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  • 1.
    Ander, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stjerna Doohan, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Elchockvapen som hjälpmedel vid polisiära ingripanden: En vetenskaplig utvärdering av Polismyndighetens försöksverksamhet med elchockvapen 2018-20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Less-­lethal weapons are often used when police officers deal with uncooperative and potentially dan­gerous persons. In recent years there has been growing international consensus regarding the useful­ness of less lethal weapons, such as conducted electrical weapons (CEWs). In 2018 the Swedish Police Authority launched a two­year trial of CEWs in Sweden.

    AIM: The current study aims to evaluate the Police Authority's CEW trial, and to explore the public's point of view about the legitimacy of the police’s use of CEW.

    METHODS: The study includes a quantitative survey and qualitative data. The survey data was collected at three time points; before, during, and at the end of the trial. Survey data was collected from two groups of police officers; one group that participated in the CEW trial and one control group that was not part of the trial. To increase the understanding of the survey results, in­depth interviews and focus group in­terviews were conducted with police officers who had experience of using CEW during the trial. To understand more about the citizens' perspective on different aspects of CEW legitimacy, focus group interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of the public. Data from the Police work injury system (LISA) was also collected to investigate the CEW’s impact on police officers' injuries.

    RESULTS: Results from the survey showed no differences between CEW and the control group in experiencing stress in certain given situations. Compared to the control group, the police officers in the CEW group experienced a greater sense of safety in situations that involve a high degree of resistance and/or phys­ical attacks. Similarly, the findings from the interviews showed that having access to CEW reduced stress in violent situations by boosting police officers' sense of safety. The interview results revealed that CEW contributes to police officers limiting the use of other potentially harmful means of violence, such as physical methods and firearms. In the survey, no difference was found between the CEW group and the control group in exposure to threat, violence, and resistance, as well as injuries to police officers or counterpart. The interviewees considered the CEW to be an important tool and saw only benefits with it. They believed it could save lives, reduce injuries to both police officers and counterparts, and improve their working environment. Findings from both quantitative and qualitative data confirm the positive effect of CEW through its contribution to lesser use of violence, for example in the reduction in the use of baton and pepper spray, which often cause more injuries. Participants from the public express that CEW is an effective and useful tool for the police, but emphasizes the importance of an awareness regarding the situations in which it is used in and towards whom.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the survey results, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions about how and to what extent using CEW is associated with less injuries among police officers and counterparts. However, the inter­view results indicate that police officers experience a decreased risk of violence and thus, injuries. Ac­cess to CEW can increase the sense of safety in situations involving violence and strong resistance, which consequently reduces stress. CEW can also reduce the use of pepper spray, baton, and to some extent firearms. The CEW is perceived to have a de­escalating effect and can facilitate the process of decision making in relation to which tool to be used in police interventions with a high degree of threat and violence. Participants from the public perceived that the use of violence by the police, including the use of CEW, is in general justifiable. 

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  • 2.
    du Preez, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Department of psychology, Pretoria University, South Africa.
    Cassimjee, Nafisa
    Department of psychology, Pretoria University, South Africa.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    Personality of South African police trainees2009In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 105, no 2, p. 539-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been efforts to identify a "police personality" based on dispositional and socialization models. Personality traits of successful police applicants at the Police College in Pretoria, South Africa (N=1,145 police trainees), with regard to sex, ethnic group, and English language reading skills, were described in terms of scores on the Temperament and Character Inventory. South African police trainees generally evaluated themselves as substantially lower in Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance combined with lower Cooperativeness, but they scored much higher on SeIf-Directedness, Persistence, and Self-Transcendence compared to South African university students from the same area. These are characteristics expected from future police officers, which supports the dispositional model.

  • 3. du Preez, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Cassimjee, Nafisa
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Personality and mental health: An investigation of South African police trainees2011In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 301-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality and mental health was investigated in one cohort of police trainees at a South African police academy (1,145 police recruits; 648 men, 497 women). Male trainees reported less somatisation, depression, anxiety, and phobic anxiety symptoms and lower harm avoidance as well as higher persistence than female trainees. A cluster analysis based on the personality scores was used to identify three clusters with personality profiles characterized as Vulnerable, Healthy, and Intermediate profiles. Sociodemographic variables and temperament and character domain scores contributed separately and differentially to the explanation of variance in mental health symptom scores. Selection tools should be developed to identify vulnerable individuals in terms of personality characteristics during selection and prior to training, to prevent later problems with stress reactions. Additional training modules focusing on coping skills could possibly reduce vulnerability to stress in some trainees.

