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  • 1.
    Abreu, Ilka Nacif
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Ahnlund, Maria
    Moritz, Thomas
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS Determination of Salicylate-like Phenolic Gycosides in Populus tremula Leaves2011Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 37, nr 8, s. 857-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Associations of salicylate-like phenolic glycosides (PGs) with biological activity have been reported in Salix and Populus trees, but only for a few compounds, and in relation to a limited number of herbivores. By considering the full diversity of PGs, we may improve our ability to recognize genotypes or chemotype groups and enhance our understanding of their ecological function. Here, we present a fast and efficient general method for salicylate determination in leaves of Eurasian aspen that uses ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI/TOFMS). The time required for the liquid chromatography separations was 13.5 min per sample, compared to around 60 min per sample for most HPLC protocols. In leaf samples from identical P. tremula genotypes with diverse propagation and treatment histories, we identified nine PGs. We found the compound-specific mass chromatograms to be more informative than the UV-visible chromatograms for compound identification and when quantitating samples with large variability in PG content. Signature compounds previously reported for P. tremoloides (tremulacin, tremuloidin, salicin, and salicortin) always were present, and five PGs (2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin, 2'-O-acetyl-salicin, acetyl-tremulacin, and salicyloyl-salicin) were detected for the first time in P. tremula. By using information about the formic acid adduct that appeared for PGs in the LTQ-Orbitrap MS environment, novel compounds like acetyl-tremulacin could be tentatively identified without the use of standards. The novel PGs were consistently either present in genotypes regardless of propagation and damage treatment or were not detectable. In some genotypes, concentrations of 2'-O-acetyl-salicortin and 2'-O-cinnamoyl-salicortin were similar to levels of biologically active PGs in other Salicaceous trees. Our study suggests that we may expect a wide variation in PG content in aspen populations which is of interest both for studies of interactions with herbivores and for mapping population structure.

  • 2. Agostinelli, Marta
    et al.
    Cleary, Michelle
    Martin, Juan A.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Witzell, Johanna
    Pedunculate Oaks (Quercus robur L.) Differing in Vitality as Reservoirs for Fungal Biodiversity2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 1758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological significance of trees growing in urban and peri-urban settings is likely to increase in future land-use regimes, calling for better understanding of their role as potential reservoirs or stepping stones for associated biodiversity. We studied the diversity of fungal endophytes in woody tissues of asymptomatic even aged pedunculate oak trees, growing as amenity trees in a peri-urban setting. The trees were classified into three groups according to their phenotypic vitality (high, medium, and low). Endophytes were cultured on potato dextrose media from surface sterilized twigs and DNA sequencing was performed to reveal the taxonomic identity of the morphotypes. In xylem tissues, the frequency and diversity of endophytes was highest in oak trees showing reduced vitality. This difference was not found for bark samples, in which the endophyte infections were more frequent and communities more diverse than in xylem. In general, most taxa were shared across the samples with few morphotypes being recovered in unique samples. Leaf phenolic profiles were found to accurately classify the trees according to their phenotypic vitality. Our results confirm that xylem is more selective substrate for endophytes than bark and that endophyte assemblages in xylem are correlated to the degree of host vitality. Thus, high vitality of trees may be associated with reduced habitat quality to wood-associated endophytes.

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  • 3.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Fritz, Robert S
    Fritz, Robert D
    Orians, Colin M
    Does the differential seedling mortality caused by slugs alter the foliar traits and subsequent susceptibility of hybrid willows to a generalist herbivore?2007Ingår i: Ecological Entomology, Vol. 32, s. 211-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. 1. Many Salicaceae species naturally form hybrid swarms with parental and hybrid taxa that differ in secondary chemical profile and in resistance to herbivores. Theoretically, the differential mortality in the seedling stage can lead to changes in trait expression and alter subsequent interactions between plants and herbivores. This study examines whether herbivory by the generalist slug Arion subfuscus, which causes extensive mortality in young willow seedlings, causes shifts in (a) the foliar chemistry of F2 willow hybrids (Salix sericea and Salix eriocephala), and (b) the subsequent susceptibility to Japanese Beetles, Popillia japonica.

    2. In 2001, two populations of F2 seedlings were generated: those that survived slug herbivory (80–90% of seedlings placed in the field were killed by the slugs) were designated as S-plants, whereas C-plants (controls) experienced no mortality.

    3. Common garden experiments with cuttings from these populations, in 2001 and 2002, revealed extensive variation in the phenolic chemistry of F2 hybrids, but revealed no significant difference between S- and C-plants, although the levels of foliar nutrients, proteins and nitrogen tended to be higher in S-plants.

    4. Concentrations of salicortin and 2'-cinnamoylsalicortin explained 55 and 38% of the the variation in leaf damage caused by Japanese beetles, and secondary chemistry was highly correlated within replicate clones (salicortin R2 = 0.85, 2-cinnamoylsalicortin R2 = 0.77, condensed tannins R2 = 0.68).

    5. Interestingly, Japanese beetle damage and condensed tannins were positively correlated within the S-plants, but not in the C-plants, suggesting that slugs had selected for plants with a positive relationship between tannins and P. japonica damage. This is unlikely to be a consequence of a preference for tannins, but is suggested to be related to the elevated nutrient levels in the S-plants, perhaps in combination with the complex-binding properties of tannins.

    6. The damage was highly correlated within replicate clones and a model choice analysis suggested that Japanese beetle damage may be explained by four factors: concentrations of salicortin, condensed tannins, and nitrogen, as well as the specific leaf area (thick leaves were damaged less).

  • 4.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    From micro towards the macro scale2006Ingår i: New Phytologist, Vol. 172, s. 7-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Björkén, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Varad, Akkamahadevi
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hagner, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wedin, Mats
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Endophytic fungi in European aspen (Populus tremula) leaves - diversity, detection, and a suggested correlation with herbivory resistance2010Ingår i: Fungal diversity, ISSN 1560-2745, E-ISSN 1878-9129, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 17-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution (GMTC), clines of traits reflecting local co-adaptation (including resistance genes) should be common between a host and its parasite and should persist across time. To test the GMTC-assumption of persistent clinal patterns we compared the natural prevalence of two parasites on aspen Populus tremula trees: mining moths of the genus Phyllocnistis and leaf rust Melampsora spp. Damage data were collated from the Swedish National Forest Damage Inventory (2004–2006). In addition, occurrence of the parasites was scored in field conditions in two common gardens in the north and south of Sweden over five growing seasons (2004–2008), then related to biomass (stem height and diameter) and to concentrations of eleven leaf phenolics. Phyllocnistis mainly occurred in the northern garden, a distribution range which was confirmed by the countrywide inventory, although Phyllocnistis was more abundant on southern clones, providing evidence for possible local maladaptation. Melampsora occurred all over the country and in both gardens, but built up more quickly on northern clones, which suggests a centre of local clone maladaptation in the north. Stem growth also followed a clinal pattern as did the concentration of three phenolic compounds: benzoic acid, catechin and cinnamic acid. However, only benzoic acid was related to parasite presence: negatively to Phyllocnistis and positively to Melampsora and it could thus be a potential trait under selection.

    In conclusion, clines of Phyllocnistis were stronger and more persistent compared to Melampsora, which showed contrasting clines of varying strength. Our data thus support the assumption of the GMTC model that clines exist in the border between hot and cold spots and that they may be less persistent for parasites with an elevated gene flow, and/or for parasites which cover relatively larger hot spots surrounded by fewer cold spots.

  • 6.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lundberg, Per
    Nutrient addition extends flowering display, which gets tracked by seed predators, but not by their parasitoids2008Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 117, s. 473-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although phenological matching between two and three trophic interactions has received some attention, it has largely been disregarded in explaining the lack of strong cascade dynamics in terrestrial systems. We studied the response of the specialist seed predator, Paroxyna plantaginis (Tephritidae) and associated generalist parasitoids (Chalcidoidea) to controlled fertilisation of individuals of naturally growing Tripolium vulgare (Asteraceae) on four island populations (Skeppsvik Archipelago, Sweden). We consistently found evidence of nutrient limitation: fertilised plants increased their biomass, produced more capitula (the oviposition units for tephritid flies), were more at risk of attack by the tephritids, and puparia were heavier in fertilised plants. During some parts of the season tephritids became more heavily parasitized, supporting the presence of cascade dynamics, however net parasitism over season decreased in response to nutrient addition. We found no evidence that capitulum size complicated parasitoid access to the tephritids, however the extended bud production prolonged the flowering season. Thus, tephritids utilized the surplus production of capitula throughout the entire season, while parasitoids did not expand their oviposition time window accordingly. Implications for top down regulation and cascade dynamics in the system are discussed.

