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  • 1.
    Hermansson, Carina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindhé, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lundgren, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Norlund Shaswar, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The (non)effect of Joint Construction in a genre-based approach to teaching writing2019In: The Journal of educational research (Washington, D.C.), ISSN 0022-0671, E-ISSN 1940-0675, Vol. 112, no 4, p. 483-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This quasi-experimental intervention study examines the effect of genre-based instructional practices on 90 primary students’ narrative writing achievements and is a result of six teachers’ action to meet the educational goals of the Swedish national curriculum. Specifically, the authors examine the effects of Joint Construction, the phase in the genre pedagogical model of the Sydney School known as the Teaching and Learning Cycle, in which teachers and students work together to co-construct texts. Joint Construction has been put forward as the most powerful part of the Teaching and Learning Cycle. The authors challenge this argument, presenting findings that are inconsistent with this widely held belief. Using a pretest-posttest control group design, the study shows that the Joint Construction stage did not significantly improve the quality of students’ narrative writing or increase the text length of their writings.

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  • 2.
    Knospe, Yvonne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sverige.
    Skrivande vid inlärningssvårigheter2022In: Skrivdidaktik i grundskolan / [ed] Eva Lindgren; Carina Hermansson; Annika Norlund Shaswar; Sofie Areljung, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 281-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lässvårigheter, språklig förmåga och skolresultat i tidiga skolår: en undersökning av 44 elever i årskurs 2 till 32014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year about 20% of the students in primary and secondary school do not reach the goals of the Swedish National Curriculum. A greater understanding of how reading difficulties relate to oral language skills, and how both reading and oral language skills contribute to educational outcome in the Swedish context is needed to improve early identification and intervention for students at risk of not achieving the goals of the Swedish national curriculum. This dissertation investigates how reading difficulties and oral language comprehension affect educational outcome in the year 3 Swedish national tests, and how reading difficulties in early primary school relate to phonological processing skills and oral language comprehension. The Simple View of Reading model was used to describe the participants’ reading difficulties. All year 2 students (N = 214) in two municipalities participated in an examination of reading comprehension, word-decoding and spelling. Sixty-six students with reading comprehension (z < –0.83), word-decoding skills (z < –0.71) and/or spelling skills (z < –0.58) in the lower end of the normal distribution were identified. Forty-four students agreed to participate in the study. Oral language skills, phonological processing, verbal memory, word-decoding, reading comprehension and non-verbal ability were examined in year 3. Forty-six to 66 per cent of the students with reading comprehension difficulties in year 2 were identified with difficulties in oral language comprehension (z ≤ –1.0) in year 3. None of the students with specific word-decoding difficulties had difficulties in oral language comprehension. Oral language comprehension was significantly correlated to the results in the year 3 Swedish national tests for the two tasks in reading comprehension (p < .01) in Swedish, and with five of six tasks in Mathematics (p < .01 in four tasks and p < .05 in one task). Rapid naming of visual objects also correlated significantly with four out of six tasks in Mathematics (p < .01). Non-verbal ability, word-decoding and reading comprehension in year 3 showed no significant relationship with outcome in the Swedish national tests. This dissertation shows the centrality of oral language comprehension skills for both reading comprehension and outcome in the Swedish national tests, and the importance of considering oral language comprehension both in assessment and in intervention when students show poor reading comprehension skills in early primary school.

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    Maria Levlin_2014_Lässvårigheter, språklig förmåga och skolresultat
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    Spikblad Levlin
  • 4.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Tidig intensiv avkodningsträning i åk 22017In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 6-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nakeva von Mentzer, Cecilia
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    An evaluation of systematized phonics on reading proficiency in Swedish second grade poor readers: Effects on pseudoword and sight word reading skills2020In: Dyslexia, ISSN 1076-9242, E-ISSN 1099-0909, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 427-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of systematized phonics on word reading in Swedish second grade poor readers. Forty-nine children who performed at or below the 25th percentile on pseudoword reading and/or sight word reading at the beginning of second grade participated in the study. The study had a cross-over design exploring within-and between-group effects of two different conditions: systematized phonics and classroom instruction. Overall, systematized phonics proved more effective than classroom instruction. At pre-intervention, no child performed above the 30th percentile in pseudoword reading or sight word reading. At post-intervention, corresponding numbers were 69% for pseudoword reading and 35% for sight word reading. Implications for a policy change in Sweden towards mandatory systematized phonics in primary school are discussed.

