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  • 1.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elbe, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 667-688Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the available literature on the relationship between gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms. Specifically, to (1) explore what gaming motivation questionnaires and classifications are used in studies on gaming disorder symptoms and (2) investigate the relationship between motivational factors and symptoms of gaming disorder.

    Method: An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCO (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and the Web of Science Core Collection. All studies using validated measurements on gaming disorder symptoms and gaming motivations and available correlation coefficients of the relationship between gaming disorder and gaming motivations were included. The meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model.

    Results: In total, 49 studies (k = 58 independent sub-samples), including 51,440 participants, out of which 46 studies (k = 55 sub-samples, n = 49,192 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis. The synthesis identified fourteen different gaming motivation instruments, seven unique motivation models, and 26 motivational factors. The meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations between gaming disorder symptoms and 23 out of 26 motivational factors, with the majority of the pooled mean effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. Moreover, large heterogeneity was observed, and the calculated prediction intervals indicated substantial variation in effects across populations and settings. Motivations related to emotional escape were robustly associated with gaming disorder symptoms.

    Discussion and conclusions: The present meta-analysis reinforces the importance of motivational factors in understanding problematic gaming behavior. The analysis showed significant heterogeneity in most outcomes, warranting further investigation.

    Registration detail: PROSPERO (CRD42020220050).

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  • 2.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Király, Orsolya
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Demetrovics, Zsolt
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Comparing psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits between the WHO and APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms: a psychometric investigation2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association and Gaming Disorder in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization requires consistent psychological measures for reliable estimates. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10), and the Five-Item Gaming Disorder Test (GDT-5) and to compare the WHO and the APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms in terms of psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits.

    Methods: A sample of 723 Swedish gamers was recruited (29.8% women, 68.3% men, 1.9% other, Mage = 29.50 years, SD = 8.91).

    Results: The results indicated notable differences regarding the estimated possible risk groups between the two frameworks. However, the association between gaming disorder symptoms and personality traits, life satisfaction, and psychopathological symptoms appeared consistent across the two frameworks. The results showed excellent psychometric properties in support of the one-factor model of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, including good reliability estimates (McDonald's omega) and evidence of construct validity. Additionally, the results demonstrated full gender and age measurement invariance of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, indicating that gaming disorder symptoms are measured equally across the subgroups.

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the IGDT-10, GDT-5, and GDT are appropriate measures for assessing gaming disorder symptoms and facilitating future research in Sweden.

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  • 3.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Jowett, Sophia
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    The importance of positive relationships for coaches’ effectiveness and well-being2023In: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the role of quality coach–athlete relationships and coaching efficacy on coaches’ well-being and performance. We examined whether coaches’ direct and meta-perspectives of the coach–athlete relationship quality predicted dimensions of coaches’ efficacy, hedemonic and eudaimonic well-being, and coach-related performance. A total of 233 male and female Swedish coaches from various team and individual sports completed the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, the Coaching Efficacy Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Subjective Vitality Scale, and a one-single item developed to measure perceived coach performance. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed that quality coach–athlete relationships as defined by closeness, commitment, and complementarity associated with all four dimensions of coach efficacy. While coach–athlete relationship quality was linked with coaches’ positive affect, vitality, and satisfaction with coaching performance, only the motivational dimension of coach efficacy was associated with indicators of coach well-being and coach-related performance. Further analyses showed that the motivational dimension of coach efficacy explained the link between coach–athlete relationship quality, well-being, and coach-related performance. Overall, the findings extended the coach efficacy model by investigating the coach–athlete relationship as a predictor and coach well-being as an outcome. Our findings emphasize the importance of relationships for coaches’ efficacy and well-being.

  • 4.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Jowett, Sophia
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. b School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    The role of quality relationships and communication strategies for the fulfilment of secure and insecure athletes’ basic psychological needs2023In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 40, no 21, p. 2424-2436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlates of coach-athlete relationship quality have been the focus of research for over a decade; however, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying these associations. The present study conducted a moderated mediation analysis to examine (a) the mediating role of communication strategies (via COMPASS) on the association between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete psychological needs satisfaction and (b) whether individual differences in athletes’ attachment style (secure, anxious, avoidant) moderates the mediational relationship. 350 Swedish athletes representing a range of sports and competition levels completed a multi-section questionnaire. Mediation and moderation analysis partially found that coach-athlete relationship quality and athletes basic psychological needs were associated via the COMPASS strategies of support, motivation, assurance and openness. It was also found that athletes secure attachment with their coach significantly moderated the mediated effects of motivation and support. These findings highlight the practical utility of motivation, support, openness and assurance strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Moreover, these findings demonstrate that the attachment orientation of athletes towards their coaches play a significant role in determining what communication strategies to use to enhance both the relationship quality and an athlete’s competence, autonomy and relatedness.

