, Kalle
    Lörstad, Henrik
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Westling, Jonas
    The Reality Helmet: A Wearable Interactive Experience2003In: Proceedings of Siggraph 2003: Sketches & Applications, San Diego, CA, July 27-31, New York: ACM Press , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Fällman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    Waterworth, J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    Dealing with User Experience and Affective Evaluation in HCI Design: A Repertory Grid Approach2005In: CHI 2005: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fällman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Capturing user experiences of mobile information technology with the repertory grid technique2010In: Human Technology, E-ISSN 1795-6889, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 250-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the application of the repertory grid technique (RGT) as a tool for capturing the user experience of technological artifacts. In noting the artificiality of assessing the emotional impact of interactive artifacts in isolation from cognitive judgments, we argue that HCI techniques must provide practical solutions regarding how to assess the holistic meaning of users’ interactive experiences. RGT is a candidate for this role. This paper takes the reader step by step through setting up, conducting, and analyzing a RGT study. RGT is a technique on the border between qualitative and quantitative research, unique in that it respects the wholeness of cognition and does not separate the intellectual from the emotional aspects of the user experience. Compared to existing methods in HCI, RGT has the advantage of treating experiences holistically, while also providing a degree of quantitative precision and generalizability in their capture.

  • 14. Helgason, I.
    et al.
    Smyth, M.
    McCall, R.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The body and the urban space2009In: European Future Technologies Conference: Science beyond fiction. Prague, 21-23 April, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hoshi, Kei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Pesola, Ulla-Maija
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, Eva Lindh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Tools, Perspectives and Avatars in Blended Reality Space2009In: Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine 2009: Advanced Technologies in the Behavioral, Social and Neurosciences / [ed] Brenda K Wiederhold and Giuseppe Riva, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2009, p. 91-95Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blended Reality Space is our term for an interactive mixed-reality environment where the physical and the virtual are intimately combined ill the service of interaction goals and communication environments aimed at health support and rehabilitation. The present study examines the effect on rated presence and self-presence of three key factors in the way blended realities may be implemented for these purposes. Our findings emphasize the importance of tangibility for presence, but suggest that presence and self-presence are unrelated phenomena. These findings will be incorporated into design principles for our planned work to develop free movement-based interactions for motor rehabilitation as well as blended-reality spaces for collaboration between hospitals, care organizations, and the home.

  • 16. Hoshi, Kei
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Ambient Interaction Design in a Primitive Society2020In: Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions: 8th International Conference, DAPI 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Norbert Streitz, Shin'ichi Konomi, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 58-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambience is about the meaning of silence that cannot be expressed in words, and ambient interaction is about the perception of it. The present paper discusses three critical and fundamental aspects in the way ambient environments can be meaningfully designed in modern information society; 1) how design can merge that which is difficult to externalize together with that which is easy to externalize, and does so in a fulfilling way; 2) what is the most effective method for arriving at a mythological conclusion that could resolve the conflict between the many opposing forces at play?; and 3) what is "emptiness" based on eastern philosophy perspective, and how it can be applied to designing ambient environment? We shed light on how our thinking of design and information-based society should adapt moving forward by using universal thinking and human consciousness in a new, "primitive" coexistence with modern information technology.

  • 17.
    Hoshi, Kei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Effective collaboration for healthcare by bridging the reality gap across media-physical spaces2008In: PETRA: 1st International Conference on Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments,: Athens, July 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Hoshi, Kei
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Primitive interaction design2020Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction design is acknowledged as an important area of study, and more especially of design practice. Hugely popular and profitable consumer devices, such as mobile phones and tablets, are seen as owing much of their success to the way they have been designed, not least their interface characteristics and the styles of interaction that they support. Interaction design studies point to the importance of a user-centred approach, whereby products are in principle designed around their future users' needs and capacities. However, it is the market, and marketing, that determine which products are available for people to interact with and to a great extent what their designed characteristics are.

    Primitive Interaction Design is based on the realisation that designers need to be freed from the marketplace and industry pressure, and that the usual user-centred arguments are not enough to make a practical difference. Interaction designers are invited to cast themselves as "savages", as if wielding primitive tools in concrete physical environments. A theoretical perspective is presented that opens up new possibilities for designers to explore fresh ideas and practices, including the importance of conscious and unconscious being, emptiness and trickery. Building on this, a set of design tools for primitive design work is presented and illustrated with practical examples.

    This book will be of particular interest to undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in interaction design and HCI, as well as practicing interaction designers and computer professions. It will also appeal to those with an interest in psychology, anthropology, cultural studies, design and the future of technology in society.

