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  • 1.
    Amoignon, Olivier
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Discrete adjoint-based shape optimization for an edge-based finite-volume solver2003Ingår i: Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2003 / [ed] K. J. Bathe, 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Amoignon, Olivier
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Pralits, Jan
    Universita di Salerno, Italy.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm.
    Berggren, Martin
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm.
    Henningson, Dan
    FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm.
    Shape Optimization for Delay of Laminar-Turbulent Transition2006Ingår i: AIAA Journal, ISSN 0001-1452, E-ISSN 1533-385X, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 1009-1024Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Amoignon, Olivier
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Pralits, J.O.
    Salermo University, Italy.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    FOI, Sweden.
    Berggren, Martin
    FOI, Sweden.
    Henningson, D. S.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Adjoint-Based Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow Design2004Ingår i: ERCOFTAC Design Optimization: Methods & Applications / [ed] K.C. Giannakoglou, W. Haase, 2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Andersson, P.
    et al.
    Department of Mechanics, KTH, Stockholm.
    Berggren, Martin
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Henningson, D.S.
    Department of Mechanics, KTH, Stockholm.
    Optimal Disturbances in Boundary Layers1998Ingår i: Computational Methods for Optimal Design and Control, / [ed] J. Borggaard, J. Burns, E. Cliff, and S. Schreck, 1998Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Paul
    et al.
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma.
    Berggren, Martin
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma.
    Optimal disturbances and bypass transition in boundary layers1999Ingår i: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 134-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Asan, Noor Badariah
    et al.
    Ångström Laboratory, Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Telecommunication Research and Innovation (CeTRI), Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektronik dan Kejuruteraan Komputer, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Durian Tunggal, Malaysia.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt; Hannover Centre for Optical Technologies, Cluster of Excellence PhoenixD, Leibniz University Hannover, Hanover, Germany; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Transport and Automation Technology, Leibniz University Hannover, Garbsen, Germany.
    Perez, Mauricio D.
    Ångström Laboratory, Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Joseph, Laya
    Ångström Laboratory, Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Augustine, Robin
    Ångström Laboratory, Microwaves in Medical Engineering Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fat-IntraBody Communication at 5.8 GHz: Verification of Dynamic Body Movement Effects using Computer Simulation and Experiments2021Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, s. 48429-48445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents numerical modeling and experimental validation of the signal path loss at the 5.8 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band, performed in the context of fat-intrabody communication (fat-IBC), a novel intrabody communication platform using the body-omnipresent fat tissue as the key wave-guiding medium. Such work extends our previous works at 2.0 and 2.4 GHz in the characterization of its performance in other useful frequency range. In addition, this paper also includes studies of both static and dynamic human body movements. In order to provide with a more comprehensive characterization of the communication performance at this frequency, this work focuses on investigating the path loss at different configurations of fat tissue thickness, antenna polarizations, and locations in the fat channel. We bring more realism to the experimental validation by using excised tissues from porcine cadaver as both their fat and muscle tissues have electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of human with respect to current state-of-art artificial phantom models. Moreover, for favorable signal excitation and reception in the fat-IBC model, we used topology optimized waveguide probes. These probes provide an almost flat response in the frequency range from 3.2 to 7.1 GHz which is higher than previous probes and improve the evaluation of the performance of the fat-IBC model. We also discuss various aspects of real-world scenarios by examining different models, particularly homogeneous multilayered skin, fat, and muscle tissue. To study the effect of dynamic body movements, we examine the impact of misalignment, both in space and in wave polarization, between implanted nodes. We show in particular that the use of fat-IBC techniques can be extended up in frequency to a broadband channel at 5.8 GHz.

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  • 7. Badariah Asan, Noor
    et al.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Velander, Jacob
    Redzwan Mohd Shah, Syaiful
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Blokhuis, Taco J.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Voigt, Thiemo
    Augustine, Robin
    Characterization of the Fat Channel for Intra-Body Communication at R-Band Frequencies2018Ingår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, nr 9, artikel-id 2752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate the use of fat tissue as a communication channel between in-body, implanted devices at R-band frequencies (1.7–2.6 GHz). The proposed fat channel is based on an anatomical model of the human body. We propose a novel probe that is optimized to efficiently radiate the R-band frequencies into the fat tissue. We use our probe to evaluate the path loss of the fat channel by studying the channel transmission coefficient over the R-band frequencies. We conduct extensive simulation studies and validate our results by experimentation on phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, with good agreement between simulations and experiments. We demonstrate a performance comparison between the fat channel and similar waveguide structures. Our characterization of the fat channel reveals propagation path loss of ∼0.7 dB and ∼1.9 dB per cm for phantom and ex-vivo porcine tissue, respectively. These results demonstrate that fat tissue can be used as a communication channel for high data rate intra-body networks.