  • 4.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Den lokala nivåns betydelse i det förebyggande arbetet mot våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism2017In: Våldsbejakande extremism: en forskarantologi / [ed] Christofer Edling och Amir Rostamni, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017, p. 225--255Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    What is local resilience against radicalization and how can it be promoted?: a multidisciplinary literature review2023In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 1108-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research note, we present results from a review of research on local resilience in relation to radicalization in public health, social work, crisis management, and community policing using terrorism studies as a point of departure. In order to identify agreements between literatures, we focus on how local resilience is understood, how it is said to be promoted, and how this knowledge could be synthesized. We show that resilience by and large is understood as both a process and a capacity underpinned by cooperation, social networks, and community resources and that an initial mapping of existing strengths and resources is pivotal for local resilience-building.

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  • 6.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    "They think of us as part of the problem instead of part of the solution": Swedish civil society and faith based organizations in resilience building and prevention of radicalization and violent Islamist extremism2020In: Journal for Deradicalization, E-ISSN 2363-9849, no 22, p. 122-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radicalization and violent extremism are pressing issues on the Swedish political agenda. The local level has been identified as pivotal when it comes to preventive work and local public actors are encouraged to cooperate with civil society in efforts to promote local resilience. However, the Swedish debate on the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) and faith based organizations (FBOs) in resilience building and prevention is heated. Based on 14 interviews with representatives for secular, Christian and Muslim CSOs and FBOs, we have explored and analysed how they perceive their role in resilience building and preventive work. We have asked how they interpret local resilience against radicalization and violent extremism and what they think is needed in order to promote it. Findings are mirrored against a recent literature review on local resilience. In the interviews, there is a strong emphasis on work to strengthen social support networks, enhance community resources and build collective identity. In relation to the literature review, there are significant similarities with how resilience is defined and said to be promoted.

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  • 7.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Strandh, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Lokal resiliens mot radikalisering och våldsbejakande extremism - från ett krisberedskapsperspektiv2020Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 8.
    Emami, Habib
    et al.
    University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences.
    Ghazinour, mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Rezaeishiraz, Hamed
    Department of Health Behavior, Rosewell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centres of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Regions East and South, Oslo, Norway.
    Mental health of adolescents in Tehran, Iran2007In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 571-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate mental health in Iranian adolescents, particularly in high school students from urban areas. METHOD: A sample of 4599 girls and boys was selected from third year classes from high schools in Tehran by a stratified cluster random sampling method. They were investigated by means of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a cross-sectional study. Following the recommendations of Goldberg et al, the chosen cut-off point for the differentiation between individuals with and without psychiatric morbidity was a score of 7 because of the high mean score within the population. RESULTS: Of the students, 1270 (19.5%) achieved a GHQ-12 score above the threshold. Significantly more girls (34.1%) than boys (23.7%) had GHQ-12 scores indicating some psychiatric morbidity. On average, the 18-year-old adolescents reported a higher level of mental health problems compared with 17-year-old adolescents in the same school year. CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of adolescent high school students experience mental disorders, with girls experiencing such disorders more frequently than boys. Periodic mental health surveys in high schools are proposed to identify students in need of counselling or treatment to improve their coping skills and problem-solving abilities.

  • 9.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Inzunza, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    PCI: development of an instrument to assess on- and off-duty police conflict behaviorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Police conflict management: a scoping reviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Trajectories of Mental Health Status Among Police Recruits in Sweden2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 753800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The stressful and complex nature of police work and its adverse effects on mental health are well-documented in police research. The mental health of police students however, has not been given the same attention. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the mental health of Swedish police recruits have not been undertaken since 2010.

    Objectives: The present study aims to examine whether there are differences in the mental health between two cohorts (2009 and 2020) of Swedish police recruits, as well as to compare the mental health of both cohorts with the general population data collected in 2002.

    Methods: Data was collected using the SCL-90-R survey. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and independent sample T-tests. Bi-variate analyses including t-test and chi-square were used to examine differences in sociodemographic variables between the two cohorts.

    Results: A total of 376 police recruits participated in the study. Results indicated no significant differences between the cohorts with regards to the three global indices of the SCL-90-R: Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Total (PST), and Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI). Recruits with a college degree had lower scores on GSI and PSDI, similar to respondents that where in a relationship vs. singles. A total of 15 (four female) recruits had GSI scores above the Swedish patient mean. Compared with the general population, males and females from the 2009, as well as females from the 2020 cohorts had lower or insignificantly different mean scores on all global indices, with males from the 2020 cohort having a significantly lower PST score.

    Conclusions: While the vast majority of recruits had results that where indicative of a low prevalence and intensity with regards to mental health disorders, some recruits did score above the Swedish patient mean. While mental preparedness is part of the curriculum for Swedish police recruits, interventions targeting the stigmas of poor mental health could be of value. The fact that educational attainment appears to have a positive impact on the mental health of police recruits, could be taken in to consideration when recruiting future police officers.