  • 19.
    Hoshi, Kei
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Tangible presence in blended reality space2009In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Workshop on Presence, 2009, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss issues relating to presence arising from the recent evolution of tangible interaction techniques as an alternative interaction paradigm to the familiar WIMP-based Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs). The intersection of sensory, cognitive and also emotional aspects in such interfaces takes us a significant step further than GUI techniques. We introduce our concept of Tangible Presence in Blended Reality Space, and its study as an emerging weaving of HCI and presence research. An experimental study is then described, which examined the influence of three key factors in the way blended realities may be implemented: tangibility, viewpoint and avatar identity. The study examined the effect of manipulations of these factors on rated presence and self-presence. Our findings emphasize the importance of tangibility for presence, but suggest that presence and self-presence are unrelated phenomena. Finally, as critical concerns in future work to design and implement blended reality spaces for a variety of purposes, context sensitivity and usability issues are discussed.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Ingvar, Tjostheim
    et al.
    Hauge School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Tomorrow’s digital travellers – who are they?2023In: Advances in tourism, technology and systems: selected papers from ICOTTS 2022, volume 1 / [ed] João Vidal Carvalho; António Abreu; Pedro Liberato; Alejandro Peña, 2023, p. 381-391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The covid-19 pandemic, and the restrictions on physical meetings and travel that came with it, have had an impact on how people think about travel and digital alternatives to physical travel. In this study, we asked what the characteristics of tomorrow’s digital travellers might be. 100 members of survey panels were invited to give their views on digital travel applications and digital travel experiences. We used binary logistics to analyse the data that contained both demographics and personal characteristics of the travellers. We distinguish between two groups: the travellers with a positive view of digital travel vs. the travellers who did not share this view. The positive-to-digital travellers were those that stated that a digital travel experience could be similar to the physical experience or that it can substitute for a visit to a tourist destination. The analysis showed that two individual characteristics were more common among those positive to digital travel: optimism, as measured with the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and resistance to peer influence, measured with the Steinberger and Monahan RPI questionnaire.

  • 21.
    Lindh Waterworth, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Augustsson, Nils-Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Game of memories2004In: Proceedings of WWCS: 7th International Conference on Work with Computing Systems, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Mannapperuma, Chanaka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Designing Usable Bioinformatics Tools for Specialized Users2019In: Information Technology and Systems: Proceedings of ICITS 2019 / [ed] Rocha Á., Ferrás C., Paredes M., Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 649-670Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization - the process of interpreting data into visual forms - is increasingly important in science as data grows rapidly in volume and complexity. A common challenge faced by many biologists is how to benefit from this data deluge without being overwhelmed by it. Here, our main interest is in the visualization of genomes, sequence alignments, phylogenies and systems biology data. Bringing together new technologies, including design theory, and applying them into the above three areas in biology will improve the usability and user interaction.

    The main goal of this paper is to apply design principles to make bioinformatics resources, evaluate them using different usability methods, and provide recommended steps to design usable tools.

  • 23.
    Mannapperuma, Chanaka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    GenIE-Sys: Genome Integrative Explorer SystemManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are an ever-increasing number of genomes being sequenced, many of which have associated RNA sequencing and other genomics data. The availability of user-friendly web-accessible mining tools ensures that these data repositories provide maximum benefit to the community. However, there are relatively few options available for setting up such standalone frameworks. We developed the Genome Integrative Explorer System (GenIE-Sys) to set up web resources to enable search, visualization and exploration of genomics data typically generated by a genome project.

    GenIE-Sys is implemented in PHP, JavaScript and Python and is freely available under the GNU GPL 3 public license. All source code is freely available at the GenIE-Sys website (https://geniesys.org) or GitHub (http://github.com/plantgenie/geniesys.git). Documentation is available at http://geniesys.readthedocs.io.

  • 24. Moller, Henry
    et al.
    Chignell, Mark
    Kandylis, Demi
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Using the Senses to Make sense: From Aesthetics to Ethics2018In: Presence 2018: Panels / [ed] Mattthew Lombard et al., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immersive multimodal media increasingly offer virtually realistic experiences, which can be harnessed for a wide variety of industrial, medical/psychological and recreational purposes. With special attention to notions of “reality” being a perceived and experienced world informed by our senses and actions across the lifespan, we review the fundamental scientific evolution of this multidisciplinary field. Using neuroscientific principles, in this panel we debate inherent value added and challenges of differing paradigms to consider in future health-care and educational endeavours.