  • 7.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Witzell, Johanna
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Wulff, Sören
    Luquez, Virginia MC
    Ågren, Rickard
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Large scale geographic clines of parasite damage to Populus tremula L2010Ingår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 483-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In conclusion, clines of Phyllocnistis were stronger and more persistent compared to Melampsora, which showed contrasting clines of varying strength. Our data thus support the assumption of the GMTC model that clines exist in the border between hot and cold spots and that they may be less persistent for parasites with an elevated gene flow, and/or for parasites which cover relatively larger hot spots surrounded by fewer cold spots.

  • 8.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    et al.
    Dept of Biology, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, USA.
    Gardfjell, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Orians, Colin M.
    Murray, Brittany
    Fritz, Robert S.
    Slugs, willow seedlings and nutrient fertilization: intrinsic vigor inversely affects palatability2004Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 105, s. 268-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates how preference by a generalist slug herbivore Arion subfuscus changes inversely with seedling size across three levels of fertilization for three full‐sib families of willow seedlings. We analyzed seedlings for condensed tannin and protein concentration, and related these data to changes in palatability. In preference tests over time, leaf discs from more fertilized seedlings experienced an extended window of vulnerability compared to discs from less fertilized seedlings, which were also more tannin‐rich. In a whole seedling selection study, slugs readily attacked smaller seedlings (<5 cm) but rarely attacked taller seedlings (>10 cm). However, a general difference in risk of damage close to 50% existed when comparing shorter and taller individuals within each family and level of fertilizer. The decrease in palatability with height of the seedlings was positively correlated with an increase in condensed tannin concentration. We found no effect of seedling size on protein concentration. Akaiki index criterion model comparisons suggested that only main effects were important for explaining seedling choice by slugs as well as the ratio between proteins and condensed tannins. Seedling size, had the largest effect, followed by fertilizer level and family. Surprisingly, seedling size and fertilizer treatment had opposite effects on palatability to slugs. Size decreased probability of damage, whereas fertilization extended the window of susceptibility. Because the seedlings were even‐aged, differences in size are interpreted as differences in growth rate or vigor. The positive phenotypic correlation found between size and tannin production in the less preferred willow seedlings confirms that several plant defense traits may be selected for simultaneously, because fast growth may allow an early development of plant defenses. We discuss these results in the light of plant‐defense theories that predict a negative correlation between the allocation to growth and the production of secondary defense compounds.

  • 9.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Siddique, Abu Bakar
    Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität Greifswald, Institut für Botanik und Landschaftsökologie, Greifswald, Germany.
    Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Unterseher, Martin
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Both plant genotype and herbivory shape aspen endophyte communities2018Ingår i: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 187, nr 2, s. 535-545Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Salicinoid phenolic glycosides are common defence substances in salicaceous trees and specialist leaf beetles use these compounds for their own defence against predators. Salicinoids vary qualitatively and qualitatively in aspen (Populus tremula) and this variation has a genetic basis. The foliar endophyte mycobiome is plentiful and we hypothesised that it is related to plant genotype, potentially mediated by salicinoid composition, and that interactions with the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula may alter this relationship. We studied these three-way interactions in controlled greenhouse experiments. Endophytic fungi were isolated from sterilised leaf tissues with and without beetle damage, and from beetles. We confirmed that endophyte composition was influenced by host genotype. Beetle activity added generalist morphs to the mycobiome that overrode the initial host association. Yeast-like genera (Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula) were isolated only from beetle-damaged tissues and from beetles, whereas fast-growing filamentous fungi dominated beetle-free control plants. Competition experiments between filamentous fungi of plant origin and beetle-related yeasts suggested interaction of both stimulating and inhibiting modes of action amongst the fungi. As a result, we detected examples of amensalism, commensalism, parasitism and competition between the morphs tested, but we found no evidence of mutualism, and consequently no co-evolutionary relationship could be demonstrated, between yeasts carried by beetles, host genotype and associated filamentous morphs. Endophyte studies are method-dependent and high-throughput sequencing technology best define the fungal mycobiome, culturing however continues to be a cheap way to provide fundamental ecological insights and it is also required for experimental studies.

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  • 10.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Witzell, J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Disentangling functions of fungal endophytes in forest trees2012Ingår i: Fungi: types, environmental impact and role in disease / [ed] Adolfo Paz-Silva; María Sol Arias Vázquez, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, s. 235-246Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Endophytic fungi are known to be abundant colonizers of the internal tissues of forest trees, but their ecological functions are still largely unknown. Recent studies indicate that endophytes may associate with tree's resistance and tolerance properties, and they are thus potential bio-agents that could be utilized in sustainable forest protection and management. To gain a better understanding of the endophytes' potential role in shaping forest health we need more evidence in the form of ecological studies of endophyte communities, in various tissues, across space, and time. The recent advances in molecular methods have given us new and effective tools to obtain such data. Studies of endophyte functions are further facilitated with the development of new high through-put screening methods for substrate use and competitive ability. Fungi are known as chemical factories of natural compounds with biological properties. Beside their potential as antagonists against pests and diseases, the tree-associated endophytic fungi therefore also appear as an emerging source of novel biomolecules for industrial or clinical applications outside forestry. This chapter presents some of the current methodological approaches that are likely to be valuable in studies on endophyte diversity in forest trees, and discusses the goals and impacts of the studies that aim at disentangling the beneficial potential of fungal endophytes in trees. A new concept, bioactive symbiosis, is suggested as a general framework for these studies.

  • 11.
    Bandau, Franziska
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Differences in constitutive tannin-level influence Populus tremula genotypes’ responses to anthropogenic N-enrichmentManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Bandau, Franziska
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Genotypic variability in Populus tremula L. affects how anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment influences litter decomposition2017Ingår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 410, nr 1-2, s. 467-481Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests can receive substantial nitrogen (N) enrichment via atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. While it is known that N enrichment can impact ecosystem properties, such as litter decomposition, it remains poorly understood how genetic variability within plant species modifies these impacts. We grew replicates of ten Populus tremula L. genotypes (GTs) under 3 N conditions; ambient, and levels representing atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. We measured leaf and litter physical and chemical traits, and conducted a litter decomposition assay. Leaf traits varied due to N treatment, GT, and constitutive tannin levels. Leaf traits were in some cases correlated with litter traits, and decomposition was influenced by single and interactive effects of N and GT. Nitrogen addition unexpectedly decelerated decomposition, potentially due to changes in specific leaf area (SLA). Variation in decomposition rates among the GTs was best explained by their differences in SLA, and lignin:N ratio. Nitrogen addition also caused a shift in which traits most strongly influenced decomposition. Our findings highlight that the considerable diversity present in tree species can have a strong influence on ecosystem processes, such as decomposition, and how these processes respond to environmental change.

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  • 13.
    Bandau, Franziska
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    European aspen with high compared to low constitutive tannin defenses grow taller in response to anthropogenic nitrogen enrichment2021Ingår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 487, artikel-id 118985Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal forests receive nitrogen-(N)-enrichment via atmospheric deposition and industrial fertilization. While it is known that N-enrichment can intensify interactions with natural antagonists, it remains poorly understood how genetic variability in plant defense chemistry can affect biotic interactions and height growth in N-enriched environments. We grew replicates of five low- and high-tannin Populus tremula genotypes, respectively, under three N-treatments (ambient, 15, and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1). We assessed shoot blight occurrence (i.e. symptoms caused by Venturia fungi) during four growing seasons, and tree height growth during the same period. Damage by Venturia spp. increased with N-addition during all years, likely due to enhanced foliar quality. Low–tannin plants showed higher incidences of Venturia infection than high-tannin plants, regardless of the N-input-level. Height responded to an N-by-tannin-group interaction, which occurred because high-tannin plants grew taller than low-tannin plants at the high N-treatment, but not under the other N-levels. This pattern indicates that innate resource investment into tannin production yields a positive effect on growth under N-enriched conditions. Given that N-deposition is increasing globally, our research suggests that further studies are needed to investigate how N-enrichment interacts with plant defense traits globally. Moreover, our research suggests that N-deposition may provide an advantage for well-defended, high-tannin plants; and further, that genetic diversity in plant defense may be a key mechanism by which plant populations respond to this change.