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  • 12.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ensamkommande ungdomars placering vid SiS särskilda ungdomshem. Placeringsmotiv, problembild och insatser2021Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Different uses of Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory in public mental health research: what is their value for guiding public mental health policy and practice?2018In: Social Theory & Health, ISSN 1477-8211, E-ISSN 1477-822X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 414-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory is appealing as a conceptual tool for guiding public mental health interventions. However, his theory underwent significant changes since its first inception during the late 1970s until his death in 2005, due to which the implications that can be drawn might differ depending on what concepts (i.e. early or later) of the theory is utilized. The aim of this paper was to examine how different concepts of Bronfenbrenner’s theory have been utilized in (public) mental health research, and to analyse the value of these different uses for guiding public mental health policy and practice. A systematic search for articles that have utilized concepts of Bronfenbrenner’s theory within the field of mental health resulted in a review of 16 published papers. We found that one set of papers (N = 10) used the early concepts of ecological systems without investigating interactions between these systems, while another set of papers used the concepts of ecological systems by also investigating interactions within and between these systems (N = 4). Another limited set of papers (N = 2) utilized the later concepts of proximal processes and the PPCT model. Our results show that studies using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system concepts by clearly considering interactions between and within these systems can result in recommendations that are most useful for guiding public mental health policy and practice.

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  • 14.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Utvärdering av insatser för ensamkommande barn och ungdomar i Umeå 2012-2013: slutrapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna slutrapport redovisas en utvärdering av hur mottagningssystemet och samhällets insatser för ensamkommande barn och ungdomar har utformats och fungerat i Umeå kommun under perioden 2012-2013. Rapporten har utvecklats inom ramen för forskningsprojektet ”Hur fungerar samhällets insatser för ensamkommande flyktingungdomar?” och handlar om flyktingungdomars introduktion och etablering i det svenska samhället.

    En av slutsatserna är att det saknas en tydlig politisk styrning och vägledning av mottagandet av ensamkommande i Umeå och att aktörerna i hög grad själva har fått tolka sina uppdrag och samordna insatserna. En annan slutsats är att samhällets insatser har bidragit till att stödja, stärka och förbereda ungdomarna på att leva i Sverige och till att socialisera dem till vad som förväntas och krävs för att anpassa sig i det svenska samhället, men det finns stora utmaningar när det gäller ungdomarnas fortsatta integration i samhället.

    I rapporten presenteras också rekommendationer för hur mottagandet kan utvecklas. Bland annat rekommenderas att de olika aktörernas uppdrag förtydligas och att en mer utvecklad målsättning och vägledning för Umeå kommuns mottagande av ensamkommande arbetas fram. Aktörerna bör också utveckla och pröva nya sätt att främja ungdomarnas integration i samhället som bättre tillvaratar resurser i civilsamhället.

    Forskningsprojektet har utvecklats och genomförts av en tvärvetenskaplig forskargrupp vid Umeå universitet i samverkan med Umeå kommun och KFUM i Umeå. Projektet har medfinansierats av Europeiska Flyktingfonden.

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    slutrapport
  • 15.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Isaksson, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wimelius, Malin E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Utvärdering av insatser för ensamkommande flyktingungdomar i Umeå: delrapport2013Report (Other academic)
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  • 16.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    'I stand on my own two feet but need someone who really cares': Social networks and social capital among unaccompanied minors for becoming established in Swedish society2019In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 372-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Settling in a new host country as an unaccompanied minor holds a lot of challenges such as adaptation of new social norms, learning a new language and understanding a new culture. Social networks may foster good conditions for settlement in the host community but little is known about the availability, quality and significance of social networks for unaccompanied minors (UM) in Sweden. The aim of this qualitative grounded-theory situational study was to explore experiences of social networks among UM and the significance of those networks for becoming established in Sweden, based on data from in-depth interviews with 11 young persons. Unaccompanied young persons were broadly found to be involved in three different kinds of networks: professional carers, like-ethnic friends and ‘Swedes’ in general. Networks with professionals (i.e. linking social capital) were perceived as both a secure base and a source of rejection, and could either facilitate or obstruct the establishment. Supporting networks with like-ethnic friends (bonding social capital) proved to be the most available and important resource for becoming established, while access to networks with Swedes (bridging social capital) was in general low but still perceived as important for becoming established, not least for reducing language and cultural barriers.

  • 17.
    Forouzan, Ameneh S
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Rafiey, Hassan
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    San Sebastian Chasco, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Reliability and validity of a Mental Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire in Iran2014In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire is an instrument designed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000 to assess the experience of patients when interacting with the health care system. This investigation aimed to adapt a Mental Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire (MHSRQ) based on the WHO concept and evaluate its validity and reliability to the mental health care system in Iran.