  • 25.
    Moller, Henry J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; PRAXIS Holistic Health, Toronto, Canada; Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Music and Health Research Collaboratory, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Saynor, Lee
    PRAXIS Holistic Health, Toronto, Canada.
    Chignell, Mark
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nature and Nurturance across the ages: modest means for modern times2020In: Interactivity, game creation, design, learning, and innovation: 8th EAI international conference, ArtsIT 2019, and 4th EAI international conference, DLI 2019, Aalborg, Denmark, November 6–8, 2019, proceedings / [ed] Anthony Brooks; Eva Irene Brooks, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 539-558Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to leisure and wellbeing can be difficult to arrive at due to constraints in health, income, location and time. With shifting demographics ( inversion of the aging pyramid) and increasing urbanization, there is an increasingly urgent need to improve access to leisure activities, particularly for those living in crowded cities or who have limited mobility.

    We propose the use of 3D capture of majestic nature scenes and their display in a therapeutic context, as an affordable way to enhance well-being and to provide care to those lacking adequate access to leisure and wellbeing. Our approach to the application of VR-based nature therapy involves immersive media interfaces employing either contemplative (mindfulness-based stress reaction - MBSR) or active (mind/body based behavioural activation) approaches, both using environmental cues salient to end-users and developed within an inclusive design paradigm. The end goal is to employ immersive virtual reality and suitably designed human-machine interfaces to allow individuals of varying ages, means and abilities to continue to enjoy an optimal level of presence and engagement in the real world to preserve quality (and perhaps quantity) of life.

  • 26. Moller, Henry
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Chignell, Mark
    Returning to Nature: VR Mediated States of Enhanced Wellness2020In: Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions: 8th International Conference, DAPI 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Streitz, Norbert; Konomi, Shin'ichi, Springer, 2020, p. 593-609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A visit to a place of natural beauty is known to have restorative potential. Immersing oneself in nature - relaxing, contemplating, meditating, walking and so on – can help improve one’s mental and physical wellbeing. Suitably designed VR can encourage beneficial meditative states as well as healthy physical activities. We see fully immersive forms of VR as a form of “synthetic consciousness” that is a modern addition to the three clearly established classic states of consciousness: wakefulness, dreamless, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Certain therapeutic and self-care mental health therapies such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation can assist individuals to achieve relative peace of mind. We describe the development of aesthetically-appealing VR programs that were designed to induce mental states of equanimity, hopefulness and child-like wonder, referring back to historical aspects of art and design. We also report work where VR was used to embed actions required for exercise within a meaningful experience with the exercise itself, and the associated effort, becomes secondary in the mind of the participant to the flow, and narrative logic, of the interaction being performed. To increase the “stickiness” or attractiveness of our VR approach to exercise we also introduce the idea of rewards for exercise carried out correctly. User groups of “healthy normal” adults, mental health patients with clinically significant anxiety, and frail elderly at risk of institutionalization have provided helpful and generally positive feedback.

  • 27. Peter, Christian
    et al.
    Kreiner, Andreas
    Schröter, Martin
    Bieber, Gerald
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The AGNES System for Ambient Social Interaction2012In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, ACM Digital Library, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the AGNES system, a technology for connecting people at home with their social network be means of off-the-shelf sensing devices and an Internet-based social network. The system provides the user with relevant information of the network by use of traditional information and communication technology as well as dedicated ambient and tangible devices. We describe briefly the requirements on such technology that were elaborated in the frame of the AGNES project, and give an overview of the system developed.

  • 28.
    Peter, Christian
    et al.
    Graz University ofTechnology, Inffeldgasse 16c, 8010 Graz, Austria.
    Kreiner, Andreas
    Modernfamilies.net GmbH, Linz, Austria.
    Schröter, Martin
    Graz University ofTechnology, Inffeldgasse 16c, 8010 Graz, Austria.
    Kim, Hyosun
    Graz University ofTechnology, Inffeldgasse 16c, 8010 Graz, Austria.
    Beiber, Gerald
    Fraunhofer IGD, Rostock, Germany.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hoshi, Kei
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Ballesteros, Soladad
    Facultad de Psicologia, UNED, Madrid, Spain.
    AGNES: connecting people in a multimodal way2013In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, ISSN 1783-7677, E-ISSN 1783-8738, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 229-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western societies are confronted with a number of challenges caused by the increasing number of older citizens. One important aspect is the need and wish of older people to live as long as possible in their own home and maintain an independent life. As people grew older, their social networks disperse, with friends and families moving to other parts of town, other cities or even countries. Additionally, people become less mobile with age, leading to less active participation in societal life. Combined, this normal, age-related development leads to increased loneliness and social isolation of older people, with negative effects on mental and physical health of those people. In the AGNES project, a home-based system has been developed that allows connecting elderly with their families, friends and other significant people over the Internet. As most older people have limited experience with computers and often special requirements on technology, one focus of AGNES was to develop with the users novel technological means for interacting with their social network. The resulting system uses ambient displays, tangible interfaces and wearable devices providing ubiquitous options for interaction with the network, and secondary sensors for additionally generating carefully chosen information on the person to be relayed to significant persons. Evaluations show that the chosen modalities for interaction are well adopted by the users. Further it was found that use of the AGNES system had positive effects on the mental state of the users, compared to the control group without the technology.