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  • 5.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Psychology, Luleå Technical University, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rognsvåg, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    The psychophysiological influence of exertion and affect on sport-specific cognitive and physical performance2022In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 764-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in cognitive and physical performance, affective states, perceived exertion, and physiological responses between trials with cognitive, physical, or combined cognitive and physical load. Design: Randomised cross-over trial.

    Methods: Highly trained competitive orienteers (n = 15 men; n = 10 women) completed three randomised trials comprised of: (1) sport-specific cognitive tests; (2) 35-minute cycling time trial; and (3) combined sport-specific cognitive tests and 35-minute cycling time trial. Measures taken during the trials recorded affective states, perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, cycling watts, as well as working memory, updating, planning and decision making.

    Results: No significant differences in cognitive performance accuracy were observed within or across trials although reaction times improved within trials and were fastest in the combined trial. Blood lactate, heart rate, perceived exertion, negative affective states, and watts were highest in the physical trial.

    Conclusions: The combined load of undertaking sport-specific cognitive tests and a cycling time trial did not influence cognitive performance accuracy. Athletes produced greater watts when completing the physical task independently compared with the combined trial, however psychophysiological responses were worse. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether athletes' attentional focus underpins psychophysiological responses to dual-task sport performance.

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  • 6.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Computerized cognitive interventions for adults with ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis2023In: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 519-530Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are understudied, compared to children and adolescents with the same condition. In this systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis, we aim to evaluate the outcomes of computerized cognitive training (CCT) interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including adults with ADHD.

    Method: Cognitive outcomes and ADHD symptom severity were analyzed separately. In addition, the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities was used to categorize outcome variables into subdomains, which were analyzed separately in a subsequent analysis.

    Results: The results revealed a small positive change in overall cognitive functioning, a measure of all cognitive outcomes in each study, for individuals who took part in CCT compared to controls (k = 9, Hedge’s g = 0.235, 95% CI [0.002, 0.467], p = 0.048, τ2 = 0.000, I2 = 0.000). However, neither symptom severity nor specific cognitive outcomes (executive functioning, cognitive speed, or working memory) showed a significant improvement.

    Conclusions: We analyzed the risk of bias in the chosen studies and discuss the findings in terms of effect size. It is concluded that CCT has a small positive effect in adults with ADHD. Due to the lack of heterogeneity in intervention designs across the included studies, increased heterogeneity in future studies could help inform clinicians about the aspects of CCT, such as training type and length, that are most beneficial for this group.

  • 7.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mellqvist, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brändström, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predicting attention shifting abilities from self-reported media multitasking2019In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1257-1265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media multitasking is an increasingly prominent behavior in affluent societies. However, it still needs to be established if simultaneous use of several modes of media content has an influence on higher cognitive functions, such as divided attention. In this study, attention shifting was the primary focus, since switching between tasks is assumed to be necessary for media multitasking. Two tasks, the number–letter and local–global task, were used as measures of switching ability. The cognitive reflections task was included to control for possible effects of intelligence. Results from linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of media multitasking was related to lower switching costs in the two attention-shifting tasks. These findings replicate previous findings suggesting that heavy media multitaskers perform better on select measures of task switching. We suggest two possible explanations for our results: media multitasking may practice skills needed for switching between tasks, or high media multitaskers are choosing this style of technology use due to a dominating personality trait in this group.

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  • 8.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning2010In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2010, p. 78-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning in middle-aged individuals (40–60 years). Participants in the Betula study (Nilsson et al., 1997) describing themselves as being stressed in general over three measurement occasions (10 years in total) were compared with a matched (sex and education) group (n = 98) reporting no stress. The results revealed a higher incidence of depressive symptoms, flus, and not-healthy-ratings over time for the stress group. In addition, the stress group provided more negative subjective memory ratings, whereas time-related change in memory performance, indicative of a high degree of cognitive stability, did not differ from that of controls. Degree of perceived stress is discussed as a factor underlying variations in regard to the outcome of studies of perceived stress.