    Design: In accordance with the WHO health system responsiveness questionnaire and the findings of a qualitative study, a Farsi version of the MHSRQ was tailored to suit the mental health system in Iran. This version was tested in a cross-sectional study at nine public mental health clinics in Tehran. A sample of 500 mental health services patients was recruited and subsequently completed the questionnaire. Item missing rate was used to check the feasibility while the reliability of the scale was determined by assessing the Cronbach's alpha and item total correlations. The factor structure of the questionnaire was investigated by performing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

    Results: The results showed a satisfactory feasibility since the item missing value was lower than 5.2%. With the exception of access domain, reliability of different domains of the questionnaire was within a desirable range. The factor loading showed an acceptable unidimentionality of the scale despite the fact that three items related to access did not perform well. The CFA also indicated good fit indices for the model (CFI = 0.99, GFI = 0.97, IFI = 0.99, AGFI = 0.97).

    Conclusions: In general, the findings suggest that the Farsi version of the MHSRQ is a feasible, reliable, and valid measure of the mental health system responsiveness in Iran. Changes to the questions related to the access domain should be considered in order to improve the psychometric properties of the measure.

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    Reliability and validity of a Mental Health System Responsiveness Questionnaire in Iran
  • 18.
    Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    Rafeiey, Hassan
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Testing the WHO responsiveness concept in the Iranian mental healthcare system: a qualitative study of service users2011In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Individuals' experience of interacting with the healthcare system has significant impact on their overall health and well-being. To relate patients' experiences to a common set of standards, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the concept of health system responsiveness. This study aimed to assess if the WHO responsiveness concept reflected the non-medical expectations of mental healthcare users in Teheran.

    Methods In this qualitative study, four mixed focus group discussions were formed, comprising 53 mental health service users in Tehran, Iran, in 2010. Content analysis was performed for data analysis. Responses were examined in relation to the eight domains of the WHO's responsiveness model.

    Results There were many commonalities between the findings of this study and the eight domains of the WHO responsiveness model, although some variations were found. Effective care was a new domain generated from our findings. In addition, the domain of prompt attention was included in two new labelled domains: attention and access to care. Participants could not differentiate autonomy from choice of healthcare provider, believing that free choice is part of autonomy. Therefore these domains were unified under the name of autonomy. The domains of quality of basic amenities, access to social support, dignity and confidentiality were considered to be important for the responsiveness concept. Some differences regarding how these domains should be defined were observed, however.

    Conclusions The results showed that the concept of responsiveness developed by the WHO is applicable to mental health services in Iran. These findings might help policy-makers' better understanding of what is useful for the improvement of mental health services.

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  • 19.
    Forouzan, Setareh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rafiey, Hassan
    Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran2016In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 3, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health-care system of Tehran. Utilizing the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care, and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Attention and access to care were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be highly important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health-care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

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  • 20.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Etnicitet i handledning: svår balansgång mellan förminskning och övermedvetenhet2010In: Sokraten, Vol. 02, no 02, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ett multisystemiskt perspektiv på polisarbete2022In: Polisiärt arbete i utsatta områden: utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] Mehdi Ghazinour; Malin Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 123-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Leder2019In: Nordisk Politiforskning, E-ISSN 1894-8693, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Short evaluation of nordic journal of studies in policing2020In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, E-ISSN 2703-7045, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 169-170Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Trauma and resiliency: a study of refugees from Iran resettled in Sweden2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several single factors have been identified as related to coping with trauma and as protective factors. Several studies emphasize the importance of personality, core beliefs, coping strategies and social support. However little attention has been paid to resiliency. The aim of the study was to identify some determinants of an individual’s resiliency after experienced traumatic life events, and to address the issue of its relationship to personality characteristics, psychopathology, coping resources and strategies, social support, sense of coherence and quality of life.

    In the present study, a convenience sample of 100 Iranian refugees, 66 males and 34 females in the age range of 18-65 were investigated. All the subjects have experienced one or several traumatic life events as soldiers, political prisoners or have been victims of torture or have escaped from the country in a stressful way. At the time of the present investigation the mean time living in Sweden was for male subject’s 12.8 years and for female 11.8.

    Nine instruments were administered during individual sessions, Temperament, Character Inventory (TCI), The EMBU (Swedish acronym for own memories concerning upbringing), The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90 – R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Interview Schedule of Social Interaction (ISSI), Coping Resources Inventory (CRI), The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), WHOQoL Group, 1995 (WHOQoL-100), The Sense of Coherence Scale (SoC).

    Several significant associations were found between personality temperament and character, parental rearing and psychopathology. When experiences of parental rearing were investigated in relation to psychopathology, male subjects scored high on parental rejection and were also more depressed compared to females. Although the individuals in the sample suffered from depression or anxiety, there were individuals that had adapted them-self well with the new life in Sweden and its demands. Nineteen percent of subjects who had low harm avoidance and high self directedness received more social support, had better coping strategies, higher sense of coherence and finally a better quality of life.

    This dissertation underscores the importance of multiple indicators when trying to understand resiliency. Personality traits, parental rearing, coping resources, social support and sense of coherence were the strongest predictors for resiliency. Having a systemic perspective helps to explain why some individuals are healthy and resilient despite traumatic life events, escaping from home country, applying for asylum, establishing a new home, learning new languages, to study and stablish and develop new bonds.