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  • 8.
    Bartlett, Roscoe A.
    et al.
    Sandia National Laboratories.
    Van Bloemen Waanders, Bart
    Sandia National Laboratories.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Hybrid Differentiation Strategies for Simulation and Analysis of Applications in C++2008Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, ISSN 0098-3500, E-ISSN 1557-7295, Vol. 35, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A unified discrete-continuous sensitivity analysis method for shape optimization2010Ingår i: Applied and Numerical Partial Differential Equations: Scientific Computing in Simulation, Optimization and Control in a Multidisciplinary Context / [ed] W. Fitzgibbon, Y.A. Kuznetsov, P. Neittaanmäki, J. Periaux, O. Pironneau, Springer, 2010, s. 25-39Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary shape optimization problems for systems governed by partial differential equations involve a calculus of variation with respect to boundary modifications. As typically presented in the literature, the first-order necessary conditions of optimality are derived in a quite different manner for the problems before and after discretization, and the final directional-derivative expressions look very different. However, a systematic use of the material-derivative concept allows a unified treatment of the cases before and after discretization. The final expression when performing such a derivation includes the classical before-discretization (“continuous”) expression, which contains objects solely restricted to the design boundary, plus a number of “correction” terms that involve field variables inside the domain. Some or all of the correction terms vanish when the associated state and adjoint variables are smooth enough.

  • 10.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    A vertex-centered dual discontinuous Galerkin method2006Ingår i: Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, ISSN 0377-0427, E-ISSN 1879-1778, Vol. 192, nr 1, s. 175-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Approximations of very weak solutions to boundary-value problems2004Ingår i: SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, ISSN 0036-1429, E-ISSN 1095-7170, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 860-877Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Computational and Applied Methematics, Rice University, Houston.
    Numerical solution of a flow-control problem: vorticity reduction by dynamic boundary action1998Ingår i: SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, ISSN 1064-8275, E-ISSN 1095-7197, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 829-860Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 13.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, TX.
    Solving an advection-diffusion problem on the Connection Machine1994Ingår i: Concurrency: Practice and Experience, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 55-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Berggren, Martin
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    The volume discharge approach to geometric conservation1999Ingår i: Computational Methods for Fluid-Structure Interaction / [ed] T. Kvamsdal, 1999Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 15.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bernland, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Acoustic boundary layers as boundary conditions2018Ingår i: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 371, s. 633-650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The linearized, compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be used to model acoustic wave propagation in the presence of viscous and thermal boundary layers. However, acoustic boundary layers are notorious for invoking prohibitively high resolution requirements on numerical solutions of the equations. We derive and present a strategy for how viscous and thermal boundary-layer effects can be represented as a boundary condition on the standard Helmholtz equation for the acoustic pressure. This boundary condition constitutes an O (delta) perturbation, where delta is the boundary-layer thickness, of the vanishing Neumann condition for the acoustic pressure associated with a lossless sound-hard wall. The approximate model is valid when the wavelength and the minimum radius of curvature of the wall is much larger than the boundary layer thickness. In the special case of sound propagation in a cylindrical duct, the model collapses to the classical Kirchhoff solution. We assess the model in the case of sound propagation through a compression driver, a kind of transducer that is commonly used to feed horn loudspeakers. Due to the presence of shallow chambers and thin slits in the device, it is crucial to include modeling of visco-thermal losses in the acoustic analysis. The transmitted power spectrum through the device calculated numerically using our model agrees well with computations using a hybrid model, where the full linearized, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in the narrow regions of the device and the inviscid Helmholtz equations elsewhere. However, our model needs about two orders of magnitude less memory and computational time than the more complete model. 

  • 16.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Bängtsson, Erik
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Multifrequency shape optimization of an acoustic horn2003Ingår i: Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2003 / [ed] K. J. Bathe, 2003, s. 2204-2207Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Ekström, Sven-Erik
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Nordström, Jan
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    A discontinuous Galerkin extension of the vertex-centered edge-based finite volume method2009Ingår i: Communications in Computational Physics, ISSN 1815-2406, Vol. 5, nr 2-4, s. 456-468Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The finite volume (FV) method is the dominating discretization technique for computational fluid dynamics (CFD), particularly in the case of compressible fluids. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has emerged as a promising high-accuracy alternative. The standard DG method reduces to a cell-centered FV method at lowest order. However, many of today's CFD codes use a vertex-centered FV method in which the data structures are edge based. We develop a new DG method that reduces to the vertex-centered FV method at lowest order, and examine here the new scheme for scalar hyperbolic problems. Numerically, the method shows optimal-order accuracy for a smooth linear problem. By applying a basic hp-adaption strategy, the method successfully handles shocks. We also discuss how to extend the FV edge-based data structure to support the new scheme. In this way, it will in principle be possible to extend an existing code employing the vertex-centered and edge-based FV discretization to encompass higher accuracy through the new DG method.

