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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Leo, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Poromaa Isling, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    School Leadership as (Un)usual: Insights from Principals in Sweden during a Pandemic2020In: International Studies in Educational Administration, ISSN 1324-1702, E-ISSN 1839-2768, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 35-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers insights into educational leadership in relation to the example of Sweden exceptionalism that kept most of its schools open during the COVID-19 pandemic. Informed discussions based on reports from conversations with principals, media and a survey highlight three themes identified as challenges for the principals: dealing with pupils, staff members and parents’ anxiety, a constant state of uncertainty and the ones left behind. These themes ignite discussions of implications for educational leadership in which the elements of trust, the formation of stable organizations and equity are leadership strategies in what we consider leadership as (un)usual. 

  • 2.
    Grimm, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Katarina, Roos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring Visual Method in the Field of Educational Leadership: Co-creating Understandings of Educational Leadership and Authority in School Organisations2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a contribution to the ongoing dialogue on the need for method development within the field of educational leadership. Educational leadership research has a set of conventional qualitative methods that regularly occur, surveys, interviews and observations (Thomson, 2017; Moran Jackson, 2019; Castillo and Hallinger, 2018; Hallinger, 2018; Tian et al., 2016). Though, it remains an overlooked issue to critically examine what this means to our research field (Thomson, 2017). This paper was born in some practical difficulties of interviews with educational leaders, which provoked an expansive take on the interview as an empirical occasion. In the paper we describe a visual method that was developed and added to qualitative face-to-face interviews to capture essential concepts concerning educational leadership, for example power, hierarchies and relations. The purpose of the paper is to examine how the process of data collection and analysis can benefit and constrain from the use of visual material in qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews. It also opens up for discussions about alternative ways to present research. In the paper we explore the following research questions:

    • can a visual method imply for the co-creation of understandings about positions, relations and hierarchies within school organisations?
    • What advantages and challenges may arise when new methods are added to qualitative face-to-face interviews within the field of educational leadership?

    A rather limited number of methods and approaches are employed within the field of educational leadership. The most common are surveys and interviews (Thomson, 2017; Moran Jackson, 2019; Castillo and Hallinger, 2018; Hallinger, 2018; Tian et al., 2016). Qualitative methods still dominate, although quantitative approaches are increasing in number (Gumus et al., 2018). Few studies make use of alternative data sources, such as videos, blogs, and photos (Moran Jackson, 2019). In an interdisciplinary and complex research field such as educational leadership, this could imply limited and to some extent defaulted perspectives.

    Our visual method was designed within a larger research project about steering and governing in, and of, Swedish schools. The creation of the method grew from a need to develop the interview technique to explore understandings of the organisations from the informants’ points of view. The most common motive for using visual material in a data collection process is an ambition to access data, as it enables the collection of data other than verbal data alone. Another argument is that visual material facilitates communication between researchers and respondents, particularly when participants are asked to express abstract ideas, and supports verbal communication. Visual methods are also believed to promote reflection, as words and pictures can work in synergy to enhance meaning (Pain, 2012; Pink, 2013). By adding visual material to semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we created a visual method to stimulate the informants’ reflections about complex matters as hierarchies, power and relations. These themes are central phenomena within the field of educational leadership. We wanted to explore what happens to the research process when transforming a traditional method by adding visual material to otherwise traditional qualitative face-to-face interviews. During the conference we evoke further exploration of alternative methods by presenting our findings by using moving pictures.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedThe 57 informants in our empirical and inductive study were selected and approached in the following way. In the Swedish educational system, municipalities are organisers of compulsory and secondary education, and thus we started off by selecting municipalities. The first selection criteria was that the average results, and the average grades of pupils in the last year of compulsory school, should be comparable between the selected municipalities (Kolada 2019, Siris 2019). Secondly, the average percentage of pupils who perceive themselves to be safe and secure in school, should be in the same range in the selected municipalities. Thirdly the municipalities should be of the same size, in population numbers. Two municipalities were selected (purposive sampling; Cohen et al., 2011). They identified two schools each (convenience sampling; Bryman, 2012), for the study.  Approached from a systems thinking perspective (see Shaked & Schechter, 2017), semi-structured face-to-face interviews were made with politicians (n=4), superintendents (n=2), assistant superintendents (n=4), principals (n=4), teacher leaders (n=14) and teachers (n=29). Individual and group interviews were conducted.