  • 9.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The influence of social relationships and leisure activity on adult cognitive functioning and risk of dementia: Longitudinal population-based studies2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, as we live longer, dementia diseases are becoming more prevalent around the world. Thus, further knowledge of how to maintain levels of cognitive functioning in old age and how to identify factors that postpone the onset of dementia are of acute interest. Lifestyle patterns and social life are important aspects to consider in this regard.

    This thesis includes three studies. Study I investigated the association between participation in various leisure activities in old age (≥65 years) and risk of incident all-cause dementia. Analyses of the total follow-up time period (15 years) showed that higher levels of “Social” and “Total” leisure activity were associated with decreased risk of dementia. In Study II, the aim was to investigate the association between various aspects of social relationships in old age (≥65 years) and risk of incidents of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Results showed that over the total follow-up period (16 years) higher values on the relationship index were associated with reduced risk of both dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Visiting/visits of friends and acquaintances more than once a week was related to decreased risk for all-cause dementia, but not for Alzheimer's disease. However, in neither Study I nor II did any of these factors alter the risk of all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease when near-onset dementias were removed from the analyses (Study I, up to five years; Study II, up to three years).

    In Study III the aim was to investigate the association between social network size and cognitive ability in a middle-aged (40–60 years) sample. The idea was that if social network size can moderate negative age-related influence on memory functions, it might also put an individual on a cognitive trajectory that is beneficial in old age. Results from longitudinal analyses showed that baseline network size was positively related to five-year changes in semantic memory and with changes in both semantic and episodic memory at the ten-year follow-up. Social network size was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance.

    Taken together, enrichment factors measured in old age (≥ 65 years) did not alter the risk of all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease when near-onset dementias were removed from the analyses. These results might reflect protective short-term effects or reverse causality, meaning that in the prodromal phase of dementia individuals tend to withdraw from activity. Social network size in middle age (40-60 years), however, appears to have beneficial long-term effects on cognitive functioning. The results highlight the importance of long follow-up periods and the need to adjust for the influences of reverse causality when investigating the impact of a socially and mentally active life on cognitive functioning.

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  • 10.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Dahl, Karl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindmark, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Relationships between Dota 2 expertise and decision-making ability2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0264350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports is an often time-consuming activity that has become increasingly popular with billions of players all over the world. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between skill level in the strategy video game Dota 2, a game that places many demands on decision making to be successful, and decision making under ambiguity and experience as measured by performance in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a task known to have ecological validity. Two indicators of players' performance in Dota 2, namely matchmaking rating (MMR) and Medal, were used as predictors of performance in the IGT in path models. Results showed that Medal was a significant predictor of performance in IGT, while MMR score was borderline significant. The cognitive reflection task, included in the models as an indicator of the ability to engage in conscious, analytical, rational, and logical thinking, was a significant predictor of performance in IGT, and was significantly and positively related to MMR. The findings from this study give insight into the cognitive demands related to performance in Dota 2. Although results suggest that strategy video gaming may be a factor that contributes to increased decision making abilities, a reversed relationship is also possible, whereby individuals who are better at decision making are also more likely to become successful in Dota-2. More studies, preferably longitudinal, are needed to replicate the findings of this study and to establish the directionality between factors. Copyright: © 2022 Sörman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • 11.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

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  • 12.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pritschke, Ilona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

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  • 13.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

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  • 14.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marsh, John Everett
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

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  • 15.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

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  • 16.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ger en aktiv livsstil bättre minne?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sägs ibland att aktivteter som stimulerar hjärnan förbättrar minnet. En rad studier indikerar också att olika typer av livsstilsfaktorer hänger samman med prestation i kognitiva test. De visar att dålig minnesförmåga är överrepresenterad hos dem som inte ägnar sig åt fritidsaktiviteter såsom att läsa, idrotta och lägga pussel.