  • 14.
    Bandau, Franziska
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Decker, Vicki Huizu Guo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Genotypic tannin levels in Populus tremula impact the way nitrogen enrichment affects growth and allocation responses for some traits and not for others2015Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikel-id e0140971Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant intraspecific variability has been proposed as a key mechanism by which plants adapt to environmental change. In boreal forests where nitrogen availability is strongly limited, nitrogen addition happens indirectly through atmospheric N deposition and directly through industrial forest fertilization. These anthropogenic inputs of N have numerous environmental consequences, including shifts in plant species composition and reductions in plant species diversity. However, we know less about how genetic differences within plant populations determine how species respond to eutrophication in boreal forests. According to plant defense theories, nitrogen addition will cause plants to shift carbon allocation more towards growth and less to chemical defense, potentially enhancing vulnerability to antagonists. Aspens are keystone species in boreal forests that produce condensed tannins to serve as chemical defense. We conducted an experiment using ten Populus tremula genotypes from the Swedish Aspen Collection that express extreme levels of baseline investment into foliar condensed tannins. We investigated whether investment into growth and phenolic defense compounds in young plants varied in response to two nitrogen addition levels, corresponding to atmospheric N deposition and industrial forest fertilization. Nitrogen addition generally caused growth to increase, and tannin levels to decrease; however, individualistic responses among genotypes were found for height growth, biomass of specific tissues, root: shoot ratios, and tissue lignin and N concentrations. A genotype's baseline ability to produce and store condensed tannins also influenced plant responses to N, although this effect was relatively minor. High-tannin genotypes tended to grow less biomass under low nitrogen levels and more at the highest fertilization level. Thus, the ability in aspen to produce foliar tannins is likely associated with a steeper reaction norm of growth responses, which suggests a higher plasticity to nitrogen addition, and potentially an advantage when adapting to higher concentrations of soil nitrogen.

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  • 15.
    Bekele, Wondimagegne
    et al.
    Department of Applied Animal Science and Welfare, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83, Umeå, Sweden; Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Huhtanen, Pekka
    Production Systems, Natural Resources Institute Finland (LUKE), Jokioinen, Finland.
    Zegeye, Abiy
    Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Simachew, Addis
    Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Siddique, Abu Bakar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ramin, Mohammad
    Department of Applied Animal Science and Welfare, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83, Umeå, Sweden.
    Methane production from locally available ruminant feedstuffs in Ethiopia: an in vitro study2024Ingår i: Animal Feed Science and Technology, ISSN 0377-8401, E-ISSN 1873-2216, Vol. 312, artikel-id 115977Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving optimal nutrient composition in locally sourced ruminant feeds is important, but can be challenging in resource-limited production systems. For example, improving the composition of available local feed resources is a key obstacle to efficiently mitigating enteric methane (CH4) emissions in ruminants. This study characterized the nutritional content and in vitro methane (CH4) yield of ruminant feedstuffs accessible in Ethiopia. A survey of 60 experienced farmers in two representative districts in Amhara region, Ethiopia, provided 33 feed samples, which were classified into four ruminant feed categories: Grasses (n=10); indigenous plants (trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants) (n=13); crop residues (n=5); and agro-industrial by-products (n=5). Nutritional composition was assessed by proximate and detergent methods. Methane yield (g CH4/kg feed dry matter (DM)) and total gas yield (L/kg DM) were evaluated using a fully automated in vitro gas production system. A colorimetric assay was conducted to measure condensed tannin content (CT, mg/g) in relevant feeds. Lower crude protein (CP) values were observed for the grass (mean 65.2 g/kg DM) and crop residues (mean 54.5 g/kg DM) categories. Agro-industrial by-products had the highest CP (mean 260 g/kg DM), while indigenous plants exhibited intermediate levels (163 g/kg DM). There was significant variation in CH4 yield (P<0.01) between grasses (12.4–24.7 g/kg DM) indigenous plants (1.8–19.3 g/kg DM), and agro-industrial by-products (8.1–26.9 g/kg DM). The indigenous plant Trifolium acaule gave the lowest in vitro CH4 yield (1.8 g/kg DM). A positive relationship was observed between in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), CH4, and total gas yield. Percentage of CH4 in total gas production varied with feed category (grasses 14.5–19.6%; indigenous plants 3.1–16.9%; crop residues 15.8–20.6%; agro-industrial by-products 12.8–18.7%), and within category, e.g., Trifolium acaule (3.1%), Acacia nilotica L. (7.1%), Ziziphus spina-christi (9.9%), brewer's spent grains (BSG) (12.8%), local liquor (areki) residues (14.1%), and local beer (tella) residues (15.1%). A negative relationship was observed between CT content and in vitro CH4 yield, with a stronger (P<0.05) correlation for soluble CTs (R2 = 0.46) than cell-bound CTs (R2 = 0.25) and total CTs (R2 = 0.29). Based on methanogenic properties and effects of CTs on in vitro CH4 yield, indigenous plants should be prioritized in ruminant rations in Ethiopia. Making nutritional composition and CH4 data publicly available could help develop environmentally sound, cost-effective rations for ruminant livestock, benefiting local farmers and leading to more sustainable and efficient livestock production in Ethiopia.

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  • 16.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Abreu, Ilka N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Univ Copenhagen, Sect Plant Biochem, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, DK-1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Geographic structure in metabolome and herbivore community co-occurs with genetic structure in plant defence genes2013Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 791-798Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plantherbivore interactions vary across the landscape and have been hypothesised to promote local adaption in plants to the prevailing herbivore regime. Herbivores that feed on European aspen (Populus tremula) change across regional scales and selection on host defence genes may thus change at comparable scales. We have previously observed strong population differentiation in a set of inducible defence genes in Swedish P. tremula. Here, we study the geographic patterns of abundance and diversity of herbivorous insects, the untargeted metabolome of the foliage and genetic variation in a set of wound-induced genes and show that the geographic structure co-occurs in all three data sets. In response to this structure, we observe local maladaptation of herbivores, with fewer herbivores on local trees than on trees originated from more distant localities. Finally, we also identify 28 significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs from defence genes and a number of the herbivore traits and metabolic profiles.

  • 17.
    Bernhardsson, Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Abreu, Ilka N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Population differentiation in arthropod community structure and phenotypic association with inducible defense genes in European Aspen (Populus tremula L., salicaceae)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant-herbivore interactions are known to vary across a landscape due to both variation in abiotic and biotic factors. Such spatial variation tends to promoting local adaption of plants to the prevailing herbivore regime. Here we use data from a common garden to look for patterns across populations in the abundance and diversity of herbivorous insects. We also screen for variation in the untargeted metabolome of the foliage of a subset of the same trees. We also search for phenotypic associations between genetic variation in a number of wound-induced genes and phenotypic variation in herbivore abundance, diversity and in metabolomes. We observe significant genetic variation in a number of herbivore-related traits but low correlations between traits. We do observe substantial genetic structure in both herbivore community structure and in metabolic profiles and this structure is aligned with genetic structure we have previously documented for a set of defense genes. We also identify a number of significant associations between SNPs from wound-induced defense genes and a number of the herbivore traits and metabolic profiles. However, these associations are likely not causal, but are rather caused by the underlying population structure we observe. These results highlight to the importance of historical processes and the need to better understand both the current-day geographic distribution of different herbivore species as well as the post-glacial colonization history of both plants and herbivores.

  • 18.
    Biniaz, Yaser
    et al.
    Plant Virology Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Tahmasebi, Ahmad
    Institute of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Tahmasebi, Aminallah
    Department of Agriculture, Minab Higher Education Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran; Plant Protection Research Group, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Poczai, Péter
    Botany Unit, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 7, Helsinki, Finland; Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Advanced Studies Kőszeg (iASK), P.O. Box 4, Kőszeg, Hungary.
    Afsharifar, Alireza
    Plant Virology Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Transcriptome Meta-Analysis Identifies Candidate Hub Genes and Pathways of Pathogen Stress Responses in Arabidopsis thaliana2022Ingår i: Biology, E-ISSN 2079-7737, Vol. 11, nr 8, artikel-id 1155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following a pathogen attack, plants defend themselves using multiple defense mechanisms to prevent infections. We used a meta-analysis and systems-biology analysis to search for general molecular plant defense responses from transcriptomic data reported from different pathogen attacks in Arabidopsis thaliana. Data from seven studies were subjected to meta-analysis, which revealed a total of 3694 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), where both healthy and infected plants were considered. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis further suggested that the DEGs were involved in several biosynthetic metabolic pathways, including those responsible for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and pathways central to photosynthesis and plant–pathogen interactions. Using network analysis, we highlight the importance of WRKY40, WRKY46 and STZ, and suggest that they serve as major points in protein–protein interactions. This is especially true regarding networks of composite-metabolic responses by pathogens. In summary, this research provides a new approach that illuminates how different mechanisms of transcriptome responses can be activated in plants under pathogen infection and indicates that common genes vary in their ability to regulate plant responses to the pathogens studied herein.