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  • 6.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Okonski, Lacey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Educational attainment in Swedish (L1) and English (L2) for students with reading difficulties: a longitudinal case study from primary to the end of secondary school2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 172-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal case study examines reading difficulties identified in Grade 2 and Grade 6 national assessment test (NAT) scores in relation to Grade 9 NAT in Swedish (L1) and English (L2). A norm-referenced screening was used in Grade 2 to assess word reading and reading comprehension. In line with the simple view of reading, four subgroups were identified: (1) Typical reading development, (2) Word reading difficulties, (3) Reading comprehension difficulties, and (4) Mixed difficulties. Results indicate that reading difficulties in primary school have long-standing implications for educational attainment in Swedish and English. In logistic regression models students with reading difficulties in Grade 2 and low Grade 6 NAT-scores had a higher probability to achieve low attainment levels in Grade 9. This implies that a norm-referenced screening in Grade 2 can be useful for identifying students at risk of low attainment in language subjects at the end of compulsory school.

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  • 7.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rijlaarsdam, Gert
    Skriva och läsa: att konstruera förståelse2022In: Skrivdidaktik i grundskolan / [ed] Eva Lindgren; Carina Hermansson; Annika Norlund Shaswar; Sofie Areljung, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, 1, p. 69-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oral language skills in grade 3 among a group of Swedish students with weak word-decoding and reading comprehension in grade 22013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Språklig förmåga hos en grupp elever med svag avkodning och läsförståelse i åk 22013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Olofsson, Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Språklig förmåga hos en grupp elever med svag avkodning och läsförståelse i åk 22012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Oral language skills and reading in relation to written text production: A longitudinal study of 85 students' written text production in Year 3, 6 and 92017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Institutionen för svenska språket, Linnéuniversitetet.
    Samband mellan språklig förmåga och skriven textproduktion hos elever med svag läsförmåga2017In: Språk och norm / Language and Norms: Rapport från ASLA:s symposium, Uppsala universitet 21–22 april 2016 / Papers from the ASLA Symposium, Uppsala University 21–22 April 2016 / [ed] Saga Bendegard, Ulla Melander Marttala, Maria Westman, Svenska föreningen för tillämpad språkvetenskap , 2017, p. 62-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriven textproduktion är en utmaning för många elever med språk- och lässvårigheter. Tidigare studier har visat att språklig förmåga, arbetsminne och fonologiskt processande utgör centrala förutsättningar inte bara för automatiserade processer i skrivandet (stavning och interpunktion) utan också för skrivprocesser på en högre kognitiv nivå (textens språkliga kvalitet, textorganisation och textlängd). I den föreliggande studien undersöker vi relationen mellan språklig förmåga, fonologiskt processande, verbalt arbetsminne, läsförmåga och skriven textproduktion hos 40 elever som identifierades med svag läs- och stavningsförmåga i årskurs 2. I årskurs 3 deltog dessa elever i en logopedutredning som omfattade en bedömning av fonologiskt processande, receptiv och expressiv språklig förmåga (ordförråd, grammatik och hörförståelse av text), korttidsminne, arbetsminne, ordavkodning, läsförståelse och icke-verbal problemlösning. Utfallet i logopedutredningen undersöktes i relation till den narrativa skrivuppgiften som eleverna genomförde i de nationella proven i svenska i årskurs 3. Elevernas texter analyserades utifrån ett flertal mått på textproduktion på olika nivåer: transkriptionsnivå (stavning och interpunktion), lexikal nivå (lexikal variation och densitet), meningsnivå (syntaktisk komplexitet, morfologiska och syntaktiska avvikelser) och textnivå (textlängd). Utifrån modellen ”Simple View of Writing” och resultat från tidigare forskning formulerades följande hypoteser: (1) receptiv och expressiv språklig förmåga, verbalt arbetsminne, avkodning och läsförmåga relaterar till textproduktion på ord- och meningsnivå och till mått på textnivå, och (2) fonologisk processande, avkodning och verbalt arbetsminne relaterar till stavning på transkriptionsnivån. Pearsons produktmomentkorrelation användes för att analysera relationen mellan språklig förmåga, fonologiskt processande, verbalt arbetsminne, läsförmåga och skriven textproduktion. Resultaten presenteras och diskuteras utifrån både metodologiska och teoretiska aspekter.