  • 17.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1391-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

    Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

  • 18.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Leisure-time activity in old age as predictors of impending dementia: A 15-year prospective study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between leisure activities and risk of dementia in a sample of healthy older individuals, dementia free at the beginning of the project. Data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study (the Betula project) and the participants were followed up for 15 years. At baseline, participants were asked about their frequency of participation in 15 selected leisure activities. When age, gender, education, APOE and other potential confounders were controlled for, results revealed quite moderate effects on dementia after analysis of the activities separately. However, by weighting each activity into a mental, social and physical dimension (based on valuation by the participants), and then summarizing into a score for each dimension, we further investigated if level of engagement could predict impending dementia. Preliminary results indicate that the dimensions may have influence on the risk of dementia for certain age groups. The study also showed that the strongest predictor of dementia is being a carrier of the APOE ɛ4 allele. The outcomes are discussed in terms of important methodological difference between studies concerning the effects of leisure activities in preventing dementia diseases.

  • 19.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Research and Development Unit, Sundsvall Hospital, Region Västernorrland, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Occupational cognitive complexity and episodic memory in old age2021In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 89, article id 101598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate occupational cognitive complexity of main lifetime occupation in relation to level and 15-year change in episodic memory recall in a sample of older adults (≥ 65 years, n = 780). We used latent growth curve modelling with occupational cognitive complexity (O*NET indicators) as independent variable. Subgroup analyses in a sample of middle-aged (mean: 49.9 years) men (n = 260) were additionally performed to investigate if a general cognitive ability (g) factor at age 18 was predictive of future occupational cognitive complexity and cognitive performance in midlife. For the older sample, a higher level of occupational cognitive complexity was related to a higher level of episodic recall (β = 0.15, p < .001), but the association with rate of change (β = 0.03, p = .64) was not statistically significant. In the middle-aged sample, g at age 18 was both directly (β = 0.19, p = .01) and indirectly (via years of education after age 18, ab = 0.19) predictive of midlife levels of occupational cognitive complexity. Cognitive ability at age 18 was also a direct predictor of midlife episodic recall (β = 0.60, p ≤ 0.001). Critically, entry of the early adult g factor attenuated the association between occupational complexity and cognitive level (from β = 0.21, p = .01 to β = 0.12, p = .14). Overall, our results support a pattern of preserved differentiation from early to late adulthood for individuals with different histories of occupational complexity.

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  • 20.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study2014In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 493-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

    Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

    Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

    Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

  • 21.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahlström, Mikael
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    The influence of personality traits on engagement in lifelong learning2024In: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, adult individuals must be able to continuously learn and adapt to the rapid changes occurring in society. However, little is known about the individual characteristics, particularly personality traits, that make adults more likely to engage in learning activities. Moreover, few studies have longitudinally and objectively investigated the influence of personality on engagement in lifelong learning throughout working age. This study therefore used longitudinal data (15 years) to examine which personality traits predicted level and long-term changes in learning activities among 1329 Swedish adults aged 30–60. The results from growth curve modelling showed that over the follow-up period, novelty seeking and self-transcendence were both positively related to overall level of engagement in learning activities, although not to rate of change. Regarding specific activities, novelty seeking was related to higher levels of engagement in attending courses, taking on new education, and making occupational changes, while harm avoidance was negatively related to the likelihood of changing occupation. The results of this study underscore the importance of considering personality in relation to engagement in lifelong learning activities. Insights from this study can potentially increase the likelihood of finding methods to promote lifelong learning, which can be beneficial for educators, policymakers, and companies.

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  • 22.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Institute of Clinical Dentistry, UIT The Arctic Universityof Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Dental status is unrelated to risk of dementia: a 20-year prospective study2014In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 979-981Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hjärtström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Distraction and facilitation: The impact of emotional sounds in an emoji oddball task2019In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 180-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional stimuli are argued to capture attention and consume attentional resources differently depending on their emotionalcontent. The present study investigates the impact of the automatic detection of unexpected and to-be-ignored emotional stimuli onhuman behavioral responses, and aims to unravel the differences in distraction between two negative emotional stimuli: sadness and anger.Forty participants (Mage= 25.5 years) performed a visual categorization task where angry and sad emoji faces were presented after eithera standard neutral tone (in 80% of trials) or a deviant emotional sound (tone changing in pitch; sad or angry sound in 10% of trials each)that was to be ignored. Deviant trials were either congruent (e.g., sad sound—sad face) or incongruent (e.g., angry sound—sad face).Although the stimuli presented to the participants were brief and to-be-ignored, results indicate that participants were significantly moredistracted by sad compared to angry stimuli (seen as prolonged response times). Findings are discussed with reference to the nature ofthe two negative emotions.