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  • 19. Blumenstein, Kathrin
    et al.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Martin, Juan A.
    Hultberg, Malin
    Sieber, Thomas N.
    Helander, Marjo
    Witzell, Johanna
    Nutritional niche overlap potentiates the use of endophytes in biocontrol of a tree disease2015Ingår i: BioControl (Dordrecht), ISSN 1386-6141, E-ISSN 1573-8248, Vol. 60, nr 5, s. 655-667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Asymptomatic endophytic fungi are often regarded as potent biocontrol agents in plants, but the competitive interactions between endophytes and other microbes within the same host plant are poorly understood. We tested a hypothesis that as compared to asymptomatic endophytes, an aggressive pathogen inhabiting the same host is able to utilize carbon substrates more efficiently. Using phenotype microarray, we determined the carbon utilization profiles of the highly virulent Dutch elm disease (DED) pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, and four asymptomatic elm (Ulmus spp.) endophyte isolates that were selected based on their differential association to the DED-susceptibility pattern of the host elms. The competitive interactions between isolates were evaluated using a niche overlap index. In contrast to our hypothesis, the studied endophytes exhibited extensive niche overlap with the pathogen, suggesting that some endophyte strains might protect elms against DED-pathogen through competition for substrates and provide new tools for biocontrol of DED.

  • 20.
    Blumenstein, Kathrin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Macaya-Sanz, David
    Madrid, Spain.
    Martin, Juana A.
    Madrid, Spain.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Witzell, Johanna
    Joensuu, Finland.
    Phenotype MicroArrays as a complementary tool to next generation sequencing for characterization of tree endophytes2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, artikel-id 1033Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need to calibrate microbial community profiles obtained through next generation sequencing (NGS) with relevant taxonomic identities of the microbes, and to further associate these identities with phenotypic attributes. Phenotype MicroArray (PM) techniques provide a semi-high throughput assay for characterization and monitoring the microbial cellular phenotypes. Here, we present detailed descriptions of two different PM protocols used in our recent studies on fungal endophytes of forest trees, and highlight the benefits and limitations of this technique. We found that the PM approach enables effective screening of substrate utilization by endophytes. However, the technical limitations are multifaceted and the interpretation of the PM data challenging. For the best result, we recommend that the growth conditions for the fungi are carefully standardized. In addition, rigorous replication and control strategies should be employed whether using pre-configured, commercial microwell-plates or in-house designed PM plates for targeted substrate analyses. With these precautions, the PM technique is a valuable tool to characterize the metabolic capabilities of individual endophyte isolates, or successional endophyte communities identified by NGS, allowing a functional interpretation of the taxonomic data. Thus, PM approaches can provide valuable complementary information for NGS studies of fungal endophytes in forest trees.

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  • 21. Caseys, Celine
    et al.
    Glauser, Gaetan
    Stoelting, Kai N.
    Christe, Camille
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lexer, Christian
    Effects of interspecific recombination on functional traits in trees revealed by metabolomics and genotyping-by-resequencing2012Ingår i: Plant Ecology & Diversity, ISSN 1755-0874, E-ISSN 1755-1668, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 457-471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding the potential and limits of recombination in adaptive evolution is of great interest to evolutionary biology. New (ultra-) high-throughput technologies in metabolomics and genomics hold great promise for addressing these questions, but their use in interspecific hybrids remains largely unexplored. Aims: Our goal was to test if recombination between the highly divergent genomes of Populus alba and P. tremula has the potential to contribute to the standing variation for functionally important chemical traits. Methods: We studied the metabolomes of interspecific hybrids by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and initiated the characterisation of hybrid genomes by restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Results: UHPLC-QTOF-MS indicated a complex 'mosaic' of chemical traits in recombinant hybrids and pointed to a heritable component for many of these. RAD sequencing confirmed the recombinant nature of natural hybrids previously characterised by microsatellites and suggested a complex history of recombination. Conclusions: It is likely that hybridisation has affected these species' genomes over several glacial cycles. Recombination holds great potential to create functionally relevant chemical variation in these trees. Nevertheless, correlations between chemical traits are not entirely broken up in recombinant hybrids, suggesting limits to adaptive evolution by genetic exchange.

  • 22.
    Chowdhury, Jamil
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå Plant Science Center, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ferdous, Jannatul
    Umeå Plant Science Center, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lihavainen, Jenna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lundberg-Felten, Judith
    Umeå Plant Science Center, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fluorogenic properties of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) enable high resolution imaging of cell-wall-bound proanthocyanidins in plant root tissues2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 13, artikel-id 1060804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are polymeric phenolic compounds found in plants and used in many industrial applications. Despite strong evidence of herbivore and pathogen resistance-related properties of PAs, their in planta function is not fully understood. Determining the location and dynamics of PAs in plant tissues and cellular compartments is crucial to understand their mode of action. Such an approach requires microscopic localization with fluorescent dyes that specifically bind to PAs. Such dyes have hitherto been lacking. Here, we show that 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) can be used as a PA-specific fluorescent dye that allows localization of PAs at high resolution in cell walls and inside cells using confocal microscopy, revealing features of previously unreported wall-bound PAs. We demonstrate several novel usages of DMACA as a fluorophore by taking advantage of its double staining compatibility with other fluorescent dyes. We illustrate the use of the dye alone and its co-localization with cell wall polymers in different Populus root tissues. The easy-to-use fluorescent staining method, together with its high photostability and compatibility with other fluorogenic dyes, makes DMACA a valuable tool for uncovering the biological function of PAs at a cellular level in plant tissues. DMACA can also be used in other plant tissues than roots, however care needs to be taken when tissues contain compounds that autofluoresce in the red spectral region which can be confounded with the PA-specific DMACA signal.

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  • 23. Crutsinger, G M
    et al.
    Sanders, N J
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Abreu, Ilka Nacif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Wardle, D A
    Ecosystem retrogression leads to increased insect abundance and herbivory across an island chronosequence2008Ingår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 816-823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    1. Ecosystem retrogression, the decline-phase of ecosystem development, occurs during the long-term absence of catastrophic disturbance. It usually involves increased nutrient limitation over time, and leads to reductions in primary productivity, decomposition, and nutrient cycling.

    2. As a consequence, retrogression can alter the quality and abundance of host plants as food resources, but little is known about how these changes influence herbivore densities and foliage consumption.

    3. In this study, we used a 5000-year-old chronosequence of forested islands in northern Sweden on which retrogression occurs in the absence of lightning-induced wildfire. We asked whether retrogression affected the abundance and herbivory of a dominant herbivorous weevil (Deporaus betulae) and the quality and productivity of a dominant host-tree, mountain birch (Betula pubescens).

    4. Betula pubescens trees on retrogressed islands were less productive and produced smaller, tougher leaves that were lower in nutrients and higher in secondary metabolites than did those trees on earlier-successional islands.

    5. Despite the lower density and what ecologists might perceive as poorer quality of host plants, we observed several-fold higher weevil abundance and damage on retrogressed islands. This suggests that weevils might prefer the poorer quality leaves with higher secondary metabolites that occur on nutrient stressed host trees.

    6. Our results show that ecosystem retrogression increases susceptibility of B. pubescens trees to attack by herbivorous weevils.

    7. Our study provides evidence that ecosystem retrogression and associated shifts in the quantity and quality of available resources can operate as an important driver of abundance of a dominant insect herbivore.

  • 24.
    Decker, Vicki Huizu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Agostinelli, A
    Chen, SS
    Cleary, M
    Witzell, J
    Albrectsen, Benedicte
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Foliar fungal endophytes respond to nitrogen fertilization and herbivory in aspen genotypesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Decker, Vicki Huizu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Bandau, Franziska
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Gundale, Michael J.
    Cole, Christopher T.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Aspen phenylpropanoid genes’ expression levels correlate with genets’ tannin richness and vary both in responses to soil nitrogen and associations with phenolic profiles2017Ingår i: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 270-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Condensed tannin (CT) contents of European aspen (Populus tremula L.) vary among genotypes, and increases in nitrogen (N) availability generally reduce plants’ tannin production in favor of growth, through poorly understood mechanisms. We hypothesized that intrinsic tannin production rates may co-vary with gene expression responses to soil N and resource allocation within the phenylpropanoid pathway (PPP). Thus, we examined correlations between soil N levels and both expression patterns of eight PPP genes (measured by quantitative-reverse transcription PCR) and foliar phenolic compounds (measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry) in young aspen genets with intrinsically extreme CT levels. Monitored phenolics included salicinoids, lignins, flavones, flavonols, CT precursors and CTs. The PPP genes were consistently expressed more strongly in high-CT trees. Low N supplements reduced expression of genes throughout the PPP in all genets, while high N doses restored expression of genes at the beginning and end of the pathway. These PPP changes were not reflected in pools of tannin precursors, but varying correlations between gene expression and foliar phenolic pools were detected in young and mature leaves, suggesting that processes linking gene expression and the resulting phenolics vary spatially and temporally. Precursor fluxes suggested that CT-related metabolic rate or sink controls are linked to intrinsic carbon allocation strategies associated with N responses. Overall, we found more negative correlations (indicative of allocation trade-offs) between PPP gene expression and phenolic products following N additions in low-CT plants than in high-CT plants. The tannin-related expression dynamics suggest that, in addition to defense, relative tannin levels may also be indicative of intraspecific variations in the way aspen genets respond to soil fertility. 