  • 29. Peter, Christian
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Lindh Waterworth, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Voskamp, Jörg
    Sensing Mood to Counteract Dementia2007In: International Workshop on Pervasive Technologies for the support of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30. Preziosa, A
    et al.
    Grassi, A
    Villani, D
    Mantovani, F
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    Freeman, J
    Riva, G
    Mobile Narratives to Improve the Quality of Life: An Experimental Research2005In: CyberTherapy 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Rahimi, Somaye
    et al.
    Umeå University. Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.
    Khorasani, Abasalt
    Rezaeizadeh, Morteza
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The virtual human resource development (VHRD) approach: an integrative literature review2022In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, E-ISSN 2046-9020, Vol. 46, no 5/6, p. 484-503Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Given the growing popularity of virtual human resources development (VHRD) in organizations and among human resource development (HRD) professionals, it is highly essential to deeply examine the nature and scope of the affective dimensions of the VHRD approach. Over the past decade, VHRD has become an important part of the HRD process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The present study used an integrative literature review to investigate the nature of VHRD in the literature, present a descriptive analysis of the literature and categorize the existing VHRD research.

    Findings: The results indicated three major themes, namely, VHRD and socialization, VHRD and learning and VHRD and the psychological characteristics of the work environment. In addition, a new conceptual model was developed based on the findings.

    Research limitations/implications: This study has reviewed the main concepts of VHRD. The potential actions which HRD researchers can take to address the identified challenges are discussed.

    Originality/value: This integrative literature review could provide a roadmap for future research. Based on this model, the VHRD position is within the organizational context and different tools and processes in constant interaction are introduced. Finally, a general view of the VHRD approach was provided, which can help human resources experts deal with a wide range of technologies in the organization.

  • 32. Riva, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Mantovani, Fabiizia
    Lindh Waterworth, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Intention, action, self and other: an evolutionary model of presence2015In: Immersed in media: telepresence theory, measurement & technology / [ed] Matthew Lombard, Frank Biocca, Jonathan Freeman, Wijnand IJsselsteijn, Rachel J. Schaevitz, New York: Springer, 2015, p. 73-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The term "presence" entered in the wide scientific debate in 1992 when Sheridan and Furness used it in the title of a new journal dedicated to the study of virtual reality systems and teleoperations: Presence, Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. Following this approach, the term "presence" has been used to describe a widely re-ported sensation experienced during the use of virtual reality. The main limitation of this vision is what is not said. What is presence for? Is it a specific cognitive process? To answer to these questions, a second group of researchers considers presence as a broad psychological phenomenon, not necessarily linked to the experience of a medium, whose goal is the control of the individual and social activity. In this chapter we support this second vision, starting from the following broad statements: (a) the psychology of presence is related to human action and its organization in the environment; (b) the psychology of presence is related to the body and to the embodiment process; (c) presence is an evolved process related to the understanding and management of the causal texture of both the physical and social worlds. In the following paragraphs we will justify these claims and underline their relevance for the design and usage of interactive technologies.

  • 33. Riva, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Being Present in a Virtual World2013In: The Oxford handbook of virtuality / [ed] Mark Grimshaw, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 205-221Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the concept of presence in a virtual world. It discusses recent findings of cognitive sciences research to offer a broader definition of presence. It suggests that presence is not the same as consciousness and discusses the three critical features of presence that cannot be explained by other cognitive processes. These include the ability of presence to allow the evolution of the self through the incorporation of tools and the role of presence in providing feedback to the self about the status of its activity. This chapter also explains that presence is an intuitive process.

  • 34. Riva, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Murray, Dianne
    Interacting with Presence: HCI and the sense of presence in computer-mediated environments2014 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our experience of using and interacting with the newest computer information technologies is profoundly affected by the extent to which we feel ourselves to be really ‘present’ in the computer-mediated world that the technology makes available to us. This feeling, which is described as 'Presence’, is the “feeling of being inside the mediated world”. It is a crucial and increasingly necessary element in both design and usage of many recent and developing interactive technologies. In the same way that ‘feeling present’, or consciously ‘being there’, in the physical world around us is based upon perception, physical action and activity in that world, so the feeling of presence in a technologically-mediated environment is a function of the possibilities for interaction. Unlike the physical world, the extent to which presence is experienced in an interactive context can be manipulated by design. For example, by linking the display of appropriate information directly to movements of the body of the interacting person, the illusion of flying, or swimming underwater, or walking in a wide variety or seemingly-real places – all actually generated by the technology. Interacting with Presence provides an introduction and overview of the increasingly important topic of mediated presence or tele-presence – which is the compelling illusion of being physically located in a computer-generated or augmented world. This timely edited volume presents a range of theoretic perspectives and empirical evidence casting new light on understanding and designing for presence in interaction. Because of its experiential impact on the user, presence is emerging as a key concept for understanding and predicting developments in diverse areas such as interactive entertainment, gaming, psychotherapy, education, scientific visualization, sports training and rehabilitation, and many more.