    By accompanying the semi-structured interviews by a paper sheet with sticky notes we created a visual method. A sticky note with the informant´s function was put in the middle of the sheet, which was divided in three levels. Encouraged by the interviewer the informants added sticky notes with functions that they found central for their own function accompanied by semi-structured interview questions. The themes discussed during the interviews concerned key actors on different levels in the school organization, roles and functions, knowledge and competence, loyalty, trust, communication and systematic quality assurance. By adding a visual method, the informants were given a hands-on tool to arrange and to describe the education organization that they are a part of. This made it possible to visualize positions, relations and hierarchies. We video-recorded the sticky-note mapping to enable analysis of movements simultaneously with verbal narratives. At the end of the interview project a total of 43 images had been created during the interviews. In the process of analysis, the visual and auditory material were encapsulated in still pictures. These described more in detail how the interviews developed and certain aspects of the interviews that should be considered in the analysis. The still images were useful for further analysis, for example, to detect patterns in positions and relations within and between organisations, and for presentation of the result.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsThe co-creation of images during the interviews elicited dialogues about complex subjects such as hierarchies, relations and positions. The method helped us to gain an understanding of how leaders describe their perceptions of authority and power in school organisations. By adding visual material to the interviews, a creative and active interview environment was created. The method made the informants take a stand on complex questions and matters, and to take different perspectives, thus gaining new insights about their own organisations. This provided us as researchers with a rich data material and uncovered our own biases. By making subjective understandings visual, the implicit was made explicit.

    As researchers we were challenged to coordinate the designing and exploration of the method and to ask new questions, which was sometimes challenging. Another challenge was to translate the rich visual material into condensed text to make it fit into the traditional journal format. This made us look for alternative ways to present research within our field. Research conferences that offer alternative ways to present, discuss and share research can be a valuable venue to develop research methods.

    To sum up, by adding a visual method to qualitative face to face interviews, it is possible for researchers to create a creative and active interview environment, and to analyse the data from different angles within a holistic approach (understanding parts vs whole). The method offers a flexible structure which enables longitudinal studies within and between different organisations. Inspired from what we have seen, we suggest that the method can facilitate international studies of educational organisations within different school contexts, European and other international contexts. Adding visual methods to more traditional interviews can make dilemmas in educational leadership visible and is useful when finding strategies to manage and lead various (groups of) actors in educational organisations.

  • 3.
    Grimm, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Katarina, Roos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Exploring visual method in the field of educational leadership: Co-creating understandings of educational leadership and authority in school organisations2023In: Educational Management Administration & Leadership, ISSN 1741-1432, E-ISSN 1741-1440, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1219-1238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to method development in educational leadership research. The focus is on a visual method and the inclusion of visual material in data collection and analysis. Core concepts in this paper are educational leadership, power and authority. The method was used in face-to-face interviews in a research project that studied the steering and governing in, and of, Swedish schools. The method enhances verbal narratives when informants reason and motivate their understandings of positions, relations and hierarchies within the organisations. We found that using visual material encouraged informants to reason and problematise formalised leader positions, their relations and the hierarchies that appear. The method helps to visualise the informants’ understandings of the power distribution within the organisation depending on whether positions are described as distant or close, horizontal or vertical. The method made the informants take a stand on complex matters, reflect, and gain insights about their organisations. It provided us, as researchers, with rich data material. By making subjective understandings visual, implicit assumptions were made explicit. This could challenge the knowledge on existing leadership and power norms within educational organisations, and most likely in other forms of organisations as well.