  • 26.
    Decker, Vicki Huizu
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Siddique, A
    Albrectsen, Benedicte
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Specialist Leaf Beetles Enrich Diversity of Endophytic Fungi in Aspen Leaves, and Mask Intra-specific Host SpecificityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27. Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    et al.
    Amini, Fariba
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
    Donev, Evgeniy N.
    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama
    Michaud, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Cell Wall Acetylation in Hybrid Aspen Affects Field Performance, Foliar Phenolic Composition and Resistance to Biological Stress Factors in a Construct-Dependent Fashion2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 11, artikel-id 651Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of biofuels and "green" chemicals from the lignocellulose of fast-growing hardwood species is hampered by extensive acetylation of xylan. Different strategies have been implemented to reduce xylan acetylation, resulting in transgenic plants that show good growth in the greenhouse, improved saccharification and fermentation, but the field performance of such plants has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reduced acetylation on field productivity and identify the best strategies for decreasing acetylation. Growth and biological stress data were evaluated for 18 hybrid aspen lines with 10-20% reductions in the cell wall acetyl content from a five year field experiment in Southern Sweden. The reduction in acetyl content was achieved either by suppressing the process of acetylation in the Golgi by reducing expression of REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) genes, or by post-synthetic acetyl removal by fungal acetyl xylan esterases (AXEs) from two different families, CE1 and CE5, targeting them to cell walls. Transgene expression was regulated by either a constitutive promoter (35S) or a wood-specific promoter (WP). For the majority of transgenic lines, growth was either similar to that in WT and transgenic control (WP:GUS) plants, or slightly reduced. The slight reduction was observed in the AXE-expressing lines regulated by the 35S promoter, not those with the WP promoter which limits expression to cells developing secondary walls. Expressing AXEs regulated by the 35S promoter resulted in increased foliar arthropod chewing, and altered condensed tannins and salicinoid phenolic glucosides (SPGs) profiles. Greater growth inhibition was observed in the case of CE5 than with CE1 AXE, and it was associated with increased foliar necrosis and distinct SPG profiles, suggesting that CE5 AXE could be recognized by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern system. For each of three different constructs, there was a line with dwarfism and growth abnormalities, suggesting random genetic/epigenetic changes. This high frequency of dwarfism (17%) is suggestive of a link between acetyl metabolism and chromatin function. These data represent the first evaluation of acetyl-reduced plants from the field, indicating some possible pitfalls, and identifying the best strategies, when developing highly productive acetyl-reduced feedstocks.

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  • 28.
    Derba-Maceluch, Marta
    et al.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sivan, Pramod
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Donev, Evgeniy N.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gandla, Madhavi Latha
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Yassin, Zakiya
    Enhet Produktionssystem och Material, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Växjö, Sweden.
    Vaasan, Rakhesh
    Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heinonen, Emilia
    Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Centre (WWSC), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sanna
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Amini, Fariba
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
    Scheepers, Gerhard
    Enhet Produktionssystem och Material, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Växjö, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ulf
    Tönnersjöheden Experimental Forest, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Simlångsdalen, Sweden.
    Vilaplana, Francisco J.
    Division of Glycoscience, Department of Chemistry, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Centre (WWSC), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hertzberg, Magnus
    SweTree Technologies AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impact of xylan on field productivity and wood saccharification properties in aspen2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1218302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan that comprises roughly 25% of hardwood biomass is undesirable in biorefinery applications involving saccharification and fermentation. Efforts to reduce xylan levels have therefore been made in many species, usually resulting in improved saccharification. However, such modified plants have not yet been tested under field conditions. Here we evaluate the field performance of transgenic hybrid aspen lines with reduced xylan levels and assess their usefulness as short-rotation feedstocks for biorefineries. Three types of transgenic lines were tested in four-year field tests with RNAi constructs targeting either Populus GT43 clades B and C (GT43BC) corresponding to Arabidopsis clades IRX9 and IRX14, respectively, involved in xylan backbone biosynthesis, GATL1.1 corresponding to AtGALT1 involved in xylan reducing end sequence biosynthesis, or ASPR1 encoding an atypical aspartate protease. Their productivity, wood quality traits, and saccharification efficiency were analyzed. The only lines differing significantly from the wild type with respect to growth and biotic stress resistance were the ASPR1 lines, whose stems were roughly 10% shorter and narrower and leaves showed increased arthropod damage. GT43BC lines exhibited no growth advantage in the field despite their superior growth in greenhouse experiments. Wood from the ASPR1 and GT43BC lines had slightly reduced density due to thinner cell walls and, in the case of ASPR1, larger cell diameters. The xylan was less extractable by alkali but more hydrolysable by acid, had increased glucuronosylation, and its content was reduced in all three types of transgenic lines. The hemicellulose size distribution in the GALT1.1 and ASPR1 lines was skewed towards higher molecular mass compared to the wild type. These results provide experimental evidence that GATL1.1 functions in xylan biosynthesis and suggest that ASPR1 may regulate this process. In saccharification without pretreatment, lines of all three constructs provided 8-11% higher average glucose yields than wild-type plants. In saccharification with acid pretreatment, the GT43BC construct provided a 10% yield increase on average. The best transgenic lines of each construct are thus predicted to modestly outperform the wild type in terms of glucose yields per hectare. The field evaluation of transgenic xylan-reduced aspen represents an important step towards more productive feedstocks for biorefineries.

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  • 29. Fritz, Robert S.
    et al.
    Hochwender, Chris G.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Czesak, Mary Ellen
    Fitness and genetic architecture of parent and hybrid willows in common gardens2006Ingår i: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 1215-1227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of hybrid zone dynamics incorporate different patterns of hybrid fitness relative to parental species fitness. An important but understudied source of variation underlying these fitness differences is the environment. We investigated the performance of two willow species and their F1, F2, and backcross hybrids using a common‐garden experiment with six replicated gardens that differed in soil moisture. Aboveground biomass, catkin production, seed production per catkin, and seed germination rate were significantly different among genetic classes. For aboveground biomass and catkin production, hybrids generally had intermediate or inferior performance compared to parent species. Salix eriocephala had the highest performance for all performance measures, but in two gardens F1 plants had superior or equal performance for aboveground biomass and female catkin production. Salix eriocephala and backcrosses to S. eriocephala had the highest numbers of filled seeds per catkin and the highest estimates of total fitness in all gardens. Measures of filled seeds per catkin and germination rate tend to support the model of endogenous hybrid unfitness, and these two measures had major effects on estimates of total seed production per catkin. We also estimated how the two willow species differ genetically in these fitness measures using line cross analysis. We found a complex genetic architecture underlying the fitness differences between species that involved additive, dominance, and epistatic genetic effects for all fitness measures. The environment was important in the expression of these genetic differences, because the type of epistasis differed among the gardens for aboveground biomass and for female catkin production. These findings suggest that fine‐scale environmental variation can have a significant impact on hybrid fitness in hybrid zones where parents and hybrids are widely interspersed.

  • 30.
    Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Biotechnology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India.
    Yadav, Dinesh
    Department of Biotechnology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, India.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Editorial: Omics driven research for the improvement of industrial crops2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1143571Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 31. Gundale, Michael J.
    et al.
    Sverker, Jennie
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte
    Wardle, David A.
    Variation in protein complexation capacity among and within six plant species across a boreal forest chronosequence2010Ingår i: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 211, nr 2, s. 253-266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated among and within species variation in several litter chemical properties, including protein complexation capacity (PCC), for six plant species across a boreal forest chronosequence in northern Sweden across which stand fertility declines sharply with stand age. We hypothesized (1) that evergreen species which dominate in late-successional stands would exhibit higher PCCs than deciduous species that dominate in young stands, (2) that individual species would increase their PCCs in response to nutrient limitation as succession proceeds, and (3) that differences in PCC among litter types would determine their interactive effects with proteins on soil N and C mineralization. The data demonstrated a high PCC, but a low PCC per unit of soluble phenol, for two deciduous species that dominate in early-successional high fertility stands, providing mixed support for our first hypothesis. No species demonstrated a significant correlation between their PCC and stand age, which did not support our second hypothesis. Finally, a soil incubation assay revealed that litter extracts for three of the six species had negative interactive effects with added proteins on N mineralization rates, and that all six species demonstrated positive interactive effects with protein on C mineralization. This pattern did not provide strong support for our third hypothesis, and suggests that N immobilization was likely a more important factor regulating N mineralization than stabilization of proteins into tannin complexes. These data suggest that multiple interactive mechanisms between litter extracts and proteins likely occur simultaneously to influence the availability of N in soils.