  • 24.
    Hulaj, Rame
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    E. Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backlund, Christian
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    A motivational model explaining performance in video games2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 1510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Esports are a rapidly growing phenomenon and understanding of factors underlying game performance are therefore of great interest. The present study investigated the influence of satisfaction of basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness), type of motivation (amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic motivation), and number of matches played (time on task) on individuals' performance on a matchmaking rating (MMR) in the video game Defence of the Ancients 2 (Dota 2). Collected data from 315 participants was included in the analyses. A web-based questionnaire was used to collect data and structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to analyze the data. The results show that perceived competence and autonomy were the only significant predictors of MMR performance beyond matches played. Fulfillment of relatedness, as well as motivational factors, were not found to be predictors of MMR scores. The strong effect of matches played, used as proxy of time on task, emphasize the effect of time and practice as a critical aspect of video-game expertise.

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  • 25.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Engineering Psychology, Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elbe, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Engineering Psychology, Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The bilingual effects of linguistic distances on episodic memory and verbal fluency2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of linguistic distance or the relatedness between two languages, on bilinguals' episodic memory performance and verbal fluency is an understudied area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in linguistic distances have differential effects on these abilities. Measures of episodic recognition, categorical fluency, and global cognitive functioning were also considered in the analyses. Two matched samples with participants living and educated in Sweden were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study. Results showed that bilinguals who speak linguistically similar languages (Swedish and English), performed significantly better than monolinguals on both episodic memory recall and letter fluency, while bilinguals who speak two languages that are more distant (Swedish and Finnish), showed no advantages compared to their monolingual counterparts. For both tasks, however, a linear trend was observed indicative of better performance for the Swedish-English group compared to the Finnish-Swedish group, and for the Swedish-Finnish group compared to the monolinguals group. As expected, no differences between groups were found in any of the other cognitive tasks. Overall, results suggest that the impact of linguistic distances should be explored in more detail in the future.

  • 26.
    Ljungberg K., Jessica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hjärtström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Impact of Emotional Deviant Sounds on Emoji Faces in a Sustained Attention Task2016In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society: 57th Annual Meeting, 2016, Vol. 21, p. 102-102, article id 1143Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The involuntary shift of attention to emotional sounds were investigated in a cross-modal oddball task in which participants categorized angry and disappointed emoji faces. Prior to each face, a standard tone was presented (80% of trials) or a deviant “disappointed” or a buzzing “angry” sound (20% of trials). The deviant trials were either congruent (e.g., disappointed sound/disappointed emoji) or incongruent trials (e.g., a disappointed sound/angry emoji). Results showed that the emotional content of the deviant sounds interacted with the processing of the faces, but that the effect was only present in the congruent trials. Participants showed deviance distraction (prolonged response times compared to standard) in the disappointed trials and facilitation (no deviance distraction) in the angry deviant trials. The facilitation (or lack of distraction) caused by the angry deviant sound in the congruent trial may have been a result of an arousal effect due to the processing of threat.

  • 27. Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Division of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence from Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

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  • 28.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spoken either non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women would exhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, but related to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducted a computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus (75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently or urgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgent words had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9 (stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 ranging from 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longer response times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was not found to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showed that women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences found related to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do not support the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there was evidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

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  • 29.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Environment Society and Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stiernstedt, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Biological and environmental predictors of heterogeneity in neurocognitive ageing: Evidence from Betula and other longitudinal studies2020In: Ageing Research Reviews, ISSN 1568-1637, E-ISSN 1872-9649, Vol. 64, article id 101184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase with advancing age, reflecting marked cognitive changes in some individuals along with little or no change in others. Genetic and lifestyle factors are assumed to influence cognitive performance in ageing by affecting the magnitude and extent of age-related brain changes (i.e., brain maintenance or atrophy), as well as the ability to recruit compensatory processes. The purpose of this review is to present findings from the Betula study and other longitudinal studies, with a focus on clarifying the role of key biological and environmental factors assumed to underlie individual differences in brain and cognitive ageing. We discuss the vital importance of sampling, analytic methods, consideration of non-ignorable dropout, and related issues for valid conclusions on factors that influence healthy neurocognitive ageing.