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  • 4.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lars, Norqvist
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digital didactical designs: reimagining designs for teaching and learning2015In: Educational development in a changing world, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to progress in educational development, digitaldidactical designs area promising approach. Ourthreestudies show principlesof new designs including a) new learning goals where more than one correct answer exists, b) focus on learning as a process in informal-in-formal learning using guided reflections, c) making learning visible in different products. The studies illustratethatit is time for re-consideringestablished concepts of teaching–higher educationmovesfrom course-based learning into learning expeditions.

  • 5.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Designs of Digital Didactics: What Designs of Teaching Practices Enable Deeper Learning in Co-located Settings?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  approach  of  “Digital  Didactical  Designs”  (Jahnke,  Norqvist, &  Olsson 2013;Norberg & Jahnke, 2013) sounds promising to support a changing perspectiveon designs  for  teaching  and  learning.  It  uses  the  European  tradition  of  Didaktik  and scrutinizes  teaching  and  learning  as  socially  constructed  forms  of  social  practices.There is a difference between the theories of designing for learning and doing it. Our empirical studiesin Denmark and Sweden explore key principles,a) new learning goals where  more  than  one  correct  answer  exists,  b)  focus  on  learning  as  a  process  in informal-in-formal  learning  using  guided  reflections,  c)  making  learning  visible  in different products. Course-based learning turns into learning expeditions.

  • 6.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Tablettien Käytön Digitaalis-Didaktist Mallit Kouluissa: TVT on enemmäm kuin pelkkä työkalu2015In: Digitaalinen oppiminen ja oppimisympäristöt / [ed] Marki Kuuskorpi, Tampere: Juvenes Print – Suomen Yliopistopaino Oy , 2015, p. 65-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    Vuonna 2012 seitsemään kouluun Odderin kunnassa Tanskassa hankittiin tabletit. Noin 2000 iältään 6–16 vuotiasta oppilasta sekä noin 170 opettajaa saivat käyttöönsä henkilökohtaiset tabletit niin sanotun 1:1 ohjelman puitteissa (yksi tabletti per oppilas). Tutkija-ryhmämme aloitti työn koulujen parissa. Ensimmäinen tavoite oli ymmärtää opettajien didaktisia malleja. Miten opettajat käyttävät tabletteja, mihin tarkoituksiin ja miksi? Näihin kysymyksiin etsittiin vastauksia eri menetelmillä, joita olivat mm. syvähaastattelu, luo-kan observointi, ryhmätapaamiset opettajien ja oppilaiden kans-sa sekä verkkokysely. Olemme tehneet töitä kyseisten koulujen kanssa yli kolme vuotta. Kerromme yksityiskohtaisesti viiden eri oppitunnin opetuskäytännöistä ja -kokemuksista. Teknologian in-tegrointi määritellään digitaalis-didaktisen mallin kautta joka poh-jautuu sosio-teknis-pedagogiseen näkemykseen opetuskäytänteis-tä. Tutkimuksemme osoitti, että TVT on enemmäin kuin pelkkä työkalu ja että TVT ja luokkahuoneet ovat yhdistymässä joksikin uudeksi kokonaisuudeksi – uudeksi kommunikointi- ja viestintä-ympäristöksi.

  • 7.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Designing for iPad-classrooms2013In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (ECSCW), 21-25 September, Cyprus, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study explores Digital  Didactics  Designs  using  mobile  technology  in  colocated settings. What kinds of digital didactical designs do teachers apply in their iPadclasses  in  schools? Classroom  observations  and  qualitative  data  were  collected  in aDanish community where 200  teachers  and  2,000  students  aged  6-16  use  iPads  in classrooms implemented  in  2012.  Based  on  the  theoretical  framework  called  Digital Didactics (DD),  five  patterns  of  Digital  Didactical  Designs and  following  the  innovative designs,  three  key  aspects  could  be  explored:  The  teachers’  digital  didactical  designsembrace a) new learning goals where more than one correct answer exists, b) focus on learning as a process in informal-in-formal learning spaces, c) making learning visible in different products (e.g., text, comics, podcasts). The study informs system developers for mobile learning applications in schools and teachers as workplace designers.

