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  • 1.
    Andersson, T. A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Larsen, F.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Pulmonary embolism in Sweden, a national cohort and survival analysis2012In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 33, no suppl. 1, p. 29-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsen, F.
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Searching for CTEPH: a Swedish National Follow-Up after en Episode of Acute Pulmonary Embolism2016In: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, ISSN 1053-2498, E-ISSN 1557-3117, Vol. 35, no 4, p. S149-S149Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Isaksson, Anja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Khalil, Hesham
    Department of Cardiology, King Fahad General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Lapidus, Leif
    Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Validation of the Swedish National Inpatient Register for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in 20052022In: Pulmonary Circulation, ISSN 2045-8932, E-ISSN 2045-8940, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e12037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Inpatient Register (NPR) has near-complete coverage of in-hospital admissions and ICD codes in Sweden. Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious condition presenting challenges regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Here we aimed to validate the accuracy of acute PE diagnosis in the NPR, investigational findings, antithrombotic treatment, and follow-up of PE patients in Sweden. From a nation-wide cohort of all patients with in-hospital diagnoses of acute PE (ICD-10-SE codes I26.0–I26.9) in 2005 (n = 5793), we selected those from two Swedish regions for thorough manual review of hospital records. We identified 599 patients with PE diagnoses according to the ICD-10 coding system. We excluded 58 patients with admissions related to previous PE (47; 8%) or incorrect ICD codes (11; 2%), leaving 501 patients with probable PE diagnoses. We confirmed the diagnosis in 441 (79%) cases, which was based on imaging (435 patients; 73%) or autopsy (6; 1%). In the remaining 60 (11%) cases, the PE diagnosis was based on clinical findings and can therefore not be confirmed. Of the surviving patients with PE, 231 (47%) were offered follow-up within 6 months after the acute event. At follow-up, 67 patients (29%) had symptoms requiring clinical attention (dyspnoea or reduced general condition). The Swedish NPR showed acceptable accuracy for PE diagnosis, and could be reliably used for register-based research regarding acute PE.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nilsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Larsen, Flemming
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Long-term sequelae following acute pulmonary embolism: a nationwide follow-up study regarding the incidence of CTEPH, dyspnea, echocardiographic and V/Q scan abnormalities2023In: Pulmonary Circulation, ISSN 2045-8932, E-ISSN 2045-8940, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e12306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to follow a nationwide cohort of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) without any exclusions to generate information regarding long-term symptoms, investigational findings and to determine the prevalence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We hypothesized that this approach would yield generalizable estimates of CTEPH prevalence and incidence. All individuals diagnosed with acute PE in Sweden in 2005 were identified using the National Patient Register. In 2007, survivors were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding current symptoms. Those with dyspnea were referred for further examinations with laboratory tests, electrocardiogram (ECG), and a ventilation/perfusion scan (V/Q scan). If CTEPH was suspected, a referral to the nearest pulmonary arterial hypertension-center was recommended. Of 5793 unique individuals with PE diagnosis in 2005, 3510 were alive at the beginning of 2007. Altogether 53% reported dyspnea at some degree whereof a large proportion had V/Q scans indicating mismatched defects. Further investigation revealed 6 cases of CTEPH and in parallel 18 cases were diagnosed outside this study. The overall prevalence of CTEPH was 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2%–0.6%) and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.4%–1.0%) among the survivors. The cumulative incidence of CTEPH in the group of patients who underwent a V/Q scan was 1.1% (95% CI: 0.2%–2.0%). There was a high mortality following an acute PE, a high proportion of persistent dyspnea among survivors, whereof several had pathological findings on V/Q scans and echocardiography. Only a minority developed CTEPH, indicating that CTEPH is the tip of the iceberg of post-PE disturbances.

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  • 5. Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sundström, G
    Stroke in the elderly1999In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 2, p. 152-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Grönlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyman, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wester, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Näslund, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    The beneficial effect over 3 years by pictorial information to patients and their physician about subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk: results from the VIPVIZA randomized clinical trial2021In: American Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2666-6677, Vol. 7, article id 100199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Non-adherence to guidelines and preventive measures is a major challenge, particularly so to ob- tain long-term adherence to lifestyle changes and recommended medication. The objective was to investigate if pictorial information regarding subclinical carotid atherosclerosis provided to individuals and physicians gave sustained effects on cardiovascular risk beyond the previously reported effect after 1 year and up to 3 years. 