  • 35. Riva, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Murray, Dianne
    Introduction: editor's introduction to interacting with presence2014In: Interacting with presence: HCI and the sense of presence in computer-mediated environments / [ed] Riva, G., Waterworth, J. A. & Murray, D., Warsaw: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume arose from a longstanding conviction that our subjective experienceof information technology is profoundly affected by the extent to which we feelourselves to be really present in the mediated worlds that the technology makesavailable to us. ‘Presence’ is just this “feeling of being inside the mediated world”.It is a crucial and increasingly necessary element in both design and usage ofmany recent and developing interactive technologies. In the same way that ‘feelingpresent’, or consciously ‘being there’, in the physical world around us is based uponperception, physical action and activity in that world, so the feeling of presencein a technologically-mediated environment is a function of the possibilities forinteraction.

  • 36.
    Riva, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Interactive Communication and Ergonomics of NEw Technologies Laboratory, Catholic University of Milan, Italy; Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Murray, Dianne
    Introduction: Editors' introduction to interacting with presence2014In: Interacting with presence: HCI and the sense of presence in computer-mediated environments, De Gruyter Open, 2014, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 37.
    Riva, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab. – ATN-P Lab., Istituto Auxologico Italiano, I-20149, Milan, Italy.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mantovani, Fabrizia
    From intention to action: the role of presence2011In: New ideas in psychology, ISSN 0732-118X, E-ISSN 1873-3522, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 24-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research in neuroscience has tried to understand human action from two different but converging perspectives: the cognitive and the volitional. On one side, cognitive studies analyze how action is planned and controlled in response to environmental conditions. On the other side, volitional studies analyze how action is planned and controlled by a subject's needs, motives and goals. In this paper we suggest that the notion of presence may be the missing link between these two approaches, explaining how can we differentiate between perception, action and concepts.

    In particular, a consideration of presence can explain how can we distinguish between a perceived action, a planned or an executed one. We argue that the evolutionary role of presence is the control of agency through the unconscious separation of “internal” and “external” and the enaction/reenaction of intentions.

    The model makes sense in terms of evolutionary psychology and is beginning to be supported by evidence of the neural and other physical correlates of action, imitation and self-monitoring. Another strength of this model is that it provides testable predictions about how to improve the experience of presence in media: maximal presence in a mediated experience arises from an optimal combination of form and content, able to support the intentions of the user.

  • 38.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Norsk Regnesentral, Oslo, Norway.
    Leister, Wolfgang
    Waterworth, John A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Telepresence and the role of the senses2019In: On the Cognitive, Ethical and Scientific Dimensions of Artificial Intelligence: Themes from IACAP 2016 / [ed] Don Berkich; Matteo Vincenzo d'Alfonso, Springer, 2019, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The telepresence experience can be evoked in a number of ways. A well-known example is a player of videogames who reports about a telepresence experience, a subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when physically situated in another place. In this paper we set the phenomenon of telepresence into a theoretical framework. As people react subjectively to stimuli from telepresence, empirical studies can give more evidence about the phenomenon. Thus, our contribution is to bridge the theoretical with the empirical. We discuss theories of perception with an emphasis on Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty and Gibson, the role of the senses and the Spinozian belief procedure. The aim is to contribute to our understanding of this phenomenon. A telepresence-study that included the affordance concept is used to empirically study how players report sense-reactions to virtual sightseeing in two cities. We investigate and explore the interplay of the philosophical and the empirical. The findings indicate that it is not only the visual sense that plays a role in this experience, but all senses.