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  • 30.
    Nyström, Markus B.T.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University.
    Is Cognitive Functioning Important for Quality in Ageing?2014In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2014, p. 87-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well-being and happiness are two important aspects of quality in ageing. By using a large scale memory data base (the Betula study) the importance of cognitive status (episodic memory) for an individual’s subjective notion of well-being and happiness were investigated, both among middle- and old aged individuals. When a number of factors where controlled for (e.g., physical health, psycho-social aspects), results indicated no relationships between cognitive status and well-being or happiness, in any age group. However, data suggested that subjective experience of memory capacity seems to play an important role. Further, being married, having low levels of stress, and not having sleeping problems, also seem to be associated with both well-being and happiness. The result suggests that other factors, rather than cognitive status, plays a substantial roll in the quality of ageing. Future studies would benefit from using longitudinal data to be able to investigate these relationships over time.

  • 31.
    Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. The Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå university.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population aging motivated a focus in contemporary research on factors, e.g. cognitive functioning, that contribute to ‘aging well.’ However, something that has been overlooked is relation between memory functioning, determined by objective tests as well as subjective memory ratings, and subjective well-being (SWB).

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal (cross-lagged) relationships between episodic memory (both subjective and objective) and SWB.

    Method: A total of 586 older individuals (60–90 years) were assessed on multiple measures of the targeted constructs at baseline (Time 1) as part of the Betula cohort study. Five years later (Time 2), 354 of the participants returned for follow-up measurements and were included in cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Results: As expected, objective memory and subjective memory showed a pattern of cross-sectional age deficits and a mean level longitudinal decline was observed for objective memory. By contrast, SWB showed stable mean levels both across age and time. No cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations were observed between SWB and objective memory, whereas subjective memory and SWB showed a cross-sectional association.

    Conclusion: The results underscore that successful aging is a multifaceted construct with no or only weak associations between the investigated components. However, SWB and rate of change at the individual level should be considered to define successful aging.

  • 32.
    Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hassmén, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, Australia.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wigforss, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Carlbring, Per
    Are physical activity and sedentary behavior related to depression?2019In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 1633810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is an increasing public health concern with rising prevalence. Nevertheless, far from everyone seeks help or receives adequate treatment. Although psychotherapy and antidepressants still constitute the bulk of treatments offered, recent research suggests that physical activity (PA) can be a powerful adjunct therapy while sedentary behavior (SB) is a definite risk factor for developing depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PA, SB and depressive symptoms in a population (n = 962) of applicants for an online treatment study. This study hypothesised that there will be; (1) a positive relationship between SB and depressive symptoms, and (2) a negative relationship between PA and depressive symptoms. In addition we investigated whether the combination of a sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity increased the risk for depressive symptoms. Finally, we also examined whether gender, age, marital status, educational level, or medication affected the relationship between PA, SB, and depressive symptoms. The results showed a positive correlation between SB and depression. There was, however, no statistically significant support for a negative relation between PA and depressive symptoms. Even though no conclusions about causality can be drawn, our results suggest that high SB, being a woman, being young, not being in a stable relationship, and current or previous medication are risk factors for depression. To be able to determine the causal direction, that is, whether high SB increases the risk for depressive symptoms, or if depressive symptoms increase the likelihood of high SB, further research is needed.

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  • 33.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time on task matters most in video game expertise2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10, article id e0206555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC), personality characteristics (grit) and number of matches played (time on task) can predict performance score (matchmaking rating [MMR]) in experienced players of a popular video game called Dota 2. A questionnaire and four online-based cognitive tasks were used to gather the data, and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to investigate the interrelationships between constructs. The results showed that time on task was the strongest predictor of MMR, and grit also significantly influenced performance. However, WMC did not play a substantial role in predicting performance while playing Dota 2. These results are discussed in relation to sample characteristics and the role of deliberate practice and skill acquisition within the domain of playing Dota 2. Further, we suggest that future research investigates the social aspects of attaining skill, the relationship between personality and performance, and the qualitative aspects of time spent on a task.