    Methods: A Prospective Randomized Open Blinded End-point (PROBE) trial. Within a CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden, 3532 healthy individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years were enrolled and 1:1 ran- domized to intervention ( n = 1749; pictorial information with additional prevention materials to participants and physicians) or control group ( n = 1783; no pictorial information to participants and physicians). Preventive measures were managed within primary care. Participants were investigated at baseline during 2013–2016 and at follow-up after 1 and 3 years. 

    Results: A beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk was observed at 3-year follow-up; Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was 13.38 for the intervention group and 14.08 for the control group ( p = 0.047) and SCORE was 1.69 vs. 1.82 ( p = 0.022). The effect observed at 1-year was sustained over 3 years after adjustment for sex and education and more pronounced among participants with a severe atherosclerotic picture at baseline.

    Conclusions: This study provides evidence of sustained beneficial effects on the adherence to prevention guidelines over 3 years of pictorial information about subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, resulting in lower cardiovascular risk regardless of sex and educational level. Direct visualization of the underlying still subclinical atherosclerotic disease, rather than just indirect information about risk factors and statistical risk of future myocardial infarction, stroke and death, is one way to tackle the problem of non-adherence to prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

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  • 7.
    Brunstrom, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Perspective from Sweden on the global impact of the 2017 american college of cardiology/american heart association hypertension guidelines: a "sprint" beyond evidence in the United States2018In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 137, no 9, p. 886-888Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Association of blood pressure lowering with mortality and cardiovascular disease across blood pressure levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis2018In: JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN 2168-6106, E-ISSN 2168-6114, Vol. 178, no 1, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: High blood pressure (BP) is the most important risk factor for death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) worldwide. The optimal cutoff for treatment of high BP is debated.

    Objective: To assess the association between BP lowering treatment and death and CVD at different BP levels.

    Data sources: Previous systematic reviews were identified from PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect. Reference lists of these reviews were searched for randomized clinical trials. Randomized clinical trials published after November 1, 2015, were also searched for in PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials during February 2017.

    Study selection: Randomized clinical trials with at least 1000 patient-years of follow-up, comparing BP-lowering drugs vs placebo or different BP goals were included.

    Data extraction and synthesis: Data were extracted from original publications. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaborations assessment tool. Relative risks (RRs) were pooled in random-effects meta-analyses with Knapp-Hartung modification. Results are reported according to PRISMA guidelines.

    Main outcomes and measures: Prespecified outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure, and end-stage renal disease.

    Results: Seventy-four unique trials, representing 306 273 unique participants (39.9% women and 60.1% men; mean age, 63.6 years) and 1.2 million person-years, were included in the meta-analyses. In primary prevention, the association of BP-lowering treatment with major cardiovascular events was dependent on baseline systolic BP (SBP). In trials with baseline SBP 160 mm Hg or above, treatment was associated with reduced risk for death (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-1.00) and a substantial reduction of major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87). If baseline SBP ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg, the association of treatment with mortality was similar (RR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), but the association with major cardiovascular events was less pronounced (RR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96). In trials with baseline SBP below 140 mm Hg, treatment was not associated with mortality (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.90-1.06) and major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90-1.04). In trials including people with previous CHD and mean baseline SBP of 138 mm Hg, treatment was associated with reduced risk for major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), but was not associated with survival (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07).

    Conclusions and relevance: Primary preventive BP lowering is associated with reduced risk for death and CVD if baseline SBP is 140 mm Hg or higher. At lower BP levels, treatment is not associated with any benefit in primary prevention but might offer additional protection in patients with CHD.

  • 9.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Benefits and harms of lower blood pressure treatment targets: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials2019In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e026686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To assess the effect of antihypertensive treatment in the 130-140mm Hg systolic blood pressure range. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Information sources PubMed, CDSR and DARE were searched for the systematic reviews, which were manually browsed for clinical trials. PubMed and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for trials directly in February 2018. Eligibility criteria Randomised double-blind trials with >= 1000 patient-years of follow-up, comparing any antihypertensive agent against placebo. Data extraction and risk of bias Two reviewers extracted study-level data, and assessed risk of bias using Cochrane Collaborations risk of bias assessment tool, independently. Main outcomes and measures Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, major cardiovascular events and discontinuation due to adverse events. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, hypotension-related adverse events and renal impairment. Results Eighteen trials, including 92 567 participants (34% women, mean age 63 years), fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Primary preventive antihypertensive treatment was associated with a neutral effect on all-cause mortality (relative risk 1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.06) and major cardiovascular events (1.01, 0.96 to 1.06), but an increased risk of discontinuation due to adverse events (1.23, 1.03 to 1.47). None of the secondary efficacy outcomes were significantly reduced, but the risk of hypotension-related adverse events increased with treatment (1.71, 1.32 to 2.22). In coronary artery disease secondary prevention, antihypertensive treatment was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (0.91, 0.83 to 0.99) and major cardiovascular events (0.85, 0.77 to 0.94), but doubled the risk of adverse events leading to discontinuation (2.05, 1.62 to 2.61). Conclusion Primary preventive blood pressure lowering in the 130-140mm Hg systolic blood pressure range adds no cardiovascular benefit, but increases the risk of adverse events. In the secondary prevention, benefits should be weighed against harms.