  • 18.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston TX.
    Glowinski, Roland
    Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, , TX .
    A spectral preconditioner for control problems associated with linear evolution equations1995Ingår i: East-West Journal on Numerical Mathematics, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 81-109Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma.
    Glowinski, Roland
    Department of Mathematics, University of Houston.
    Lions, Jacques-Louis
    College de France.
    A Computational Approach to Controllability Issues for Flow-Related Models. (I): Pointwise Control of the Viscous Burgers Equation1996Ingår i: International journal of computational fluid dynamics (Print), ISSN 1061-8562, E-ISSN 1029-0257, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 237-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma, Sweden.
    Glowinski, Roland
    Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston.
    Lions, Jacques-Louis
    College de France, Rue d'Ulm, Paris, France .
    A computational approach to controllability issues for flow-related models. (II): Control of two-dimensional, linear advection-diffusion and Stokes models.1996Ingår i: International journal of computational fluid dynamics (Print), ISSN 1061-8562, E-ISSN 1029-0257, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 253-274Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Heinkenschloss, Matthias
    Department of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, TX.
    Parallel Solution of Optimal-Control Problems by Time-Domain Decomposition1997Ingår i: Computational Science for the 21st Century / [ed] M.O. Bristeau, G. Etgen, W. Fitzgibbon, J.L. Lions, J. Périaux, and M. F. Wheeler, 1997Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hägg, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Well-posed variational formulations of Friedrichs-type systems2021Ingår i: Journal of Differential Equations, ISSN 0022-0396, E-ISSN 1090-2732, Vol. 292, s. 90-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    All finite element methods, as well as much of the Hilbert-space theory for partial differential equations, rely on variational formulations, that is, problems of the type: find u∈V such that a(v,u)=l(v) for each v∈L, where V,L are Sobolev spaces. However, for systems of Friedrichs type, there is a sharp disparity between established well-posedness theories, which are not variational, and the very successful discontinuous Galerkin methods that have been developed for such systems, which are variational. In an attempt to override this dichotomy, we present, through three specific examples of increasing complexity, well-posed variational formulations of boundary and initial–boundary-value problems of Friedrichs type. The variational forms we introduce are generalizations of those used for discontinuous Galerkin methods, in the sense that inhomogeneous boundary and initial conditions are enforced weakly through integrals in the variational forms. In the variational forms we introduce, the solution space is defined as a subspace V of the graph space associated with the differential operator in question, whereas the test function space L is a tuple of L2 spaces that separately enforce the equation, boundary conditions of characteristic type, and initial conditions.

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  • 23.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kasolis, Fotios
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Weak material approximation of holes with traction-free boundaries2012Ingår i: SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, ISSN 0036-1429, E-ISSN 1095-7170, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 1827-1848Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider the solution of a boundary-value problem for steady linear elasticity in which the computational domain contains one or several holes with traction-free boundaries. The presence of holes in the material can be approximated using a weak material; that is, the relative density of material rho is set to 0 < epsilon = rho << 1 in the hole region. The weak material approach is a standard technique in the so-called material distribution approach to topology optimization, in which the inhomogeneous relative density of material is designated as the design variable in order to optimize the spatial distribution of material. The use of a weak material ensures that the elasticity problem is uniquely solvable for each admissible value rho is an element of [epsilon, 1] of the design variable. A finite-element approximation of the boundary-value problem in which the weak material approximation is used in the hole regions can be viewed as a nonconforming but convergent approximation of a version of the original problem in which the solution is continuously and elastically extended into the holes. The error in this approximation can be bounded by two terms that depend on epsilon. One term scales linearly with epsilon with a constant that is independent of the mesh size parameter h but that depends on the surface traction required to fit elastic material in the deformed holes. The other term scales like epsilon(1/2) times the finite-element approximation error inside the hole. The condition number of the weak material stiffness matrix scales like epsilon(-1), but the use of a suitable left preconditioner yields a matrix with a condition number that is bounded independently of epsilon. Moreover, the preconditioned matrix admits the limit value epsilon -> 0, and the solution of corresponding system of equations yields in the limit a finite-element approximation of the continuously and elastically extended problem.

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  • 24.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lacis, Ugis
    Lindström, Fredrik
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Sound vibration damping optimization with application to the design of speakerphone casings2013Ingår i: : Paper id 5569, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We optimize the thickness distribution in a 1D beam model of an elastic plate, subject to forced vibration at one of its ends, in order to minimize the structural vibration in a given area of the plate. The optimization is carried out both in broadband and band-pass cases. Geometric constraints, weight constraints, and constraints on the static compliance are imposed in the optimization. A broadband optimization over 50 frequencies, evenly distributed in the 300–3400 Hz range, reduces the vibration by around 5–10 dB on average throughout the frequency range. When targeting only the higher end of the above frequency range, it is possible to achieve more dramatic results. Vibration reductions of 20 dB and more can be achieved in the 2300–2800 Hz region. In the latter case, the results suggest that a band-gap phenomenon occurs, similarly as for phononic band gap materials. To validate the results, the best-performing optimal shape for the clamped case was imported into a 3D computational structural model, and the resulting forced vibration response agreed well with the the beam-model computations. These results were first announced in a technical report by Lacis et al. [5].