  • 32.
    Keefover-Ring, Ken
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Ahnlund, Maria
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Abreu, Ilka Nacif
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Moritz, Thomas
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Umeå, Sweden.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    No evidence of geographical structure of salicinoid chemotypes within Populus tremula2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. e107189-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Salicinoids are well-known defense compounds in salicaceous trees and careful screening at the population level is warranted to fully understand their diversity and function. European aspen, Populus tremula, is a foundation species in Eurasia and highly polymorphic in Sweden. We exhaustively surveyed 102 replicated genotypes from the Swedish Aspen collection (SwAsp) for foliar salicinoids using UHPLC-ESI-TOF/MS and identified nine novel compounds, bringing the total to 19 for this species. Salicinoid structure followed a modular architecture of a salicin skeleton with added side groups, alone or in combination. Two main moieties, 2'-cinnamoyl and 2'-acetyl, grouped the SwAsp population into four distinct chemotypes, and the relative allocation of salicinoids was remarkably constant between different environments, implying a highly channeled biosynthesis of these compounds. Slightly more than half of the SwAsp genotypes belonged to the cinnamoyl chemotype. A fraction synthesized the acetyl moiety alone (similar to 7%) or in combination with cinnamoyl (similar to 2%), and close to forty percent lacked either of the two characteristic moieties, and thus resemble P. tremuloides in their salicinoid profile. The two most abundant chemotypes were evenly distributed throughout Sweden, unlike geographical patterns reported for SwAsp phenology traits, plant defense genes, and herbivore community associations. Here we present the salicinoid characterization of the SwAsp collection as a resource for future studies of aspen chemical ecology, salicinoid biosynthesis, and genetics.

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  • 33.
    Keefover-Ring, Ken
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Carlsson, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    2 '-(Z)-Cinnamoylsalicortin: A novel salicinoid isolated from Populus tremula2014Ingår i: Phytochemistry Letters, ISSN 1874-3900, E-ISSN 1876-7486, Vol. 7, s. 212-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques, we have isolated a new salicinoid from the foliage of European aspen (Populus tremula) and identified it as 2'-(Z)-cinnamoylsalicortin. The relatively high amounts in foliage and the similarity in structure to bioactive salicinoids isolated from other salicaceous trees indicates that this compound may have implications for the study of P. tremulaherbivore interactions.

  • 34. Khaling, Eliezer
    et al.
    Papazian, Stefano
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Poelman, Erik H.
    Holopainen, Jarmo K.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK 1871, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Blande, James D.
    Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra2015Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 199, s. 119-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under elevated ozone conditions. The direct and indirect effects of ozone on the plant-herbivore system were studied. In both cases ozone exposure had a negative effect on P. brassicae development. However, in dual-choice tests larvae preferentially consumed plant material previously fumigated with the highest concentration tested, showing a lack of correlation between larval preference and performance on ozone exposed plants. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material subjected to combinations of ozone and herbivore-feeding, and focussing on known defence metabolites, indicated that P. brassicae behaviour and performance were associated with ozone-induced alterations to glucosinolate and phenolic pools. 

  • 35.
    Kloth, Karen J.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Abreu, Ilka N.
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Petrik, Ivan
    Villard, Cloe
    Ström, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Amini, Fariba
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, Iran.
    Novak, Ondrej
    Moritz, Thomas
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE9 Affects the Transcriptome and Metabolome and Delays Aphid Feeding1[OPEN]2019Ingår i: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 181, nr 4, s. 1704-1720Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The plant cell wall plays an important role in damage-associated molecular pattern-induced resistance to pathogens and herbivorous insects. Our current understanding of cell wall-mediated resistance is largely based on the degree of pectin methylesterification. However, little is known about the role of pectin acetylesterification in plant immunity. This study describes how one pectin-modifying enzyme, PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE 9 (PAE9), affects the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcriptome, secondary metabolome, and aphid performance. Electro-penetration graphs showed that Myzus persicae aphids established phloem feeding earlier on pae9 mutants. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed a set of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between uninfested pae9-2 mutants and wild-type plants. The majority of the DEGs were enriched for biotic stress responses and down-regulated in the pae9-2 mutant, including PAD3 and IGMT2, involved in camalexin and indole glucosinolate biosynthesis, respectively. Relative quantification of more than 100 secondary metabolites revealed decreased levels of several compounds, including camalexin and oxylipins, in two independent pae9 mutants. In addition, absolute quantification of phytohormones showed that jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-Ile, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and indole-3-acetic acid were compromised due to PAE9 loss of function. After aphid infestation, however, pae9 mutants increased their levels of camalexin, glucosinolates, and JA, and no long-term effects were observed on aphid fitness. Overall, these data show that PAE9 is required for constitutive up-regulation of defense-related compounds, but that it is not required for aphid-induced defenses. The signatures of phenolic antioxidants, phytoprostanes, and oxidative stress-related transcripts indicate that the processes underlying PAE9 activity involve oxidation-reduction reactions. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE9 is involved in the accumulation of jasmonic acid, camalexin and antioxidants, and delays establishment of aphid phloem feeding, but is not required for aphid-induced defenses.

  • 36.
    Kloth, Karen J.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands; Bioscience, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Busscher-Lange, Jacqueline
    Wiegers, Gerrie L.
    Kruijer, Willem
    Buijs, Gonda
    Meyer, Rhonda C.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bouwmeester, Harro J.
    Dicke, Marcel
    Jongsma, Maarten A.
    SIEVE ELEMENT-LINING CHAPERONE1 Restricts Aphid Feeding on Arabidopsis during Heat Stress2017Ingår i: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 29, nr 10, s. 2450-2464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of phloem proteins in plant resistance to aphids is still largely elusive. By genome-wide association mapping of aphid behavior on 350 natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we identified the small heat shock-like SIEVE ELEMENT-LINING CHAPERONE1 (SLI1). Detailed behavioral studies on near-isogenic and knockout lines showed that SLI1 impairs phloem feeding. Depending on the haplotype, aphids displayed a different duration of salivation in the phloem. On sli1 mutants, aphids prolonged their feeding sessions and ingested phloem at a higher rate than on wild-type plants. The largest phenotypic effects were observed at 26 degrees C, when SLI1 expression is upregulated. At this moderately high temperature, sli1 mutants suffered from retarded elongation of the inflorescence and impaired silique development. Fluorescent reporter fusions showed that SLI1 is confined to the margins of sieve elements where it lines the parietal layer and colocalizes in spherical bodies around mitochondria. This localization pattern is reminiscent of the clamp-like structures observed in previous ultrastructural studies of the phloem and shows that the parietal phloem layer plays an important role in plant resistance to aphids and heat stress.

  • 37.
    Kloth, Karen J.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Shah, Parth
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Broekgaarden, Colette
    Keygene N.V, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Ström, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Dicke, Marcel
    Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    SLI1 confers broad-spectrum resistance to phloem-feeding insects2021Ingår i: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 44, nr 8, s. 2765-2776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance (R) genes usually compete in a coevolutionary arms race with reciprocal effectors to confer strain-specific resistance to pathogens or herbivorous insects. Here, we investigate the specificity of SLI1, a recently identified R gene in Arabidopsis that encodes a small heat shock-like protein involved in resistance to Myzus persicae aphids. In a panel with several aphid and whitefly species, SLI1 compromised reproductive rates of three species: the tobacco aphid M. persicae nicotianae, the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae and the cabbage whitefly Aleyrodes proletella. Electrical penetration graph recording of aphid behaviour, revealed shorter salivations and a 3-to-5-fold increase in phloem feeding on sli1 loss-of-function plants. The mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi and Bemisia tabaci whitefly were not affected by SLI1. Unlike the other two aphid species, L. erysimi exhibited repetitive salivations preceding successful phloem feeding, indicating a role of salivary effectors in overcoming SLI1-mediated resistance. Microscopic characterization showed that SLI1 proteins localize in the sieve tubes of virtually all above- and below-ground tissues and co-localize with the aphid stylet tip after penetration of the sieve element plasma membrane. These observations reveal an unconventional R gene that escapes the paradigm of strain specificity and confers broad-spectrum quantitative resistance to phloem-feeding insects.