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  • 25.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Emami, H
    Richter, J
    Abdollahi, M
    Pazhumand, A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Age and gender differences in the use of various poisoning methods in parasuicide cases admitted to Loghman Hospital in Tehran (2000-2004)2009In: Journal of Suicide and Life-threatening Behaviour, ISSN 0363-0234, E-ISSN 1943-278X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Emami, Habib
    Toxicological Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, and the Tobacco Control and Prevention Research Center.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Regions South and East, Oslo, Norway.
    Abdollahi, Mohammad
    Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Pazumand, Abdolkarim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Age and gender differences in the use of various poisoning methods for deliberate self-harm in individuals admitted to Loghman Hospital in Tehran (2000-2004)2008In: Journal of Suicide and Life-threatening Behaviour, ISSN 0363-0234, E-ISSN 1943-278X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods of poisoning used by individuals with the diagnosis of parasuicide admitted to the Loghman Hospital, Tehran, from 2000 to 2004 were investigated, with particular focus on gender and age differences. Drugs, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals (women: 12.7%, men: 9%) were the most commonly used methods. In males, the percentage of use of drugs increased with age, but the frequency of pesticides use decreased with age. In females, drugs were most often used in the youngest age group, whereas the use of pesticides was lowest in the youngest age category. Females outnumbered males, especially in the youngest age group of 10 to 19 years olds. Drugs and pesticides were the substances used most often for parasuicide in each age group regardless of gender.

  • 27.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Inledning2022In: Polisiärt arbete i utsatta områden: utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] Mehdi Ghazinour; Malin Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 17-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, MalinUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Polisiärt arbete i utsatta områden: utmaningar och möjligheter2022Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ensamkommande barns placering vid SiS särskilda ungdomshem: Vilka place­ras, hur mår de och vilka insatser får de?2019In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 22-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet asylsökande barn har globalt ökat dramatiskt de senaste åren och Sverige har under flera år mottagit ensamkommande ungdomar. Deras behov har tillgodosetts genom samarbete mellan ett stort antal aktörer. De senaste åren har antalet ensamkommande ungdomar som placerats för tvångsvård vid SiS särskilda ungdomshem ökat. Syftet med denna artikel är att beskriva vad som kännetecknar ensamkommande ungdomar som placeras på SiS särskilda ungdomshem, beträffande bakgrund, asylstatus, hälsa och tillgång till sociala nätverk samt att beskriva de insatser som genomförs vid placering av ensamkommande ungdomar på SiS. Resultaten baseras på en genom-gång av avidentifierade journaler från 25 ensamkommande ungdomar som varit placerade på SiS under 2015, och visar att gruppen som sådan består av en majoritet pojkar, flertalet har traumatiska upplevelser i sitt förflutna, en majoritet har en dokumenterad psykisk ohälsa, tillgången till sociala nätverk i Sverige är begränsad och flertalet saknar uppehållstillstånd i Sverige.

  • 30.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Mårald, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Evaluation Research (UCER).
    Stödinsatser för förövare – en utforskande undersökning: Delrapport 3 från den nationella utvärderingen av regeringens insatser mot hedersrelaterat våld2007Report (Other academic)
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    Stödinsatser för förövare_delrapport 3
  • 31.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Mojgan, Padyab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Avvisningar och utvisningar av ensamkommande flyktingbarn: om effektivitet, värdighet och barnens bästa från tjänstemäns och gode mäns perspektiv2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport tar sin utgångspunkt i den svenska regeringens ställningstagande att barn som inte anses ha skyddsbehov eller andra skäl att stanna i Sverige ska kunna återvända hem på värdiga sätt. Samma regering har dock också tydligt uttalat att antalet av- och utvisningar väsentligen ska öka i förhållande till tidigare år. Det är den potentiella spänningen mellan skarpa krav på effektivitet i av- och utvisningsärenden å ena sidan och kraven på värdighet, respekt för mänskliga rättigheter och barnets bästa å den andra, som undersöks i den här rapporten. Fokus ligger på hur centrala aktörer förhåller sig till och tolkar dessa krav och på vad deras respektive förhållningssätt och tolkningar betyder för samverkan dem emellan.

    Tre fallstudier i kommuner av varierande storlek belägna i de geografiskt åtskilda länen Västerbotten, Skåne och Värmland har genomförts. Fallstudierna bygger på totalt 49 intervjuer med handläggare på Migrationsverket, socialsekreterare, gode män, HVBpersonal och poliser – alla verksamma som centrala aktörer vid av- och utvisningar. I analysen av det insamlade materialet betraktas de professionella aktörerna (de gode männen undantagna) som gräsrotsbyråkrater med vida handlingsutrymmen. Det som undersöks är i vilken utsträckning de anser sig kunna omsätta de politiska målsättningarna om ökad effektivitet och bibehållen värdighet i praktiken. För att kunna analysera vad det är som utmärker samarbete och samverkan mellan aktörerna används teorier om interorganisatorisk samverkan.