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  • 10. Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Blodtrycksbehandling kan öka risk för hjärt-kärldöd vid diabetes2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 9, article id DX3ZArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Blood pressure targets in type 2 diabetes: a general perspective2016In: Cardiovascular Endocrinology, ISSN 2162-688X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 122-126Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood pressure targets in patients with type 2 diabetes are currently being debated. This review summarizes the current treatment recommendations provided in American and European guidelines, and findings from systematic reviews and meta-analyses published during the last decade. We critically assess the basis for the recommendations provided in relation to the evidence presented in reviews. When reviews differ in their results, we discuss the reasons for such differences. The results from recent studies in patients without diabetes and their potential implications for recommendations in patients with diabetes are commented upon. Finally, we conclude what targets are best in line with the totality of the available evidence.

  • 12.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Effect of antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analyses2016In: The BMJ, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 352, article id i717Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the effect of antihypertensive treatment on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in people with diabetes mellitus, at different blood pressure levels.

    Design: Systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials.

    Data sources: CENTRAL, Medline, Embase, and BIOSIS were searched using highly sensitive search strategies. When data required according to the protocol were missing but trials were potentially eligible, we contacted researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and authorities.

    Eligibility criteria: Randomised controlled trials including 100 or more people with diabetes mellitus, treated for 12 months or more, comparing any antihypertensive agent against placebo, two agents against one, or different blood pressure targets.

    Results: 49 trials, including 73 738 participants, were included in the meta-analyses. Most of the participants had type 2 diabetes. If baseline systolic blood pressure was greater than 150 mm Hg, antihypertensive treatment reduced the risk of all cause mortality (relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.99), cardiovascular mortality (0.75, 0.57 to 0.99), myocardial infarction (0.74, 0.63 to 0.87), stroke (0.77, 0.65 to 0.91), and end stage renal disease (0.82, 0.71 to 0.94). If baseline systolic blood pressure was 140-150 mm Hg, additional treatment reduced the risk of all cause mortality (0.87, 0.78 to 0.98), myocardial infarction (0.84, 0.76 to 0.93), and heart failure (0.80, 0.66 to 0.97). If baseline systolic blood pressure was less than 140 mm Hg, however, further treatment increased the risk of cardiovascular mortality (1.15, 1.00 to 1.32), with a tendency towards an increased risk of all cause mortality (1.05, 0.95 to 1.16). Metaregression analyses showed a worse treatment effect with lower baseline systolic blood pressures for cardiovascular mortality (1.15, 1.03 to 1.29 for each 10 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure) and myocardial infarction (1.12, 1.03 to 1.22 for each 10 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure). Patterns were similar for attained systolic blood pressure.

    Conclusions: Antihypertensive treatment reduces the risk of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in people with diabetes mellitus and a systolic blood pressure more than 140 mm Hg. If systolic blood pressure is less than 140 mm Hg, however, further treatment is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death, with no observed benefit.