  • 39. Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Wales, Chris
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Sexting, age and digital vulnerabilities2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite popular misconception it is not only young people that are sharing nude pictures and videos. There are a number of studies targeted towards the younger generation about their sexting, but few on older age-groups. In general, younger people take more risk than older people, and some seem to care less about possible negative consequences. For this study we commissioned a market research company to collect data from a national population, with a representative sample from 16 to 69 years old, in total 1071 citizens. We used binary logistic regression for the analysis of responses, a method that can be used to predict a categorical dependent variable – in our case whether a person has been sexting the last 12 months or not. In the study we included the following independent variables: gender, education, self-efficacy; the cognitive reflection test (CRT) to distinguish between a intuitive versus analytical decision style; Machiavellianism, to distinguish a personality trait characterized by manipulativeness and deceitfulness; willingness to share personal data, and finally whether the citizens had experience of ID-theft or credit-card misuse within the previous 12 months. Our results show that the ID-theft/credit-card variable was a significant predictor of sexting for the age-groups 16-29, 30-39 and 50-69 years old. For youngest group, the manipulativeness and deceitfulness trait is also a predictor, whereas for the oldest group, the intuitive decision style and a high willingness to share personal data are also significant predictors.

  • 40.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Hauge School of Management, NLA, Oslo, Norway.
    Wales, Chris
    Hauge School of Management, NLA, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Uncovering dark patterns: Learning through serious gameplay about the dangers of sharing data2024In: Information Systems and Technologies: WorldCIST 2023, Volume 2 / [ed] Alvaro Rocha; Hojjat Adeli; Gintautas Dzemyda; Fernando Moreira; Valentina Colla, Springer Nature, 2024, p. 471-480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dark patterns refer to tricks used in websites and apps to make you do things that you do not intend to do. This paper presents the board-game Dark Pattern, in which players install apps, draw dark patterns cards, and make choices about the sharing of personal data. To win the game, a player must share as little data as possible and play cards that punish other play-ers. Two groups, the first with 56 students and the second with 45 students, played the game and then answered a survey with questions controlling their knowledge about the dark patterns types featured in the game. In addi-tion, a further 50 students answered the same survey without playing the game. In this paper we present key findings about the dark patterns knowledge generated by playing the game. Then we present an exploratory analysis using Partial Least Square – Structural Equation modelling (PLS-SEM). We analysed whether dark patterns knowledge and risk perception, the likelihood of negative incidents due to data sharing, could predict the players behavioural intention to take proactive privacy steps. The two PLS-SEM models have a variance explained (R2) of 0.34 and 0.35 indicating that approximately 35% of the variance could be accounted for by the two vari-ables included in the model. Taken together, the analyses indicated that playing the Dark Pattern game had a positive effect on behavioural inten-tion to proactive privacy steps as a result of by playing the game.

  • 41. Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploring susceptibility to phishing: the cognitive reflection test and other possible predictors2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research objective of this study was to investigate factors contributing to phishing susceptibility, expanding on findings from previousstudies. We report results based on five, large-scale surveys of national populations from which we collecteddata about cognitive strategies using the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), privacy attitudes, data disclosure behaviors, and demographic variables. We used binary logistic regression to analyze the relationship between these factors and susceptibility to phishing attacks. Wefound that willingness to share personal data and CRTscores significantly predicted phishing susceptibility.Younger people were somewhat more susceptible than older age-groups. as were males than females. Importantly, these findings suggest that phishing susceptibility is not simply a function of cognitivea bility, but also of individual differences in privacy attitudes and data disclosure behaviors. Their credibility is enhanced by the use of five large-scale studies with national populations, unlike earlier studies primarily relying on smaller-scale student populations.

  • 42. Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Human sovereignty in a lock-down situation: is there room for privacy?2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are currently using tracing apps, which can be seen as an examples of contemporarysurveillance technology, to help track close contacts with contagious COVID-19 individuals. InSingapore, the government initially informed the population that the TraceTogether app would onlybe used to alert citizens about close contacts with others who had tested positive for COVID-19. Later,the Singaporean government decided to share the tracing app data with the police “for the purpose ofcriminal investigations”. This could be interpreted as a breach of the individual sovereignty of citizens,which Floridi (2020) describes as the ultimate form of control. The right to privacy can be seen as anessential aspect of dignity, integrity, personal autonomy, and independence (Bloustein, 1964;Rubenfeld, 1989). In the paper, we present data on citizens’ opinions of the use of a similar tracing appin Norway, a country with a low COVID-19 infection rate and number of deaths. We tested whetherinformation about possible other uses by the government influenced willingness to download a tracingapp. We also questioned the degree to which respondents were in-favour of using strict legal force vs.recommendations. We discuss our empirical findings in terms of privacy and its role in maintainingindividual sovereignty. Key findings concern how citizens distinguish between data use for creatingdigital profiles versus other purposes, and whether or not their attitudes to restrictions such as curfewsare related to their views on other aspects of individual sovereignty.