    De huvudsakliga slutsatser som framkommit i rapporten är att uppfattningar om och förhållningssätt till det effektiva och värdiga återvändandet skiljer sig åt bland de olika aktörerna i Västerbotten, Skåne och Värmland. Aktörerna gör egna tolkningar av begreppen effektivitet och värdighet, i vilka mening skapas utifrån professionella erfarenheter, roller och uppdrag. De största skillnaderna i uppfattning och tolkning har återfunnits mellan aktörskategorierna, inte mellan de tre fallstudierna. Polis och Migrationsverk anser generellt att effektivitet och värdighet går att förena. Poliserna och tjänstemännen på Migrationsverket har jämfört med de andra aktörerna oftare ett uttalat legalt perspektiv och ser både värdighet och respekt för barnens mänskliga rättigheter som inbäddade i det juridiska ramverket. Socialsekreterare, HVB-personal och gode män anser däremot generellt att ett återvändande mot ett barns vilja inte någonsin kan bli värdigt. De är också mer benägna att se det som att Barnkonventionen i relation till utlänningslagen hamnar i underordnad ställning. Vissa likheter mellan aktörerna har också kunnat identifieras. Samtliga betonar gott bemötande, god kommunikation och tydlig information i relation till de barn som fått av- eller utvisningsbeslut.

    Aktörernas olika förhållningssätt får konsekvenser för deras samverkan. Överlag kan samverkan i samtliga undersökta kommuner beskrivas som begränsad, oklar, personberoende och utan gemensamma mål. Aktörerna uttrycker brist på tillit och många upplever en känsla av ensamhet i sina roller. Goda erfarenheter av samverkan finns visserligen men det är tydligt att skilda professionella normer, organisationskulturer, erfarenheter och perspektiv försvårar samverkan.

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  • 32.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    En resa med tvång: erfarenheter av avvisningar och utvisningar av ensamkommande asylsökande flyktingbarn2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 33.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ensamkommande flyktingbarns återvändande: om förutsättningar samt centrala aktörers roller och ansvar2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Mofidi, Naser
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Regions South and East, Oslo, Norway.
    Continuity from suicidal ideations to suicide attempts?: An investigation in 18-55 years old adult Iranian Kurds2010In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 973-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A continuum of suicidal behaviour is supported; but, this did not include self-reported suicide attempts. The reported frequency of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts was highly dependent on applied response categories and the considered timeframe, which has to be considered thoroughly when interpreting related results.

  • 35.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Den psykiska hälsan hos poliser som arbetar i yttre tjänst i särskilt utsatta områden2021In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 290-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to shed light on the Swedish patrolling police officers’ mental health. The mental health of the police is an important area of research since they act in society as a grant for safety and security. Performing simple and difficult tasks places high demands on the mental processes of the police. In this article we pay attention to patrolling police officers who works in particularly vulnerable areas in Stockholm region. Self-assessed DSM-5 questionnaire on mental health was collected and analyzed with descriptive statistics. The results show that rising age and living in relationships are protective factors against mental illness in these police officers.

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  • 36.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Police stress in the swedish context: Development and psychometric properties of the police stress identification questionnaire2021In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, E-ISSN 2703-7045, Vol. 8, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policing is recognised as a stressful occupation. Stress is known to correlate with health problems. This study aimed to extend the available police stress measures and provide an instrument to measure the extent to which different stressors are perceived in general Swedish police work using the Police Stress Identification Questionnaire (PSIQ). The sample comprised patrolling police officers from 20 local police districts or units in all seven regions in Sweden (n=539). The 42 items of the PSIQ were analysed using exploratory factor analysis, and the factor structure was tested on the second random half of the data using confirmatory factor analysis. The final model comprised 40 items that were loaded on five factors. Future studies should focus on a broader range of stressors and on populations other than patrolling police officers.

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  • 37.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Polisens stresshantering och hälsa2022In: Polisiärt arbete i utsatta områden: utmaningar och möjligheter / [ed] Mehdi Ghazinour; Malin Eriksson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 267-283Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lauritz, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Richter, Jörg
    University of Hull, Hull, UK.
    Personality and mental health changes throughout the course of university police training in Sweden2019In: Nordisk Politiforskning, E-ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police trainees have to be prepared for future job demands and challenges. Personality plays an important role in stress management. The first assessment of a longitudinal investigation was conducted among 103 Swedish police trainees to study their personality changes and mental health responses in first two weeks after intake. Fifty-two of these trainees, who participated in the second assessment, were included in the analysis. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to measure personality, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to measure mental health. A multiple regression analysis was performed with personality scores from the first assessment as independent variables and SCL-90-R scores as dependent variables. Over two years, minor changes were found in the police trainees’ personality characteristics, which seemingly fit the demands of policing and are potentially valuable in the trainees’ future careers. Personality characteristics are predictors of mental health at the end of university training.