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  • 38.
    Luquez, Virginia
    et al.
    INFIVE, UNLP-CONICET, La Plata, Argentina.
    Hall, David
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ingvarsson, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Natural phenological variation in aspen (Populus tremula): the SwAsp collection2008Ingår i: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, Vol. 4, s. 279-292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Populus is currently the main model system for genetic, genomic, and physiological research in trees. Phenotypic variation in aspen (Populus tremula) populations growing in different environments across Sweden is expected to reflect genetic variation that is important for local adaptation. To analyze such natural phenotypic and genetic variation, the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) Collection was established. Trees were taken from 12 different populations across Sweden, from 56° to 66° latitude north and planted in two common gardens in Ekebo (55.9°N) and Sävar (63.4°N). Data related to phenological and growth traits were collected during the second year of growth. Some traits like the date of bud set and leaf area duration showed strong clinal variation patterns with latitude in both field trials, but the date of bud flush did not change along a latitudinal cline. The phenological traits showed moderate within-populations heritabilities, although growth traits showed weaker clinal patterns and lower heritabilities than the phenological traits. This research forms the starting point for the development of the SwAsp collection, a resource facilitating analysis of the natural genetic variation in aspen, the elucidation of the structure and dynamics of aspen populations, and the future identification of the genes controlling adaptive traits using association mapping of selected candidate genes.

  • 39. Moazzami Farida, Seyed Hamed
    et al.
    Karamian, Roya
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Silver nanoparticle pollutants activate oxidative stress responses and rosmarinic acid accumulation in sage2020Ingår i: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 170, nr 3, s. 415-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, physiological and molecular responses of sage (Salvia officinalis) to silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were studied. It is supposed that sage oxidative responses can be activated to overcome the negative effects of SNPs. Results showed the penetration of SNPs via leaf epidermis into the parenchyma cells after foliar application. A significant decrease of photosynthetic pigments and increase of cell injury indicators, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and also the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed after exposure of sage plants to 50 and 1000 mg l(-1)SNPs compared to control plants. Phenolic compounds generally increased, but not in linear response to the dose level. The most abundant phenolic acid, rosmarinic acid (RA), increased more than eightfold at 100 mg l(-1)SNPs. Furthermore, the content of RA, salvianolic acid A and B was positively correlated with the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and RA synthase, but not with tyrosine aminotransferase. It could be concluded that the content of phenolic compounds increased in response to lower SNPs concentrations (50 and 100 mg l(-1)). However, the oxidative stress responses continued above these concentrations.

  • 40. Orians, Colin M
    et al.
    Fritz, Robert S
    Hochwender, Cris G
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Czesak, Mary Ellen
    How slug herbivory of juvenile hybrid willows alters chemistry, growth and subsequent susceptibility to diverse plant enemies2013Ingår i: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 112, nr 4, s. 757-765Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Papazian, Stefano
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå Plant Science Centre.
    Girdwood, Tristan
    Ripszam, Mátyás
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Poelman, Erik H.
    Dicke, Marcel
    Moritz, Thomas
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Herbivore-Induced Metabolic Responses in Brassica nigra are Shaped by Leaf OntogenyManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to defend, plants rely on quick metabolic reconfigurations. Here weinvestigated plant herbivore-induced responses asking: 1) how exposure to methyljasmonate(MeJA) and herbivory alter plant defence and growth metabolism, and 2)are herbivore-induced responses concentrated in tissues with higher fitness value, aspredicted by the optimal defence (OD) theory? We analysed the leaf metabolome of black mustard (B. nigra) in response to MeJAand/or feeding by specialist caterpillars of the large white cabbage butterfly (Pierisbrassicae). Shifts in defence-related (secondary) and growth-related (primary)metabolites were initially evaluated on fully expanded mature leaves and thenfollowed across leaf ontogeny. MeJA enhanced herbivore induced-responses and increased the plant resistanceagainst sequential herbivory. Responses were focused in young leaves andcharacterized by changes in defence- (glucosinolates, phenolics) and growth- (aminoacids, sugars, organic acids) metabolism, including asymmetric accumulation ofcentral tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediates. MeJA application enhanced the plant resistance towards herbivory and, consistentlywith the OD theory, herbivore-induced responses were prioritized in young leaves.However, shifts in the plant were not limited to higher defences but affected growthmetabolism including regulation of energy pathways and increased leaf senescence.These effects deserve attention by future ecological and applied research on plantinsectinteractions.

  • 42.
    Papazian, Stefano
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Girdwood, Tristan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Wessels, Bernard A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Poelman, Erik H.
    Dicke, Marcel
    Moritz, Thomas
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Leaf metabolic signatures induced by real and simulated herbivory in black mustard (Brassica nigra)2019Ingår i: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 15, nr 10, artikel-id 130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The oxylipin methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant hormone active in response signalling and defence against herbivores. Although MeJA is applied experimentally to mimic herbivory and induce plant defences, its downstream effects on the plant metabolome are largely uncharacterized, especially in the context of primary growth and tissue-specificity of the response. Objectives We investigated the effects of MeJA-simulated and real caterpillar herbivory on the foliar metabolome of the wild plant Brassica nigra and monitored the herbivore-induced responses in relation to leaf ontogeny. Methods As single or multiple herbivory treatments, MeJA- and mock-sprayed plants were consecutively exposed to caterpillars or left untreated. Gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF-MS) were combined to analyse foliar compounds, including central primary and specialized defensive plant metabolites. Results Plant responses were stronger in young leaves, which simultaneously induced higher chlorophyll levels. Both MeJA and caterpillar herbivory induced similar, but not identical, accumulation of tricarboxylic acids (TCAs), glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenylpropanoids (PPs), but only caterpillar feeding led to depletion of amino acids. MeJA followed by caterpillars caused higher induction of defence compounds, including a three-fold increase in the major defence compound allyl-GSL (sinigrin). When feeding on MeJA-treated plants, caterpillars gained less weight indicative of the reduced host-plant quality and enhanced resistance. Conclusions The metabolomics approach showed that plant responses induced by herbivory extend beyond the regulation of defence metabolism and are tightly modulated throughout leaf development. This leads to a new understanding of the plant metabolic potential that can be exploited for future plant protection strategies.

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  • 43.
    Papazian, Stefano
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Khaling, Eliezer
    Bonnet, Christelle
    Lassueur, Steve
    Reymond, Philippe
    Moritz, Thomas
    Blande, James D.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik.
    Central Metabolic Responses to Ozone and Herbivory Affect Photosynthesis and Stomatal Closure2016Ingår i: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 172, nr 3, s. 2057-2078Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have evolved adaptive mechanisms that allow them to tolerate a continuous range of abiotic and biotic stressors. Tropospheric ozone (O-3), a global anthropogenic pollutant, directly affects living organisms and ecosystems, including plant-herbivore interactions. In this study, we investigate the stress responses of Brassica nigra (wild black mustard) exposed consecutively to O-3 and the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae. Transcriptomics and metabolomics data were evaluated using multivariate, correlation, and network analyses for the O-3 and herbivory responses. O-3 stress symptoms resembled those of senescence and phosphate starvation, while a sequential shift from O-3 to herbivory induced characteristic plant defense responses, including a decrease in central metabolism, induction of the jasmonic acid/ethylene pathways, and emission of volatiles. Omics network and pathway analyses predicted a link between glycerol and central energy metabolism that influences the osmotic stress response and stomatal closure. Further physiological measurements confirmed that while O-3 stress inhibited photosynthesis and carbon assimilation, sequential herbivory counteracted the initial responses induced by O-3, resulting in a phenotype similar to that observed after herbivory alone. This study clarifies the consequences of multiple stress interactions on a plant metabolic system and also illustrates how omics data can be integrated to generate new hypotheses in ecology and plant physiology.

  • 44. Ponzio, Camille
    et al.
    Papazian, Stefano
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Dicke, Marcel
    Gols, Rieta
    Dual herbivore attack and herbivore density affect metabolic profiles of Brassica nigra leaves2017Ingår i: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 1356-1367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant responses to dual herbivore attack are increasingly studied, but effects on the metabolome have largely been restricted to volatile metabolites and defence-related non-volatile metabolites. However, plants subjected to stress, such as herbivory, undergo major changes in both primary and secondary metabolism. Using a naturally occurring system, we investigated metabolome-wide effects of single or dual herbivory on Brassica nigra plants by Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and Pieris brassicae caterpillars, while also considering the effect of aphid density. Metabolomic analysis of leaf material showed that single and dual herbivory had strong effects on the plant metabolome, with caterpillar feeding having the strongest influence. Additionally, aphid-density-dependent effects were found in both the single and dual infestation scenarios. Multivariate analysis revealed treatment-specific metabolomic profiles, and effects were largely driven by alterations in the glucosinolate and sugar pools. Our work shows that analysing the plant metabolome as a single entity rather than as individual metabolites provides new insights into the subcellular processes underlying plant defence against multiple herbivore attackers. These processes appear to be importantly influenced by insect density.