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  • 8.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digital Didactical Designs in iPad-Classrooms2013In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 8095, p. 611-612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) "has been segregated from the normal teaching classroom" P[12], e.g. in computer labs. This has been changed with the advent of smaller devices like iPads. There is a shift from separating ICT and education to co-located settings in which digital technology becomes part of the classroom. This paper presents the results from a study about exploring digital didactical designs using iPads applied by teachers in schools. Classroom observations and interviews in iPad-classrooms in Danish schools have been done with the aim to provide empirical evidence on the co-evolutionary design of both, didactical designs and iPads. The Danish community Odder has 7 schools where around 200 teachers and 2,000 students aged 6-16 use iPads in a 1: 1 iPad-program. Three key aspects could be explored: The teachers' digital didactical designs embrace a) new learning goals where more than one correct answer exists, b) focus on producing knowledge in informal-in-formal learning spaces, c) making learning visible in different products (text, comics, podcasts etc.). The results show the necessity of rethinking traditional Didaktik towards Digital Didactics.

  • 9.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digital didactical designs in iPad-classrooms2013In: Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact: 8th European Conference, on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, September 17-21, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Davinia Hernández-Leo, Tobias Ley, Ralf Klamma, Andreas Harrer, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 611-612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) "has been segregated from the normal teaching classroom" [12], e.g. in computer labs. This has been changed with the advent of smaller devices like iPads. There is a shift from separating ICT and education to co-located settings in which digital technology becomes part of the classroom. This paper presents the results from a study about exploring digital didactical designs using iPads applied by teachers in schools. Classroom observations and interviews in iPad-classrooms in Danish schools have been done with the aim to provide empirical evidence on the co-evolutionary design of both, didactical designs and iPads. The Danish community Odder has 7 schools where around 200 teachers and 2,000 students aged 6-16 use iPads in a 1:1 iPad-program. Three key aspects could be explored: The teachers' digital didactical designs embrace a) new learning goals where more than one correct answer exists, b) focus on producing knowledge in informal-in-formal learning spaces, c) making learning visible in different products (text, comics, podcasts etc.). The results show the necessity of rethinking traditional Didaktik towards Digital Didactics.

  • 10.
    Jahnke, Isa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Digital Didactical Designs of Learning Expeditions2014In: Open Learning and Teaching in Educational Communities: 9th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2014, Graz, Austria, September 16-19, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Cristoph Rensing, Sara de Freitas, Tobias Ley, Pedro J. Muños-Merino, 2014, p. 165-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current studies on media tablets illustrated that mobile technology may improve learning when truly integrated into learning settings. The question remains what truly integrated means, how it might be operationalized. In a study of Scandinavian classrooms, the question was how teachers adopt and integrate media tablets in their teaching practices in order to provide learning opportunities for their students. Seven K-9 schools implemented media tablets for around 2,000 students aged 6-16 and ca. 170 teachers in a 1:1 programme launched in 2012 (one tablet per student). Mixed methods, interviews, classroom observations and online surveys have been applied. The findings illustrate new forms of teaching practices. Studying technology integration from the angle of a socio-technical-pedagogical practice, it reveals the interrelationship of teaching processes and quality of learning. This study shows five forms of Digital Didactical Design in practice, which affect tablet-mediated learning expeditions – most of the designs boost learning, others restrict learning.

  • 11.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University/Department of Applied Educational.
    Analysis of the Digital Transformation of Society and its Impact on Young People’s Lives2018In: / [ed] Council of Europe, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Summary This paper aims to offer some analytical and strategic implications regarding the digital transformation of society and its impact on young people’s lives. The purpose of this paper is to explore the intersection between young people’s lives and the digital transformation of society, incorporating the purpose of enhancing social inclusion. In order to do so, 16 different policies, mainly from the Council of Europe and the European Union were selected and analysed. From the analysis, conducted in a way that the underlying or explicitly interpreted problems in specific policies are made visible, four main themes were derived. The themes focus on understanding the digitalisation through perspectives on technology, explaining the understanding of isolated or integrated attitudes, and bringing forward the broad palette of instruments that are offered through national policies to support readiness for the ongoing digitalisation. Moreover, the example of digital youth work is used to understand transformation of organisations. The themes generated two main implications, also considered as outcomes or syntheses.