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  • 39.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Richter, J.
    Eisemann, M.
    Dimensions of personality and resilience in Iranian refugeesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Richter, J.
    Eisemann, M.
    Quality of life among Iranian refugees resettled in Sweden2003In: Journal of Immigrant Health, ISSN 1096-4045, E-ISSN 1573-3629, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between quality of life, psychopathological manifestations and coping relatedvariables (coping resources, social support, sense of coherence) were examined among individualswho have perceived several severe traumata. One hundred Iranian refugees resettledin Sweden have been investigated by theSymptomChecklist (SCL-90-R), the Beck DepressionInventory (BDI), the Coping Resources Inventory (CRI), and the Interview Schedule for SocialInteraction (ISSI), the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and the WHOQoL-100 questionnairein a cross-sectional study. Individuals, traumatized by combat experiences as a soldierduring the war, with low BDI scores showed on average the significantly highest overall qualityof life, the best physical health, the highest scores according to the sense of coherence mostpronounced for “Meaningfulness,” and the best availability of social integration comparedto participants who did not had these experiences in combats and those with the experiencebut scored high in the BDI. Quality of life, coping resources, and social support werefound closely related to psychopathological manifestations. Motivational orientations (highlydeveloped Meaningfulness—SOC) and various coping competencies probably enable sometraumatized individuals to resist against several traumata and to live in a good quality of lifewithout psychopathological disturbances.

  • 41.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Richter, J.
    Eisemann, M.
    Sense of coherence and psychological health among Iranian refugees resettled in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    An investigation of mental health and personality in Swedish social work students upon entry to university training2014In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 572-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims were to describe Swedish social work students’ personality characteristicsupon entry to their training and to analyze relationships between personality traits,mental health, and some sociodemographic variables. One hundred and twenty-onefemale social work students completed a sociodemographic form, the Temperamentand Character Inventory, and the Symptom Checklist. They scored significantly higheron harm avoidance, reward dependence, and self-transcendence and reported moresomatization, obsessive compulsive, and phobic-anxious symptoms, and less hostility,than Swedish individuals from the general population of the same age. Personalitytraits significantly predicted the various mental symptom scores. It is recommended toimplement modules or training courses within social work training in Sweden that bring an improvement of self-directedness and cooperativeness character trait intofocus.

  • 43.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Richter, Jörg
    University of Rostock-Germany.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Department of Psychology-Tromsö Unversity.
    Do Parental Rearing and Personality Characteristics have a Buffering Effect against Psychopathological manifestations among Iranian Refugees in Sweden?2003In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 419-428Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Richter, Jörg
    Mofidi, Naser
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Continuity from suicidal ideations to suicide attempts in Iranian Kurds?Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Suicidal ideation is a critical point for the identification of individuals at risk of committing suicide/attempting suicide. Whilst existing studies provide valuable data from Western countries, more research is needed to determine the applicability of these findings outside of the context of Western culture.

    Method. In a cross–sectional study in Sanandaj, capital of Iranian Kurdistan, 1,000 randomly selected individuals were investigated by means of the Attitudes towards Suicide questionnaire which includes items concerning various suicidal thoughts.

    Results. The Iranian Kurds reported very few suicide attempts, whereas the prevalence of reported suicidal thoughts was found to be very high. The assumption of a continuum of suicidal behaviour is supported by our data; but, this did not include self-reported suicide attempts. The various suicidal thoughts showed very low sensitivity and low predictive power in relation to suicide attempts. The reported frequency of suicidal thoughts and the number of suicide attempts during the last year was significantly higher than that from earlier in life. Age was determined to be a substantial moderator variable related to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts with increasing impact with increasing severity of suicidal behaviour. Gender, cohabitation status and employment situation were largely only weakly associated with the occurrence of suicidal behaviours.

    Conclusions. Culture seems to be of low impact upon the relationship between socio-demographical variables and suicidal behaviour. The reported frequency of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts seems to be highly dependent on applied response categories and the considered timeframe, which has to be considered thoroughly when interpreting related results, and when comparing with findings from other investigations.

  • 45.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umea University.
    Rostami, Arian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umea University.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Are the problems and motives clear enough?: A study on the placement of unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors at compulsory care institutions in Sweden2021In: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 1675-1694Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Board of Institutional Care (SNBIC) is an independent governmental agency that provides compulsory care for minors with psychosocial problems, criminal behavior, and substance abuse. During recent years, a noticeable number of the youth placed at compulsory care institutions have been asylum-seeking minors who have arrived in Sweden without parents or guardians. This steady increase in placements has raised questions and concerns among the involved actors regarding the motives and needs underlying these placements. This qualitative study investigates the main motives that lead unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors to be placed at SNBIC residential homes and the problems that are to be solved during their placement, according to social workers and SNBIC staff. The study is based on 28 in-depth interviews with social workers and SNBIC staff. Findings indicate clear disagreement between social workers and SNBIC staff with regard to the motives for placing unaccompanied minors at SNBIC homes. Although the social workers and SNBIC staff explain that most of the unaccompanied youth placed at SNBIC homes have some form of criminal behavior or substance abuse, SNBIC staff believe, in some cases, the problem is not sufficiently serious to warrant compulsory care. As these disagreements and misunderstandings between the actors have an impact on their collaboration and, consequently, the situation of the unaccompanied minors, all attempts to reach a consensus on the leading causes for placement and the problems that need to be solved with SNBIC placement would increase security for both the young people and the relevant staff.