  • 43. Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Human sovereignty when a disease is controlled through restrictions on persons: Citizens’ views on whether scientific evidence for restrictions is necessary2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the covid19-pandemic, most governments imposed severe restrictions on their citizens. InNorway, the legal basis for the restrictions was the Act relating to control of communicable diseases(Lovdata, 2020). In comparison to most other countries, Norway had a low covid-19 infection rateand a small number of deaths. Some citizens reacted negatively to the travel-restrictions andquestioned the legitimacy of the restrictions on free movement, which is a constitutional right.Daytrips were allowed, but an over-night stay could lead to a severe fine and/or a long quarantineperiod. The citizens who went to court argued that to travel to their secondary home in their homecountryor in the neighbouring country of Sweden did not contribute to spreading the covid-19 virus,as compared to staying at home, and it did not cause harm to others. However, the Norwegian Supreme Court unanimously concluded in favour of the government. The Supreme Court argued thatthe Norwegian government did not have to provide scientific evidence in support of the restrictions.Moreover, The Supreme Court itself should not assess the base for, nor the effect of, the restrictions.As long as the Government believed that the restrictions were necessary, it could not be overruledby the court.

    In a national survey of Norwegian citizens during 2022/23, we gave respondents the following fouralternatives to choose from:a) For restrictions, it is not necessary to document scientific evidence for the restrictions. It issufficient that the government believes that they will have the planned effect.b) The same as b. In addition, the Government has to outline what they think about the effect,and who they have consulted.c) The same as b. In addition, the Government has to outline what they think about the effect,and who they have consulted including giving information about disagreements (if any)among experts on the effects on the restrictions.d) The Government should only impose restrictions when the Government has scientificevidence for the effect of the restrictions.Of the 611 respondents, 40% chose the third alternative (c), an alternative that includeddocumentation but not scientific evidence. 29% chose alternative (b), and 25% chose alternative (d).Only 6% of respondents chose alternative (a), which was that it is not necessary for the governmentto document evidence for the effectiveness of the restrictions.

  • 44. Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Inverting the panopticon to safeguard privacy in ambient environments: an exploratory study2020In: Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions: 8th International Conference, DAPI 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Norbert Streitz, Shin'ichi Konomi, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 348-361Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jeremy Bentham is known for designing an institutional building, a prison named a panopticon and some alternatives to this concept. One of the alternatives are the inverted or constitutional panopticon in which the purpose is to let the governed, the citizens’ see and monitor the governors. Hence, the concept of inverted panopticon can be used to describe an analyze privacy protecting devices. In this paper we report on a national study on citizens’ opinion and attitudes to devices that can protect the user from being seen and listened to, with 1289 participants. At this stage of the work, we have not done statistical analysis of factors that might reveal differences between citizens, but as an exploratory study, we provide an overview of how the two privacy protecting devices were received by Norwegian citizens, based on survey responses. Our aim is to build a foundation for future studies that will investigate the inverted panopticon concept in a society in which personal data has become a currency.

  • 45.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Hauge School of Management, NLA, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Is there a market for digital travel?: Travellers' views on digital travel and willingness to pay2024In: Marketing and smart technologies: proceedings of ICMarkTech 2022, volume 1 / [ed] José Luís Reis; Marisa Del Rio Araujo; Luís Paulo Reis; José Paulo Marques dos Santos, Springer, 2024, p. 635-645Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the COVID-19 pandemic, digital alternatives to office-work, classroom teaching, business meetings and leisure activities etc. were seen by most as a supplement to, not a replacement for, meeting people face-to-face. With the experiences many have had these last two years, including travel restrictions, vacationers' views of digital travel might be expected to have changed. This study is based on surveys of views on digital travel in the summers of 2021 and 2022. We presented vacationers with descriptions of digital travel products and activities, followed by questions about willingness to pay for these. We identified a small segment of vacationers who see digital travel as a substitute for physical travel, and a significant group of vacationers who see the digital travel experience as a pre-taste of actual travel. The vacationers were asked for comparisons of their willingness to pay for digital services with ticket prices that a tourist would normally pay at a destination. Although we could identify a market for digital travel products, it remains to be seen whether players in the travel industry can offer products and services that are attractive enough to raise significant revenue. There is not necessarily a high correlation between intention to pay and actual willingness to make payments, but the study indicates that there is an emergent market that businesses in the travel economy can potentially utilize.

  • 46.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Predicting personal susceptibility to phishing2020In: Information technology and systems: proceedings of ICITS 2020 / [ed] Álvaro Rocha, Carlos Ferrás, Carlos Enrique Montenegro Marin, Víctor Hugo Medina García, Cham: Springer, 2020, 1, p. 564-575Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phishing is a confidence trick with damaging impacts on both individuals and society as a whole. In this paper, we examine the possible role of thinking styles, as assessed by the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT), and other factors to predict personal susceptibility to phishes. We report the results of two large-scale national studies conducted on cross-sectional populations in Norway. Using a binary logistic regression method, we analyzed the relationship between CRT scores, willingness to share data and demographical variables, to susceptibility to comply with phishes. Our main finding was that both an intuitive thinking style, as operationalized by the CRT scores, and willingness to share personal, significantly predict the probability of falling for phishing. As these results are based on two large-scale studies of national populations, they can be expected to have greater validity than earlier studies. The finding that CRT scores and other personal characteristics can predict the likelihood of falling for phishing suggests methods of pre-emptive testing of individuals as part of private and organizational strategies for encouraging improved resistance to phishing and other forms of personal data theft.