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  • 13.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ingen nytta med intensiv blodtrycksbehandling vid primärprevention2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, no 48, article id EW4XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lower blood pressure targets: to whom do they apply?2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 387, no 10017, p. 405-406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nya riktlinjer för hypertoni-en pedagogisk utmaning2018In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115, no 47, article id FDDYArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Questionable Conclusions Regarding Blood Pressure End Points Reply2018In: JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN 2168-6106, E-ISSN 2168-6114, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 575-576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Response to 'SPRINTin context: meta-analysis of trials with baseline normotension and lowlevels of previous cardiovascular disease' Reply2018In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 1603-1604Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    SPRINT in context: meta-analysis of trials with baseline normotension and low levels of previous cardiovascular disease2018In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 979-986Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To estimate the effect of antihypertensive treatment in trials with baseline normotension and low levels of previous cardiovascular disease. To test if the results from SPRINT are compatible with those from other trials, and test the impact of SPRINT results on overall effect estimates. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with at least 1000 patient-years of follow-up, comparing antihypertensive treatment versus placebo, or different blood pressure goals against each other. Trials with at least 50% previous cardiovascular disease were excluded. Results: Sixteen trials, including 66816 participants, were included in the meta-analyses. Mean baseline SBP was 138mmHg, and mean difference between treatment arms was 5.5mmHg. Antihypertensive treatment was associated with a neutral effect on all-cause mortality [relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.05] and major cardiovascular events (0.97, 0.91-1.03). Results from SPRINT differed significantly from those of other trials (P=0.012 for all-cause mortality; P=0.016 for major cardiovascular events), but overall effect estimates were similar when SPRINT was excluded (1.01, 0.95-1.06 for all-cause mortality; 0.98, 0.93-1.03 for major cardiovascular events). Treatment was associated with reduced risk of secondary outcomes stroke (0.84, 0.71-1.00) and heart failure (0.88, 0.78-0.98), although heterogeneity was high in the stroke analysis (I-2=54%). Conclusion: SPRINT results are not representative for trials with baseline normotension and low levels of previous cardiovascular disease. Antihypertensive treatment does not protect against death or major cardiovascular events in this setting.

  • 19.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Standardization according to blood pressure lowering in meta-analyses of antihypertensive trials: comparison of three methodological approaches2018In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 4-15Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Assess how standardization of relative risks (RRs) and standard errors (SEs), according to blood pressure differences within trials, affects heterogeneity, overall effect estimates and study weights in meta-analyses of antihypertensive treatment.

    METHOD: Data from a previous systematic review were used. Three sets of analyses were performed, using both random-effects and fixed-effects model for meta-analyses. First, we used raw data from the included trials. Second, we standardized RRs as if SBP was reduced by 10 mmHg in all trials. Third, we standardized both RRs and SEs.

    RESULTS: When RRs were standardized according to blood pressure lowering, heterogeneity between trials increased (I = 36 vs. 93% for mortality). This conferred large differences in treatment effect estimates using random-effects and fixed-effects model (RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.89, respectively, 0.97, 0.94-0.99). When SEs were standardized, confidence intervals for individual trials widened, resulting in lower power to detect heterogeneity across trials. Study weights were dissociated from number of events in trials (P < 0.0001, R = 0.99 before standardization vs. P = 0.063, R = 0.05 after standardization). This induced a secondary shift in weight from trials with lower baseline SBP to trials with higher baseline SBP, resulting in exaggerated overall effect estimates.

    CONCLUSION: Standardization of RRs exaggerates differences between trials and makes meta-analyses highly sensitive to choice of statistical method. Standardization of SEs masks heterogeneity and results in biased effect estimates.

  • 20.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Thrombolysis in acute stroke2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 385, no 9976, p. 1394-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Kjeldsen, Sverre E.
    Department of Cardiology, Institute for Clinical Medicine, Ullevaal Hospital, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Effect of antihypertensive treatment in isolated systolic hypertension (ISH): systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials2023In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 2226757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) in middle-aged and elderly is associated with high cardiovascular risk, but no randomised controlled trial has assessed the effect of antihypertensive treatment in ISH using today's definition, i.e. systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) <90 mmHg.

    METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed. Studies with ≥1000 patient-years of follow-up, comparing more intensive versus less intensive BP targets, or active drug versus placebo, were included if the mean baseline SBP was ≥140 mmHg and the mean baseline DBP was <90 mmHg. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Relative risks from each trial were pooled in random-effects meta-analyses, stratified by baseline and attained SBP level.

    RESULTS: Twenty-four trials, including 113,105 participants (mean age 67 years; mean blood pressure 149/83 mmHg) were included in the analysis. Overall, treatment reduced the risk of MACE by 9% (relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88-0.93). Treatment was more effective if baseline SBP was ≥160 mmHg (RR 0.77, 95% CIs 0.70-0.86) compared to 140-159 mmHg (RR 0.92, 95% CIs 0.89-0.95; p = 0.002 for interaction), but provided equal additional benefit across all attained SBP levels (RR 0.80, 95% CIs 0.70-0.92 for <130 mmHg, RR 0.92, 95% CIs 0.89-0.96 for 130-139 mmHg, and RR 0.87, 95% CIs 0.82-0.93 for ≥140 mmHg; p = 0.070 for interaction).

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings support antihypertensive treatment of isolated systolic hypertension, regardless of baseline SBP, to target SBP <140 mmHg and even <130 mmHg if well tolerated.