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  • 13.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Written Language in Children With Weak Reading and Spelling Skills: The Role of Oral Language, Phonological Processing, Verbal Working Memory and Reading2020In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 20, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of written language and the relation of oral language, phonological processing, verbal working memory and reading to written language in early writers with weak reading and/or spelling in grade 2 (n = 39). In grade 3, the students participated in an assessment of oral and written language. A resolved group with age typical oral language, phonological processing and reading (n = 11) performed better than their unresolved peers (n = 28) on almost all written language measures. Spelling, text length, grammatical accuracy and vocabulary diversity were the most challenging aspects for the unresolved group. Oral language correlated significantly with the composite written language score, text length and vocabulary diversity, while phonological processing was related to grammatical accuracy and working memory to the composite written language score and spelling. Word reading and reading comprehension were not related to any written language measures. Regression analyses confirmed that oral language contributed significantly to the variation in the composite written language score, text length and vocabulary diversity. The results emphasize the importance of oral language for written language in early writers with (a history of) weak reading and/or spelling.

  • 14.
    Levlin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandgren, Olof
    Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sara
    National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Evaluating the Effect of Rich Vocabulary Instruction and Retrieval Practice on the Classroom Vocabulary Skills of Children With (Developmental) Language Disorder2022In: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, ISSN 0161-1461, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 542-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school.

    Method: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (Mage = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1–2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition.

    Results: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words.

    Conclusions: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP,whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to be-learned material (Tier 2 words).

  • 15.
    Sehlström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Department of Swedish, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Self-efficacy for writing and written text quality of upper secondary students with and without reading difficulties2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1231817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Self-efficacy for writing (SEW) and reading ability are some of several factors that may be related to the quality of written text that students produce. The aim of the current study was (1) to explore the variation in SEW and written text quality in L1-Swedish and L2-English among upper secondary students with different reading profiles in L1 (typical reading vs. reading difficulties) and with different study backgrounds (SB1year or SB2years = one or two years of studies of Swedish and English, respectively), and in the next step (2) to explore if individual variations in L1-reading and SEW may explain variation in written text quality.

    Methods: Participants were 100 upper secondary students (aged 17–18) with different reading profiles operationalized as typical reading and reading difficulties. Data consisted of screening for word recognition and reading comprehension, text quality results from argumentative L1- and L2-writing tasks, school information on study background in Swedish/English, and students' responses from an online survey about SEW.

    Results: As to SEW results, an ANOVA revealed significant main effects for reading profile and study background in L1, but in L2 there was only a significant main effect for reading profile. Written text quality results indicated that there was a significant interaction effect between reading profile and study background in L1, indicating that the significant main effect for reading profile on written text quality was influenced by the group of students with reading difficulties and SB1year. There was a significant main effect for reading profile and study background on written text quality in L2. Students with reading difficulties and SB1year were the most vulnerable group, and they had the lowest scores in L1/L2 SEW and written text quality in L1 and L2. Multiple regression results indicated that word recognition and SEW contributed significantly to L1-text quality, and word recognition, reading comprehension, and SEW contributed significantly to L2-text quality. Thus, this study sheds light on the under-researched area of L1/L2 SEW and text quality of students with reading difficulties at the level of upper secondary school.

    Discussion: Pedagogical implications are discussed and highlight the need for writing instruction across subjects in upper secondary school and for extra writing support/scaffolding for students with reading difficulties and shorter study background in the language subjects L1 (Swedish) and L2 (English).