  • 47.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The psychosocial reality of digital travel: being in virtual places2022 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This open access book takes a fresh look at the nature of the digital travel experience, at a time when more and more people are engaged in online social interaction, games, and other virtual experiences essentially involving online visits to other places. It examines whether these experiences can seem real to the virtual traveller and, if so, under what conditions and on what grounds. The book unpacks philosophical theories relevant to the feeling of being somewhere, emphasising the importance of perception and being-in-the-world. Notions of place are outlined, based on work in tourism studies, human geography, and other applied social fields, with an aim to investigate how and when different experiences of place arise for the traveller and how these relate to telepresence – the sense of being there in another place through digital media. Findings from recent empirical studies of digital travel are presented, including a survey from which the characteristics of "digital travellers" are identified. A review of selected interactive design trends and possibilities leads to the conclusion, which draws these strands together and looks to the future of this topical and expanding field.

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  • 48.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Hauge School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Digital travel: a study of travellers' views of a digital visit to Mexico2023In: Information technology and systems: ICITS 2023, volume 1 / [ed] Álvaro Rocha; Carlos Ferrás; Waldo Ibarra, London: Springer Nature, 2023, p. 185-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we invited members of a Norwegian national survey-panel to give their views on digital travel applications and digital travel experiences, and to consider Mexico as a travel destination. We presented vacationers with descriptions of digital travel products and activities, and a video about Mexico made from the game Horizon Forza 5. We used Partial Least Square-Structural Equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to analyse whether digital presentations, sense of place, and travel motivation could predict intention to visit Mexico. The analysis showed that vicarious sense of place was the best predictor of future intentions. As the study is based on survey data from a national population, a reasonable degree of generalisability, at least for Norway and other Scandinavian countries, is to be expected. It shows that there is a small but emergent market for digital travel and virtual tourism. More importantly, the study indicates that a digital experience in a virtual environment - specifically, that of a vicarious sense of place - can stimulate and motivate vacationers to travel to a tourist destination and hence that there are opportunities which businesses in the travel economy can potentially utilize.

  • 49.
    Tjostheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Virtual Tourism in a Game Environment: Untangling Judged Affordances and Sense of Place2020In: HCI in Games: Second International Conference, HCI-Games 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Fang X., Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 202-217Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study enriches and deepens understanding of the concepts of telepresence and sense of place, by examining their relevance to capture a place experience evoked in 3D environments through a research design that includes the affordance concept in virtual tourism. Many previous presence studies concern the in-the-moment experience without modeling the relationship with response variables that can help explain behavior in the digital or the material space. In this paper we tested affordance as the response variable in two different research models. The participants in our experiment explored the city of Los Angeles in a virtual environment (VE). Often, though not always, the participants had a feeling of “being there.” The results indicated that both concepts – telepresence and sense of place – can be used to measure the user experience in a VE. Telepresence appears to be a more reliable predictor than the alternative concept sense of place, but its meaning aspect is generally less well known, particularly with regard to a tourist’s intended activities and relevant affordances during a visit to a place.

  • 50.
    Tjøstheim, Ingvar
    et al.
    Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo, Norway.
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Virtual Tourism in a Game Environment: Untangling Judged Affordances and Sense of Place2020In: HCI in Games: Second International Conference, HCI-Games 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Xiaowen Fang, Springer, 2020, Vol. 12211, p. 202-217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study enriches and deepens understanding of the concepts of telepresence and sense of place, by examining their relevance to capture a place experience evoked in 3D environments through a research design that includes the affordance concept in virtual tourism. Many previous presence studies concern the in-the-moment experience without modeling the relationship with response variables that can help explain behavior in the digital or the material space. In this paper we tested affordance as the response variable in two different research models. The participants in our experiment explored the city of Los Angeles in a virtual environment (VE). Often, though not always, the participants had a feeling of “being there.” The results indicated that both concepts – telepresence and sense of place – can be used to measure the user experience in a VE. Telepresence appears to be a more reliable predictor than the alternative concept sense of place, but its meaning aspect is generally less well known, particularly with regard to a tourist’s intended activities and relevant affordances during a visit to a place.

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