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  • 22.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Dahlström, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hallström, Sara
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Persson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    From efficacy in trials to effectiveness in clinical practice: The Swedish Stroke Prevention Study2016In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 206-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood pressure treatment has shown great efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events in randomized controlled trials. If this is effective in reducing cardiovascular disease in the general population, is less studied. Between 2001 and 2009 we performed an intervention to improve blood pressure control in the county of Vasterbotten, using Sodermanland County as a control. The intervention was directed towards primary care physicians and included lectures on blood pressure treatment, a computerized decision support system with treatment recommendations, and yearly feed back on hypertension control. Each county had approximately 255000 inhabitants. Differences in age and incidence of cardiovascular disease were small. During follow-up, more than 400000 patients had their blood pressure recorded. The mean number of measurements was eight per patient, yielding a total of 3.4 million blood pressure recordings. The effect of the intervention will be estimated combining the blood pressure data collected from the electronic medical records, with data on stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality from Swedish health registers. Additional variables, from health registers and Statistics Sweden, will be collected to address for confounders. The blood pressure data collected within this study will be an important asset for future epidemiological studies within the field of hypertension.

  • 23.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Peter M.
    Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Berne, Christian
    Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rekommenderade blodtrycksmål vid typ 2-diabetes bör kvarstå2016In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, no 39, article id D9FPArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Blood pressure treatment levels and choice of antihypertensive agent in people with diabetes mellitus: an overview of systematic reviews2017In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 35, p. 435-462Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Multiple systematic reviews address the effect of antihypertensive treatment in people with diabetes. Here, we summarize current systematic reviews concerning antihypertensive treatment effect at different blood pressure (BP) levels, and relative treatment effect of different antihypertensive agents.

    METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, DARE and CDSR during years 2005-2016. Eligibility criteria, number of trials and participants, outcomes analysed, statistical methods used for data synthesis, and principal results were extracted for each review. Review quality was assessed using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews tool.

    RESULTS: We found four reviews concerning BP treatment level. These consistently showed that the effect of antihypertensive treatment on mortality, cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease was attenuated at lower BP levels. If SBP was more than 140 mmHg, treatment reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. If SBP was less than 140 mmHg, treatment increased the risk of cardiovascular death. We found eight reviews concerning choice of agent. We found no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and diuretics in preventing all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, combined cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and end-stage renal disease. Minor differences exist for stroke and heart failure. Data were limited on people with type 1 diabetes and very elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. None of the reviews concerning choice of agent included all relevant trials.

    CONCLUSION: The available evidence supports treatment in people with type 2 diabetes and SBP more than 140 mmHg, using any of the major antihypertensive drug classes.

  • 25.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Association of Physician Education and Feedback on Hypertension Management With Patient Blood Pressure and Hypertension Control2020In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 3, no 1, article id e1918625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most important risk factor for premature death worldwide. However, hypertension detection and control rates continue to be suboptimal.

    Objective: To assess the association of education and feedback to primary care physicians with population-level SBP and hypertension control rates.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled series of 108 population-based cohort studies involving 283 079 patients used data from primary care centers in 2 counties (Västerbotten and Södermanland) in Sweden from 2001 to 2009. Participants were individuals aged 18 years or older who had their blood pressure (BP) measured and recorded in either county during the intervention period. All analyses were performed in February 2019.

    Exposures: An intervention comprising education and feedback for primary care physicians in Västerbotten County (intervention group) compared with usual care in Södermanland County (control group).

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Difference in mean SBP levels between counties and likelihood of hypertension control in the intervention county compared with the control county during 24 months of follow-up.

    Results: A total of 136 541 unique individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 64.6 [16.1] years; 57.0% female; mean inclusion BP, 142/82 mm Hg) in the intervention county were compared with 146 538 individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 65.7 [15.9] years; 58.3% female; mean inclusion BP, 144/80 mm Hg) in the control county. Mean SBP difference between counties during follow-up, adjusted for inclusion BP and other covariates, was 1.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0-1.1 mm Hg). Hypertension control improved by 8.4 percentage points, and control was achieved in 37.8% of participants in the intervention county compared with 29.4% in the control county (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.29-1.31). Differences between counties increased during the intervention period and were more pronounced in participants with higher SBP at inclusion. Results were consistent across all subgroups.

    Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that SBP levels and hypertension control rates in a county population may be improved by educational approaches directed at physicians and other health care workers. Similar strategies may be adopted to reinforce the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management.