    The first implication is understood from leadership and governance perspectives. It implies that the understandings of, and support to, the relation between various levels of decision making and participation, described as chains of command, can be one starting point in supporting digital transformation. More specifically, it can be a mapping of and a more profound understanding of chains of command in national, regional and local contexts. This can be helpful in order to know to whom the ‘right type of questions’ should be addressed, or possibly to discover ‘bottle-necks’ that hamper or block digital transformation. To analyse chains of command may also reveal how different levels of decision-making cooperate and the dialogues between them. This may be useful for instance in order to form or align to various national or international strategies or to understand if and how young people can access services or decision-making processes. All with the ambition to develop transformation readiness, resulting in a situation where young people can access the ‘right information at the right time’ and being able to choose when to use technologies or not.

    The second implication focus on context-based negotiations of the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). More specifically, and to highlight the importance to contextualise ambitions for digital transformation, it means that a deeper understanding of e.g. ‘small decisions’ in everyday work that ‘really matters’ need more attention. The assumption is based on the fact that the use of ICTs in e.g. various organisations today is a result of step-by-step developments throughout history, due to factors like different needs, knowledge, political, economic and technological structures, trends etc. This can for example raise questions that, if social inclusion is the purpose, engage in discussing how ICTs are used in relation to specific purposes and in what sense they may support the view of social inclusion. Hence, can the use of ICTs alter viewpoints of social inclusion, or can viewpoints of social inclusion alter viewpoints on how ICTs should be used?

    The final conclusion of the paper suggests an integrated attitude between the governance and leadership perspective of transformation readiness and the perspective of context-based negotiations that may result in the ‘small decisions’ of everyday work, including the situation where individuals can choose when to use technologies or not, and the purposes of which they are used for. The result of the integration between perspectives can be seen as a constructive meaning or even an alignment between e.g. users and decision makers; policy and practice; or international and local viewpoints, in this paper with the purpose of enhancing social inclusion.

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  • 12.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University/Department of Applied Educational.
    Framing perceived values of education: when perspectives of learning and ICTs are related2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis offers dialogue about the relations between learning and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). The dialogue is guided by the question of how to design education to increase perceived values of learning. It pays attention to how learners approach learning availabilities in various learning settings based on learners’ perceived values of learning. The aim is to understand the perceived values of learning in order to reflect its relation to ICTs. The field of learning is understood from the perspectives of formal, non-formal and informal learning. The field of ICTs is understood from the perspectives of information, communication and technology. The perspectives of learning and ICTs are chosen as a way to understand them by ‘going back to basics’ to find an origin or a point of departure for reinterpreting and understanding them. This approach has influenced the presentation of the thesis and how it is structured so that dialogic and interpretive research opens up dialogic spaces for reflections regarding the relations between learning and ICTs.

    Two studies in two different education systems, formal and non-formal, are included in the thesis work. The data are collected via qualitative methods such as photo interviews and individual and group interviews in which learners’ expressions of learning are in focus. The approach of the included articles that present the two studies was to first understand learning and then relate it to the understanding, potential and use of ICTs. The results and contributions from the articles are summarised via the three perspectives of the perceived values of learning, the relations between learning and ICTs and the influences of perceived values of learning. The theoretical tools, pedagogical attitude and positioning of ICTs guide the discussions and analysis of these perspectives towards the conclusions of the thesis work.

    The reader of the thesis can expect a journey along a winding road, which both addresses and involves policies’ and researchers’ implications and conceptions of learning and education. A framework for the perceived values of education when perspectives of learning and ICTs are related is considered to represent the understanding of the coherent whole of the thesis work. Three main contributions of the thesis work are put forth. The first contribution is the framework for perceived values of education, or the perceived value framework (PVF). The second contribution is the understanding of perceived values of learning. The third contribution is the specific photo interviews about learning situations that is considered to be a contribution to already existing methods such as photo-eliciting (Cappello, 2005) and stimulated recall (Haglund, 2003). 