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  • 34.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Effects of Perceived Long-Term Stress on Subjective and Objective Aspects of Memory and Cognitive Functioning in a Middle-Aged Population-Based Sample2013In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal effects of perceived stress on measures of memory and two other cognitive functions (word fluency, visuospatial ability) in a middle-aged sample (4060 years, M age = 47.1 years, SD = 6.1 years; n = 192) were examined. A group describing themselves as stressed in general at baseline, and at follow-up measurement 5 and 10 years later (n = 96) was compared with a matched (age, sex) low-stress group (n = 96). The results revealed more depressive symptoms over time in the high-stress group. With regard to memory, a dissociation between subjective and objective measures was observed. Specifically, participants in the high-stress group rated their memory as worse over time as compared with controls, and reported a higher frequency of occurrence of everyday memory failures, effects partly independent of depressive symptoms. However, the groups did not differ in terms of objective episodic memory performance, word fluency or block design performance, with stable levels of performance over time regardless of perceived stress. The lack of effects of stress on cognitive performance is discussed in the light of factors such as stress level, age of the participants, and other individual difference factors.

  • 35.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hauer, Esther
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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    The interrelationships between individual, contextual and processual constructs and stress and wellbeing among psychologists
  • 36.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Machado, Liana
    Physical activity and cognitive function: between-person and within-person associations and moderators2021In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 392-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we decomposed between- and within-person effects and examined moderators of the longitudinal physical activity-cognition association. Participants (N = 1722) were drawn from the Betula study and we included four waves of data across 15 years. Bayesian multilevel modeling showed that self-reported physical activity did not predict changes in cognitive function. Physical activity positively predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and the relations were stronger for more active (compared to less active) older adults. Physical activity had a positive within-person effect on cognitive function. The within-person effect of physical activity on episodic memory recall was stronger for participants who on average engaged in less physical activity. The within-person effect on verbal fluency was stronger for participants with more education. Our results suggest that preserving cognitive functioning in old age might be more a matter of what you do in old age than reflecting what you did earlier in life.

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  • 37.
    Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Psychology and AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    MacHado, Liana
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Bidirectional within- and between-person relations between physical activity and cognitive function2022In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 704-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine bidirectional within- and between-person relations between physical activity and cognitive function across 15 years.

    Methods: Participants (N = 1,722, age range 40-85 years, 55% women) were drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study. We included 4 waves of data. Bivariate latent curve models with structured residuals were estimated to examine bidirectional within- and between-person relations between physical activity and cognitive function (episodic memory recall, verbal fluency, visuospatial ability).

    Results: We observed no statistically significant bidirectional within-person relations over time. Higher levels of physical activity at baseline were related to less decline in episodic memory recall. Positive occasion-specific within- and between-person relations were observed, with the most consistent being between physical activity and episodic memory recall.

    Discussion: The lack of bidirectional within-person relations indicates that shorter time lags may be needed to capture time-ordered within-person relations. The link between higher physical activity at baseline and less decline in episodic memory recall over time may indicate a protective effect of physical activity on episodic memory recall.

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  • 38.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Human Work Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Mental demands at work and risk of dementia2020In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 735-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High mental demands at work was examined as a possible protective factor to reduce the risk of dementia in 1,277 initially dementia-free participants, aged 60 years and older. The cohort was followed for a mean of 13.6 years. During follow-up, 376 participants developed all-cause dementia (Alzheimer’s disease = 199; vascular dementia = 145). The association between mental demands at work and dementia was analyzed with Cox hazard models, adjusted for a range of covariates. The results revealed no significant association between mental demands at work and incidence of dementia. Based on the measures used in this study, it was concluded that high mental demands at work may not reduce the risk of dementia later on in life.

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  • 39.
    Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    K. Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Language skills and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2015, p. 147-147, article id 2156Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors: [Niveles de presión arterial y cambios longitudinales en relación con factores de la red social: ¿Mejor juntos o por separado?]2016In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  • 41.
    Sörman Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, 113 30 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social network size and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: cross-sectional and longitudinal associations2017In: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 77-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the present study was to examine relations between social network size and three cognitive abilities (episodic memory, semantic memory, visuospatial ability) in middle-aged adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data on social network size and cognitive functioning that were available for 804 participants aged 40–60 years. In addition, we examined 5- and 10-year follow-up measurements of cognitive functioning that were available for 604 and 255 participants, respectively. Cross-sectional analyses revealed a positive association between social network size and each of the three cognitive abilities. Baseline network size was positively related to 5-year changes in semantic memory, and to 10-year changes in semantic as well as episodic memory, but was unrelated to changes in visuospatial performance. A minor portion of the sample (n = 131) had 10-year follow-up data on network size. Cross-lagged panel correlations revealed that baseline network size was associated with follow-up measurement in cognitive functioning (episodic memory, semantic memory), whereas baseline cognitive performance was unrelated to future network size. Together, the results demonstrate a small but positive relation between network size and declarative memory abilities, in line with models proposing a cognitive reserve built up by factors such as the increased cognitive stimulation associated with a more extensive social network.