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  • 26.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Association of education and feedback on hypertension management with risk for stroke and cardiovascular disease2022In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Education and feedback on hypertension management has been associated with improved hypertension control. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of such interventions to reduce the risk of stroke and cardiovascular events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals ≥18 years with a blood pressure (BP) recording in Västerbotten or Södermanland County during the study period 2001 to 2009 were included in 108 serial cohort studies, each with 24 months follow-up. The primary outcome was risk of first-ever stroke in Västerbotten County (intervention) compared with Södermanland County (control). Secondary outcomes were first-ever major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE), myocardial infarction, and heart failure, as well as all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. All outcomes were analysed using time-to-event data included in a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, systolic BP at inclusion, marital status, and disposable income. RESULTS: A total of 121 365 individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion 61.7 [16.3] years; 59.9% female; mean inclusion BP 142.3/82.6 mmHg) in the intervention county were compared to 131 924 individuals (63.6 [16.2] years; 61.2% female; 144.1/81.1 mmHg) in the control county. A first-ever stroke occurred in 2 823 (2.3%) individuals in the intervention county, and 3 584 (2.7%) individuals in the control county (adjusted hazard ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.03). No differences were observed for MACE, myocardial infarction or heart failure, whereas all-cause mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.95) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.98) were lower in the intervention county. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support an association between education and feedback on hypertension management to primary care physicians and the risk for stroke or cardiovascular outcomes. The observed differences for mortality outcomes should be interpreted with caution.

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  • 27.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Thomopoulos, Costas
    Department of Cardiology, Helena Venizelou Hospital, Athens, United States.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Kreutz, Reinhold
    Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Germany (R.K.), Charitéplatz 1, Berlin, Germany.
    Mancia, Giuseppe
    University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, United States.
    Methodological Aspects of Meta-Analyses Assessing the Effect of Blood Pressure-Lowering Treatment on Clinical Outcomes2022In: Hypertension, ISSN 0194-911X, E-ISSN 1524-4563, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 491-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are often considered the highest level of evidence, with high impact on clinical practice guidelines. The methodological literature on systematic reviews and meta-analyses is extensive and covers most aspects relevant to the design and interpretation of meta-analysis findings in general. Analyzing the effect of blood pressure-lowering on clinical outcomes poses several challenges over and above what is covered in the general literature, including how to combine placebo-controlled trials, target-trials, and comparative studies depending on the research question, how to handle the potential interaction between baseline blood pressure level, common comorbidities, and the estimated treatment effect, and how to consider different magnitudes of blood pressure reduction across trials. This review aims to address the most important methodological considerations, to guide the general reader of systematic reviews and meta-analyses within our field, and to help inform the design of future studies. Furthermore, we highlight issues where published meta-analyses have applied different analytical strategies and discuss pros and cons with different strategies.

  • 28.
    Burger, Dylan
    et al.
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Veerabhadrappa, Praveen
    Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Charchar, Fadi
    University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia.
    Tomaszewski, Maciej
    University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.
    Harrap, Stephen
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Touyz, Rhian M.
    University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Report of the first International Society of Hypertension (ISH) Trainee/New Investigator Symposium: A Global Hypertension Initiative2012In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 631-632Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Carlberg, B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Blood Pressure in Acute Stroke: Causes and consequences1994In: Hypertension Research, ISSN 0916-9636, E-ISSN 1348-4214, Vol. 17, no Suppl I, p. S77-S82Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Carlberg, B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hägg, E
    Course of blood pressure in different subsets of patients after acute stroke1991In: Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1015-9770, E-ISSN 1421-9786, Vol. 1, p. 281-287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Carlberg, B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hägg, E
    Factors influencing admission blood pressure levels in patients with acute stroke.1991In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 527-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical practice, patients with acute stroke often have high blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate factors correlated with blood pressure elevation in 843 consecutive stroke patients on hospital admission to a nonintensive stroke unit. Using a multivariate analysis model, we analyzed the influence on admission blood pressure of sex, age, previous hypertension, cardiac failure, diabetes, type of stroke, impaired consciousness, and latency between onset of symptoms and admission. Previous hypertension was the strongest predictor (p less than 0.001) of elevated blood pressure on admission, followed by the presence of intracerebral hemorrhage (p less than 0.001). The latency between onset of symptoms and admission showed no correlation with blood pressure levels at hospitalization. Previously, high blood pressure levels on hospital admission have been shown to decline within a few days in hospital. We therefore hypothesize that mental stress on hospital admission may be a major factor in the blood pressure elevation seen in acute stroke.