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  • 25.
    Bernland, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Acoustic shape optimization using cut finite elements2018Ingår i: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, ISSN 0029-5981, E-ISSN 1097-0207, Vol. 113, nr 3, s. 432-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fictitious domain methods are attractive for shape optimization applications, since they do not require deformed or regenerated meshes. A recently developed such method is the CutFEM approach, which allows crisp boundary representations and for which uniformly well-conditioned system matrices can be guaranteed. Here, we investigate the use of the CutFEM approach for acoustic shape optimization, using as test problem the design of an acoustic horn for favorable impedance-matching properties. The CutFEM approach is used to solve the Helmholtz equation, and the geometry of the horn is implicitly described by a level-set function. To promote smooth algorithmic updates of the geometry, we propose to use the nodal values of the Laplacian of the level-set function as design variables. This strategy also improves the algorithm's convergence rate, counteracts mesh dependence, and, in combination with Tikhonov regularization, controls small details in the optimized designs. An advantage with the proposed method is that the exact derivatives of the discrete objective function can be expressed as boundary integrals, as opposed to when using a traditional method that uses mesh deformations. The resulting horns possess excellent impedance-matching properties and exhibit surprising subwavelength structures, not previously seen, which are possible to capture due to the fixed mesh approach.

  • 26.
    Bernland, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    SHAPE OPTIMIZATION OF A COMPRESSION DRIVER PHASE PLUG2019Ingår i: SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, ISSN 1064-8275, E-ISSN 1095-7197, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. B181-B204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A compression driver is an electro-acoustic transducer with considerably higher efficiency than direct radiating loudspeakers, thanks to the increased radiation resistance caused by a large vibrating diaphragm placed in a compression chamber with small openings. The transition section between compression chamber and output waveguide, the phase plug, must be carefully designed to avoid irregularities in the output sound pressure level (SPL) as a function of frequency. Here we present a shape optimization method based on an implicit level-set description and adjoint sensitivity analysis, which enables a large number of design parameters and vast design freedom. The CutFEM approach, a fictitious domain finite element method, removes the need for mesh updates and makes the method robust and computationally inexpensive. Numerical experiments for a generic annular diaphragm compression driver are presented, with optimized designs showing only minor frequency irregularities. Two different objective functions are considered: one for maximum SPL and one where the SPL is fitted to that of a hypothetical ideal design; the latter approach is found to be more effective in reducing irregularities. Visco-thermal boundary-layer losses are included in a post-processing step, and, though the influence of losses is clearly noticeable, the overall performance is similar and the optimized designs still outperform the original design.

  • 27.
    Bokhari, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Loudspeaker cabinet design by topology optimization2023Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikel-id 21248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using material distribution-based topology optimization, we optimize the bandpass design of a loudspeaker cabinet targeting low frequencies. The objective is to maximize the loudspeaker’s output power for a single frequency as well as a range of frequencies. To model the loudspeaker’s performance, we combine a linear electromechanical transducer model with a computationally efficient hybrid 2D–3D model for sound propagation. The adjoint variable approach computes the gradients of the objective function with respect to the design variables, and the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) solves the topology optimization problem. To manage intermediate values of the material indicator function, a quadratic penalty is added to the objective function, and a non-linear filter is used to obtain a mesh independent design. By carefully selecting the target frequency range, we can guide the optimization algorithm to successfully generate a loudspeaker design with the required bandpass character. To the best of our knowledge, this study constitutes the first successful attempt to design the interior structure of a loudspeaker cabinet using topology optimization.

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  • 28.
    Bokhari, Ahmad Hasnain
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden (Skogforsk), Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A computationally efficient hybrid 2D–3D subwoofer model2021Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, artikel-id 255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A subwoofer generates the lowest frequency range in loudspeaker systems. Subwoofers are used in audio systems for live concerts, movie theatres, home theatres, gaming consoles, cars, etc. During the last decades, numerical simulations have emerged as a cost- and time-efficient complement to traditional experiments in the design process of different products. The aim of this study is to reduce the computational time of simulating the average response for a given subwoofer design. To this end, we propose a hybrid 2D–3D model that reduces the computational time significantly compared to a full 3D model. The hybrid model describes the interaction between different subwoofer components as interacting modules whose acoustic properties can partly be pre-computed. This allows us to efficiently compute the performance of different subwoofer design layouts. The results of the hybrid model are validated against both a lumped element model and a full 3D model over a frequency band of interest. The hybrid model is found to be both accurate and computationally efficient.