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  • 13.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University/Department of Applied Educational.
    Learning Centred Evaluation In A 1:1 Tablet Learning Culture Where The Use Of ICT Can Be Taken For Granted2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 14.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Learning, tablet, culture: coherence?2016In: Universal Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 2332-3205, E-ISSN 2332-3213, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 1306-1318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer interpretations of how the learning is possible to relate to the use of the tablet and the municipality intentions of changing the teaching and learning culture. The aim is a deeper understanding of learning and the learning-tablet relation. The qualitative research involves asking learners to describe learning with the help of their own pictures of learning situations. The learners' expressions of 'what learning is' are related to tablet use and municipality intentions of developing teaching and learning. Five themes show how the learners express learning, in coherence with the municipality's intentions. Key learning outcomes are related to this coherence and to the fact that learners use tablets in 55% of all expressed learning.

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  • 15.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skolledares förmåga att leda och styra digitalisering2024In: Rektors förmågor i centrum: att omsätta kunskap till handling / [ed] Magnus Larsson; Anna Rantala; Helene Ärlestig, Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2024, 1, p. 173-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    The Learners' Expressed Values of Learning in a Media Tablet Learning Culture2014In: Open Learning and Teaching in Educational Communities: 9th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2014, Graz, Austria, September 16-19, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Rensing, C., de Freitas, S., Ley, T., Munoz-Merino, P.J., 2014, p. 458-463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do learners value as learning and how does this value relate to the use of mobile technology? Inspired by Stimulated Recall and Photo Eliciting, 207 K-9 students took photos (a total of 283 photos) of what they considered learning situations. Using these photos as starting points, we conducted 21 group interviews that generated 293 utterances. From these utterances, seven themes were generated that shows how the learners expressed their values of learning in a rich and diverse way. Without asking explicitly about technology, 33% of the utterances addressed the adoption of media tablets. These statements also revealed that when the learners personally "see" a perceived value for them as individuals, then they label the situation as learning. This study's findings show that identifying what young learners value as learning per se should be considered when designing teaching and learning towards learner-friendly active environments for pro-sumers. These findings also open the door for developing alternative ways for evaluating projects in schools that integrate educational technology.

  • 17.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Learning in non-formal education: is it “youthful” for youth in action?2017In: International Review of Education, ISSN 0020-8566, E-ISSN 1573-0638, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 235-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers insights into the practices of a non-formal education programme for youth provided by the European Union (EU). It takes a qualitative approach and is based on a case study of the European Voluntary Service (EVS). Data were collected during individual and focus group interviews with learners (the EVS volunteers), decision takers and trainers, with the aim of deriving an understanding of learning in non-formal education. The research questions concerned learning, the recognition of learning and perspectives of usefulness. The study also examined the Youthpass documentation tool as a key to understanding the recognition of learning and to determine whether the learning was useful for learners (the volunteers). The findings and analysis offer several interpretations of learning, and the recognition of learning, which take place in non-formal education. The findings also revealed that it is complicated to divide learning into formal and non-formal categories; instead, non-formal education is useful for individual learners when both formal and non-formal educational contexts are integrated. As a consequence, the division of formal and non-formal (and possibly even informal) learning creates a gap which works against the development of flexible and interconnected education with ubiquitous learning and mobility within and across formal and non-formal education. This development is not in the best interests of learners, especially when seeking useful learning and education for youth (what the authors term "youthful" for youth in action).