  • 32.
    Carlberg, B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hägg, E
    High blood pressure in acute stroke--is it white coat hypertension?1990In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 228, no 3, p. 291-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Carlberg, B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Asplund, Kjell
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hägg, E
    The prognostic value of admission blood pressure in patients with acute stroke.1993In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1372-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with acute stroke are often found to have high blood pressures at hospital admission. Previous studies have shown variable results regarding the prognostic value of high blood pressure in acute stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of admission blood pressure in a population-based sample of patients with acute stroke.

    METHODS: Eighty-five patients with intracerebral hemorrhage and 831 with ischemic disease were included in the study. The relations between admission blood pressure and 30-day mortality were studied by logistic regression analyses.

    RESULTS: High blood pressure in patients with impaired consciousness on hospital admission was significantly related to 30-day mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (P = .037) and in patients with ischemic disease (P < .0001). In patients without impaired consciousness, high blood pressure at time of admission was not related to increased mortality at 30 days.

    CONCLUSIONS: High admission blood pressure in alert stroke patients was not related to increased mortality. Stroke patients with impaired consciousness showed higher mortality rates with increasing blood pressure. However, this does not provide a basis for recommending antihypertensive therapy for such patients.

  • 34.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Beta-blockers for hypertension.2007In: CMAJ, ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 176, no 7, p. 971; author reply 971-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Is lower really better?: Issue of the J curve hypothesis in hypertension2016In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 34, p. e196-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The J curve hypothesis propose that the relation between blood pressure and risk for cardiovascular events is non-linear. Instead of a decreased risk with lower blood pressure, the risk increases at lower blood pressures. This issue has been discussed for many years, and is still a hot topic. The debates have most often had its origin in the question about how far blood pressure should be lowered with antihypertensive drugs.One one hand, we know that many patients with hypertension is not treated to targets according to guidelines and that this contributes to the high risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with hypertension. On the other hand, overtreatment could be one reason for the subobtimal effect of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular diseases.The issue about a J curve in the effect of antihypertensive drugs is complicated.The relation between blood pressure and cardiovascular risk is different for different cardiovascular outcomes. For example, the risk for intracerebral hemorrhage seem to increase steeper at higher blood pressure than for most other outcomes. On the other hand, the risk for abdominal aortic aneurysm increases only modestly with higher blood pressure. In addition, end stage renal disease and cognitive decline could have other relations between blood pressure and risk. Age, cardiovascular disease and diabetes have also been found to modify the relation between risk and outcome.Earlier this year, we published a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with antihypertensive drugs in patients with diabetes mellitus (ref). Included trials had to compare treatment with an antihypertensive drug against placebo, two antihypertensive agents against one or one blood pressure target against another target. The studies were stratified according to blood pressure at randomization (baseline blood pressure), mimicking the situation you as a clinician meet when you decide to recommend a patients additional antihypertensive therapy or not. We contacted authors to receive data from diabetic subgroups in large studies. Thus, we were able to include more studies than in previous systematic reviews in this field. All together, we included data from 49 randomized controlled trials, including 73 738 patients.The systematic review showed that the effect of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular outcomes is different at different blood pressure levels. For most outcomes, adding antihypertensive drugs were beneficial in patients with diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure. However, this benefit decreased with decreasing blood pressure. The risk for cardiovascular death increased when therapy was added in patents with diabetes and systolic blood pressure below 140 mmHg. The benefits of adding antihypertensive treatment at different blood pressure levels are summarized in the figure below.Thus, in patients with diabetes, the relations between treatment effect of antihypertensive drugs are different at different blood pressure levels. Treatment effects differ for different cardiovascular outcomes. These data question previous guidelines that recommend a systolic blood pressure target below 130 mmHg in patients with diabetes mellitus.In a very recent systematic review, we have reexamined the relation between randomization blood pressure and cardiovascular stratified for different baseline blood pressures. The meta-analyses include patients with and without diabetes, with and without previous cardiovascular disease etc. Altogether, 58 trials with 290 000 patients were included. The study shows that the effect of blood pressure lowering on cardiovascular outcomes is dependent on baseline systolic blood pressure but also differ between different subsets of patients. This study is under review and the results will be presented during the lecture.