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  • 46.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    du Preez, Elisabeth
    Cassimjee, Nafisa
    Richter, Jörg
    An investigation of mental health and personality in Swedish police trainees upon entry to the Police Academy2010In: Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, ISSN 0882-0783, E-ISSN 1936-6469, ISSN 0882-0783, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at personality and mental health status of Swedish police trainees considering gender differences; and at relationships between personality and mental health. 103 individuals were investigated by means of the SCL-90-R and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) upon entry to the police academy. By contrast, the police trainees were mentally much healthier than individuals from the general population. They reported low Harm Avoidance and their character dimensions were more developed in terms of strength, responsibility and reliability. Harm Avoidance (positively) and Self-Directedness (negatively) were found to be associated with all facets of psychopathology. The good mental health and mature personality characteristics reported by trainees, particularly the females, suggest that they have the strength to master the stressful situations which they will face in their professional lives. In order to prevent possible psychological disturbances later in life, due to the high level of distress in their work, the development of trainees’ personality in terms of particular coping skills should be regarded as an integral part of their professional training at the police academy.

  • 47.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, J.
    Eisemann, M.
    Personality related to coping and social support among Iranian refugees in Sweden2003In: Journal of nervous and mental disease, Vol. 191, no 9, p. 595-603Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Centre for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Eastern and Southern Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    Anger related to psychopathology, temperament and character in healthy individuals: An explorative study2009In: Journal of social behavior and personality, ISSN 0886-1641, E-ISSN 2168-3263, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1197-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated relationships between temperament, character, and anger experience, control, and expression. Police trainees (N = 103) completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger, Przybeck, Svrakic, & Wetzel, 1994), the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCR-90-R; Derogatis, 1994), and the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI-2, Spielberger, 1999). Personality scores were of greater significance compared to SCL-90-R scores for most of the STAXI-2 subscales while the scores of both personality and mental health contributed by a similar amount to trait anger. Temperament subscales explained a much greater amount of anger expression-in variance while variance of character subscales explained more of the variance in anger V, angry reaction, state, and trait anger. Character was found to be superior to temperament in the determination of anger, supporting a cognitively foused definition of anger.

  • 49.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Police Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A systematic review of lifestyle and health among patrolling police officers2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 721-744Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The police profession is a high-strain and high-risk profession, sometimes resulting in poor physical, mental and social health. This systematic review aims to identify and describe crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle among patrolling police officers in Europe, an area not previously studied.

    Methods: The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A protocol was published and registered with PROSPERO beforehand. Searches were carried out in eight databases. Two independent authors screened articles and critically appraised the included studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted to analyse the results. The review’s total body of evidence was assessed with GRADE-CERQaul.

    Results: A total of 16 articles were located, representing 13 studies. Barriers and resources for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were linked to a theoretical framework of life balance. Subsequently, a linkage model was created to explain different aspects of patrolling police officers’ life balance and its relation to health (physical, social and mental).

    Conclusions: Several crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were found and described, indicating that patrolling officers’ working life affects their possibilities of living a balanced lifestyle, which might disturb different aspects of health, depending on which aspect is compromised.

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  • 50.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Exploring the life contexts of patrolling police officers in the European Union – A scoping review2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 585-603Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patrolling police officers engage in different mentally, socially, and physically challenging life contexts which may affect their life and health. The aim of this scoping review is twofold, to explore life contexts of patrolling officers in the European Union, and to investigate how their lives and health are affected by environmental characteristics within these contexts.

    Methods: The scoping review followed Arksey and O’Malley’s methodology and included a critical appraisal. The environmental model within Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation was used in the thematic analysis. The review was reported following PRISMA-ScR.

    Results: In the 16 included studies, two contexts (where environments interact with persons on different levels) were discovered: the global and the immediate context. No local contexts were found. Primarily, research on the social, and occupational environments, including qualities identified in these environments were found. However, some environmental characteristics within patrolling officers’ physical environments were also discovered.

    Discussion: This review contributes to the emerging research area of police officers’ life contexts, by mapping contexts and environments affecting their life and health. However, to get a deeper understanding of how officers are affected by their environments, interviewing them regarding how their different contexts affect their everyday living, would be important.

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