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  • 29.
    Bokhari, Ahmad Hasnain
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Forest operations Uppsala Science Park SE-751 83 Uppsala.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Karlstad University.
    Topology optimization of a subwooferManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We use material distribution-based topology optimization to optimize the design of a bandpass subwoofer enclosure. The objective is to maximize the subwoofer's output power for a single frequency as well as for a range of frequencies. A linear electromechanical transducer model is combined with a hybrid 2D-3D model for sound propagation to model the subwoofer's performance. The adjoint variable approach is used to compute the gradients of the objective function with respect to the design variables, and the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA) is used to solve the topology optimization problem. To manage intermediate values of the material indicator function, a quadratic penalty is added to the objective function, and a non-linear filter is used to obtain a mesh independent design. By carefully selecting the target frequency range, we can guide the optimization algorithm to successfully generate a subwoofer design with the required bandpass character. This study constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful attempt to design the interior structure of a loudspeaker using topology optimization. The success is much due to the hybrid 2D-3D approach, which reduces the computational effort significantly with only small effects on the modeling accuracy. 

  • 30.
    Bängtsson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Shape optimization of an acoustic horn2003Ingår i: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 192, s. 1533-1571Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 31.
    Chevalier, M.
    et al.
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Berggren, Martin
    FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Accuray of Gradient Computations in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization2000Ingår i: Paper ICAS 2000-2.4.5, 2000Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Chevalier, M.
    et al.
    FOI, Stockholm.
    Högberg, M.
    FOI, Stockholm.
    Berggren, Martin
    Sandia National Laboratories.
    Henningson, D. S.
    Department of Mechanics, KTH, Stockholm.
    Linear and Nonlinear Optimal Control in Spatial Boundary Layers2002Ingår i: AIAA 3rd Theoretical Fluid Mechanics Meeting, St. Louis, MO.: AIAA Paper 2002-2755, 2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 33. Cops, Mark J.
    et al.
    McDaniel, J. Gregory
    Magliula, Elizabeth A.
    Bamford, David J.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Estimation of acoustic absorption in porous materials based on visco-thermal boundary layers modeled as boundary conditions2020Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 148, nr 3, s. 1624-1635Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for estimating acoustic absorption in porous materials is presented in which the thermal and viscous boundary layers are modeled through boundary conditions to the Helmholtz equation for the acoustic pressure. The method is proposed for rigid-framed porous materials in which vibration of the frame is negligible compared to pressure fluctuations in air. The method reduces computation times by 2 orders of magnitude compared to a full thermoviscous acoustic solver. Furthermore, the method is shown to be highly accurate over geometrical features and frequencies of interest as long as thermal and viscous boundary layers do not overlap and the effects of the sharp changes in curvature are negligible. The method is demonstrated for a periodic sound absorber from the literature as well as a sound absorber with a randomly graded microstructure.

  • 34.
    Ekström, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Agglomeration multigrid for the vertex-centered dual discontinuous galerkin method2010Ingår i: ADIGMA - a European initiative on the development of adaptive higher-order variational methods for aerospace applications: results of a collaborative research project funded by the European Union, 2006-2009 / [ed] Norbert Kroll, Heribert Bieler, Herman Deconinck, Vincent Couaillier, Harmen van der Ven, Kaare Sørensen, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 301-308Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agglomoration multigrid is used in many finite-volume codes for aerodynamic computations in order to reduce solution times. We show that an existing agglomeration multigrid solver developed for equations discretized with a vertex-centered, edge-based finite-volume scheme can be extended to accelerate convergence also for a vertex-centered discontinuous Galerkin method. Preliminary results for a subsonic as well as a transonic test case for the Euler equations in two space dimensions show a significant convergence acceleration for the discontinuous Galerkin equations using the agglomoration multigrid strategy.

  • 35.
    Ekström, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Incorporating a Galerkin method into the existing vertex-centered edge-based finite volume solver edge2010Ingår i: ADIGMA - a European initiative on the development of adaptive higher-order variational methods for aerospace applications: results of a collaborative research project funded by the European Union, 2006-2009 / [ed] Norbert Kroll, Heribert Bieler, Herman Deconinck, Vincent Couaillier, Harmen van der Ven, Kaare Sørensen, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 39-52Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method can be viewed as a generalization to higher orders of the finite volume method. At lowest order, the standard DG method reduces to the cell-centered finite volume method.We introduce for the Euler equations an alternative DG formulation that reduces to the vertex-centered version of the finite volume method at lowest order. The method has been successfully implemented for the Euler equations in two space dimensions, allowing a local polynomial order up to p=3 and supporting curved elements at the airfoil boundary. The implementation has been done as an extension within the existing edge-based vertex-centered finite-volume code Edge.