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  • 16.
    Sehlström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Department of Swedish, Linnaeus University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Swedish (L1) and English (L2) argumentative writing of upper secondary students with reading difficulties2022In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing has been identified as a challenge for students with reading difficulties. This study contributes to previous research by exploring argumentative writing in L1 (Swedish) and L2 (English) in a group of students with reading difficulties in upper secondary school. Participants were 19 students with typical reading, 19 students with poor decoding, and 9 students with poor comprehension. A majority of students attended vocational programmes. Written text quality was assessed by using an adapted version of Jacobs et al.'s (1981) analytic scoring scheme including content, organisation, cohesion, vocabulary, language use, spelling, and punctuation. Students with reading difficulties (regardless of reader subgroup) were found to perform poorly in all categories in both L1 and L2, with spelling being particularly challenging in L1, and cohesion, language use, spelling, and punctuation in L2. Significant differences were found between students with poor comprehension and students with typical reading in cohesion, language use and spelling in L2. Few other significant differences were identified possibly due to an overall poor writing outcome also for students with typical reading. This general poor outcome in writing is discussed in relation to previous studies on writing among students with reading difficulties and writing in vocational programmes.

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  • 17.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Swedish, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reading profiles in secondary school: concurrent language and cognitive abilities, and retrospective and prospective reading skills2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1287134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: We examined the concurrent language and cognitive abilities in a group of Swedish students with different reading profiles in secondary school, and the retrospective (primary school) and prospective (upper-secondary school) reading skills of each reading profile.

    Methods: Seventy-nine students participated in data collections in primary (grade 2: age 8), secondary (grade 8: age 14) and upper-secondary school (year 2: age 17). Independent variables included measures of word recognition, and vocabulary and text comprehension in secondary school. Dependent variables included measures of phonemic awareness, verbal fluency, listening comprehension, spelling, verbal working memory and nonverbal reasoning skills in secondary school, and word recognition and reading comprehension in primary and upper-secondary school.

    Results: When exploring the concurrent language and cognitive abilities of the reading profiles in secondary school, spelling emerged as a weakness and listening comprehension as a strength for students with poor decoding. Students with poor comprehension experienced weaknesses in spelling, and non-verbal reasoning. Students with both poor decoding and comprehension displayed a multi-deficit profile in language and cognition. As regards the retrospective and prospective reading skills, the relative ranking of the reading profiles was rather consistent in both primary and upper-secondary school.

    Discussion: The findings suggest that limitations in phonological awareness may not be a prominent feature of secondary school students with poor decoding in more transparent orthographies. From an educational perspective, spoken sources may support learning among students with poor decoding, whereas students with poor comprehension or combined difficulties in decoding and comprehension need support when learning from both spoken and written sources.

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  • 18. Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Skrivande hos elever med olika typer av lässvårigheter2019In: Klassrumsforskning och språk(ande): Rapport från ASLA-symposiet i Karlstad, 12-13 april, 2018 / [ed] Birgitta Ljung Egeland, Tim Roberts, Erica Sandlund, Pia Sundqvist,, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019, p. 305-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks textlängd, narrativ kvalitet, lexikal variation och stavning i narrativa texter skrivna i årskurs 3 av elever identifierade med typisk respektive svag avkodning och/eller läsförståelse i en screening i årskurs 2. Deltagare är 16 elever med avkodningssvårigheter, 19 elever med läsförståelsesvårigheter, 12 elever med både avkodnings- och läsförståelsesvårigheter samt 16 elever med typisk avkodning och läsförståelse. Textmaterialet består av den fria narrativa skrivuppgiften i det nationella ämnesprovet i årskurs 3. Texterna analyseras med hjälp av kvantitativa mått på textlängd, narrativ kvalitet, lexikal variation och stavning samt deskriptiva och parametriska analysmetoder. Resultaten visar att det finns signifikanta skillnader i textlängd, narrativ kvalitet och lexikal variation mellan de fyra elevgrupperna. Alla tre grupper med lässvårigheter skrev signifikant kortare texter jämfört med gruppen med typisk läsförmåga. Narrativ kvalitet och lexikal variation visade sig vara särskilt utmanande för grupperna med läsförståelsesvårigheter. Stavning uppvisade inga signifikanta skillnader mellan några grupper. Sammantaget indikerar studien att elever med läsförståelsesvårigheter utgör en särskilt sårbar grupp i skrivutvecklingen.