  • 36.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    May Measurement Month, season 12018In: The Lancet Global Health, E-ISSN 2214-109X, Vol. 6, no 7, p. E704-E705Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 37.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Måttligt förhöjt blodtryck, en systematisk litteraturöversikt.2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Proteinuria early in the development of hypertension2014In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 2351-2352Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    The challenge of preventing dementia by antihypertensive treatment2013In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1780-1781Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Time to lower treatment BP targets for hypertension?2009In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 374, no 9689, p. 503-504Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    What do we know about the risks of stopping antihypertensive treatment?2014In: Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0263-6352, E-ISSN 1473-5598, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 1400-1401Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Frishman, William H.
    Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, United States; Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, United States.
    Lindholm, Lars H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    β-blockers in hypertension2012In: Hypertension: a companion to Braunwald's heart disease / [ed] Henry R. Black, Saunders Elsevier, 2012, 2, p. 172-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Comment: Stroke and blood-pressure variation: new permutations on an old theme.2010In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 375, no 9718, p. 867-869Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Nilsson, Peter M
    Hypertension in the elderly: what is the goal blood pressure target and how can this be attained?2010In: Current Hypertension Reports, ISSN 1522-6417, E-ISSN 1534-3111, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 331-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the aging populations of Europe, many emerging health problems in addition to myocardial infarction and stroke are associated with hypertension. Recently, the role of hypertension in the risk of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia has been highlighted, and there are studies to show that control of hypertension may slow this process. Furthermore, as many elderly individuals will also develop type 2 diabetes or impaired renal function, the risk of hypertension in these patients is more pronounced. New guidelines have tried to provide evidence-based treatment algorithms in which control of hypertension is just one aspect of general risk factor control, with the aim of decreasing the total risk.

  • 45.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Cererovaskulära sjukdomar2009In: Diabetes / [ed] Agardh, Berne, Liber , 2009, p. 401-410Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Ola
    Lindholm, Lars H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Atenolol in hypertension: is it a wise choice?2004In: Lancet, ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 364, no 9446, p. 1684-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Ola
    Lindholm, Lars H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Finns möjligen hela bilden om atenolol hos Kent Forsén?2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 151-152Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Ekblom, Kim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Strand, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Anticoagulant treatment at a specialized outpatient anticoagulant therapy unit, a descriptive study.2005In: Thrombosis Journal, E-ISSN 1477-9560, Vol. 3, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Eklund, Sanna A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Israelsson, Hanna
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences.
    Vascular risk profiles for predicting outcome and long-term mortality in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: comparison of clinical decision support tools2023In: Journal of Neurosurgery, ISSN 0022-3085, E-ISSN 1933-0693, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 476-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Vascular risk factors (VRFs) may act synergistically, and clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have been developed that present vascular risk as a summarized score. Because VRFs are a major issue in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), a CDST may be useful in the diagnostic workup. The objective was to compare 4 CDSTs to determine which one most accurately predicts short-term outcome and 10-year mortality after CSF shunt surgery in INPH patients.

    METHODS: One-hundred forty INPH patients who underwent CSF shunt surgery were included. For each patient, 4 CDST scores (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation–Older Persons [SCORE-OP], Framingham Risk Score [FRS], Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile, and Kiefer’s Comorbidity Index [KCI]) were estimated. Short-term outcome (3 months after CSF shunt surgery) was defined on the basis of improvements in gait, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and modified Rankin Scale score. The 10-year mortality rate after surgery was noted. The CDSTs were compared by using Cox regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: For 3 CDSTs, increased score was associated with increased risk of 10-year mortality. A 1-point increase in the FRS indicated a 2% higher risk of death within 10 years (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.003–1.035, p = 0.021); SCORE-OP, 5% (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.019–1.087, p = 0.002); and KCI, 12% (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.219, p = 0.008). FRS predicted short-term outcome of surgery (p = 0.024). When the cutoff value was set to 32.5%, the positive predictive value was 80% and the negative predictive value was 48% (p = 0.012).

    CONCLUSIONS: The authors recommend using FRS to predict short-term outcome and 10-year risk of mortality in INPH patients. The study indicated that extensive treatment of the risk factors of INPH may decrease risk of mortality.

  • 50. Eriksson, J W
    et al.
    Carlberg, Bpo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Hillörn, Valter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Life-threatening ventricular tachycardia due to liquorice-induced hypokalaemia.1999In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 245, no 3, p. 307-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a patient with hypokalaemia and severe ventricular tachycardia of torsades de pointes type which turned out to be caused by an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome associated with liquorice consumption. The patient, a 44-year-old woman, attended the hospital because of irregular heart rhythm and she displayed repeated episodes of life-threatening torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia. The initial serum potassium was low: 2.3 mmol L-1. The patient was treated with potassium and magnesium infusions, and the dysrhythmias eventually ceased. Endocrinological investigations showed no indication of Cushing's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism. After some time it became clear that the patient had ingested moderately large amounts of liquorice every day for 4 months. After the patient stopped this habit the hypokalaemia and dysrhythmias did not recur and after more than 1 year there are no signs of cardiac illness.

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