  • 36.
    Fotios, Kasolis
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Analysis of fictitious domain approximations of hard scatterers2015Ingår i: SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis, ISSN 0036-1429, E-ISSN 1095-7170, Vol. 53, nr 5, s. 2347-2362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider the Helmholtz equation del center dot alpha del p+k(2 alpha)p = 0 in a domain that contains a so-called hard scatterer. The scatterer is represented by the value alpha = epsilon, for 0 < epsilon << 1, whereas alpha = 1 whenever the scatterer is absent. This scatterer model is often used for the purpose of design optimization and constitutes a fictitious domain approximation of a body characterized by homogeneous Neumann conditions on its boundary. However, such an approximation results in spurious resonances inside the scatterer at certain frequencies and causes, after discretization, ill-conditioned system matrices. Here, we present a stabilization strategy that removes these resonances. Furthermore, we prove that, in the limit epsilon -> 0, the stabilized problem provides linearly convergent approximations of the solution to the problem with an exactly modeled scatterer. Numerical experiments indicate that a finite element approximation of the stabilized problem is free from internal resonances, and they also suggest that the convergence rate is indeed linear with respect to epsilon.

  • 37.
    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Berggren, Martin
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Dammann, Bernd
    Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Topology optimization of mass distribution problems in Stokes flow2006Ingår i: IUTAM Symposium on Topological Design Optimization of Structures, Machines, and Materials. Status and Perspectives / [ed] M. P. Bendsoe, N. Olhoff, O. Sigmund, 2006, s. 365-374Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Scheiner, Benedict
    Institute for Electronics Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Michler, Fabian
    Institute for Electronics Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Weigel, Robert
    Institute for Electronics Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Lurz, Fabian
    Institute for Electronics Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Design of Planar Microstrip-to-Waveguide Transitions Using Topology Optimization2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium (RWS), Orlando, USA, January 20-23, 2019, IEEE, 2019, s. -3Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a topology optimization approach to design planar transitions between a microstrip line (MSL) and a rectangular waveguide (RWG) in the K-band. The transition comprises two sub-transitions: one from the MSL to a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and the second from the SIW to the RWG. Both are on the same substrate and can be manufactured with a standard printed circuit board process. This leads to a very costeffective solution compared with other approaches. A WR-42 waveguide can easily be surface mounted to the transitions using a standard flange. The transitions have been fabricated, and their measured performance shows good agreement with the simulations. The MSL-SIW transition has a broadband behavior and the SIW-RWG transition still reaches a relative bandwidth of 10%.

  • 39.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, 32952 Menouf, Egypt.
    Martynenko, Denys
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Fischer, Gunter
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Compact Differential-Fed Planar Filtering Antennas2019Ingår i: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikel-id 1241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes novel low-profile differential-fed planar antennas with embedded sharp frequency selectively. The antennas are compact and easy to integrate with differential devices without matching baluns. The antenna design is formulated as a topology optimization problem, where requirements on impedance bandwidth, directivity, and filtering are used as the design objectives. The optimized antennas operate over the frequency band 6.0-8.5 GHz. The antennas have reflection coefficients below -15 dB, cross-polarization levels below -42 dB, a maximum gain of 6.0 +/- 0.5 dB, and a uniform directivity over more than 130 degrees beamwidth angle in the frequency band of interest. In addition, the antennas exhibit sharp roll-off between the operational band and frequencies around the 5.8 GHz WiFi band and the 10 GHz X-band. One antenna has been fabricated with a good match between simulation and measurement results.

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  • 40.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Augustine, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Topology optimization of planar antennas for wideband near-field coupling2015Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 63, nr 9, s. 4208-4213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach to design from scratch planar microwave antennas for the purpose of ultra-wideband (UWB) near-field sensing. Up to about 120 000 design variables associated with square grids on planar substrates are subject to design, and a numerical optimization algorithm decides, after around 200 iterations, for each edge in the grid whether it should consist of metal or a dielectric. The antenna layouts produced with this approach show UWB impedance matching properties and near-field coupling coefficients that are flat over a much wider frequency range than a standard UWB antenna. The properties of the optimized antennas are successfully cross-verified with a commercial software and, for one of the designs, also validated experimentally. We demonstrate that an antenna optimized in this way shows a high sensitivity when used for near-field detection of a phantom with dielectric properties representative of muscle tissue.