  • 19.
    Waldmann, Christian
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Ranjkesh, Rebecca
    Kuusiolinna terveys Oy.
    Malmström, Amanda
    Region Norrbotten.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Ungdomars skrivpraktiker på fritiden2022In: Språk i skola, på fritid och i arbetsliv : aktuella arenor för svensk forskning inom tillämpad språkvetenskap: Language in school, leisure time, and working life : current arenas for Swedish research in applied linguistics / [ed] Pia Sundqvist; Christian Waldmann; Boglárka Straszer; Birgitta Ljung Egeland, Association suédoise de linguistique appliquée (ASLA) , 2022, p. 187-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i New Literacy Studies syn på skrivande som en social praktik syftar föreliggande studie till att synliggöra ungdomars skrivpraktiker på fritiden. Mer specifikt undersöktes vad ungdomar skriver, i vilka syften de skriver, vilka uppfattningar de har om sitt eget skrivande och hur dessa uppfattningar relaterar till vad och i vilka syften de skriver. Tretton ungdomar från olika gymnasieprogram deltog i semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades innehållsligt för att identifiera konkreta skrivhändelser, funktioner och uppfattningar om skrivande. Resultaten visade att de vanligast förekommande skrivhändelserna hade en kommunikativ funktion, t.ex. sms, inlägg i sociala medier och meddelanden i dataspelschattar. Ungdomarna iscensatte olika skrivhändelser även i syfte att planera/organisera, dokumentera, lösa problem, uttrycka kreativitet och bilda sig. Ungdomarnas uppfattningar om skrivande på fritiden rörde sig på en skala från negativt (svårt och tråkigt) till positivt (enkelt och roligt). Både individexterna (t.ex. intressant och relevant ämne) och individinterna (t.ex. god språklig behärskning) faktorer bidrog till ungdomarnas uppfattningar om skrivande som något positivt. Särskilt påtagligt var att en god språklig behärskning av engelska var en viktig motivationsfaktor till att skriva på fritiden. De negativa uppfattningarna formades däremot nästan uteslutande av individinterna faktorer som relaterade till bristande språk- och skrivfärdigheter och kunde förstärkas av rådande normer och föreställningar om språklig korrekthet och skrivriktighet i samhället.

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  • 20.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Department of Swedish, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Tracing the longitudinal role of orthographic knowledge in spelling development from primary to upper-secondary school2024In: Journal of research in reading (Print), ISSN 0141-0423, E-ISSN 1467-9817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Phonological processing skills have been found to contribute to spelling development across different orthographies; however, less is known about the role of orthographic knowledge. This longitudinal study explores the contribution of phonological and orthographic knowledge to spelling development in a semi-transparent orthography (Swedish) across a period of 10 years.

    Methods: A group of Swedish speaking children were assessed on phonological recoding (phonological choice-task), orthographic knowledge (choice-task) and spelling (dictation task) in primary school (grade 2, age 8, total N = 99), secondary school (grade 8, age 14, N = 99) and again in upper secondary school (year 2, age 17, N = 79). Furthermore, spelling in a natural writing assignment was collected in upper secondary school. Spelling scores from grade 8 (dictation) and year 2 in upper secondary school (dictation and text) were included as dependent variables in three sets of hierarchical regression analyses. In the first step spelling performance in grade 2 was included to control for the autoregressive effect. In the second step, orthographic knowledge and phonological recoding from grade 2 were entered into the model in order to test for the longitudinal prediction.

    Results: Test scores within and across ages were significantly correlated in bivariate analysis. Regression analysis revealed that orthographic knowledge in grade 2 was a unique longitudinal predictor of spelling performance across time-points (secondary and upper secondary school) and assessment formats (dictation and text), beyond the contribution of the control variables.

    Conclusions: This study confirms the role of early orthographic knowledge in Swedish spelling development throughout the school years assessed in standardized dictation tasks as well as in naturalistic writing assignments.

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