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  • 42.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    A longitudinal study of episodic memory recall in multilinguals2024In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 125-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study investigates the effects of degree of multilingualism on cognitive functions in adulthood, with focus on episodic memory recall and including measures of verbal fluency as well as global cognition.

    Design: We studied a large population-based cohort cross-sectionally, and we also assessed changes over time through longitudinal measurements on four time-points over a 15 year period. Participants were drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study in Umeå, Sweden. The participants included in this study at baseline (n = 894, mean age = 51.44, 59.4% females) were divided according to number of languages into bilinguals (n = 395), trilinguals (n = 284), quadrilinguals (n = 169), and pentalinguals (n = 46). 

    Data and analysis: We analysed performance on tasks of episodic memory recall, verbal fluency (letter and category) and global cognition (Minimental State Examination, MMSE) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The control background variables were baseline age, gender, years of education, general fluid ability Gf (Wechsler Block Design Test), and socioeconomic status. We employed a linear mixed modelling approach with entropy balancing weights to assess effects of degree of multilingualism on cognitive functions.

    Findings and conclusions: Using bilinguals as the reference group, our results indicated that all the other multilingual groups exhibited superior performance on episodic memory recall than bilinguals at baseline. The rate of change over time did not differ for trilinguals and pentalinguals compared to bilinguals. While quadrilinguals declined more over time than bilinguals, they still scored significantly higher than bilinguals at the last test wave. For letter fluency, similarly, all language groups scored higher than bilinguals at baseline, and none of the groups differed from bilinguals in rate of change over time. With regard to category fluency, quadrilinguals scored higher than bilinguals at baseline, but trilinguals and pentalinguals did not differ from bilinguals and none of the groups differed in change over time compared to bilinguals. Finally, for global cognition (MMSE), trilinguals and quadrilinguals scored significantly higher than bilinguals at baseline with no differences in change over time for any of the groups relative to bilinguals. Our study contributes to the understanding of multilingual cognition and sheds light into an under-researched cognitive domain known to decline in normal ageing, namely episodic memory recall.

    Significance: Our study emphasizes the importance of researching less explored aspects of multilingualism on cognition, in particular on episodic memory recall, to aid our understanding of factors that could potentially aid cognitive decline in later adulthood.

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  • 43.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Engineering Psychology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Engineering Psychology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Engineering Psychology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Testing the foreign language effect on cognitive reflection in older adults2021In: Brain Sciences, ISSN 2076-3425, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 1527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of people around the world communicate in more than one language, resulting in them having to make decisions in a foreign language on a daily basis. Interestingly, a burgeoning body of literature suggests that people’s decision-making is affected by whether they are reasoning in their native language (NL) or their foreign language (FL). According to the foreign language effect (FLe), people are less susceptible to bias in many decision-making tasks and more likely to display utilitarian cost-benefit analysis in moral decision-making when reasoning in a FL. While these differences have often been attributed to a reduced emotionality in the FL, an emerging body of literature has started to test the extent to which these could be attributable to increased deliberation in the FL. The present study tests whether increased deliberation leads to a FLe on cognitive reflection in a population of older adults (Mage = 65.1), from the successful aging project in Umeå, Sweden. We explored whether performance on a 6-item version of the cognitive reflection test (CRT) adapted to Swedish would differ between participants for whom Swedish was their NL and those for whom Swedish was their FL. The CRT is a task designed to elicit an incorrect, intuitive answer. In order to override the intuitive answer, one requires engaging in deliberative, analytical thinking to determine the correct answer. Therefore, we hypothesized that if thinking in a FL increases deliberation, then those performing the task in their FL would exhibit higher accuracy rates than those performing in their NL. Our results showed that age and level of education predicted performance on the task but performance on the CRT did not differ between the NL and the FL groups. In addition, in the FL group, proficiency in the FL was not related to performance in the CRT. Our results, therefore, do not provide evidence that thinking in a FL increases deliberation in a group of older adults performing a logical reasoning task that is not typically associated with an emotional connotation.

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