  • 41.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of electronics and electrical communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, 32952, Egypt.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Topology Optimisation of Wideband Coaxial-to-Waveguide Transitions2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 45110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To maximize the matching between a coaxial cable and rectangular waveguides, we present a computational topology optimisation approach that decides for each point in a given domain whether to hold a good conductor or a good dielectric. The conductivity is determined by a gradient-based optimisation method that relies on finite-difference time-domain solutions to the 3D Maxwell’s equations. Unlike previously reported results in the literature for this kind of problems, our design algorithm can efficiently handle tens of thousands of design variables that can allow novel conceptual waveguide designs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by presenting optimised transitions with reflection coefficients lower than −15dB over more than a 60% bandwidth, both for right-angle and end-launcher configurations. The performance of the proposed transitions is crossverified with a commercial software, and one design case is validated experimentally.

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  • 42.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Menoufia University.
    Scheiner, Benedict
    Michler, Fabian
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Röhrl, Franz
    Zorn, Stefan
    Weigel, Robert
    Lurz, Fabian
    Multilayer Topology Optimization of Wideband SIW-to-Waveguide Transitions2020Ingår i: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 68, nr 4, s. 1326-1339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article utilizes a topology optimization approach to design planar multilayer transitions between substrate integrated waveguides (SIWs) and rectangular waveguides (RWGs). The optimization problem is formulated based on the modal field analyses and Maxwell's equations in the time domain solved by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. We present a time-domain boundary condition based on the Klein–Gordon equation to split traveling waves at homogeneous waveguide ports. We employ the boundary condition to compute portal quantities and to devise an adjoint-field system that enabled an efficient computation of the objective function gradient. We solve design problems that include more than 105 000 design variables by using less than 400 solutions of Maxwell's equations. Moreover, a new formulation that effectively combats the development of in-band resonances in the design is presented. The transition configuration allows the direct mount of conventional RWG sections on the circuit board and aims to cover the entire K-band. The guiding structure of the optimized transition requires blind vias, which is realized by a simple and cost-efficient technique. In addition, the transition is optimized for three different setups that can be used to provide different field polarizations. The proposed transitions show less than 1-dB insertion loss and around 15-dB return loss over the frequency interval 18–28 GHz. Several prototypes are fabricated with an excellent match between the simulation and measurement results.

  • 43.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Conductive material distribution optimization for ultrawideband antennas2013Ingår i: Proceedings 11th International Conference on Mathematical and Numerical Aspects of Waves: Waves 2013, Tunis: ENIT-LAMSIN , 2013, s. 171-172Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An Ultrawideband (UWB) planar monopole an-tenna is designed using the material distribution ap-proach to topology optimization. The design variablesare the local conductivity values in a 75 × 75 mm areawhere the radiating element can be located. Theantenna is optimized for maximum reception, in anattached coaxial cable, of incoming plane waves. Thewave propagation is modeled using the time domain3D Maxwell equations discretized using FDTD, andthe optimization is carried out using a gradient-basedoptimization method, in which the derivatives aresupplied through solving corresponding adjoint equa-tions. The outer dimensions of the optimized antennais 75 × 60 mm, and its reflection coefficient |S11 |,with respect to a feeding signal in the coaxial cable,stays below −10 dB throughout the frequency band1.2–9.7 GHz.

  • 44.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Patch and ground plane design of microstrip antennas by material distribution topologly optimization2014Ingår i: Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, E-ISSN 1937-6472, Vol. 59, s. 89-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a gradient-based material distribution approach to design conductive parts of microstrip antennas in an efficient way. The approach is based on solutions of the 3D Maxwell's equation computed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Given a set of incoming waves, our objective is to maximize the received energy by determining the conductivity on each Yee-edge in the design domain. The objective function gradient is computed by the adjoint-field method. A microstrip antenna is designed to operate at 1.5 GHz with 0.3 GHz bandwidth. We present two design cases. In the first case, the radiating patch and the finite ground plane are designed in two separate phases, whereas in the second case, the radiating patch and the ground plane are simultaneously designed. We use more than 58,000 design variables and the algorithm converges in less than 150 iterations. The optimized designs have impedance bandwidths of 13% and 36% for the first and second design case, respectively.

  • 45.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Time-Domain Sensitivity Analysis for Conductivity Distribution in Maxwell's Equations2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We present expressions for the derivatives of the outgoing signal in coaxial cables with respect to the conductivity distribution in a specific domain. The derived expressions can be used with gradient-based optimization methods to design metallic electromagnetic devices, such as antennas and waveguides. We use the adjoint-field method to derive the expressions and the derivation is based on the 3D time-domain Maxwell's equations. We present two derivative expressions; one expression is derived in the continuous case and the second is derived based on the FDTD discretization of Maxwell's equations, including the uniaxial perfectly match layer (UPML) to simulate the radiation boundary condition. The derivatives are validated through a numerical example, where derivatives computed by the adjoint-field method are compared against derivatives computed with finite differences. Up to 7 digits precision matching is obtained.