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  • 45.
    Raizada, Richa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Science, St. Mary's School, Rajasthan, Sikar, India.
    Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Biotechnology, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Uttar Pradesh, Gorakhpur, India.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Recursive partitioning to prioritize morphometric traits that separate Aspen specialist Chaitophorus aphid by species and stage2022Ingår i: International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, ISSN 1742-7584, E-ISSN 1742-7592, Vol. 42, s. 941-946Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arthropod herbivore assemblages are used to gain insight into questions about evolution, ecology, diversity, and conservation. However, determination at the species level of small arthropods may be challenging risking underestimating diversity. Here we suggest morphometric analyses as a supplementary determination method, and we demonstrate its use for a study of Chaitophorus species collected from Aspen trees (Populus tremula). Although sampled as one colony, the aphids represented three species. Rearing the species separately allowed us to get estimates characteristic of the developmental stages from each of the three species for morphometric comparisons. Recursive partitioning (RP) was used to create a decision tree for choice of morphometric parameters that with significance (p < 0.05) could determine the aphids by species and developmental stage; this insight could then be used as a key for determination. Eight of fifteen morphometric traits were selected by RP to be used in the key. Body length was responsible for nine splits and was consequently the more consistent morphometric trait used in the key.

  • 46. Randriamanana, Tendry R.
    et al.
    Nissinen, Katri
    Ovaskainen, Anu
    Lavola, Anu
    Peltola, Heli
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Does fungal endophyte inoculation affect the responses of aspen seedlings to carbon dioxide enrichment?2018Ingår i: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 33, s. 24-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Endophytes are microorganisms that live inside plants without causing visible symptoms, at least during some parts of their life cycle. We studied, for the first time, the combined effects of CO2 enrichment (700 ppm) and fungal endophyte inoculation on the growth, the concentrations of low-molecular weight phenolics, and condensed tannins of aspen (Populus tremula) seedlings. As expected, we found that the endophyte strain we inoculated was neutral to plant growth and was able to bypass major plant defences. In addition, CO2 enrichment alone boosted plant growth, but had only minor effects on plant phenolics. Neither did it affect the plant-endophyte relationship. Based on our findings, we suggest that the successful and asymptomatic colonization of endophytes that we found in aspen might be due to the endophytes' special attributes enabling them to thrive inside plant tissues and to avoid or counteract the plant's chemical defences.

  • 47.
    Robinson, Kathryn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Delhomme, Nicolas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Mahler, Niklas
    Schiffthaler, Bastian
    Önskog, Jenny
    Albrectsen, Benedicte
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ingvarsson, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hvidsten, Torgeir
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Street, Nathaniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Populus tremula (European aspen) shows no evidence of sexual dimorphism2014Ingår i: BMC Plant Biology, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 14, s. 276-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Evolutionary theory suggests that males and females may evolve sexually dimorphic phenotypic and biochemical traits concordant with each sex having different optimal strategies of resource investment to maximise reproductive success and fitness. Such sexual dimorphism would result in sex biased gene expression patterns in non-floral organs for autosomal genes associated with the control and development of such phenotypic traits.

    Results:

    We examined morphological, biochemical and herbivory traits to test for sexually dimorphic resource allocation strategies within collections of sexually mature and immature Populus tremula (European aspen) trees. In addition we profiled gene expression in mature leaves of sexually mature wild trees using whole-genome oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA-Sequencing.

    Conclusions:

    We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism or differential resource investment strategies between males and females in either sexually immature or mature trees. Similarly, single-gene differential expression and machine learning approaches revealed no evidence of large-scale sex biased gene expression. However, two significantly differentially expressed genes were identified from the RNA-Seq data, one of which is a robust diagnostic marker of sex in P. tremula.

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  • 48.
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hauzy, Céline
    Loeuille, Nicolas
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Relative impacts of environmental variation and evolutionary history on the nestedness and modularity of tree-herbivore networks2015Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, nr 14, s. 2898-2915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nestedness and modularity are measures of ecological networks whose causative effects are little understood. We analyzed antagonistic plant-herbivore bipartite networks using common gardens in two contrasting environments comprised of aspen trees with differing evolutionary histories of defence against herbivores. These networks were tightly connected owing to a high level of specialization of arthropod herbivores that spend a large proportion of the life cycle on aspen. The gardens were separated by ten degrees of latitude with resultant differences in abiotic conditions. We evaluated network metrics and reported similar connectance between gardens but greater numbers of links per species in the northern common garden. Interaction matrices revealed clear nestedness, indicating subsetting of the bipartite interactions into specialist divisions, in both the environmental and evolutionary aspen groups, although nestedness values were only significant in the northern garden. Variation in plant vulnerability, measured as the frequency of herbivore specialization in the aspen population, was significantly partitioned by environment (common garden) but not by evolutionary origin of the aspens. Significant values of modularity were observed in all network matrices. Trait-matching indicated that growth traits, leaf morphology, and phenolic metabolites affected modular structure in both the garden and evolutionary groups, whereas extra-floral nectaries had little influence. Further examination of module configuration revealed that plant vulnerability explained considerable variance in web structure. The contrasting conditions between the two gardens resulted in bottom-up effects of the environment, which most strongly influenced the overall network architecture, however, the aspen groups with dissimilar evolutionary history also showed contrasting degrees of nestedness and modularity. Our research therefore shows that, while evolution does affect the structure of aspen-herbivore bipartite networks, the role of environmental variations is a dominant constraint.

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  • 49.
    Robinson, Kathryn M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Genetic Variation in Functional Traits Influences Arthropod Community Composition in Aspen (Populus tremula L.)2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. e37679-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a study of natural variation in functional leaf traits and herbivory in 116 clones of European aspen, Populus tremula L., the Swedish Aspen (SwAsp) collection, originating from ten degrees of latitude across Sweden and grown in a common garden. In surveys of phytophagous arthropods over two years, we found the aspen canopy supports nearly 100 morphospecies. We identified significant broad-sense heritability of plant functional traits, basic plant defence chemistry, and arthropod community traits. The majority of arthropods were specialists, those coevolved with P. tremula to tolerate and even utilize leaf defence compounds. Arthropod abundance and richness were more closely related to plant growth rates than general chemical defences and relationships were identified between the arthropod community and stem growth, leaf and petiole morphology, anthocyanins, and condensed tannins. Heritable genetic variation in plant traits in young aspen was found to structure arthropod community; however no single trait drives the preferences of arthropod folivores among young aspen genotypes. The influence of natural variation in plant traits on the arthropod community indicates the importance of maintaining genetic variation in wild trees as keystone species for biodiversity. It further suggests that aspen can be a resource for the study of mechanisms of natural resistance to herbivores.

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  • 50. Rogers, Paul C.
    et al.
    Pinno, Bradley D.
    Sebesta, Jan
    Albrectsen, Benedicte Riber
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Li, Guoqing
    Ivanova, Natalya
    Kusbach, Antonin
    Kuuluvainen, Timo
    Landhausser, Simon M.
    Liu, Hongyan
    Myking, Tor
    Pulkkinen, Pertti
    Wen, Zhongming
    Kulakowski, Dominik
    A global view of aspen: conservation science for widespread keystone systems2020Ingår i: Global Ecology and Conservation, ISSN 2351-9894, Vol. 21, artikel-id e00828Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Across the northern hemisphere, six species of aspen (Populus spp.) play a disproportionately important role in promoting biodiversity, sequestering carbon, limiting forest disturbances, and providing other ecosystem services. These species are illustrative of efforts to move beyond single-species conservation because they facilitate hundreds of plants and animals worldwide. This review is intended to place aspen in a global conservation context by focusing on the many scientific advances taking place in such biologically diverse systems. In this manner, aspen may serve as a model for other widespread keystone systems where science-based practice may have world implications for biodiversity conservation. In many regions, aspen can maintain canopy dominance for decades to centuries as the sole major broadleaf trees in forested landscapes otherwise dominated by conifers. Aspen ecosystems are valued for many reasons, but here we highlight their potential as key contributors to regional and global biodiversity. We present global trends in research priorities, strengths, and weaknesses based on, 1) a qualitative survey, 2) a systematic literature analysis, and 3) regional syntheses of leading research topics. These regional syntheses explore important aspen uses, threats, and research priorities with the ultimate intent of research sharing focused on sound conservation practice. In all regions, we found that aspen enhance biodiversity, facilitate rapid (re)colonization in natural and damaged settings (e.g., abandoned mines), and provide adaptability in changing environments. Common threats to aspen ecosystems in many, but not all, regions include effects of herbivory, land clearing, logging practices favoring conifer species, and projected climate warming. We also highlight regional research gaps that emerged from the three survey approaches above. We believe multi-scale research is needed that examines disturbance processes in the context of dynamic climates where ecological, physiological, and genetic variability will ultimately determine widespread aspen sustainability. Based on this global review of aspen research, we argue for the advancement of the "mega-conservation" strategy, centered on the idea of sustaining a set of common keystone communities (aspen) that support wide arrays of obligate species. This approach contrasts with conventional preservation which focuses limited resources on individual species residing in narrow niches.

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