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  • 18.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Leffler, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). School of Information Science and Learning Technologies (SISLT, iSchool), University of Missouri, USA.
    Sweden and informal learning: Towards Integrated Views of Learning in a Digital Media World. A Pedagogical Attitude?2016In: Handbuch Informelles Lernen: Interdiziplinäre und Internationale Perspektiven / [ed] Harring, M., Witte, M. D, Burger, T., Weinheim/München: Juventa Verlag, 2016, p. 217-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Olsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). School of Information Science and Learning Technologies (SISLT, iSchool), University of Missouri, USA.
    Foundations For a Tablet-Mediated Learning Culture: CSCL in Education with regard to Learners' Perspective of What Learning is2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is learning from the learners' point of view and how does this relate to the use of tablets? Young learners (6-14 years old) created own photos of learning situations, which served as premise in a qualitative research approach. Explorative conversations and photo-based group interviews were used as methods. Inspired by the methods Stimulated Recall and Photo Eliciting, a total of 283 photos were taken by the learners including 21 group interviews generated individual statements and utterances from 207 pupils in Scandinavian schools (K-9). Seven themes from [5] show the children’s view on "what learning is" with respect to their definitions of learning situations and then related to the use of tablets With the seven themes as a starting point, the authors are especially interested in discussing foundations for tablet-mediated learning cultures and its relation to CSCL in education.

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    Norqvist; Olsson ; Jahnke - Foundations For a Tablet-Mediated Learning Culture - CSCL
  • 20.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Poromaa Isling, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Skolledarskap i Sverige: en forskningsöversikt 2014–20182020In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 167-187Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research overview is to understand the main contemporary research objects that characterizes the research field of school leadership in Sweden. Published literature within the field between 2014 and 2018 together with a mapping of research interests from 99 university teachers in the state funded education programme for principals, form the understandings of the field. The results indicate that the field is constituted by the interests of foremost understanding governance, policy, inspection and school leaders work and pedagogical leadership. A need of systems thinking, investigations of skills and competences, and lack of critical research are examples that calls for new directions in future studies within the field.

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    fulltext
  • 21.
    Norqvist, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ärlestig, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Systems thinking in school organizations: perspectives from various leadership levels2021In: Journal of Educational Administration, ISSN 0957-8234, E-ISSN 1758-7395, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand how leaders within a school district system understand their own and others' leadership positions from the perspectives of systems thinking and systems thinking skills.

    Design/methodology/approach: The findings are based on interviews with superintendents, area managers (deputy superintendents), principals and first teachers in Sweden. Sets of systems thinking skills guide the analysis, specifically how various leadership positions are related (their structure and relationships), how leaders understand themselves in relation to the whole and the parts (mindset), what they think about how the organization is organized (content) and how they relate to the organization's history and future (behavior).

    Findings: Leaders at all levels in the school organization have regular communications, but a wider systems thinking perspective is underdeveloped. The systems are hierarchical, with each level taking responsibility for its subsystem to such a high extent that it does not use or learn from other levels. We also found that change in the investigated schools is subtle, and in the schools, it did not seem important to understand change over time or the nature of important leverage points; the organizations' histories and futures were emphasized less than current issues and relations.

    Practical implications: Increased knowledge on systems thinking skills can provide insights as to whether mindsets, content, structure and behavior are supporting each other or not. These perspectives can help actors on all levels to learn together.

    Originality/value: In addition to the study outcomes, this paper offers a unique approach for studying the leadership positions of the governance chain and their impact on an organization's work and results. It obtains a broader picture of school districts' systems when various members of the governing chain express how they understand their organizations, in relation to systems thinking.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University/Department of Applied Educational.
    Norqvist, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University/Department of Applied Educational.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). School of Information Science and Learning Technologies (SISLT, iSchool), University of Missouri, USA.
    Learning Situations: Learning and the Use of Mobile Technology from a Learners Perspective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is learning from the learners’ point of view and how does this relate to the use of mobile technology? Young learners (6-14 years old) created own photos of learning situations, which served as premise in a qualitative research approach. Explorative conversations and photo-based group interviews were used as methods. Inspired by the methods Stimulated Recall and Photo Eliciting, a total of 283 photos were taken by the learners including 21 group interviews generated individual statements and utterances from 207 pupils in Scandinavian schools (K-9). The authors are especially interested in discussing the methodology, a section that could be seen as fairly unorthodox in some research communities, since this workshop paper contributes with awareness and discussion about research methods in which young people have an important role as co-producers of knowledge. 

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