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  • 46.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Topology optimization of metallic antennas2014Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 2488-2500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce an approach to carry out layout optimization of metallic antenna parts. An optimization technique first developed for the optimization of load-bearing elastic structures is adapted for the purpose of metallic antenna design. The local conductivity values in a given region are used as design variables and are iteratively updated by a gradient-based optimization algorithm. Given a set of time-domain signals from exterior sources, the design objective is here to maximize the energy received by the antenna and transmitted to a coaxial cable. The optimization proceeds through a sequence of coarsely-defined lossy designs with successively increasing details and less losses as the iterations proceed. The objective function gradient is derived based on the FDTD discretization of Maxwell's equations and is expressed in terms of field solutions of the original antenna problem and an adjoint field problem. The same FDTD code, but with different wave sources, is used for both the original antenna problem and the adjoint problem. For any number of design variables, the gradient is evaluated on the basis of only two FDTD simulations, one for the original antenna problem and another for the adjoint field problem. We demonstrate the capability of the method by optimizing the radiating patch of both UWB monopole and microstrip antennas. The UWB monopole is designed to radiate over a wide frequency band 1-10 GHz, while the microstrip patch is designed for single and dual frequency band operation. In these examples, there are more than 20,000 design variables, and the algorithm typically converges in less than 150 iterations. The optimization results show a promising use of the proposed approach as a general method for conceptual design of near-resonance metallic antennas.

  • 47.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Topology optimization of UWB monopole antennas2013Ingår i: 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP2013), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 1488-1492Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Topology optimization technique is used for complete layout optimization of the radiating element of a planar monopole antenna. The design objective is to find a conductivity distribution that maximizes the energy received by the planar monopole over the frequency band 1-10 GHz. The finite difference time domain method (FDTD) is used for the numerical calculations, and an adjoint problem is derived to calculate the corresponding sensitivities. Numerical results show a promising use of topology optimization techniques for the systematic design of ultrawideband monopoles.

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  • 48.
    Hassan, Emadeldeen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Department of Electronics and Electrical Communications, Menoufia University, Menouf, Egypt.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Hägg, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Topology optimization of compact wideband coaxial-to-waveguide transitions with minimum-size control2018Ingår i: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 1765-1777Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a density-based topology optimization approach to design compact wideband coaxial-to-waveguide transitions. The underlying optimization problem shows a strong self penalization towards binary solutions, which entails mesh-dependent designs that generally exhibit poor performance. To address the self penalization issue, we develop a filtering approach that consists of two phases. The first phase aims to relax the self penalization by using a sequence of linear filters. The second phase relies on nonlinear filters and aims to obtain binary solutions and to impose minimum-size control on the final design. We present results for optimizing compact transitions between a 50-Ohm coaxial cable and a standard WR90 waveguide operating in the X-band (8-12 GHz).

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  • 49.
    Hägg, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    On the well-posedness of Galbrun's equation2021Ingår i: Journal des Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées, ISSN 0021-7824, E-ISSN 1776-3371, Vol. 150, s. 112-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Galbrun's equation, which is a second order partial differential equation describing the evolution of a so-called Lagrangian displacement vector field, can be used to study acoustics in background flows as well as perturbations of astrophysical flows. Our starting point for deriving Galbrun's equation is linearized Euler's equations, which is a first order system of partial differential equations that describe the evolution of the so-called Eulerian flow perturbations. Given a solution to linearized Euler's equations, we introduce the Lagrangian displacement as the solution to a linear first order partial differential equation, where the Eulerian perturbation of the fluid velocity acts as a source term. Our Lagrangian displacement solves Galbrun's equation, provided it is regular enough and that the so-called no-resonance assumption holds. In the case that the background flow is steady and tangential to the domain boundary, we prove existence, uniqueness, and continuous dependence on data of solutions to an initial–boundary-value problem for linearized Euler's equations. For such background flows, we demonstrate that the Lagrangian displacement is well-defined, that the initial datum of the Lagrangian displacement can be chosen in order to fulfill the no-resonance assumption, and derive a classical energy estimate for (sufficiently regular solutions to) Galbrun's equation. Due to the presence of zeroth order terms of indefinite signs in the equations, the energy estimate allows solutions that grow exponentially with time.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Hägg, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    1D-model of the interaction between a stack of wood and an imposed electromagnetic wave2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed and investigated a 1D-model for the interaction between a stack of wood and an impinging electromagnetic field. Maxwell's equations are used to model the electromagnetic interaction and each layer in a stack of boards has been modeled as a homogenous lossy dielectric slab. The main reason for developing this model has been to investigate the possibility of measuring the moisture content of wood inside a drying kiln using electromagnetic waves. Our investigations show that it is in principle possible to measure the moisture content, since the electromagnetic field is sensitive to changes in the moisture content of the wood. We also show that it might be possible to measure the average moisture content, without detailed knowledge of the distribution of moisture content between different boards.

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